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Bioscience Trends

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100890/research-progress-on-the-direct-antiviral-drugs-for-hepatitis-c-virus
#1
Jianjun Gao, Chuanxia Ju
Hepatitis C, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation, is a severe threat to human health. Pegylated interferon α (INF-α) and ribavirin based therapy was once the standard therapy for HCV infection. However, it is suboptimal in efficacy and poorly tolerated in some patients. In the last five years, four classes of direct antiviral drugs (NAAs) that target non-structural proteins (NS) of the virus including NS3/NS4A, NS5A, and NS5B have been developed and opened a new era in HCV treatment as they are more effective and tolerable than the INF-α and ribavirin combination regimen...
January 19, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049883/neuron-specific-splicing
#2
Nor Hakimah Ab Hakim, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, Hitoshi Suzuki, Toshifumi Tsukahara
During pre-mRNA splicing events, introns are removed from the pre-mRNA, and the remaining exons are connected together to form a single continuous molecule. Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. More than 90% of human genes are known to undergo alternative splicing. The most common type of alternative splicing is exon skipping, which is also known as cassette exon. Other known alternative splicing events include alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, and mutually exclusive exons...
December 31, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025459/tgp-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-regulates-the-expression-of-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-in-the-kidneys-of-diabetic-rats
#3
Yunxia Shao, Xiangming Qi, Xinxing Xu, Kun Wang, Yonggui Wu, Lingling Xia
Recent evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-inflammation chain contributes to diabetic renal injury. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether total glucosides of peony (TGP) could inhibit ERS and attenuate up-regulation of TXNIP in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. TGP was orally administered daily at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphor- eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and TXNIP was assessed...
December 24, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003635/effects-of-stat3-inhibitors-on-neural-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Meng Cui, Xinlong Ma, Jie Sun, Jinquan He, Lin Shen, Fangguo Li
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can induce primary and secondary injury, resulting in severe neurological damage and dysfunction in patients. Studies have reported that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the inflammatory immune response and neural stem cell differentiation. In order to examine whether a STAT3 inhibitor can prevent worsening of an SCI and promote neural stem cell differentiation, a rat model of surgically induced SCI was created and rats were treated with the STAT3 inhibitor S31-201...
December 21, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990005/ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation
#5
Yuki Oya, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Takehisa Watanabe, Yoko Yoshimaru, Masaki Honda, Shintaro Hashimoto, Daiki Yoshii, Kaori Isono, Shintaro Hayashida, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Motohiko Tanaka, Yutaka Sasaki, Yukihiro Inomata
Management of recurrent hepatitis C following liver transplantation still remains a challenge. Here, we report five patients who achieved viral responses following combined treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. All the patients received tacrolimus for immunosuppression. No dose adjustment was made before the ledipasvir and sofosbuvir therapy. All completed the intended 12-week treatment course with the full dose of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. There were no significant adverse events greater than grade 2...
December 18, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990004/endoscopic-and-surgical-ampullectomy-for-non-invasive-ampullary-tumors-short-term-outcomes
#6
Margaux Dubois, Ismail Labgaa, Gian Dorta, Nermin Halkic
Non-invasive ampullary tumors, may be treated with endoscopic (EA) or surgical ampullectomy (SA). However, evidence on the morbidity of these techniques remains limited. This pilot study aimed to assess and compare morbidity of EA and SA. Patients undergoing EA or SA for non-invasive ampullary tumors were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Outcomes were postoperative complications graded with Clavien Classification and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI), and length of stay (LoS). A review of the literature was performed to propose an evidence-based algorithm to treat ampullary tumors...
December 18, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990003/current-status-of-genome-editing-in-vector-mosquitoes-a-review
#7
Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Stanislaus Antony Ceasar, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases...
December 18, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916780/mir-15a-5p-regulates-viability-and-matrix-degradation-of-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-via-targeting-vegfa
#8
Hongwei Chen, Yun Tian
Previous studies demonstrated that miR-15a-5p was probably associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma, while the function of miR-15a-5p in OA (Osteoarthritis) still remains unknown. Here, we uncovered the potential role of miR-15a-5p on OA pathogenesis and confirmed its predicted target VEGFA (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A). Measured by RT-PCR, miR-15a-5p expression increased remarkably while VEGFA expression was significantly decreased in OA chondrocytes compared with normal conditions. According to Luciferase activity assay, miR-15a-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of VEGFA to inhibit its expression...
