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Caixia Zhang, Guangyan Li, Tingting Chen, Baohua Feng, Weimeng Fu, Jinxiang Yan, Mohammad Rezaul Islam, Qianyu Jin, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported. RESULTS: Two rice genotypes differing in heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 2 h after flowering. A sharp decrease in spikelet fertility was found in the Nipponbare (NPB) and its mutant High temperature susceptible (HTS) under heat stress, but the stress-induced spikelet sterility was reversed by 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), especially the HTS...
March 12, 2018: Rice
Laiyuan Zhai, Tianqing Zheng, Xinyu Wang, Yun Wang, Kai Chen, Shu Wang, Yun Wang, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
BACKGROUND: The vascular bundle especially in the peduncle is one of crucial limiting factors of rice yield, and it determines how plants efficiently transport photosynthetic products, mineral nutrients and water from leaf and root to panicle. However, the genetic base of rice vascular bundle related traits in the peduncle still remains unknown. RESULTS: The 423 panel showed substantial natural variations of peduncle vascular bundle. In total, 48 quantitative trait loci/locus (QTL) affecting the eight traits were identified throughout the genome by applying a significance threshold of P < 1...
March 6, 2018: Rice
Jie Wang, Kai Lu, Haipeng Nie, Qisen Zeng, Bowen Wu, Junjie Qian, Zhongming Fang
BACKGROUND: Rice tiller number is one of the most important factors that determine grain yield, while nitrogen is essential for the crop growth and development, especially for tiller formation. Genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency processes have been identified in the previous studies, however, only a small number of these genes have been found to improve grain yield by promoting tillering. RESULTS: We constructed over-expression (OX) lines and RNA-interference (Ri) lines, and selected a mutant of OsNPF7...
February 27, 2018: Rice
Jiaming Mi, Dabing Yang, Yi Chen, Jiefeng Jiang, Haipeng Mou, Junbin Huang, Yidan Ouyang, Tongmin Mou
BACKGROUND: Breeding two-line hybrid rice with disease resistance is an effective approach to stabilize rice yield in commercial rice production of China. RESULTS: We improved the blast and bacterial blight resistance of Guangzhan63-4S, an elite photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterile (P/TGMS) line widely used in two-line hybrid rice, by introducing the R genes Pi2 and Xa7 conferring resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight, respectively. Through the backcrossing and gene pyramiding breeding coupled with molecular marker-assisted selection, a new P/TGMS line Hua1228S carrying Pi2, Xa7, and tms5 was developed...
February 17, 2018: Rice
A N M Rubaiyath Bin Rahman, Jianhua Zhang
Crop productivity and stability of the food system are threatened by climate change, mainly through the effects of predicted abiotic stresses. Despite extensive research on abiotic stress tolerance in the past decades, the successful translation of these research to fields/farmers is scarce. The impelling demand of climate resilient varieties, and the poor translation of research into the field despite the availability of high throughput technologies lead us to critically analyse a neglected aspect of current abiotic stress tolerance research...
February 8, 2018: Rice
Alberto Casartelli, David Riewe, Hans Michael Hubberten, Thomas Altmann, Rainer Hoefgen, Sigrid Heuer
BACKGROUND: Traditional varieties and landraces belonging to the aus-type group of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are known to be highly tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought and heat, and are therefore recognized as a valuable genetic resource for crop improvement. Using two aus-type (Dular, N22) and two drought intolerant irrigated varieties (IR64, IR74) an untargeted metabolomics analysis was conducted to identify drought-responsive metabolites associated with tolerance. RESULTS: The superior drought tolerance of Dular and N22 compared with the irrigated varieties was confirmed by phenotyping plants grown to maturity after imposing severe drought stress in a dry-down treatment...
January 25, 2018: Rice
Vijay Kumar Singh, Ranjith Kumar Ellur, Ashok Kumar Singh, M Nagarajan, Brahma Deo Singh, Nagendra Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of food, particularly for the growing Asian population; hence, the utilization of genes for enhancing its yield potential is important for ensuring food security. Earlier, we have mapped a major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the grain number per panicle, qGN4.1, using biparental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations involving a new plant type Indica rice genotype Pusa 1266. Later, three independent studies have confirmed the presence of a major QTL for spikelet number by three different names (SPIKE, GPS and LSCHL4) in the same chromosomal region, and have implicated the overexpression of Nal1 gene as the causal factor for high spikelet number...
