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Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being

Emily R Arps, Myron D Friesen, Nickola C Overall
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research has documented the positive effects of gratitude programs on participants' mental health and well-being. For children and adolescents, these programs typically rely on school-based group designs tied with a health curriculum, whereas innovative technology-based programs are relatively understudied. METHODS: This experiment investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a gratitude text-messaging program for promoting adolescent mental health relative to a positive reflective control condition...
September 19, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Dario Monzani, Marco D'Addario, Francesco Fattirolli, Cristina Giannattasio, Andrea Greco, Francesco Quarenghi, Patrizia Steca
BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyles are modifiable risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) onset and recurrence. While unhealthy lifestyles tend to cluster together within the general healthy population, little is known about the prevalence and clustering of these behaviours in people with ACS before and after the first acute event. The aim of this study was to identify lifestyle profiles of patients with ACS and to explore their change after their first coronary event. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-six patients completed self-report measures of healthy habits at the beginning of cardiac rehabilitation and 6 months later...
September 19, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Katherine E Brown, Kerrie Beasley, Satyajit Das
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent use of the contraceptive pill and condoms contributes significantly to poor sexual health outcomes for young people. There is evidence that action planning interventions may improve pill and condom use, but this approach is not systematically used in sexual healthcare. This study is the first to assess acceptability and feasibility of evaluating a digital intervention to support action plan formation for three sexual health behaviours with clinic attendees. It also considered the role of trait self-control and whether the intervention supported production of quality plans...
September 9, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Pascal Antoine, Anne Congard, Eva Andreotti, Bruno Dauvier, Johan Illy, Rollon Poinsot
OBJECTIVES: A 20-minutes-a-day, self-help, mindfulness-based intervention was conducted for 6 weeks with a French community sample. First, the intervention effects on affective and functioning variables were evaluated. Then, a differential approach was used to examine improvement potentiality and the perceived benefits of mindfulness according to the participants' baseline mindfulness competencies. METHOD: Participants were non-randomly assigned to a control group on the waiting list (n = 44) or a mindfulness group (n = 47)...
September 6, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Chelsey Saunders, Veronika Huta, Shane N Sweet
BACKGROUND: The theoretical conceptualisation of hedonic (HWB; pleasure) and eudaimonic (EWB; meaning) well-being has rarely been examined among cardiac rehabilitation (CR) graduates, including its relationship with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). First, this study examined the potential bidirectional relationship between MVPA and HWB/EWB. Second, this study tested the self-determination theory (SDT) model of eudaimonia where MVPA was set to predict the model's pathway between eudaimonic motives (seeking meaning), the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and both types of well-being...
July 20, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Dusti R Jones, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland, Joshua M Smyth, Barbara J Lehman
BACKGROUND: Research examining the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) on emotion seldom considers differences by arousal level or emotion variability. METHODS: In the present study, 115 participants (64% Female, 72% White, Mage = 19.03) were randomly assigned to a brief MM intervention condition (n = 60) or a wait-list control condition (n = 51). Participants in the MM condition were trained in MM and instructed to practice MM daily for one week. All participants provided daily diary reports of both higher- and lower-arousal positive (PE) and negative (NE) emotions...
July 10, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Danielle R Blazek, Jason T Siegel
BACKGROUND: The current studies examined how positive affect (i.e. the blend of several positive feelings over time) and discrete positive emotions (i.e. a specific set of momentary thoughts and feelings) influence organ donor registration outcomes. METHODS: In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a writing task intended to elicit positive or negative affect. In Study 2, participants received a discrete positively valenced emotion induction (i.e. elevation, humor, hubristic pride), or were in a control condition...
July 10, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jinghan Hu, Wencai Zhang, Jianxin Zhang, Fei Yu, Xiaoyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Metaphors may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas, and their use in cognitive restructuring can help maximise the effect of therapy information. This study aimed to determine whether metaphorical cognitive restructuring would produce a greater intervention effect in targeted mood and cognition than non-metaphorical restructuring. METHODS: Eighty-eight participants chose 25 problems of interest and wrote a self-report distress problem and were then randomly divided into a metaphorical restructuring group (N = 29), a literal restructuring group (N = 30), or a no restructuring problem restating group (N = 29)...
