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Bioscience Trends

Seon Young Park, Cheol Park, Shin-Hyung Park, Su-Hyun Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Sang Hoon Hong, Yung-Hyun Choi
The fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth has been used widely in traditional medicine therapy. Although it has been shown to possess many pharmacological activities, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer activity have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of an ethanol extract isolated from immature fruits of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. EEER treatment decreased the cell viability of HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was related to apoptotic cell death resulting from apoptotic body formation, DNA fragmentation, and an increased population of annexin V(+)-positive cells...
November 27, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Guorui Dai, Jiang Xiao, Guiju Gao, Xuejing Chong, Fang Wang, Hongyuan Liang, Liang Ni, Di Yang, Fengting Yu, Ling Xu, Di Wang, Junyan Han, Hui Zeng, Hongxin Zhao
Anemia is one of the most important complications of HIV infection. In China, the prevalence, risk factors, and association between anemia and prognosis in HIV-infected patients are poorly elucidated. We analyzed data from 3452 HIV-infected patients not yet on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) attending Beijing Ditan Hospital from June, 2003 to December, 2015. The overall prevalence of anemia was 9.8% (7.6% mild, 1.9% moderate, and 0.2% severe anemia). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...
November 26, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Akinori Okumura, Eri Takahashi, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Yasushi Kaburagi
Retinal pericytes play an important role in the maintenance of retinal microvascular homeostasis. We performed a secretory peptidome of primary human retinal pericytes. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis in the culture medium of retinal pericytes, we identified 256 peptides derived from 114 proteins, and identified a novel partial fragment Leu163-His183 (termed ΔADT) of adrenotensin (ADT). To elucidate the role of ΔADT as a soluble mediator of pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, we investigated the bioactivity of ΔADT in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs)...
November 13, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Miho Harada, Masatoshi Jinnin, Zhongzhi Wang, Ayaka Hirano, Yukiko Tomizawa, Tomomi Kira, Toshikatsu Igata, Shinichi Masuguchi, Satoshi Fukushima, Hironobu Ihn
Skin senescence is induced by various factors including intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. The current study compared the expression of microRNAs in young facial skin and senescent facial skin, and this study identified skin aging-related microRNAs. According to the results from a microRNA PCR Array, miR-124 was the microRNA that increased the most in senescent skin compared to young skin. Real-time PCR with a greater number of samples indicated that the increase in miR-124 levels in senescent facial skin was statistically significant...
November 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Hamidreza Namazi, Amin Akrami, Jamal Hussaini, Osmar N Silva, Albert Wong, Vladimir V Kulish
Human DNA is the main unit that shapes human characteristics and features such as behavior. Thus, it is expected that changes in DNA (DNA mutation) influence human characteristics and features. Face is one of the human features which is unique and also dependent on his gen. In this paper, for the first time we analyze the variations of human DNA and face simultaneously. We do this job by analyzing the fractal dimension of DNA walk and face during human aging. The results of this study show the human DNA and face get more complex by aging...
October 29, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Yingping Xu, Nan Chu, Xuemin Qiu, Hans-Jürgen Gober, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Over the past few decades, researchers have paid considerable attention to the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the potential role of chemokines in estrogen regulation of bone metabolism. Chemokines are members of a superfamily of low-molecular-weight chemoattractant cytokines. Various chemokines and their corresponding transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors play distinct roles in the functional regulation and homeostasis of the immune and skeletal systems...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Min Yao, Li Wang, Miao Fang, Wenjie Zheng, Zhizhen Dong, Dengfu Yao
Early specific diagnosis and effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are crucial. Expression of membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-3 (GPC-3) was recently found to increase as part of the malignant transformation of hepatocytes, and this increase is especially marked in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, periportal cancerous embolus, or extra-hepatic metastasis. According to data from basic and clinical studies, the oncofetal antigen GPC-3 is a highly specific diagnostic biomarker of HCC and an indicator of its prognosis, and GPC-3 is also a promising target molecule for HCC gene therapy since it may play a crucial role in cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion and it may mediate oncogenesis and oncogenic signaling pathways...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Nobuaki Ozeki, Makio Mogi, Naoko Hase, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Kazuhiko Nakata
Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] induces differentiation of osteoblastic cells. In this study, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSC) to investigate whether MMP-13 activity induced by Poly(P) is associated with osteogenic differentiation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and an MMP-13 activity assay were used in this study. Poly(P) enhanced expression of mature osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osteopontin (SPP1), osterix (OSX), and bone sialoprotein (BSP), and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcification capacity in hAT-MSCs...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Chaohui Xiao, Cheng Wang, Sijie Cheng, Chengcai Lai, Peirui Zhang, Zizheng Wang, Tao Zhang, Shaogeng Zhang, Rong Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common neoplasms. Little progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Studies have increasingly found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the regulation of the occurrence and development of HCC. To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of lncRNA in HCC, the current study examined 25 lncRNAs with differing levels of expression (according to the fold change) in microarray databases. Expression of LINC RP1130-1 was found to be markedly down-regulated in 51 HCC tissues compared to matching adjacent non-tumor liver tissues...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Chengwei Niu, Yuchen Sheng, Enyuan Zhu, Lili Ji, Zhengtao Wang
The rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, traditionally used to treat thyroid disease and cancer in China, is reported to induce serious liver injury during clinical practice. Diosbulbin B (DB), a diterpene lactone, has been found to be the main toxic compound in D. bulbifera. The present study aims to investigate the protection of ferulic acid (FA) against DB-induced acute liver injury and its engaged mechanism. Mice were orally administered FA (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) once daily for 6 consecutive days; and then orally given DB (250 mg/kg) on the last day...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Hang Yu, Lijie Wang, Zhen Wu, Zhen Yang
Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) is a minimally invasive treatment for severe emphysema, providing treatment options for patients who are unable to undergo lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or lung transplantation. Current BLVR techniques include bronchoscopic volume reduction with valve implants, use of a lung volume reduction coil (LVRC), bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA), biological lung volume reduction (BioLVR), and use of airway bypass stents (ABS). To date, several randomized controlled trials of these bronchoscopic therapies have been conducted in patients with emphysema, and bronchoscopic volume reduction with valve implants remains the best approach thus far...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Danni Wang, Guangliang Mei, Xiaoru Xu, Ran Zhao, Ying Ma, Ren Chen, Xia Qin, Zhi Hu
HIV/AIDS is a major public health and social problem worldwide, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an irreplaceable role in HIV/AIDS prevention and control. At the present time, however, NGOs have not fully participated in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in China. As an emerging focus on international academic inquiry, social capital can provide a new perspective from which to promote the growth of NGOs. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommends creating regional policies tailored to multiple and varying epidemics of HIV/AIDS...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Jian Wu, Li Yao, Bing Wang, Zhen Liu, Keyong Ma
The aim of this study was to corroborate the hypothesis that Tao-Hong-Si-Wu Decoction (THSWD) affects steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) by regulating the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathway. Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC group), a model group (SANFH group), a THSWD group, and a dimethyloxalylglycine group (DMOG group). Rabbits in the SANFH group were injected with both horse serum and methylprednisolone. Rabbits in the THSWD group were gavaged with THSWD in addition to receiving the same treatment as the SANFH group...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Wei Li, Xu Li, Xin Xin, Peng-Cheng Kan, Yan Yan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions and presents an increasing clinical challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal survival and proliferation. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression level of BDNF was detected in serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), and hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Xia Xue, Fang Chen, Anxin Liu, Deqing Sun, Jing Wu, Feng Kong, Yun Luan, Xianjun Qu, Rongmei Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a clinical obstacle to cancer chemotherapy since it causes cancer recurrence and metastasis. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active ingredient derived from the plant Boswellia serrata, has been found to inhibit the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells, including glioma, colorectal cancer, leukemia, human melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer cells. However, the actions of AKBA in multidrug-resistant cancer cells have not been fully elucidated...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Ho-Geun Kwak, Naoshi Dohmae
Various histones, including testis-specific histones, exist during spermatogenesis and some of them have been reported to play a key role in chromatin remodeling. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based characterization has become the important step to understand histone structures. Although individual histones or partial histone variant groups have been characterized, the comprehensive analysis of histone variants has not yet been conducted in the mouse testis. Here, we present the comprehensive separation and characterization of histone variants from mouse testes by a top-down approach using MS...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Xuemin Qiu, Yuyan Gui, Na Zhang, Yingping Xu, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Osteoimmunology is a new discipline that focuses on the interaction between the bones and the immune system. Immune cells play an important role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD) on lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow to explore the potential role on the bone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+BSNXD, and OVX+ estrogen. The sham and OVX groups were treated with saline, the OVX+BSNXD group was treated with BSNXD, and the OVX+ estrogen group was treated with estrogen...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Jufeng Xia, Yoshinori Inagaki, Peipei Song, Tatsuo Sawakami, Norihiro Kokudo, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Wei Tang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is a sophisticated and time-honored form of healthcare in China. Many TCMs are widely used to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis C in countries like China, Japan, and South Korea. Since conventional clinical preparations like interferon-α cause obvious dose-dependent adverse reactions and drug resistance, TCMs and related bioactive compounds have garnered increasing attention from physicians and medical researchers...
November 15, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Zhenhua Wu, Yujuan Qi, Zhigang Guo, Peijun Li, Ding Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators in both biological and pathological processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the effect of miR-613 on I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and its molecular mechanism of action. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, but these effects were attenuated by an miR-613 mimic. Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) was identified as a target gene of miR-613...
September 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Jufeng Xia, Yoshinori Inagaki, Tatsuo Sawakami, Peipei Song, Yulong Cai, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi Akimitsu, Wei Tang, Norihiro Kokudo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent cancer with a high mortality rate and HCC is always accompanied with a hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, unlike many other types of cancers. Over the past few years, cancer-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and virus-related lncRNAs have attracted the attention of many researchers, and a number of previous studies have examined the relationship between lncRNAs and various cancers and viruses. The current study used The Cancer Genome Atlas database to screen for lncRNAs up-regulated in HCC in order to identify cancer biomarkers...
September 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
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