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Bioscience Trends

Wenqi Chu, Yixiong Zhou, Qi Tang, Min Wang, Yongjia Ji, Jingjing Yan, Dan Yin, Shuye Zhang, Hongzhou Lu, Jiayin Shen
Our goal is to develop a switch-controlled approach to enable better control of reactivity and safety of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lentiviral transduction was performed to generate anti-FITC CAR-T cells and target cells stably expressing either isoform of the folate receptor. Colorimetric-based cytotoxic assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and multiparametric flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the specificity and activity of CAR-T cells in vitro...
June 14, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Lisha Li, Yan Wang, Na Zhang, Yang Zhang, Jing Lin, Xuemin Qiu, Yuyan Gui, Feifei Wang, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Skeletal homeostasis is dynamically influenced by the immune system. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5) is a co-receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, which modulates bone metabolism in humans and mice. Immune disorders can lead to abnormal bone metabolism. It is unclear whether and how LRP5 alters the balance of the immune system to modulate bone homeostasis. In this study, we used primary osteoblast to detect the differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro, the immune cells of spleen and bone marrow of 6-month old LRP5 heterozygote (HZ) and wild-type (WT) mice were analyzed by Flow cytometry...
June 14, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Kohsuke Saito, Syohto Hazama, Yoshiki Oda, Munehiro Nakata
The current study found that an extract from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus exhibited hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells when its pH was lowered. Although hemolytic activity was not detected when an extract had a neutral pH, an extract with a low pH exhibited potent hemolytic activity. The maximal hemolytic activity was exhibited by an extract with a pH of 5.5. A heat-treated extract did not exhibit hemolytic activity before its pH was lowered, and that activity was inhibited in the presence of PMSF and EDTA...
May 29, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Toshiro Seki, Asuka Miyamoto, Shino Ohshima, Yusuke Ohno, Atsushi Yasuda, Yutaka Tokuda, Kiyoshi Ando, Yoshie Kametani
The humanized mouse system is a promising tool for analyzing human immune responses in vivo. Recently, we developed a new humanized mouse system using the severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγnull (NOG)-hIL-4-Tg mouse, which enabled us to evaluate the human humoral immune response after peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transplantation. However, the mechanism by which hIL-4 enhances antigen-specific IgG production in these mice is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between human lymphocyte subsets and the expression level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to clarify the humoral immune condition in human PBMC-transplanted NOG-hIL-4 mice...
May 28, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Fanghua Qi, Jinjing Wang, Lin Zhao, Pingping Cai, Wei Tang, Zhixue Wang
Cinobufacini, an aqueous extract from the skins and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, is a well known traditional Chinese medicine widely used in clinical cancer therapy in China. Its therapeutic effect is especially pronounced in liver cancer. However, the precise mechanisms induced by cinobufacini in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are still not very clear. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of cinobufacini on inhibiting HepG2 cells invasion and metastasis...
May 22, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yan Liu, Xiongyao Wang, Hong Chang, Xiaoming Gao, Chongyang Dong, Zimu Li, Jingtao Hao, Jiuhe Wang, Qiaoling Fan
Hormone replacement medicine such as traditional Chinese medicine has proven to be effective in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis. Mongolian medicine echinops prevents osteoporosis, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism underlying echinops prevents and treats postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis model was established by ovariectomy in rats. Rats were treated to Echinops (16.26, 32.5, or 65 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 3 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was detected by micro-CT detection of left proximal medial metaphyseal tibia...
May 22, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Xinyu Li, Yan Wang, Kun Wang, Yonggui Wu
Paeoniflorin is the main bioactive components of the root of P.lactiflora Pall., and has been widely used as an anti-inflammation and immunomodulatory agent. However, the effect and mechanisms of Paeoniflorin in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice model was used to investigate the protective effect of Paeoniflorin and the role of the Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer (STAT) 3 signaling pathway on DN. After treatment with Paeoniflorin at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks, both the functional and histological damage to diabetic mice kidney had been attenuated significantly...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Lu Chang, Fang Ye, Quehua Luo, Zewen Wang, Yimin Wang, Zhengyuan Xia, Haihua Shu
Both local infiltration analgesia (LIA) and nerve block are common analgesic modalities for pain relief after surgery. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of those two modalities on pain behavior and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of perioperative fentanyl induced hyperalgesia. Rats were injected with fentanyl (60 μg/kg) 4 times and received a plantar incision after the second injection or they received pre-incision LIA and sciatic nerve block (SNB) or post-incision LIA with levobupivacaine (0...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Xiaoguang Yang, Shenglan Tang, Gavin Yamey, Xu Qian
China has made impressive achievements in improving maternal and child health (MCH) over the past few decades. This paper uses a policy lens to examine reasons for these achievements as well as barriers to further success. We found that strong governmental commitment and leadership, effective coordination, proactive participation of different stakeholders, and the provision of adequate resources were associated with China's success in improving MCH outcomes. Other low- and middle-income countries can learn valuable lessons from China's experience...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Zhen Wang, Jianhui Wu, Ang Lv, Chengpeng Li, Zhongwu Li, Min Zhao, Chunyi Hao