January 22, 2018: Rice
Xiukun Li, Lian Wu, Xin Geng, Xiuhong Xia, Xuhong Wang, Zhengjin Xu, Quan Xu
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and is one of mankind's major staple foods. The interaction of environmental factors with genotype effects major agronomic traits such as yield, quality, and resistance in rice. However, studies on the environmental factors affecting agronomic traits are often difficult to conduct because most environmental factors are dynamic and constantly changing. RESULTS: A series of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica/japonica cross were planted into four typical rice cultivated areas arranging from latitude N22° to N42°...
January 19, 2018: Rice
Shamitha Rao Morey, Tatsuro Hirose, Yoichi Hashida, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Ryu Ohsugi, Junko Yamagishi, Naohiro Aoki
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major crop feeding the majority of the global population, and increasing its sink strength is one of the modes to alleviate the declining availability of food for the rapidly growing world population. We demonstrate a role for an important rice vacuolar invertase isoform, OsINV3, in sink strength determination. RESULTS: OsINV3 mutants showed shorter panicles with lighter and smaller grains, owing to a smaller cell size on the outer and inner surfaces of the palea and lemma as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
January 17, 2018: Rice
Heyoung Lee, Jooyoung Cha, Changhyun Choi, Naeyoung Choi, Hyun-So Ji, Sang Ryeol Park, Seungbum Lee, Duk-Ju Hwang
BACKGROUND: Plants are frequently subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses, and WRKY proteins play a pivotal role in the response to such stress. OsWRKY11 is induced by pathogens, drought, and heat, suggesting a function in biotic and abiotic stress responses. RESULTS: This study identified OsWRKY11, a member of WRKY group IIc. It is a transcriptional activator that localized to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of OsWRKY11 resulted in enhanced resistance to a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
January 12, 2018: Rice
Ishara Perera, Saman Seneweera, Naoki Hirotsu
Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also known as phytic acid (PA), is the most abundant storage form of phosphorus in seeds. PA acts as a strong chelator of metal cations to form phytate and is considered an anti-nutrient as it reduces the bioavailability of important micronutrients. Although the major nutrient source for more than one-half of the global population, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients. Therefore, biofortification and reducing the PA content of rice have arisen as new strategies for increasing micronutrient bioavailability in rice...
January 11, 2018: Rice
Sais-Beul Lee, Yeon-Jae Hur, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Jong-Hee Lee, Tae-Heon Kim, Soo-Min Cho, You-Chun Song, Young-Su Seo, Jungkwan Lee, Tae-Sung Kim, Yong-Jin Park, Myung-Kyu Oh, Dong-Soo Park
BACKGROUND: Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring bakanae disease resistance from the highly resistant japonica variety Wonseadaesoo...
January 10, 2018: Rice
Niharika Sharma, Trang Minh Dang, Namrata Singh, Slobodan Ruzicic, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Ute Baumann, Sigrid Heuer
BACKGROUND: Flooding during seasonal monsoons affects millions of hectares of rice-cultivated areas across Asia. Submerged rice plants die within a week due to lack of oxygen, light and excessive elongation growth to escape the water. Submergence tolerance was first reported in an aus-type rice landrace, FR13A, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor (TF) gene SUB1A-1 was identified as the major tolerance gene. Intolerant rice varieties generally lack the SUB1A gene but some intermediate tolerant varieties, such as IR64, carry the allelic variant SUB1A-2...
January 8, 2018: Rice
Suk-Hwan Kim, Choon-Tak Kwon, Giha Song, Hee-Jong Koh, Gynheung An, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: Rice zebra mutants are leaf variegation mutants that exhibit transverse sectors of green/yellow or green/white in developing or mature leaves. In most cases, leaf variegation is caused by defects in chloroplast biogenesis pathways, leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species in a transverse pattern in the leaves. Here, we examine a new type of leaf variegation mutant in rice, zebra3 (z3), which exhibits transverse dark-green/green sectors in mature leaves and lacks the typical yellow or white sectors...
