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Bioscience Trends

Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yuko Yamada, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Kato, Kenji Ishiwata, Naohiro Watanabe, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The in vivo model of pollinosis has been established using rodents, but the model cannot completely mimic human pollinosis. We used Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset (CM), to establish a pollinosis animal model using intranasal weekly administration of cedar pollen extract with cholera toxin adjuvant. Some of the treated CMs exhibited the symptoms of snitching, excess nasal mucus and/or sneezing, but the period was very short, and the symptoms disappeared after several weeks. The CD4+CD25+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood increased in CMs quickly after the nasal administration of cedar pollen extract, but the timing was not parallel with the symptoms...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Na Zhang, Yang Zhang, Jing Lin, Xuemin Qiu, Lanting Chen, Xinyao Pan, Youhui Lu, Jiali Zhang, Yan Wang, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Postmenopausal osteoporosis affected most elderly women with co-existence of lipid and bone metabolism disorders. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the parallel progression and cross-talk of these systems remained unclear. In the present study, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice were chosen to elucidate the effect of LDLR in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts, which were responsible for bone formation and modulation of osteoclastogenesis. Primary osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarium of newborn LDLR-/- or wild-type mice followed by osteoblastic differentiation culture in vitro...
December 19, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Yuyan Wu, Guiming Fu, Song Guo, Ling Ye, Juan Hou, Jinna Wang, Zhenyu Gong
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has spread throughout Asia, including China, South Korea, and Japan. In China, the main victims of SFTS were farmers. Measures to protect farmers were urgently needed but limited, and health education and promotion was proposed as an option. A pilot community trial was conducted to provide health education about SFTS in 2013 in Daishan County, Zhejiang Province, China, and results indicated that health education had promise. An educational campaign was conducted for three years...
December 19, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Hiroshi Okada, Mitsuko Onda, Masaki Shoji, Naoki Sakane, Yasushi Nakagawa, Takashi Sozu, Yui Kitajima, Ross T Tsuyuki, Takeo Nakayama
The COMmunity Pharamcists ASSist for Blood Pressure (COMPASS-BP) study aimed to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle support programs administered in community pharmacies on hypertension control. This open-label, two-armed parallel group, cluster-randomized controlled trial included 73 pharmacies (clusters) in Japan randomized to a control or intervention group. Eligible hypertensive patients (n = 125), aged 20-75 years, received the intervention (n = 64) or the control treatment (n = 61), as dictated by their pharmacy randomization...
December 18, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Zen'ichiro Wajima, Toshiya Shiga, Kazuyuki Imanaga
Plethysmographic variability index (PVI) is a dynamic index used for the purpose of fluid responsiveness in patients, and the effect of pneumoperitoneum on PVI is still unclear. We therefore attempted to determine whether PVI and perfusion index (PI) change before/after pneumoperitoneum in patients receiving combined epidural and general anesthesia, which is a common anesthesia method with intravenous remifentanil. Twenty patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colectomy. Immediately before pneumoperitoneum, variables were measured at baseline I and were then measured every min for 5 min after pneumoperitoneum start...
December 18, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Xiaoge Gao, Chen Zheng, Xiangye Liu
The obligate intracellular bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an acute febrile tick-borne disease. A. phagocytophilum has a complex lifecycle within both vertebrate reservoirs and tick vectors, and employs a range of different molecules to infect and multiply within the host cells. Enolase is an essential glycolytic enzyme in intracellular glucose metabolism, but is also a multifunctional protein expressed on the pathogen surface, that binds to and promotes plasminogen conversion to plasmin...
December 17, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Yasuhiko Sugawara, Taizo Hibi
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a widespread public health concern and many people are infected with HCV. HCV is one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HCV have changed the course of chronic HCV infection, however, making it a curable disease. DAA treatment may be initiated before or after liver transplantation. In the present review, we present the available data on DAA treatment of HCV in liver transplant recipients.
December 14, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Shuyong Wei
Great achievements have been made in human cancer research, but most of this research is focused on conditions at the microscopic rather than the systemic level. Recent studies have increasingly cited the ancient Chinese theory of yin-yang in an effort to expand beyond the microscopic level. Various cancer-associated genes and proteins such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, p53, c-Myc, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, NF-κB, Cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cells such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and fibroblasts have been reported to regulate various types of cancers in a yin-yang manner...
December 14, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Changying Wang, Fen Li, Linan Wang, Wentao Zhou, Bifan Zhu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Lingling Ding, Zhimin He, Peipei Song, Chunlin Jin
This study shed light on the amount and structure of utilization and medical expenses on Shanghai permanent residents based on big data, simulated lifetime medical expenses through combining of expenses data and life table model, and explored the dynamic pattern of aging on medical expenditures. 5 years were taken as the class interval, the study collected and did the descriptive analysis on the medical services utilization and medical expenses information for all ages of Shanghai permanent residents in 2015, simulated lifetime medical expenses by using current life table and cross-section expenditure data...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Kyoko Nakamura, Osamu Muraoka
We developed electrolyzed water (EW) using carbon electrodes and investigated the ability of the developed EW to inhibit the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We observed that EW-containing media inhibited HeLa cell proliferation. Many very small black dots were produced in EW and these were associated with the inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. Furthermore, the very small black dots that could inhibit cell proliferation were produced only at pH 3 to 3.5 of EW. Additional experiments showed that this inhibition of proliferation is reversible...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Jiangbo Bao, Qi Tang, Yingyao Chen
By the end of 2014, China had an elderly population age 60 or over totaling 212 million; this group accounted for 15.5% of the country's total population of 1.37 billion, which means that China has passed the threshold for an aging population. As China's population ages and the disease spectrum changes, nursing services for the elderly must be expanded. Given differences in the health status, financial situation, and family composition of each elderly person, modern society is tending towards individual nursing care for the elderly...
