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Satoshi Okada, Megumi Sasaki, Masanori Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: The improvement of rice yield is a crucial global issue, but evaluating yield requires substantial efforts. Rice yield comprises the following indices: panicle number (PN), grain number per panicle (GN), 1000-grain weight, and percentage of ripened grain. To simplify measurements, we analyzed one panicle weight (OPW) as a simplified yield index that integrates GN, grain weight, and percentage of ripened grain, and verified its suitability as a proxy for GN and grain weight in particular...
September 17, 2018: Rice
Weiwen Kong, Li Ding, Jia Cheng, Bin Wang
BACKGROUND: Complex co-regulatory networks in plants may elicit responses during pathogen infections. A number of genes are activated when these responses take place. Identification of these genes would shed new light on understanding the mechanisms of rice response to pathogen infections and the elucidation of crosstalk among diverse signaling networks in rice disease resistance/susceptibility. RESULTS: Here we report the identification of genes with pathogen-inducible cis-regulatory elements (PICEs) (AS-1, G-box, GCC-box, and H-box) in the promoter regions in rice...
September 12, 2018: Rice
Weihuai Pan, Jinqiu Shen, Zhongzhong Zheng, Xu Yan, Jianxin Shou, Wenxiang Wang, Lixi Jiang, Jianwei Pan
BACKGROUND: The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) signaling system plays a key regulatory role in plant stress signaling. The roles of plant-specific CIPKs, essential for CBL-CIPK functions, in the response to various abiotic stresses have been extensively studied so far. However, until now, the possible roles of the CIPKs in the plant response to heavy metal toxicities are largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we used bioinformatic and molecular strategies to isolate 12 HsCIPK genes in Tibetan Plateau annual wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C...
September 12, 2018: Rice
Hung-Chi Chen, Wan-Hsing Cheng, Chwan-Yang Hong, Yu-Sen Chang, Men-Chi Chang
BACKGROUND: Many transcription factors (TFs), such as those in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, are important for regulating plant growth and plant responses to abiotic stress. The expression of OsbHLH035 is induced by drought and salinity. However, its functional role in rice growth, development, and the salt response is still unknown. RESULTS: The bHLH TF OsbHLH035 is a salt-induced gene that is primarily expressed in germinating seeds and seedlings. Stable expression of GFP-fused OsbHLH035 in rice transgenic plants revealed that this protein is predominantly localized to the nucleus...
September 10, 2018: Rice
Feng He, Fan Zhang, Wenxian Sun, Yuese Ning, Guo-Liang Wang
The caption of Fig. 5 and the figure contained an error [1]. The updated figure and caption are published in this correction article.
September 7, 2018: Rice
Sunok Moon, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Chanhui Lee, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Root hairs are valuable in taking up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere and serving as sites of interactions with soil microorganisms. By increasing the external surface area of the roots or interacting with rhizobacteria, root hairs directly and indirectly promote plant growth and yield. Transcriptome data can be used to understand root-hair development in rice. RESULT: We performed Agilent 44 K microarray experiments with enriched root-hair samples and identified 409 root hair-preferential genes in rice...
August 29, 2018: Rice
Dagang Tian, Liu Yang, Zaijie Chen, Ziqiang Chen, Feng Wang, Yuanchang Zhou, Yuming Luo, Liming Yang, Songbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. While many blast resistance (R) genes have been identified and deployed in rice cultivars, little is known about the R gene-mediated defense mechanism. We used a rice transgenic line harboring the resistance gene Piz-t to investigate the R gene-mediated resistance response to infection. RESULTS: We conducted comparative proteome profiling of the Piz-t transgenic Nipponbare line (NPB-Piz-t) and wild-type Nipponbare (NPB) inoculated with M...
August 15, 2018: Rice
X Liu, C Y Yang, R Miao, C L Zhou, P H Cao, J Lan, X J Zhu, C L Mou, Y S Huang, S J Liu, Y L Tian, T L Nguyen, L Jiang, J M Wan
BACKGROUND: Plant height and leaf angle are important determinants of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genes involved in regulating plant height and leaf angle were identified in previous studies; however, there are many remaining unknown factors that affect rice architecture. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized a dwarf mutant named ds1 with small grain size and decreased leaf angle,selected from an irradiated population of ssp. japonica variety Nanjing35. The ds1 mutant also showed abnormal floral organs...