January 5, 2018: Rice
Ting Zou, Qiao Xiao, Wenjie Li, Tao Luo, Guoqiang Yuan, Zhiyuan He, Mingxing Liu, Qiao Li, Peizhou Xu, Jun Zhu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li, Shuangcheng Li
BACKGROUND: Male fertility is crucial for rice yield, and the improvement of rice yield requires hybrid production that depends on male sterile lines. Although recent studies have revealed several important genes in male reproductive development, our understanding of the mechanisms of rice pollen development remains unclear. RESULTS: We identified a rice mutant oslap6 with complete male sterile phenotype caused by defects in pollen exine formation. By using the MutMap method, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation located in the second exon of OsLAP6/OsPKS1 was responsible for the mutant phenotype...
December 28, 2017: Rice
Yang Wang, Weihua Jiang, Hongmei Liu, Ya Zeng, Bo Du, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He, Rongzhi Chen
BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH) has become the most destructive and a serious threat to the rice production in Asia. Breeding the resistant varieties with improved host resistance is the most effective and ecosystem-friendly strategy of BPH biological management. As host resistance was always broken down by the presence of the upgrading BPH biotype, the more resistant varieties with novel resistance genes or pyramiding known identified BPH resistance genes would be needed urgently for higher resistant level and more durability of resistance...
December 28, 2017: Rice
Jian Yang, Lan Wang, Chuanzao Mao, Honghui Lin
BACKGROUND: Phosphate (Pi), an essential mineral nutrient for plant development and reproduction, is one of the main components of fertilizers in modern agriculture. Previous research demonstrated that AtNLA1 mediates ubiquitination of Pi transporters in the plasma membrane and triggers their endocytosis and degradation in Arabidopsis. In this study, we researched the function of NLA homologous proteins in Pi homeostasis in rice. FINDINGS: Two OsNLA homologs from rice (Oryza sativa L...
December 28, 2017: Rice
M Bettembourg, M Dal-Soglio, C Bureau, A Vernet, A Dardoux, M Portefaix, M Bes, D Meynard, D Mieulet, B Cayrol, C Perin, B Courtois, J F Ma, A Dievart
BACKGROUND: The DEFECTIVE IN OUTER CELL LAYER SPECIFICATION 1 (DOCS1) gene belongs to the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) subfamily. It has been discovered few years ago in Oryza sativa (rice) in a screen to isolate mutants with defects in sensitivity to aluminum. The c68 (docs1-1) mutant possessed a nonsense mutation in the C-terminal part of the DOCS1 kinase domain. FINDINGS: We have generated a new loss-of-function mutation in the DOCS1 gene (docs1-2) using the CRISPR-Cas9 technology...
December 15, 2017: Rice
Jinwen Wu, Lin Chen, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Minyi Chen, Qinglei Dong, Jirui Li, Xiaosong Xu, Xiangdong Liu
BACKGROUND: Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids possess high hybrid vigor; however, low pollen fertility is a critical hindrance in its commercial utilization. Our previous study demonstrated that polyploidy could increase the multi-loci interaction and cause high pollen abortion in autotetraploid rice hybrids. However, there is little known about the critical role of pollen sterility locus or loci in the intersubspecific hybrids. We developed autotetraploid rice hybrids harboring heterozygous genotypes (Si Si Sj Sj ) at different pollen sterility loci by using the near isogenic lines of Taichung65-4×...
December 2, 2017: Rice
Dongliang Yu, Xiaoxia Ma, Ziwei Zuo, Weishan Shao, Huizhong Wang, Yijun Meng
The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revolutionized our previous understanding of the plant genomes, relying on its innate advantages, such as high throughput and deep sequencing depth. In addition to the protein-coding gene loci, massive transcription signals have been detected within intergenic or intragenic regions. Most of these signals belong to non-coding ones, considering their weak protein-coding potential. Generally, these transcripts could be divided into long non-coding RNAs and small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) based on their sequence length...
December 2017: Rice
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