December 3, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890875/induction-of-apoptosis-by-ethanol-extract-of-evodia-rutaecarpa-in-hela-human-cervical-cancer-cells-via-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#9
Seon Young Park, Cheol Park, Shin-Hyung Park, Su-Hyun Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Sang Hoon Hong, Yung-Hyun Choi
The fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth has been used widely in traditional medicine therapy. Although it has been shown to possess many pharmacological activities, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer activity have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of an ethanol extract isolated from immature fruits of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. EEER treatment decreased the cell viability of HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was related to apoptotic cell death resulting from apoptotic body formation, DNA fragmentation, and an increased population of annexin V(+)-positive cells...
November 27, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890886/anemia-in-combined-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-hiv-infected-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-study-of-prevalence-risk-factors-and-mortality
#10
Guorui Dai, Jiang Xiao, Guiju Gao, Xuejing Chong, Fang Wang, Hongyuan Liang, Liang Ni, Di Yang, Fengting Yu, Ling Xu, Di Wang, Junyan Han, Hui Zeng, Hongxin Zhao
Anemia is one of the most important complications of HIV infection. In China, the prevalence, risk factors, and association between anemia and prognosis in HIV-infected patients are poorly elucidated. We analyzed data from 3452 HIV-infected patients not yet on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) attending Beijing Ditan Hospital from June, 2003 to December, 2015. The overall prevalence of anemia was 9.8% (7.6% mild, 1.9% moderate, and 0.2% severe anemia). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...
November 26, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840371/a-novel-angiogenic-peptide-%C3%AE-adt-a-truncated-adrenotensin-peptide-revealed-by-secretory-peptidome-analysis-of-human-retinal-pericytes
#11
Akinori Okumura, Eri Takahashi, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Yasushi Kaburagi
Retinal pericytes play an important role in the maintenance of retinal microvascular homeostasis. We performed a secretory peptidome of primary human retinal pericytes. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis in the culture medium of retinal pericytes, we identified 256 peptides derived from 114 proteins, and identified a novel partial fragment Leu163-His183 (termed ΔADT) of adrenotensin (ADT). To elucidate the role of ΔADT as a soluble mediator of pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, we investigated the bioactivity of ΔADT in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs)...
November 13, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818465/the-expression-of-mir-124-increases-in-aged-skin-to-cause-cell-senescence-and-it-decreases-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Miho Harada, Masatoshi Jinnin, Zhongzhi Wang, Ayaka Hirano, Yukiko Tomizawa, Tomomi Kira, Toshikatsu Igata, Shinichi Masuguchi, Satoshi Fukushima, Hironobu Ihn
Skin senescence is induced by various factors including intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. The current study compared the expression of microRNAs in young facial skin and senescent facial skin, and this study identified skin aging-related microRNAs. According to the results from a microRNA PCR Array, miR-124 was the microRNA that increased the most in senescent skin compared to young skin. Real-time PCR with a greater number of samples indicated that the increase in miR-124 levels in senescent facial skin was statistically significant...
November 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795483/the-fractal-based-analysis-of-human-face-and-dna-variations-during-aging
#13
Hamidreza Namazi, Amin Akrami, Jamal Hussaini, Osmar N Silva, Albert Wong, Vladimir V Kulish
Human DNA is the main unit that shapes human characteristics and features such as behavior. Thus, it is expected that changes in DNA (DNA mutation) influence human characteristics and features. Face is one of the human features which is unique and also dependent on his gen. In this paper, for the first time we analyze the variations of human DNA and face simultaneously. We do this job by analyzing the fractal dimension of DNA walk and face during human aging. The results of this study show the human DNA and face get more complex by aging...
