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Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being

Tasha Straszewski, Jason T Siegel
BACKGROUND: The current research effort used two experimental studies to assess whether a savoring-based, positive emotion infusion (PEI) could increase help-seeking intentions among individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology and whether this relationship would be mediated by positive emotion, arousal, and perceptions of personal control. METHODS: In Study 1, participants with elevated depressive symptomatology, recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 135), were randomly assigned to complete a 6-minute savoring or control writing task followed by a help-seeking intentions scale...
February 25, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Michael T Ford, Andrew T Jebb, Louis Tay, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: The present study explored the potential for internet search data to serve as indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) and predictors of health at the state and metro area levels. We propose that searches for positive and negative affect-related terms represent information-seeking behavior of individuals who are experiencing emotions and seeking information about them. METHOD: Data on the frequency of Google searches for 15 affect terms were collected from Google's Trends website (trends...
February 18, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Aleksandra J Borek, Charles Abraham, Colin J Greaves, Mark Tarrant
BACKGROUND: Many weight-loss interventions are delivered in groups but evidence on their effectiveness, and characteristics associated with effectiveness, is limited. We synthesised evidence on (1) design and delivery of group-based weight-loss interventions; (2) effectiveness; and (3) associations between intervention characteristics, change techniques, and effectiveness. METHODS: Five online databases were searched to May 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of group-based diet and/or physical activity interventions for overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25)...
February 15, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Aleksandra J Borek, Charles Abraham
BACKGROUND: Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. METHODS: Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts...
February 15, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Carla A Giambrone, Catherine P Cook-Cottone, Jessalyn E Klein
BACKGROUND: Concept mapping methodology was used to explore the perceived impact of practicing yoga with the Africa Yoga Project (AYP)-an organisation created to increase health and well-being by providing community-based yoga classes throughout Kenya. AYP's mission fit with theoretical models of well-being is discussed. Anecdotal evidence and initial qualitative research suggested the AYP meaningfully impacted adult students. METHODS: Of the hundreds of AYP's adult students, 56 and 82 students participated in Phases I and II, respectively...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Christopher W Wiese, Louis Tay, Rong Su, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological health is a multifaceted construct and fundamental to individuals' overall mental health. Yet, measures of positive psychological health tend to focus on only a few of these facets. Su, Tay, and Diener () sought to address this by creating the Comprehensive and Brief Inventories of Thriving (CIT/BIT), integrative measures of well-being that assess positive psychological health broadly. METHOD: Given growing interest in cross-national comparisons in positive psychological health, the present study expands on this work by examining the measurement invariance of these two measures across 10 countries (N = 3,077)...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Wuyou Sui, Harry Prapavessis
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) has been associated with chronic diseases. University students are a high-risk population for excessive SB. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) based intervention, specifically action and coping planning, would increase student break frequency and decrease duration. METHODS: Fifty-two university students (14 men, mean age 23.5) were randomised into an 8-week HAPA-treatment (sedentary behavior) or HAPA-control (nutrition) group...
March 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Parminder K Flora, Casey J McMahon, Sean R Locke, Lawrence R Brawley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise therapy facilitates patient recovery and better health following a cardiovascular event. However, post-CR adherence to self-managed (SM)-exercise is suboptimal. Part of this problem may be participants' view of CR staff as mainly responsible for help and program structure. Does post-CR exercise adherence for those perceiving high CR staff responsibility suffer as a consequence? METHODS: Participants in this prospective, observational study were followed over 12 weeks of CR and one month afterward...