August 6, 2018: Rice
Dongping Zhang, Yuzhu Wang, Jinyu Shen, Jianfeng Yin, Dahong Li, Yan Gao, Weifeng Xu, Jiansheng Liang
The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a WD40 type protein that is involved in multiple signaling pathways and is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Here we report that rice RACK1A (OsRACK1A) is regulated by circadian clocks and plays an important role in the salt stress response. OsRACK1A was found to follow a rhythmic expression profile under circadian conditions at both the transcription and the translation levels, although the expression was arrhythmic under salt stress. Analysis of plant survival rates, fresh weight, proline content, malondialdehyde, and chlorophyll showed that suppression of OsRACK1A enhanced tolerance to salt stress...
August 2, 2018: Rice
Qing Dong, Zhen-Hua Zhang, Lin-Lin Wang, Yu-Jun Zhu, Ye-Yang Fan, Tong-Min Mou, Liang-Yong Ma, Jie-Yun Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Grain size is a key determinant of grain weight and a trait having critical influence on grain quality in rice. While increasing evidences are shown for the importance of minor-effect QTL in controlling complex traits, the attention has not been given to grain size until recently. In previous studies, five QTL having small effects for grain size were resolved on the long arm of chromosome 1 using populations derived from indica rice cross Zhenshan 97///Zhenshan 97//Zhenshan 97/Milyang 46...
August 2, 2018: Rice
Alexandre Grondin, Shalabh Dixit, Rolando Torres, Challa Venkateshwarlu, Eric Rogers, Thomas Mitchell-Olds, Philip N Benfey, Arvind Kumar, Amelia Henry
BACKGROUND: Traditional rice (Oryza sativa) varieties are valuable resources for the improvement of drought resistance. qDTY3.2 is a drought-yield quantitative trait locus that was identified in a population derived from the traditional variety Moroberekan and the drought-susceptible variety Swarna. In this study, our aim was to characterize the physiological mechanisms associated with qDTY3.2 . Our approach was to phenotype fifteen BC2 F3:4 lines for shoot and root drought resistance-related traits as compared to Swarna in the field under well-watered and drought stress conditions...
July 31, 2018: Rice
Jiaqing Huang, Huili Liu, Thomas Berberich, Yuting Liu, Li-Zhen Tao, Taibo Liu
BACKGROUND: RAC/ROP GTPase are versatile signaling molecules controlling diverse biological processes including cell polarity establishment, cell growth, morphogenesis, hormone responses and many other cellular processes in plants. The activities of ROPs are positively regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Evidence suggests that RopGEFs regulate polar auxin transport and polar growth in pollen tube in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the biological functions of rice RopGEFs during plant development remain largely unknown...
July 30, 2018: Rice
Xiaoming Yang, Yulong Ren, Yue Cai, Mei Niu, Zhiming Feng, Ruonan Jing, Changling Mou, Xi Liu, Lianjie Xiao, Xin Zhang, Fuqing Wu, Xiuping Guo, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
BACKGROUND: Grain size, which is determined by grain length, grain width, and grain thickness, is an important determinant for grain yield in rice. Identification and characterization of new genes that are associated with grain size will be helpful for the improvement of grain yield in rice. RESULTS: We characterized the grain size mutant, larger grain size 1 (lgs1), derived from rice activation-tagged T-DNA insertion lines. Histological analysis showed that increased cell numbers in the longitudinal direction of spikelet hulls was responsible for the grain mutant phenotype in lgs1...
July 20, 2018: Rice
Dhanasekar Divya, Kanaparthi Ratna Madhavi, Muralidharan Ayyappa Dass, Roshan Venkata Maku, Garladinne Mallikarjuna, Raman Meenakshi Sundaram, Gouri Sankar Laha, Ayyagari Phani Padmakumari, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Madamsetty Srinivas Prasad, Ramesh Venkata Sonti, Jagadish Sanmallappa Bentur
BACKGROUND: Rice, a major food crop of the world, endures many major biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield losses. Progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several resistance (R) genes against aforesaid stresses has led to marker assisted multigene introgression into elite cultivars for multiple and durable resistance. However, no detailed study has been made on possible interactions among these genes when expressed simultaneously under combined stresses...