October 29, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795482/advances-in-the-study-of-oncofetal-antigen-glypican-3-expression-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Min Yao, Li Wang, Miao Fang, Wenjie Zheng, Zhizhen Dong, Dengfu Yao
Early specific diagnosis and effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are crucial. Expression of membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-3 (GPC-3) was recently found to increase as part of the malignant transformation of hepatocytes, and this increase is especially marked in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, periportal cancerous embolus, or extra-hepatic metastasis. According to data from basic and clinical studies, the oncofetal antigen GPC-3 is a highly specific diagnostic biomarker of HCC and an indicator of its prognosis, and GPC-3 is also a promising target molecule for HCC gene therapy since it may play a crucial role in cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion and it may mediate oncogenesis and oncogenic signaling pathways...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773893/polyphosphate-induced-matrix-metalloproteinase-13-is-required-for-osteoblast-like-cell-differentiation-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Nobuaki Ozeki, Makio Mogi, Naoko Hase, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Kazuhiko Nakata
Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] induces differentiation of osteoblastic cells. In this study, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSC) to investigate whether MMP-13 activity induced by Poly(P) is associated with osteogenic differentiation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and an MMP-13 activity assay were used in this study. Poly(P) enhanced expression of mature osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osteopontin (SPP1), osterix (OSX), and bone sialoprotein (BSP), and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcification capacity in hAT-MSCs...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773892/the-significance-of-low-levels-of-linc-rp1130-1-expression-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Chaohui Xiao, Cheng Wang, Sijie Cheng, Chengcai Lai, Peirui Zhang, Zizheng Wang, Tao Zhang, Shaogeng Zhang, Rong Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common neoplasms. Little progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Studies have increasingly found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the regulation of the occurrence and development of HCC. To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of lncRNA in HCC, the current study examined 25 lncRNAs with differing levels of expression (according to the fold change) in microarray databases. Expression of LINC RP1130-1 was found to be markedly down-regulated in 51 HCC tissues compared to matching adjacent non-tumor liver tissues...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773891/ferulic-acid-prevents-liver-injury-induced-by-diosbulbin-b-and-its-mechanism
#17
Chengwei Niu, Yuchen Sheng, Enyuan Zhu, Lili Ji, Zhengtao Wang
The rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, traditionally used to treat thyroid disease and cancer in China, is reported to induce serious liver injury during clinical practice. Diosbulbin B (DB), a diterpene lactone, has been found to be the main toxic compound in D. bulbifera. The present study aims to investigate the protection of ferulic acid (FA) against DB-induced acute liver injury and its engaged mechanism. Mice were orally administered FA (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) once daily for 6 consecutive days; and then orally given DB (250 mg/kg) on the last day...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594047/status-of-and-prospects-for-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-for-patients-with-severe-emphysema
#18
Hang Yu, Lijie Wang, Zhen Wu, Zhen Yang
Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) is a minimally invasive treatment for severe emphysema, providing treatment options for patients who are unable to undergo lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or lung transplantation. Current BLVR techniques include bronchoscopic volume reduction with valve implants, use of a lung volume reduction coil (LVRC), bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA), biological lung volume reduction (BioLVR), and use of airway bypass stents (ABS). To date, several randomized controlled trials of these bronchoscopic therapies have been conducted in patients with emphysema, and bronchoscopic volume reduction with valve implants remains the best approach thus far...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569029/chinese-non-governmental-organizations-involved-in-hiv-aids-prevention-and-control-intra-organizational-social-capital-as-a-new-analytical-perspective
#19
Danni Wang, Guangliang Mei, Xiaoru Xu, Ran Zhao, Ying Ma, Ren Chen, Xia Qin, Zhi Hu
HIV/AIDS is a major public health and social problem worldwide, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an irreplaceable role in HIV/AIDS prevention and control. At the present time, however, NGOs have not fully participated in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in China. As an emerging focus on international academic inquiry, social capital can provide a new perspective from which to promote the growth of NGOs. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommends creating regional policies tailored to multiple and varying epidemics of HIV/AIDS...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558153/tao-hong-si-wu-decoction-ameliorates-steroid-induced-avascular-necrosis-of-the-femoral-head-by-regulating-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway-and-cell-apoptosis
#20
Jian Wu, Li Yao, Bing Wang, Zhen Liu, Keyong Ma
The aim of this study was to corroborate the hypothesis that Tao-Hong-Si-Wu Decoction (THSWD) affects steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) by regulating the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathway. Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC group), a model group (SANFH group), a THSWD group, and a dimethyloxalylglycine group (DMOG group). Rabbits in the SANFH group were injected with both horse serum and methylprednisolone. Rabbits in the THSWD group were gavaged with THSWD in addition to receiving the same treatment as the SANFH group...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
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