December 19, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Javier Alvarez-Galvez, Diego Gomez-Baya
BACKGROUND: Obesity and depression are two major health issues in contemporary societies. This study aims to address two fundamental questions: (1) what is the impact of macro-level adverse socioeconomic circumstances on depression? and (2) how do macro-level variations in the socioeconomic context affect the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depression? METHODS: Data from the 7th round of the European Social Survey were used, collected from a sample size of 37,623 participants and aggregated around a total of 20 countries...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Sara Gostoli, Renzo Roncuzzi, Stefano Urbinati, Chiara Rafanelli
BACKGROUND: The literature has outlined positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on clinical psychological distress (DSM depression and anxiety) and quality of life (QoL). In cardiac settings, subclinical distress (subthreshold depressive and anxious symptomatology) and psychological well-being also showed relevant clinical implications. This research explored these psychological variables, their changes over time and cardiac course of CR patients. METHODS: Clinical and subclinical distress, QoL, and psychological well-being were assessed in 108 consecutive patients undergoing CR, at baseline and up to 12 months after the program's completion...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Shira Peleg, Erga Drori, Shmuel Banai, Ariel Finkelstein, Shoshana Shiloh
BACKGROUND: Self-assessed health (SAH) predicts health outcomes above and beyond medical variables. One of the explanations for this robust finding is the sensitivity of SAH to changes in multiple aspects of health, including emotional factors. We assessed the dynamic nature of SAH by longitudinally examining the associations between initial and change levels of SAH and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). METHODS: Participants were 138 cardiac patients undergoing coronary angioplasty...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Ethan Kross, Brian D Vickers, Ariana Orvell, Izzy Gainsburg, Tim P Moran, Margaret Boyer, John Jonides, Jason Moser, Ozlem Ayduk
BACKGROUND: During the fall of 2014, the threat of an Ebola outbreak gripped the United States (Poll, 8-12 October 2014; see Harvard School of Public Health & SSRS, 2014), creating a unique opportunity to advance basic knowledge concerning how emotion regulation works in consequential contexts and translate existing research in this area to inform public health and policy. METHOD: We addressed these issues by examining whether third-person self-talk, a simple technique that promotes emotion regulation, could nudge people into reasoning about Ebola more rationally...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Walter Bierbauer, Jennifer Inauen, Sabine Schaefer, Maike Margarethe Kleemeyer, Janina Lüscher, Claudia König, Robert Tobias, Matthias Kliegel, Andreas Ihle, Lukas Zimmerli, Barbara M Holzer, Klarissa Siebenhuener, Edouard Battegay, Christian Schmied, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Health behavior change theories usually claim to be universally and individually applicable. Most research has tested behavior change theories at the interindividual level and within young-to-middle-aged populations. However, associations at the interindividual level can differ substantially from associations at the intraindividual level. This study examines the applicability of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) at the inter- and the intraindividual level among older adults...
October 12, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jennifer Inauen, Niall Bolger, Patrick E Shrout, Gertraud Stadler, Melanie Amrein, Pamela Rackow, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Although many people intend to eat healthily, they often fail to do so. We report the first randomised trial testing whether smartphone-based support groups can enhance healthy eating. METHODS: Adults (N = 203) were randomised to the support or control condition (information), and to one of two eating goals (increasing fruit and vegetable/decreasing unhealthy snack consumption). After baseline, participants received information on their assigned eating goal, and completed a 13-day electronic diary...
September 25, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Alessandra Cantarella, Erika Borella, Cinzia Marigo, Rosanna De Beni
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that psychological well-being (PWB) can be promoted through positive psychological interventions (PPIs). Although these interventions have shown promising results in clinical settings, only a few studies have investigated their effectiveness in older adults, and they have rarely considered an active control group. In addition, generalisation effects of the PWB training to quality of life (QoL) and to untrained cognitive abilities have never been considered...
September 6, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
James D Sessford, Lawrence R Brawley, Miranda A Cary, Parminder K Flora, Jocelyn E Blouin, Laura Meade, Shaelyn M Strachan, Nancy C Gyurcsik
BACKGROUND: The study of exercise adherence during an arthritis flare is recommended by arthritis researchers. Studies to date have been correlational. METHODS: Social cognitions of exercising individuals with arthritis who consider exercise adherence under different levels of challenge of an arthritis flare were examined using an experimental design. Exercising individuals with differential self-regulatory efficacy for managing arthritis flare symptoms (SRE-flare) were randomly assigned to conditions where flare symptoms were perceived as either many or few...
August 31, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Ed Diener, Sarah D Pressman, John Hunter, Desiree Delgadillo-Chase
We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so...
July 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Louisa Dodos, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Nikos Ntoumanis
BACKGROUND: Self-compassion may protect individuals experiencing poor body image and associated maladaptive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine within-person associations (whilst controlling for between-person differences) between appearance-related self-compassion, appearance-related threats (operationalised as upward appearance comparisons), and body image-related variables, namely, social physique anxiety, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. METHODS: A diary methodology was used whereby young women (n = 126; Mage = 21...
July 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Helge Giese, F Marijn Stok, Britta Renner
BACKGROUND: The similarity of friends in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption is explored. METHOD: During their first semester, 57 psychology freshmen indicated weekly drinking frequency and quantity and nominated the three peers of this group they liked most. These nominations were then used to derive the weekly alcohol consumption of friends that either did or did not reciprocate a nomination. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling of weekly variations showed that individuals' drinking frequency was similar to peers who reciprocated a friendship (b = 0...
July 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Joshua R Novak, Jared R Anderson, Matthew D Johnson, Nathan R Hardy, Ann Walker, Allison Wilcox, Virginia L Lewis, David C Robbins
BACKGROUND: Personality has received some attention in the Type 2 diabetes literature; however, research has not linked personality and diabetes adherence behaviors (diet and exercise), identified pathways through which they are associated, nor taken into consideration important contextual factors that influence behavior (the patient's partner). METHODS: Dyadic data from 117 married, heterosexual couples in which one member is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes was used to explore associations between each partner's neuroticism and patient dietary and exercise adherence through the pathways of negative affect, depression symptoms, and couple-level diabetes efficacy (both patient and spouse report of confidence in the patient's ability to adhere to diabetes management regimens)...
July 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
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