July 10, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Rebecca Nourse, Anne-Marie Boylan, Susan A Jebb, Paul Aveyard
BACKGROUND: Reframing means changing the way that a person thinks or feels about a weight loss attempt or weight loss maintenance to enhance its experience or facilitate its success. Although participants have described this, it has not been explored in the academic literature. Here, we set out to systematically review qualitative studies to examine the ways in which people use and experience reframing in self-directed weight loss. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2017 for qualitative studies of adults with overweight or obesity attempting to lose weight or maintain weight loss through self-directed behavior change...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jennifer Inauen, Andrea Stocker, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Coping planning, the formation of plans to overcome behavioral barriers is assumed to promote health behavior maintenance, but the literature on this is inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of a coping planning intervention that adversely affected maintained safe water consumption. We also explored perceived behavioral difficulty as a potential moderator of coping planning interventions. METHODS: In the second phase of a cluster-randomised trial, households (N = 177 analyzed) were randomly allocated to a coping planning intervention or a comparison group (repetition of interventions from first intervention phase)...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Patrick Klaiber, Ashley V Whillans, Frances S Chen
BACKGROUND: The transition to university is a major life change wherein young adults' primary support system shifts from the family to peers. Can change in social integration (operationalised as number of friends) during the first term at university contribute to students' health years later, and if so, how? METHODS: The friendship formation of 67 students at a large Canadian university was assessed during their first term. These data were used to predict self-reported health and health behaviors (physical exercise, diet, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption) at a follow-up assessment that occurred near the end of their time at university (2 or 3 years later)...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Femke Beute, Yvonne A W de Kort
BACKGROUND: Stress, and specifically perseverative cognition, is considered to have considerable detrimental effects on mental and physical health. Interventions that can offer temporary stress relief could, therefore, bring considerable health benefits. Previous research has pointed to stress-reducing effects of exposure to nature after acute stressors, but has not yet investigated effects in the realm of everyday life. The present pilot study explores whether an ecological momentary intervention using exposure to natural images could be effective in lowering stress and improve mood...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Elisa Inwood, Madeleine Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that self-compassion may improve mental health by promoting emotion regulation (Berking & Whitley, ). This review aimed to identify studies which investigated the relationship between self-compassion, emotion regulation, and mental health in order to examine the role of emotional regulation as a mechanism of change. METHODS: Searches were conducted in PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline complete, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Inclusion criteria required publications to be: peer reviewed, published in English, contain validated measures of self-compassion and emotion regulation, and report a direct analysis on the relationship between these constructs...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Dusti R Jones, Jillian A Johnson, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland, Crystal L Park, Joshua M Smyth
BACKGROUND: Perceived growth (PG) refers to perceptions of positive changes that unfold over time after experiencing trauma. Higher PG is often associated with positive long-term health, but the processes through which PG may influence health are unclear. The present study examines two potential pathways among individuals living with asthma or RA: (1) by promoting momentary indicators of health and well-being in everyday life, and (2) by buffering against stress. METHOD: In a micro-longitudinal design, 128 participants with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) reported perceived growth using the Post-Traumatic Growth (PTG) Inventory and subsequently completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) for one week...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Rachel J Burns, Alexander J Rothman
BACKGROUND: Offering people financial incentives to increase their physical activity is an increasingly prevalent intervention strategy. However, little is known about the relative effectiveness of different types of incentives. This study tested whether incentives based on specified reinforcement types and schedules differentially affected the likelihood of meeting a walking goal and explored if observed behavioural changes may have been attributable to the perceived value of the incentive...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Juliet R H Wakefield, Fabio Sani, Marina Herrera
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has highlighted the relationship between group identification (a subjective sense of belonging to one's social group, coupled with a subjective sense of commonality with the group's members) and well-being. However, little of this work is longitudinal, and few studies address reciprocal causality or control for intensity of contact with fellow group members. METHOD: We investigated the effect of university identification on satisfaction with life (SWL) over time (and vice versa) in 216 Spanish undergraduates, with seven months between T1 and T2...
July 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Carla A Giambrone, Catherine P Cook-Cottone, Jessalyn E Klein
BACKGROUND: Concept mapping methodology was used to explore the perceived impact of practicing yoga with the Africa Yoga Project (AYP)-an organisation created to increase health and well-being by providing community-based yoga classes throughout Kenya. AYP's mission fit with theoretical models of well-being is discussed. Anecdotal evidence and initial qualitative research suggested the AYP meaningfully impacted adult students. METHODS: Of the hundreds of AYP's adult students, 56 and 82 students participated in Phases I and II, respectively...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Christopher W Wiese, Louis Tay, Rong Su, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological health is a multifaceted construct and fundamental to individuals' overall mental health. Yet, measures of positive psychological health tend to focus on only a few of these facets. Su, Tay, and Diener () sought to address this by creating the Comprehensive and Brief Inventories of Thriving (CIT/BIT), integrative measures of well-being that assess positive psychological health broadly. METHOD: Given growing interest in cross-national comparisons in positive psychological health, the present study expands on this work by examining the measurement invariance of these two measures across 10 countries (N = 3,077)...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Tasha Straszewski, Jason T Siegel
BACKGROUND: The current research effort used two experimental studies to assess whether a savoring-based, positive emotion infusion (PEI) could increase help-seeking intentions among individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology and whether this relationship would be mediated by positive emotion, arousal, and perceptions of personal control. METHODS: In Study 1, participants with elevated depressive symptomatology, recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 135), were randomly assigned to complete a 6-minute savoring or control writing task followed by a help-seeking intentions scale...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Michael T Ford, Andrew T Jebb, Louis Tay, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: The present study explored the potential for internet search data to serve as indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) and predictors of health at the state and metro area levels. We propose that searches for positive and negative affect-related terms represent information-seeking behavior of individuals who are experiencing emotions and seeking information about them. METHOD: Data on the frequency of Google searches for 15 affect terms were collected from Google's Trends website (trends...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
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