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Dhanasekar Divya, Kanaparthi Ratna Madhavi, Muralidharan Ayyappa Dass, Roshan Venkata Maku, Garladinne Mallikarjuna, Raman Meenakshi Sundaram, Gouri Sankar Laha, Ayyagari Phani Padmakumari, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Madamsetty Srinivas Prasad, Ramesh Venkata Sonti, Jagadish Sanmallappa Bentur
BACKGROUND: Rice, a major food crop of the world, endures many major biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield losses. Progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several resistance (R) genes against aforesaid stresses has led to marker assisted multigene introgression into elite cultivars for multiple and durable resistance. However, no detailed study has been made on possible interactions among these genes when expressed simultaneously under combined stresses...
July 13, 2018: Rice
Zhennan Qiu, Dongdong Chen, Lei He, Sen Zhang, Zenan Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhongwei Wang, Deyong Ren, Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo, Li Zhu
BACKGROUND: Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) play important roles in the translation of key proteins involved in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. PRPs have been widely studied in many plant species; however, few studies have investigated their roles in rice. RESULT: In the present study, we used ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis and obtained a novel rice mutant called white green leaf 2 (wgl2). The wgl2 mutants exhibited an albino phenotype from germination through the three-leaf stage, and then gradually transitioned to green through the later developmental stages...
July 11, 2018: Rice
Jianping Liu, Xinjiao Sun, Feiyun Xu, Yingjiao Zhang, Qian Zhang, Rui Miao, Jianhua Zhang, Jiansheng Liang, Weifeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR or MDHAR), which is responsible for growth, development and stress response in plants, is a key enzyme in the maintenance of the ascorbate acid (AsA) pool through the AsA-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle. High temperature affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism including AsA-GSH cycle in plants. In rice, however, the detailed roles of OsMDHAR4 in resistance against heat stress remains unclear. RESULTS: Here, we report that OsMDHAR4 protein was localized to the chloroplasts...
June 28, 2018: Rice
Liang Chen, Jianmin Bian, Shilai Shi, Jianfeng Yu, Hira Khanzada, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Changlan Zhu, Xin Luo, Shan Tong, Xiaorong Yang, Xiaosong Peng, Shuang Yong, Qiuying Yu, Xiaopeng He, Junru Fu, Xiaorong Chen, Lifang Hu, Linjuan Ouyang, Haohua He
BACKGROUND: Despite the great contributions of utilizing heterosis to crop productivity worldwide, the molecular mechanism of heterosis remains largely unexplored. Thus, the present research is focused on the grain number heterosis of a widely used late-cropping indica super hybrid rice combination in China using a high-throughput next-generation RNA-seq strategy. RESULTS: Here, we obtained 872 million clean reads, and at least one read could maps 27,917 transcripts out of 35,679 annotations...
June 15, 2018: Rice
Yafeng Ye, Kun Wu, Jianfeng Chen, Qian Liu, Yuejin Wu, Binmei Liu, Xiangdong Fu
BACKGROUND: As one of the most important staple food crops, rice produces huge agronomic biomass residues that contain lots of secondary cell walls (SCWs) comprising cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. The transcriptional regulation mechanism underlying SCWs biosynthesis remains elusive. RESULTS: In this study, we isolated a NAC family transcription factor (TF), OsSND2 through yeast one-hybrid screening using the secondary wall NAC-binding element (SNBE) on the promoter region of OsMYB61 which is known transcription factor for regulation of SCWs biosynthesis as bait...
May 31, 2018: Rice
Arvind Kumar, Nitika Sandhu, Shalabh Dixit, Shailesh Yadav, B P M Swamy, Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin
BACKGROUND: Marker-assisted breeding will move forward from introgressing single/multiple genes governing a single trait to multiple genes governing multiple traits to combat emerging biotic and abiotic stresses related to climate change and to enhance rice productivity. MAS will need to address concerns about the population size needed to introgress together more than two genes/QTLs. In the present study, grain yield and genotypic data from different generations (F3 to F8 ) for five marker-assisted breeding programs were analyzed to understand the effectiveness of synergistic effect of phenotyping and genotyping in early generations on selection of better progenies...
