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Journal of Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517668/sox2-in-cancer-stemness-tumor-malignancy-and-therapeutic-potentials
#1
Mahfuz Al Mamun, Kaiissar Mannoor, Jun Cao, Firdausi Qadri, Xiaoyuan Song
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a minor subpopulation of tumor bulks with self-renewal and seeding capacity to generate new tumors, posit a significant challenge to develop effective and long-lasting anti-cancer therapies. The emergence of drug resistance appears upon failure of chemo-/radiation therapy to eradicate the CSCs, thereby leading to CSC-mediated clinical relapse. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcription factor SOX2, a master regulator of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, drives cancer stemness, fuels tumor initiation, and contributes to tumor aggressiveness through major drug resistance mechanisms like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, anti-apoptotic and/or pro-survival signaling, lineage plasticity, and evasion of immune surveillance...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508182/mutant-p53-in-cancer-therapy-the-barrier-or-the-path
#2
Xiang Zhou, Qian Hao, Hua Lu
Since wild-type p53 is central for maintaining genomic stability and preventing oncogenesis, its coding gene TP53 is highly mutated in ~50% of human cancers, and its activity is almost abrogated in the rest of cancers. Approximately 80% of p53 mutations are single point mutations with several hotspot mutations. Besides loss of function and dominant-negative effect on the wild-type p53 activity, the hotspot mutant p53s also acquire new oncogenic functions, so-called 'gain-of-functions' (GOF). Because the GOF of mutant p53s is highly associated with late stage malignance and drug resistance, these p53 mutants have become hot targets for developing novel cancer therapies...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508120/multi-scale-analysis-of-schizophrenia-risk-genes-brain-structure-and-clinical-symptoms-reveals-integrative-clues-for-subtyping-schizophrenia-patients
#3
Liang Ma, Edmund T Rolls, Xiuqin Liu, Yuting Liu, Zeyu Jiao, Yue Wang, Weikang Gong, Zhiming Ma, Fuzhou Gong, Lin Wan
Analysis linking directly genomics, neuroimaging phenotypes and clinical measurements is crucial for understanding psychiatric disorders, but remains rare. Here, we describe a multi-scale analysis using genome-wide SNPs, gene-expression, grey matter volume (GMV) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores (PANSS) to explore the etiology of schizophrenia. With 72 drug-naive schizophrenic first episode patients (FEPs) and 73 matched heathy controls, we identified 108 genes, from schizophrenia risk genes, that correlated significantly with GMV, which are highly co-expressed in the brain during development...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500955/a-glimpse-of-endocrine-pancreas-development-from-single-cell-analyses
#4
Ce Gao, Jinrong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500901/tumor-suppressor-p53-and-metabolism
#5
Juan Liu, Cen Zhang, Wenwei Hu, Zhaohui Feng
p53 plays a key role in tumor suppression. The tumor suppressive function of p53 has long been attributed to its ability to induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence in cells. However, recent studies suggest that other functions of p53 also contribute to its role as a tumor suppressor, such as its function in metabolic regulation. p53 regulates various metabolic pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and adapt cells to stress. In addition, recent studies have also shown that gain-of-function (GOF) mutant p53 proteins drive metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, contributing to cancer progression...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496488/large-tumor-suppressor-2-lats2-activates-jnk-in-a-kinase-independent-mechanism-through-ask1
#6
Lauren Rusnak, Cong Tang, Qi Qi, Xiulei Mo, Haian Fu
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is an important mediator of the cell stress response pathways. Because of its central role in regulating cell death, the activity of ASK1 is tightly regulated by protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Deregulation of ASK1 activity has been linked to human diseases, such as neurological disorders and cancer. Here we describe the identification and characterization of large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) as a novel binding partner for ASK1. LATS2 is a core kinase in the Hippo signaling pathway and is commonly down-regulated in cancer...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496442/mutant-p53-in-colon-cancer
#7
Mizuho Nakayama, Masanobu Oshima
The accumulation of genetic alterations in driver genes is responsible for the development and malignant progression of colorectal cancer. Comprehensive genome analyses have revealed the driver genes, including APC, KRAS, TGFBR2, and TP53, whose mutations are frequently found in human colorectal cancers. Among them, the p53 mutation is found in about 60% of colorectal cancers, and a majority of mutations are missense-type at "hot spots", suggesting an oncogenic role of mutant p53 by "gain-of-function" mechanisms...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496435/discussion-of-some-knowns-and-some-unknowns-about-the-tumour-suppressor-p53
#8
Elizabeth Lieschke, Zilu Wang, Gemma L Kelly, Andreas Strasser
