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Bioscience Trends

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216517/simultaneous-resection-for-colorectal-cancer-with-synchronous-liver-metastases-is-a-safe-procedure-outcomes-at-a-single-center-in-turkey
#1
Ender Dulundu, Wafi Attaallah, Metin Tilki, Cumhur Yegen, Safak Coskun, Mumin Coskun, Aylin Erdim, Eda Tanrikulu, Samet Yardimci, Omer Gunal
The optimal surgical strategy for treating colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases is subject to debate. The current study sought to evaluate the outcomes of simultaneous colorectal cancer and liver metastases resection in a single center. Prospectively collected data on all patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases who underwent simultaneous resection with curative intent were analyzed retrospectively. Patient outcomes were compared depending on the primary tumor location and type of liver resection (major or minor)...
February 17, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190795/progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-functions-of-ddx3y-dby-in-male-germ-cell-development-and-maintenance
#2
Alexei A Kotov, Oxana M Olenkina, Baira K Godneeva, Vladimir E Adashev, Ludmila V Olenina
Human DDX3 paralogs are housed on the X chromosome (DDX3X) as well as in the non- recombining region Yq11 of the Y-chromosome (DDX3Y or DBY). A gene encoding RNA helicase DDX3Y is located in the AZoospermia Factor a (AZFa) region of the Y-chromosome and expressed only in male germ cells. Deletions encompassing the DDX3Y gene lead to azoospermia and cause Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome (SCOS) in humans. SCOS is characterized by a complete germ cell lack with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. This review summarizes current advances in the study of DDX3Y functions in maintenance and development of early male germ cells...
February 12, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179601/regulation-of-ras-signaling-and-function-by-plasma-membrane-microdomains
#3
Lawrence E Goldfinger, James V Michael
Together H-, N- and KRAS mutations are major contributors to ~30% of all human cancers. Thus, Ras inhibition remains an important anti-cancer strategy. The molecular mechanisms of isotypic Ras oncogenesis are still not completely understood. Monopharmacological therapeutics have not been successful in the clinic. These disappointing outcomes have led to attempts to target elements downstream of Ras, mainly targeting either the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) or Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways...
February 7, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179600/an-ethanol-extract-of-aster-yomena-kitam-honda-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-raw-264-7-macrophages
#4
Hye-Joo Kang, Ji-Suk Jeong, No-Jin Park, Geun-Bae Go, Sung Ok Kim, Cheol Park, Byung Woo Kim, Su-Hyun Hong, Yung Hyun Choi
Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine for centuries to treat cough, asthma, insect bites, etc. Recent reports indicate that A. yomena possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities; however, few experiments have described its anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of A. yomena leaves (EEAY) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with EEAY significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as nitric oxide and interleukin-1β, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
February 7, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179599/the-immune-dysfunction-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients
#5
Zhongliang Duan, Yuyan Gui, Cui Li, Jing Lin, Hans-Jürgen Gober, Juanxiu Qin, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a spinal arthritic disease that is often associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, while only part of HLA-B27 carriers become AS patients. T cells have been reported to play an important role in the pathology of AS. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have been known to negatively regulate the immune response. In this study, we used flow cytometry to analyze the immunological differences of peripheral bloodfrom 21 patients with AS, 22 cases who didn't have AS but were found to be HLA-B27 positive (HLA-B27+ group), and 16 normal healthy individuals (Healthy group)...
February 7, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154246/steering-of-carcinoma-progression-by-the-yin-yang-interaction-of-stat1-stat3
#6
Karlheinz Friedrich, Helmut Dolznig, Xiaonan Han, Richard Moriggl
STAT1/STAT3 transcription factors are important regulators for development of normal, infected or inflammed cells. They are also critically involved in the progression of various malignant tumours, including epithelial-derived carcinomas. Here, we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) insights for STAT1/3, where controversial functions for STAT3 were reported. For a long time STAT3 has been regarded as a driver of tumour malignancy and its activation was associated with negative clinical outcome. In contrast, STAT1 was generally viewed as an independent tumour suppressor and positive prognostic marker...