May 29, 2018: Rice
Muhammad Abu Bakar Saddique, Zulfiqar Ali, Abdus Salam Khan, Iqrar Ahmad Rana, Imran Haider Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Rice is a drought susceptible crop. A symbiotic association between rice and mycorrhizal fungi could effectively protect the plant against sudden or frequent episodes of drought. Due to its extensive network of hyphae, the endophyte is able to deeply explore the soil and transfer water and minerals to the plant, some of them playing an important role in mitigating the effects of drought stress. Moreover, the endophyte could modify the expression of drought responsive genes and regulate antioxidants...
May 24, 2018: Rice
Naoki Yamamoto, Richard Garcia, Tomohiro Suzuki, Celymar Angela Solis, Yuichi Tada, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Ajay Kohli
BACKGROUND: Increasing rice demand is one of the consequences of the steadily improving socio-economic status of the African countries. New Rice for Africa (NERICA), which are interspecific hybrids between Asian and African rice varieties, are one of successful breeding products utilizing biodiversity across the two different rice crop species. Upland NERICA varieties (NU) exhibit agronomic traits of value for the harsh eco-geography, including shorter duration, higher yield and stress tolerance, compared to local African varieties...
May 15, 2018: Rice
Yang Xu, Xin Wang, Xiaowen Ding, Xingfei Zheng, Zefeng Yang, Chenwu Xu, Zhongli Hu
BACKGROUND: Hybrid breeding is an effective tool to improve yield in rice, while parental selection remains the key and difficult issue. Genomic selection (GS) provides opportunities to predict the performance of hybrids before phenotypes are measured. However, the application of GS is influenced by several genetic and statistical factors. Here, we used a rice North Carolina II (NC II) population constructed by crossing 115 rice varieties with five male sterile lines as a model to evaluate effects of statistical methods, heritability, marker density and training population size on prediction for hybrid performance...
May 10, 2018: Rice
Miwa Ohashi, Keiki Ishiyama, Soichi Kojima, Noriyuki Konishi, Kazuhiro Sasaki, Mitsue Miyao, Toshihiko Hayakawa, Tomoyuki Yamaya
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies concluded that metabolic disorder in the basal portions of rice shoots caused by a lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 (GS1;2) resulted in a severe reduction in the outgrowth of tillers. Rice mutants lacking GS1;2 (gs1;2 mutants) showed a remarkable reduction in the contents of both glutamine and asparagine in the basal portions of shoots. In the current study, we attempted to reveal the mechanisms for this decrease in asparagine content using rice mutants lacking either GS1;2 or asparagine synthetase 1 (AS1)...
May 9, 2018: Rice
Tetsuya Murakami, Tomohiko Kazama, Kinya Toriyama
BACKGROUND: Male sterility is a useful agronomic trait for breeding of self-pollinating crops and is often observed in the progenies of hybrids of distantly related species, for example, Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica and O. sativa L. subsp. japonica. To explore new male sterile lines in rice, we performed successive backcrosses using a japonica cultivar Taichung 65 (T65) as a recurrent pollen parent and various indica cultivars as the initial female parents. FINDINGS: We observed male sterile plants in the backcross progeny from an indica cultivar, Lebed...
May 3, 2018: Rice
Masato Kuramata, Tadashi Abe, Akira Kawasaki, Kaworu Ebana, Taeko Shibaya, Masahiro Yano, Satoru Ishikawa
The authors of article "Genetic diversity of arsenic accumulation in rice and QTL analysis of methylated arsenic in rice grains" (Kuramata et al. 2013) would like to note that the original version of the article online unfortunately contains the following errors.
April 24, 2018: Rice
Sunok Moon, Moe Moe Oo, Backki Kim, Hee-Jong Koh, Sung Aeong Oh, Gihwan Yi, Gynheung An, Soon Ki Park, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Understanding late pollen development, including the maturation and pollination process, is a key component in maintaining crop yields. Transcriptome data obtained through microarray or RNA-seq technologies can provide useful insight into those developmental processes. Six series of microarray data from a public transcriptome database, the Gene Expression Omnibus of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, are related to anther and pollen development. RESULTS: We performed a systematic and functional study across the rice genome of genes that are preferentially expressed in the late stages of pollen development, including maturation and germination...