November 30, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Toshitaka Sugawara, Junichi Shindoh, Yujiro Nishioka, Masaji Hashimoto
The ratio of the bilirubin concentration in abdominal drainage fluid to the serum bilirubin concentration (d-Bil/s-Bil) has been used as a predictor of biliary fistula (BF) formation after hepatobiliary surgery. The d-Bil/s-Bil ratio is highly influenced by the amount of drainage and is not always reliable, especially when the amount of drainage is large. In this study, the usefulness of the d-Bil/s-Bil ratio and total bilirubin amount in the drainage fluid (TBA) (bilirubin concentration in the drainage fluid x the amount of drainage) as predictors of severe BF (sBF) formation was evaluated retrospectively from the data of 306 patients who had undergone hepatobiliary surgery...
November 20, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Qiwei Guo, Yanjun Si, Mi Su, Mei Fan, Jia Lin, Nazakat H Memon, Dingzhi Fang
To explain the inconsistent relationship between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) rs7552841 and plasma lipids profiles, we hypothesized that interplays might occur among gender, PCSK9 rs7552841 and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on plasma lipids levels. To test this hypothesis, a population of 704 Chinese Han high school students was used, which had been recruited after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. In this population, the plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) had been measured by routine methods...
October 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Yoshikuni Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Daisuke Ito, Kyoji Ito, Junichi Arita, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Junichi Kaneko, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Kyoji Moriya, Norihiro Kokudo
Effective adjuvant therapies have not been established for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study aimed to determine prognostic influence of statin against HCC recurrence after initial resection. From 2003 to 2013, 734 patients underwent initial HCC resection. Exposure to statins was defined as the use at the recommended daily dosage for > 90 days after surgery. Outcomes were compared between patients who did and did not receive statins. Of 734 patients, 31 (4.2%) received statins for dyslipidemia (statin group) and 703 (95...
October 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Jie Zhang, Kazumitsu Nawata
Worldwide, influenza is estimated to result in approximately 3 to 5 million annual cases of severe illness and approximately 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. We need an accurate time-series model to predict the number of influenza patients. Although time-series models with different time lags as feature spaces could lead to varied accuracy, past studies simply adopted a time lag in their models without comparing or selecting an appropriate number of time lags. We investigated the performance of adopting 6 different time lags in 6 different models: Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest (RF), Gradient Boosting (GB), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) with hyperparameter adjustment...
October 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Haiyin Wang, Chunlin Jin, Qingwu Jiang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of China's medical system. Due to the prolonged low price of TCM procedures and the lack of an effective mechanism for dynamic price adjustment, the development of TCM has markedly lagged behind Western medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need to enhance the development of alternative and traditional medicine when creating national health care systems. The establishment of scientific and appropriate mechanisms to adjust the price of medical procedures in TCM is crucial to promoting the development of TCM...
October 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Kyu Im Ahn, Eun Ok Choi, Da He Kwon, Hyun HwangBo, Min Yeong Kim, Hong Jae Kim, Seon Yeong Ji, Su-Hyun Hong, Jin-Woo Jeong, Cheol Park, Nam Deuk Kim, Wun Jae Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
Citrus unshiu peel has been used to prevent and treat various diseases in traditional East-Asian medicine including in Korea. Extracts of C. unshiu peel are known to have various pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. Although the possibility of their anti-cancer activity has recently been reported, the exact mechanisms in human cancer cells have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of C. unshiu peel (EECU) on the growth of human bladder cancer T24 cells was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was investigated...
October 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Xiaoqiong Peng, Wei Qian, Jiangang Hou
This report aims to evaluate the usefulness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided Mohs surgery resection of penile-scrotal extramammary Paget's disease for achieving maximum tumor resection. Between January 2014 and December 2015, 5 patients underwent surgical resection of a penile-scrotal extramammary Paget's disease in department of urology, Huashan hospital, Fudan University. All patients were coated with 5-ALA (concentration of 20%) throughout the scrotum and the visible range of the lesion plus a 2cm margin 3 hours before the induction of anesthesia...
October 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Kun Yin, Chao Xu, Gui-Hua Zhao, Ye Liu, Ting Xiao, Song Zhu, Ge Yan
C35 is a novel tumor biomarker associated with metastasis progression. To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Full length C35 sequences were subcloned using RT-PCR from cDNA template extracted from T47D cells. Based on functional domain analysis, the full-length C351-348bp was also truncated into two fragments C351-153bp and C35154-348bp to avoid auto-activation...
October 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
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