Activation of the tumour suppressor p53 upon cellular stress can induce a number of different cellular processes. The diverse actions of these processes are critical for the protective function of p53 in preventing the development of cancer. However, it is still not fully understood which process(es) activated by p53 is/are critical for tumour suppression and how this might differ depending on the type of cells undergoing neoplastic transformation and the nature of the drivers of oncogenesis. Moreover, it is not clear why upon activation of p53 some cells undergo cell cycle arrest and senescence whereas others die by apoptosis...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496428/sin1-mtorc2-signaling-drives-glycolysis-of-developing-thymocytes
#9
Hongbo Chi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481289/dppa3-is-critical-for-lin28a-regulated-es-cells-na%C3%A3-ve%C3%A2-primed-state-conversion
#10
Hui Sang, Dan Wang, Shuang Zhao, Jinxin Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jia Xu, Xiaoniao Chen, Yan Nie, Kaiyue Zhang, Shuaiqiang Zhang, Yuebing Wang, Na Wang, Fengxia Ma, Ling Shuai, Zongjin Li, Na Liu
Lin28a is a pluripotent factor that promotes somatic cell reprogramming. Unlike other pluripotent factors, Lin28a expression is transient and accumulated in primed embryonic stem (ES) cells, but its exact function and mechanism in the conversion of ES cells from naïve to primed state remain unclear. Here, we present evidence for Dppa3, a protein originally known for its role in germ cell development, as a downstream target of Lin28a in naïve-primed conversion. Using rescue experiment we demonstrate that Dppa3 functions predominantly downstream of Lin28a during naïve‒primed state conversion...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452682/assembly-of-a-parts-list-of-the-human-mitotic-cell-cycle-machinery
#11
Bruno Giotti, Sz-Hau Chen, Mark W Barnett, Tim Regan, Tony Ly, Stefan Wiemann, David A Hume, Tom C Freeman
The set of proteins required for mitotic division remains poorly characterised. Here, an extensive series of correlation analyses of human and mouse transcriptomics data was performed to identify genes strongly and reproducibly associated with cells undergoing S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. In so doing, a list of 701 cell cycle-associated genes were defined and whilst it was shown that many are only expressed during these phases, the expression of others is also driven by alternative promoters. Of this list, 496 genes have known cell cycle functions, whereas 205 were assigned as putative cell cycle genes, 53 of which are functionally uncharacterised...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428057/metabolic-regulation-of-t-cell-development-by-sin1-mtorc2-is-mediated-by-pyruvate-kinase-m2
#12
Xinxing Ouyang, Yuheng Han, Guojun Qu, Man Li, Omotooke Arojo, Hongxiang Sun, Xiaobo Liu, Dou Liu, Lei Chen, Qiang Zou, Bing Su
Glucose metabolism plays a key role in thymocyte development. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a critical regulator of cell growth and metabolism, but its role in early thymocyte development and metabolism has not been fully studied. We show here that genetic ablation of Sin1, an essential component of mTORC2, in T lineage cells results in severely impaired thymocyte development at the CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) stages but not at the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) or later stages. Notably, Sin1-deficient DN thymocytes show markedly reduced proliferation and glycolysis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428031/zebrafish-hhex-null-mutant-develops-an-intrahepatic-intestinal-tube-due-to-de-repression-of-cdx1b-and-pdx1
#13
Ce Gao, Weidong Huang, Yuqi Gao, Li Jan Lo, Lingfei Luo, Honghui Huang, Jun Chen, Jinrong Peng
The hepatopancreatic duct (HPD) system links the liver and pancreas to the intestinal tube and is composed of the extrahepatic biliary duct, gallbladder, and pancreatic duct. Haematopoietically-expressed-homeobox (Hhex) protein plays an essential role in the establishment of HPD; however, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that zebrafish hhex-null mutants fail to develop the HPD system characterized by lacking the biliary marker Annexin A4 and the HPD marker sox9b. The hepatobiliary duct part of the mutant HPD system is replaced by an intrahepatic intestinal tube characterized by expressing the intestinal marker fatty-acid-binding-protein 2a (fabp2a)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428028/chlamydomonas-wdr92-in-association-with-r2tp-like-complex-and-multiple-dnaafs-to-regulate-ciliary-dynein-preassembly
#14
Guang Liu, Limei Wang, Junmin Pan
The motility of cilia or eukaryotic flagella is powered by the axonemal dyneins, which are preassembled in the cytoplasm by proteins termed dynein arm assembly factors (DNAAFs) before being transported to and assembled on the ciliary axoneme. Here, we characterize the function of WDR92 in Chlamydomonas. Loss of WDR92, a cytoplasmic protein, in a mutant wdr92 generated by DNA insertional mutagenesis resulted in aflagellate cells or cells with stumpy or short flagella, disappearance of axonemal dynein arms, and diminishment of dynein arm heavy chains in the cytoplasm, suggesting that WDR92 is a DNAAF...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428023/the-hdac3-enzymatic-activity-regulates-skeletal-muscle-fuel-metabolism
#15