April 23, 2018: Rice
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Fahad Nasir, Chunling Chang, Weiqiang Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
BACKGROUND: Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal fungus of rice blast disease, negatively impacts global rice production. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), a relative of cultivated rice (O. sativa), possesses unique attributes that enable it to resist pathogen invasion. Although wild rice represents a major resource for disease resistance, relative to current cultivated rice varieties, no prior studies have compared the immune and transcriptional responses in the roots of wild and cultivated rice to M...
April 20, 2018: Rice
Feng He, Fan Zhang, Wenxian Sun, Yuese Ning, Guo-Liang Wang
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa) is the main food for half of the world's population, and is considered the model for molecular biology studies of monocotyledon species. Although the rice genome was completely sequenced about 15 years ago, the function of most rice genes is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a vector toolkit that contains 42 vectors for transient expression studies in rice protoplasts and stable expression analysis in transgenic rice...
April 20, 2018: Rice
Jian Sun, Luomiao Yang, Jingguo Wang, Hualong Liu, Hongliang Zheng, Dongwei Xie, Minghui Zhang, Mingfang Feng, Yan Jia, Hongwei Zhao, Detang Zou
BACKGROUND: Cold stress can cause serious abiotic damage that limits the growth, development and yield of rice. Cold tolerance during the booting stage of rice is a key factor that can guarantee a high and stable yield under cold stress. The cold tolerance of rice is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Based on the complex genetic basis of cold tolerance in rice, additional efforts are needed to detect reliable QTLs and identify candidate genes. In this study, recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a cold sensitive variety, Dongnong422, and strongly cold-tolerant variety, Kongyu131, were used to screen for cold-tolerant loci at the booting stage of rice...
April 18, 2018: Rice
Indria Wahyu Mulsanti, Toshio Yamamoto, Tadamasa Ueda, Ahmad Fahim Samadi, Eri Kamahora, Indrastuti Apri Rumanti, Vo Cong Thanh, Shunsuke Adachi, Sakae Suzuki, Motoki Kanekatsu, Tadashi Hirasawa, Taiichiro Ookawa
BACKGROUND: In cereal crops, stem lodging can be classified into two types: stem-breaking type and stem-bending type. To improve stem-lodging resistance, the strong culm traits of superior lodging-resistant varieties must be characterized. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the corresponding genes associated with the parameters for bending moment at breaking (M) and flexural rigidity (FR) is expected to enable the efficient development of lodging-resistant varieties...
April 18, 2018: Rice
Thi Thu Huyen Chu, Thi Giang Hoang, Duy Chi Trinh, Charlotte Bureau, Donaldo Meynard, Aurore Vernet, Mathieu Ingouff, Nang Vinh Do, Christophe Périn, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Pascal Gantet, Christophe Maurel, Doan-Trung Luu
BACKGROUND: Cell biology approach using membrane protein markers tagged with fluorescent proteins highlights the dynamic behaviour of plant cell membranes, not only in the standard but also in changing environmental conditions. In the past, this strategy has been extensively developed in plant models such as Arabidopsis. RESULTS: Here, we generated a set of transgenic lines expressing membrane protein markers to extend this approach to rice, one of the most cultivated crop in the world and an emerging plant model...
April 12, 2018: Rice
Haichao Jiang, Jie Hu, Zhi Li, Jia Liu, Guanjun Gao, Qinglu Zhang, Jinghua Xiao, Yuqing He
BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH), an insect species that feeds on rice plants (Oryza sativa L.), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. BPH can be controlled with chemical pesticides, but they are expensive in terms of the cost and environmental hazards. Hence, utilization of resistance genes in resistant varieties is considered as a more economical and eco-friendly effective method for control. RESULTS: In this study, six dominant BPH-resistance genes (Bph3, Bph14, Bph15, Bph18, Bph20 and Bph21) were introduced into an elite indica rice cultivar Jin 23B using the marker-assisted selection (MAS) method of breeding...
April 11, 2018: Rice
Jianzong Nan, Xiaomin Feng, Chen Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Rongsheng Wang, Jiaxin Liu, Qingbo Yuan, Guoqiang Jiang, Shaoyang Lin
BACKGROUND: Traditional crop breeding has made significant achievement meet food needs worldwide. However, the way has some inevitable problems including time-consuming, laborious, low predictability and reproducibility. In this study, we updated the GRAIN SIZE 3 (GS3) locus to improve the grain length of a major cultivate variety of Kongyu 131 at Heilongjiang Province, the northernmost region of China. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping...
April 10, 2018: Rice
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