July 13, 2018: Rice
Zhennan Qiu, Dongdong Chen, Lei He, Sen Zhang, Zenan Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhongwei Wang, Deyong Ren, Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo, Li Zhu
BACKGROUND: Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) play important roles in the translation of key proteins involved in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. PRPs have been widely studied in many plant species; however, few studies have investigated their roles in rice. RESULT: In the present study, we used ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis and obtained a novel rice mutant called white green leaf 2 (wgl2). The wgl2 mutants exhibited an albino phenotype from germination through the three-leaf stage, and then gradually transitioned to green through the later developmental stages...
July 11, 2018: Rice
Jianping Liu, Xinjiao Sun, Feiyun Xu, Yingjiao Zhang, Qian Zhang, Rui Miao, Jianhua Zhang, Jiansheng Liang, Weifeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR or MDHAR), which is responsible for growth, development and stress response in plants, is a key enzyme in the maintenance of the ascorbate acid (AsA) pool through the AsA-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle. High temperature affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism including AsA-GSH cycle in plants. In rice, however, the detailed roles of OsMDHAR4 in resistance against heat stress remains unclear. RESULTS: Here, we report that OsMDHAR4 protein was localized to the chloroplasts...
June 28, 2018: Rice
Liang Chen, Jianmin Bian, Shilai Shi, Jianfeng Yu, Hira Khanzada, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Changlan Zhu, Xin Luo, Shan Tong, Xiaorong Yang, Xiaosong Peng, Shuang Yong, Qiuying Yu, Xiaopeng He, Junru Fu, Xiaorong Chen, Lifang Hu, Linjuan Ouyang, Haohua He
BACKGROUND: Despite the great contributions of utilizing heterosis to crop productivity worldwide, the molecular mechanism of heterosis remains largely unexplored. Thus, the present research is focused on the grain number heterosis of a widely used late-cropping indica super hybrid rice combination in China using a high-throughput next-generation RNA-seq strategy. RESULTS: Here, we obtained 872 million clean reads, and at least one read could maps 27,917 transcripts out of 35,679 annotations...
June 15, 2018: Rice
Yafeng Ye, Kun Wu, Jianfeng Chen, Qian Liu, Yuejin Wu, Binmei Liu, Xiangdong Fu
BACKGROUND: As one of the most important staple food crops, rice produces huge agronomic biomass residues that contain lots of secondary cell walls (SCWs) comprising cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. The transcriptional regulation mechanism underlying SCWs biosynthesis remains elusive. RESULTS: In this study, we isolated a NAC family transcription factor (TF), OsSND2 through yeast one-hybrid screening using the secondary wall NAC-binding element (SNBE) on the promoter region of OsMYB61 which is known transcription factor for regulation of SCWs biosynthesis as bait...
May 31, 2018: Rice
Arvind Kumar, Nitika Sandhu, Shalabh Dixit, Shailesh Yadav, B P M Swamy, Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin
BACKGROUND: Marker-assisted breeding will move forward from introgressing single/multiple genes governing a single trait to multiple genes governing multiple traits to combat emerging biotic and abiotic stresses related to climate change and to enhance rice productivity. MAS will need to address concerns about the population size needed to introgress together more than two genes/QTLs. In the present study, grain yield and genotypic data from different generations (F3 to F8 ) for five marker-assisted breeding programs were analyzed to understand the effectiveness of synergistic effect of phenotyping and genotyping in early generations on selection of better progenies...
May 29, 2018: Rice
Muhammad Abu Bakar Saddique, Zulfiqar Ali, Abdus Salam Khan, Iqrar Ahmad Rana, Imran Haider Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Rice is a drought susceptible crop. A symbiotic association between rice and mycorrhizal fungi could effectively protect the plant against sudden or frequent episodes of drought. Due to its extensive network of hyphae, the endophyte is able to deeply explore the soil and transfer water and minerals to the plant, some of them playing an important role in mitigating the effects of drought stress. Moreover, the endophyte could modify the expression of drought responsive genes and regulate antioxidants...
May 24, 2018: Rice
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