Read by QxMD icon Read

Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being

Joshua R Novak, Jared R Anderson, Matthew D Johnson, Nathan R Hardy, Ann Walker, Allison Wilcox, Virginia L Lewis, David C Robbins
BACKGROUND: Personality has received some attention in the Type 2 diabetes literature; however, research has not linked personality and diabetes adherence behaviors (diet and exercise), identified pathways through which they are associated, nor taken into consideration important contextual factors that influence behavior (the patient's partner). METHODS: Dyadic data from 117 married, heterosexual couples in which one member is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes was used to explore associations between each partner's neuroticism and patient dietary and exercise adherence through the pathways of negative affect, depression symptoms, and couple-level diabetes efficacy (both patient and spouse report of confidence in the patient's ability to adhere to diabetes management regimens)...
April 12, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Shane Sinclair, Jane Kondejewski, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Kathryn M King-Shier, Pavneet Singh
BACKGROUND: This meta-narrative review, conducted according to the RAMESES (Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) standards, critically examines the construct of self-compassion to determine if it is an accurate target variable to mitigate work-related stress and promote compassionate caregiving in healthcare providers. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies were coded as referring to: (1) conceptualisation of self-compassion; (2) measures of self-compassion; (3) self-compassion and affect; and (4) self-compassion interventions...
April 10, 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Janina Lüscher, Corina Berli, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Withdrawing effort and commitment from important goals (i.e. goal disengagement) has been discussed as an effective aspect of goal adaption. However, studies have focused especially on between-person differences. The present studies aimed to investigate within-person differences in goal disengagement within a dyadic context of romantic couples. Across two different health behaviors, we specifically tested whether goal disengagement would be associated with better well-being, but lower goal achievement in everyday life...
March 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Saengryeol Park, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Sally A M Fenton, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten
BACKGROUND: The current study used latent profile analyses to identify classes of older participants based on physical health, physical function, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and then examined differences in mental health between these classes. METHODS: Eighty-five residents (M = 77.5 years old, SD = 8.2) from assisted living facilities participated. Light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior were assessed by accelerometers, physical function was measured using different tasks (mobility, grip strength, and spirometry), and body mass index was calculated...
March 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Ron Borland
This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes...
March 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Carine Meslot, Aurélie Gauchet, Martin S Hagger, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Audrey Lehmann, Benoît Allenet
BACKGROUND: Low levels of adherence to medication prescribed to treat and manage chronic disease may lead to maladaptive health outcomes. Theory-based, easy-to-administer interventions that promote patients' effective self-regulation of their medication-taking behaviour are needed if adherence is to be maximised. We tested the effectiveness of an intervention adopting planning techniques to promote medication adherence. METHODS: Outpatients with cardiovascular disease (N = 71) were allocated to either an experimental condition, in which participants were asked to form implementation intentions and coping plans related to their treatment, or to a no-planning control condition, in which participants received no treatment...
March 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Enoch Teye-Kwadjo, Ashraf Kagee, Hermann Swart
BACKGROUND: Growing cross-sectional research shows that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is robust in predicting intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour. Yet, little is known about the TPB's utility in explaining intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour over time. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal design and latent variable structural equation modelling to test the longitudinal relationships postulated by the TPB. School-going youths in Ghana provided data on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions, and behaviour regarding condom use at three time points, spaced approximately three months apart...
December 7, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jessica Lang, Bernhard Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Art-of-living describes a mindful and self-determined way of dealing with one's self and way of life. It is related to measures of well-being. Art-of-living is based on strategies and attitudes which can be learned and therefore can be changed. Two types of training for students to increase art-of-living were developed and tested in two studies to determine the effects on art-of-living measures. METHODS: Study 1 dealt with the initial examination of whether it is possible to enhance the art-of-living by training selected art-of-living strategies...
November 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Ashleigh Haynes, Eva Kemps, Robyn Moffitt
BACKGROUND: The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Martina Gamp, Britta Renner
BACKGROUND: Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news...
July 14, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Harris R Lieberman, J Philip Karl, James P McClung, Kelly W Williams, Sonya Cable
BACKGROUND: It is reported that women are more susceptible to stress than men but they have not been compared in stressful, real-world, team-centered, occupational/training environments. This study investigated effects of Army Basic Combat Training (BCT), a structured military training program, on the mood of young adult men and women. METHODS: Using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire, 169 soldiers (98 men and 71 women) were assessed prior to starting BCT and after each phase of training...
July 12, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Falko F Sniehotta, Justin Presseau, Julia Allan, Vera Araújo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: Research investigating cognitive moderators of the intention-behaviour relationship and psychological consequences of failure to enact intentions is usually conducted in a single-behaviour paradigm. A multiple-behaviour paradigm is introduced which overcomes bias inherent to single-behaviour designs and allows testing of novel hypotheses. Two exploratory studies illustrate the utility of this new paradigm by investigating the role of cognitive predictors and psychological correlates of intention-behaviour relationships...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Peta Stapleton, Amy Jean Bannatyne, Keri-Charle Urzi, Brett Porter, Terri Sheldon
Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8-week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one's responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen's effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Claudia König, Gertraud Stadler, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. METHODS: Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Benjamin D Sylvester, David R Lubans, Narelle Eather, Martyn Standage, Svenja A Wolf, Desmond McEwan, Geralyn R Ruissen, Megan Kaulius, Peter R E Crocker, Mark R Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the extent to which variety support in a resistance exercise program influences exercise-related well-being among inactive adults. METHODS: A sample of 121 inactive university students were randomly assigned and participated in either a high or low variety support 6-week exercise program. Measures of exercise-related perceived variety, positive affect, negative affect, and subjective vitality were completed at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks (i...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jessica Kansky, Joseph P Allen, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. METHODS: To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz, Michael Eid
BACKGROUND: Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health-related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short-term outcomes are discounted over long-time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self-efficacy, the central variable in this approach...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Julieta Galante, Marie-Jet Bekkers, Clive Mitchell, John Gallacher
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that facilitating empathy could improve individuals' well-being. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) could be a facilitator, and online delivery a cost-effective format. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based randomised controlled trial recruiting 809 adults to test whether an LKM course improves well-being through evoking pleasant emotions, psychological resources, and altruism compared to a light physical exercise course (LE). Participants in both arms followed video-based instructions, completed post-intervention questionnaires, and used online diaries and forums...
June 23, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jan Keller, Paul Gellert, Nina Knoll, Michael Schneider, Anna Ernsting
BACKGROUND: Fostering self-efficacy and planning in individuals can support the uptake and maintenance of regular physical activity. This study examined self-efficacy and planning as mechanisms of an online-delivered workplace health promotion intervention to enhance employees' physical activity. A special focus lay on reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning over time, as previous work predominantly accounted for only one predictive direction at a time. METHODS: Data from N = 1,063 employees of a pharmaceutical company who reported an intention to increase their physical activity levels were assessed at three measurement points up to 12 weeks following the intervention...
June 14, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Anne Hattar, Sebely Pal, Martin S Hagger
BACKGROUND: We tested the adequacy of a model based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in predicting changes in psychological, body composition, and cardiovascular risk outcomes with respect to physical activity participation in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: Measures of HAPA constructs (action and maintenance self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, action planning, risk perceptions, intentions, behaviour), psychological outcomes (quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms), body composition variables (body weight, body fat mass), cardiovascular risk measures (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein), and self-reported physical activity behaviour were administered to participants (N = 74) at baseline, and 6 and 12 weeks later...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"