This study sought to evaluate the infiltration tendency of retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS) from a new pathological angle by exploring the infiltration characteristics, which could provide helpful information to facilitate surgical decision-making and prognosis prediction. Concurrently, we aim to identify significant indicators of infiltration. A total of 61 consecutive patients with RPLS at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received extended surgery. The tumor infiltration characteristics and influencing factors were studied based on the pathological diagnosis...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Jinfeng Qian, Na Zhang, Jing Lin, Caiyan Wang, Xinyao Pan, Lanting Chen, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
The aim of the current study was to determine the pattern of immune cells and related functional molecules in peripheral blood and at the maternal-fetal interface in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). In part I, 155 women were included and divided into four groups: non-pregnant controls with no history of URSA (NPCs), pregnant controls with no history of URSA (PCs), non-pregnant women with a history of URSA (NPUs), and pregnant women with a history of URSA (PUs). Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Cuirong Zhao, Chao Wang, Chengwu Shen, Qian Wang
Fee for services (FFS) is the prevailing method of payment in most Chinese public hospitals. Under this retrospective payment system, medical care providers are paid based on medical services and tend to over-treat to maximize their income, thereby contributing to rising medical costs and uncontrollable health expenditures to a large extent. Payment reform needs to be promptly implemented to move to a prospective payment plan. The diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based case-mix payment system, with its superior efficiency and containment of costs, has garnered increased attention and it represents a promising alternative...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Xiao Chang, Kang Lu, Ling Wang, Min Lv, Wenjun Fu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main cardiac complications among diabetic patients. According to previous studies, the pathogenesis of DCM is associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis and proliferation of local cardiac cells. It showed, NRG1 can improve the function of mitochondria, and thereby, increasing proliferation and decreasing apoptosis of cardiac muscle cell via ErbB/AKT signaling, also, exert antioxidative function. Besides, NRG1/ErbB pathway was impaired in the DCM model which suggested this signaling played key role in DCM...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Rong Chen, Ping Xu, Fen Li, Peipei Song
In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models...
May 13, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Hidechika Akashi, Miwa Ishioka, Akiko Hagiwara, Rumiko Akashi, Yasuyo Osanai
Providing a continuum of care (CoC) is important strategy for improving maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH). Japan's current very low maternal and infant mortality rates suggest that its CoC for MNCH is good. In this paper, we attempt to clarify how CoC and low mortality rates are being maintained in Japan, by examining the entire MNCH service provision system. First, we examine two important tools for integrated service provision, the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and registration of pregnant women with local governments, both introduced in 1942...
March 18, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Kyoko Sudo, Jun Kobayashi, Shinichiro Noda, Yoshiharu Fukuda, Kenzo Takahashi
Elderly care is an emerging global issue threatening both developed and developing countries. The elderly in Japan increased to 26.7% of the population in 2015, and Japan is classified as a super-aged society. In this article, we introduce the financial aspects of the medical care and welfare services policy for the elderly in Japan. Japan's universal health insurance coverage system has been in place since 1961. Long-term care includes welfare services, which were separated from the medical care insurance scheme in 2000 when Japan was already recognized as an aging society...
March 18, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
March 18, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yoshie Kametani, Yuko Yamada, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Kato, Kenji Ishiwata, Naohiro Watanabe, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The in vivo model of pollinosis has been established using rodents, but the model cannot completely mimic human pollinosis. We used Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset (CM), to establish a pollinosis animal model using intranasal weekly administration of cedar pollen extract with cholera toxin adjuvant. Some of the treated CMs exhibited the symptoms of snitching, excess nasal mucus and/or sneezing, but the period was very short, and the symptoms disappeared after several weeks. The CD4+CD25+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood increased in CMs quickly after the nasal administration of cedar pollen extract, but the timing was not parallel with the symptoms...
March 18, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Na Zhang, Yang Zhang, Jing Lin, Xuemin Qiu, Lanting Chen, Xinyao Pan, Youhui Lu, Jiali Zhang, Yan Wang, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Postmenopausal osteoporosis affected most elderly women with co-existence of lipid and bone metabolism disorders. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the parallel progression and cross-talk of these systems remained unclear. In the present study, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/- ) mice were chosen to elucidate the effect of LDLR in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts, which were responsible for bone formation and modulation of osteoclastogenesis. Primary osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarium of newborn LDLR-/- or wild-type mice followed by osteoblastic differentiation culture in vitro...
January 9, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yuyan Wu, Guiming Fu, Song Guo, Ling Ye, Juan Hou, Jinna Wang, Zhenyu Gong
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has spread throughout Asia, including China, South Korea, and Japan. In China, the main victims of SFTS were farmers. Measures to protect farmers were urgently needed but limited, and health education and promotion was proposed as an option. A pilot community trial was conducted to provide health education about SFTS in 2013 in Daishan County, Zhejiang Province, China, and results indicated that health education had promise. An educational campaign was conducted for three years...
January 9, 2018: Bioscience Trends
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