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Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being

Ashleigh Haynes, Eva Kemps, Robyn Moffitt
BACKGROUND: The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Martina Gamp, Britta Renner
BACKGROUND: Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news...
July 14, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Harris R Lieberman, J Philip Karl, James P McClung, Kelly W Williams, Sonya Cable
BACKGROUND: It is reported that women are more susceptible to stress than men but they have not been compared in stressful, real-world, team-centered, occupational/training environments. This study investigated effects of Army Basic Combat Training (BCT), a structured military training program, on the mood of young adult men and women. METHODS: Using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire, 169 soldiers (98 men and 71 women) were assessed prior to starting BCT and after each phase of training...
July 12, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Falko F Sniehotta, Justin Presseau, Julia Allan, Vera Araújo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: Research investigating cognitive moderators of the intention-behaviour relationship and psychological consequences of failure to enact intentions is usually conducted in a single-behaviour paradigm. A multiple-behaviour paradigm is introduced which overcomes bias inherent to single-behaviour designs and allows testing of novel hypotheses. Two exploratory studies illustrate the utility of this new paradigm by investigating the role of cognitive predictors and psychological correlates of intention-behaviour relationships...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Peta Stapleton, Amy Jean Bannatyne, Keri-Charle Urzi, Brett Porter, Terri Sheldon
Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8-week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one's responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen's effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Claudia König, Gertraud Stadler, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. METHODS: Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Benjamin D Sylvester, David R Lubans, Narelle Eather, Martyn Standage, Svenja A Wolf, Desmond McEwan, Geralyn R Ruissen, Megan Kaulius, Peter R E Crocker, Mark R Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the extent to which variety support in a resistance exercise program influences exercise-related well-being among inactive adults. METHODS: A sample of 121 inactive university students were randomly assigned and participated in either a high or low variety support 6-week exercise program. Measures of exercise-related perceived variety, positive affect, negative affect, and subjective vitality were completed at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks (i...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jessica Kansky, Joseph P Allen, Ed Diener
BACKGROUND: Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. METHODS: To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz, Michael Eid
BACKGROUND: Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health-related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short-term outcomes are discounted over long-time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self-efficacy, the central variable in this approach...
July 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Julieta Galante, Marie-Jet Bekkers, Clive Mitchell, John Gallacher
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that facilitating empathy could improve individuals' well-being. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) could be a facilitator, and online delivery a cost-effective format. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based randomised controlled trial recruiting 809 adults to test whether an LKM course improves well-being through evoking pleasant emotions, psychological resources, and altruism compared to a light physical exercise course (LE). Participants in both arms followed video-based instructions, completed post-intervention questionnaires, and used online diaries and forums...
June 23, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jan Keller, Paul Gellert, Nina Knoll, Michael Schneider, Anna Ernsting
BACKGROUND: Fostering self-efficacy and planning in individuals can support the uptake and maintenance of regular physical activity. This study examined self-efficacy and planning as mechanisms of an online-delivered workplace health promotion intervention to enhance employees' physical activity. A special focus lay on reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning over time, as previous work predominantly accounted for only one predictive direction at a time. METHODS: Data from N = 1,063 employees of a pharmaceutical company who reported an intention to increase their physical activity levels were assessed at three measurement points up to 12 weeks following the intervention...
June 14, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Jessica Lang, Bernhard Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Art-of-living describes a mindful and self-determined way of dealing with one's self and way of life. It is related to measures of well-being. Art-of-living is based on strategies and attitudes which can be learned and therefore can be changed. Two types of training for students to increase art-of-living were developed and tested in two studies to determine the effects on art-of-living measures. METHODS: Study 1 dealt with the initial examination of whether it is possible to enhance the art-of-living by training selected art-of-living strategies...
June 6, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Anne Hattar, Sebely Pal, Martin S Hagger
BACKGROUND: We tested the adequacy of a model based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in predicting changes in psychological, body composition, and cardiovascular risk outcomes with respect to physical activity participation in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: Measures of HAPA constructs (action and maintenance self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, action planning, risk perceptions, intentions, behaviour), psychological outcomes (quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms), body composition variables (body weight, body fat mass), cardiovascular risk measures (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein), and self-reported physical activity behaviour were administered to participants (N = 74) at baseline, and 6 and 12 weeks later...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Sosja Prinsen, Catharine Evers, Denise de Ridder
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have mainly examined the immediate effects of self-licensing on self-regulation failure. The present vignette studies examined what happens when a second self-regulation dilemma is encountered. METHODS: In Studies 1 (N = 52) and 2 (N = 166), participants read a vignette in which the protagonist chooses to buy a treat while being on a diet, which was preceded by a license (License condition) or not (Control condition). The self-reported likelihood of indulging again when a second dilemma was presented in the same situation served as the dependent variable...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
John Scott-Hamilton, Nicola S Schutte, Rhonda F Brown
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether mindfulness training increases athletes' mindfulness and flow experience and decreases sport-specific anxiety and sport-specific pessimism. METHODS: Cyclists were assigned to an eight-week mindfulness intervention, which incorporated a mindful spin-bike training component, or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed baseline and post-test measures of mindfulness, flow, sport-anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Pilar Sanjuán, Tomás Montalbetti, Ana M Pérez-García, José Bermúdez, Henar Arranz, Almudena Castro
BACKGROUND: Negative emotions are linked to the onset and development of coronary heart diseases (CHD), whereas positive emotions are associated with better health and lower mortality rates among patients with these diseases. The objective of this randomised trial was to improve cardiac patients' emotional states using a Programme to Improve Well-being (PIW) based exclusively on positive interventions (those that promote intentional behaviours and thoughts to improve well-being). METHODS: Cardiac patients (n = 108) were randomly assigned to two parallel groups...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Amy L Fielden, Elizabeth Sillence, Linda Little, Peter R Harris
BACKGROUND: This study tested the efficacy of self-affirmation in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of participants comprising two groups at high risk of low consumption: young adults and mothers of school-aged children with low social economic status (SES). METHODS: Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption was recorded for 85 participants (n = 26 mothers with low SES). Following randomisation to condition (Self-Affirmed or Non-Affirmed), participants viewed targeted, online, health recommendations about fruit and vegetable consumption...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Nadine Langguth, Johanna Schmid, Caterina Gawrilow, Gertraud Stadler
BACKGROUND: During adolescence, young women and men frequently show low physical activity and elevated depressed affect. This study aimed to examine the within-person link between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressed affect in everyday life. METHODS: Within an intensive longitudinal approach, adolescents (N = 72; 37% young women; M age = 17.36 years; age range: 12-26 years; mid-90% age range: 13-22 years) wore accelerometers to assess their daily MVPA and reported next-morning and same-evening depressed affect in diaries over eight consecutive days...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Marie Hennecke, Alexandra M Freund
Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1...
March 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Shigehiro Oishi, Masao Saeki, Jordan Axt
Are people who live in more walkable areas healthier and more satisfied with life? This study investigates that question by using the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest telephone survey on health in the US (302,841 respondents from 989 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MSA]; 177,524 respondents from 703 MSAs had complete data). Using multilevel random coefficient modeling, we found that people living in walkable areas reported being generally healthier than people living in less walkable areas...
November 2015: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
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