Shiyang Song, Yefei Wen, Hui Tong, Emanuele Loro, Yingyun Gong, Jidong Liu, Sungguan Hong, Lei Li, Tejvir S Khurana, Maoping Chu, Zheng Sun
Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a major HDAC, whose enzymatic activity is targeted by small molecule inhibitors for treating a variety of conditions. However, its enzymatic activity is largely dispensable for its function in embryonic development and hepatic lipid metabolism. HDAC3 plays a pivotal role in regulating muscle fuel metabolism and contractile function. Here, we address whether these muscular functions of HDAC3 require its enzymatic activity. By mutating the NCoR/SMRT corepressors in a knock-in mouse model named NS-DADm, we ablated the enzymatic activity of HDAC3 without affecting its protein levels...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407522/single-cell-analyses-identify-distinct-and-intermediate-states-of-zebrafish-pancreatic-islet-development
#16
Chong-Jian Lu, Xiao-Ying Fan, Yue-Feng Guo, Zhen-Chao Cheng, Ji Dong, Jin-Zi Chen, Lian-Yan Li, Mei-Wen Wang, Ze-Kai Wu, Fei Wang, Xiang-Jun Tong, Ling-Fei Luo, Fu-Chou Tang, Zuo-Yan Zhu, Bo Zhang
Pancreatic endocrine islets are vital for glucose homeostasis. However, the islet developmental trajectory and its regulatory network are not well understood. To define the features of these specification and differentiation processes, we isolated individual islet cells from TgBAC(neurod1:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish and analyzed islet developmental dynamics across four different embryonic stages using a single-cell RNA-seq strategy. We identified proliferative endocrine progenitors, which could be further categorized by different cell cycle phases with the G1/S sub-population displaying a distinct differentiation potential...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395269/acetylation-of-acap4-regulates-ccl18-elicited-breast-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#17
Xiaoyu Song, Wei Liu, Xiao Yuan, Jiying Jiang, Wanjuan Wang, McKay Mullen, Xuannv Zhao, Yin Zhang, Fusheng Liu, Shihao Du, Adeel Rehman, Ruijun Tian, Jan Li, Andra Frost, Zhenwei Song, Hadiyah-Nicole Green, Calmour Henry, Xing Liu, Xia Ding, Dongmei Wang, Xuebiao Yao, Jiarui Wu
Tumor metastasis represents the main causes of cancer-related death. Our recent study showed that chemokine CCL18 secreted from tumor-associated macrophages regulates breast tumor metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain less clear. Here, we show that ARF6 GTPase-activating protein ACAP4 regulates CCL18-elicited breast cancer cell migration via the acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation. CCL18 stimulation elicited breast cancer cell migration and invasion via PCAF-dependent acetylation. ACAP4 physically interacts with PCAF and is a cognate substrate of PCAF during CCL18 stimulation...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388237/structure-and-functional-interactions-of-ino80-actin-arp-module
#18
Xuan Zhang, Xuejuan Wang, Zhihui Zhang, Gang Cai
The presence and functions of nuclear actin has been controversial due to the lack of molecular mechanisms. Nuclear actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) are subunits of several chromatin remodelers, including the evolutionarily conserved INO80 chromatin remodeling complex. Here, we present an improved cryo-EM structure of the yeast INO80 complex and the first 3D reconstruction of the INO80 actin/Arp module. The modular and subunit architecture is defined using a combination of subunit deletion analysis and published crosslinking-mass spectrometry (CX-MS)...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383247/hunt-for-the-tipping-point-during-endocrine-resistance-process-in-breast-cancer-by-dynamic-network-biomarkers
#19
Rui Liu, Jinzeng Wang, Masao Ukai, Ki Sewon, Pei Chen, Yutaka Suzuki, Haiyun Wang, Kazuyuki Aihara, Mariko Okada-Hatakeyama, Luonan Chen
Acquired drug resistance is the major reason why patients fail to respond to cancer therapies. It is a challenging task to determine the tipping point of endocrine resistance and detect the associated molecules. Derived from new systems biology theory, the dynamic network biomarker (DNB) method is designed to quantitatively identify the tipping point of a drastic system transition and can theoretically identify DNB genes that play key roles in acquiring drug resistance. We analyzed time-course mRNA sequence data generated from the tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cell line, and identified the tipping point of endocrine resistance with its leading molecules...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383243/trafficking-pathway-between-plasma-membrane-and-mitochondria-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#20
Zhongya Wei, Wenfeng Su, Huifang Lou, Shumin Duan, Gang Chen
Endocytosis is a basic cellular process that describes a form of active transport across the plasma membrane into the cell. The endocytic pathway consists of distinct membrane compartments; internalized molecules are delivered to early endosomes, and some of them are recycled back to the surface, whereas other molecules are sent to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. However, little is known about how mitochondria are involved in the endocytic pathway. Here, we report that FM dyes, membrane-impermeant fluorescent lipid probes, can traffic to mitochondria directly from the plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
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