February 2, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154245/role-of-trpv-channels-in-regulating-various-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-functions-lessons-from-in-vitro-studies
#7
Marek Skrzypski, Maria Billert, Stefan Mergler, Noushafarin Khajavi, Krzysztof W Nowak, Mathias Z Strowski
Pancreatic β-cell functions are regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors. Calcium is one of the most potent triggers of β-cell growth, insulin production and exocytosis. Recently, others and we showed that TRPV channels are expressed in insulin producing cell lines and/or primary β-cells. These channels modulate calcium ions, insulin secretion and cell proliferation. Besides the classical roles of TRPV channels in the sensory system, there are also novel functions described in non-excitable cells such as in insulin-producing β-cells...
February 2, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154340/yangjing-capsule-extract-promotes-proliferation-of-gc-1-spg-cells-via-up-regulated-pou3f1-pathway
#8
Baofang Jin, Bin Cai, Dalin Sun, Xindong Zhang, Yugui Cui, Weimin Deng, Chao Gao
As is similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the Yangjing Capsule (YC) extract could also lead to proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) by stimulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway; however, the regulatory effect of YC extract on the expression of POU3F1 still remains unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether the transcription factor POU3F1 is up-regulated by YC extract through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to regulate SSCs survival and proliferation...
January 31, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133000/progress-of-research-on-micrornas-with-diagnostic-value-in-asbestos-exposure-a-call-for-method-standardization
#9
Luigina Micolucci, Maria Rita Rippo, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Domenico Procopio
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an insidious, lethal asbestos-related cancer that is poorly responsive to current treatments. Specific and sensitive biomarkers providing early MM diagnosis in exposed subjects, who are at high-risk of developing it, are sorely needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs with a well-established diagnostic role in cancer and pollution exposure. In a recent systematic review and qualitative meta-analysis followed by a functional investigation, we examined all the available data on the miRNA biomarkers involved in asbestos exposure and MM pathways...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132999/trends-and-characteristics-of-all-cause-mortality-among-hiv-infected-inpatients-during-the-haart-era-2006-2015-in-shanghai-china
#10
Yongjia Ji, Zhenyan Wang, Jiayin Shen, Jun Chen, Junyang Yang, Tangkai Qi, Wei Song, Yang Tang, Li Liu, Yinzhong Shen, Renfang Zhang, Hongzhou Lu
Globally, the overall mortality rate among HIV-infected patients has significantly declined during the HAART era. Deaths among HIV-infected inpatients need to be characterized in order to formulate intervention strategies to further improve medical care for this population and their prognosis. In the current study, deaths among HIV-infected inpatients from 2006 to 2015 at a medical center for HIV infection and AIDS patient care in Shanghai, China were retrospectively analyzed. Trends in mortality rates and the proportion of deaths caused by AIDS or non-AIDS-related illnesses were evaluated...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132998/end-of-life-care-bonus-promoting-end-of-life-care-in-nursing-homes-an-11-year-retrospective-longitudinal-prefecture-wide-study-in-japan
#11
Sho Nishiguchi, Nagisa Sugaya, Kentaro Sakamaki, Shunsaku Mizushima
The end-of-life (EOL) care bonus introduced by the Japanese government works as a financial incentive and framework of quality preservation, including advance care planning, for EOL care among nursing home residents. This study aims to clarify the effects of the EOL care bonus in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. A longitudinal observational study using a questionnaire was conducted. We invited 378 nursing homes in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, a region with a rapidly aging population, to participate in the study...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123147/to-a-better-understanding-of-the-giardial-enth-protein-function
#12
Constanza Feliziani, María C Touz
Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains are present at the N-terminus of either the epsin or epsin-related (epsinR) proteins. These proteins have been involved in clathrin-mediated trafficking and are critical for membrane deformation at the site of vesicle budding. While more than one type of these proteins have been described in many eukaryotic cells, the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia contains only one member of this ENTH-protein family. In the last two years, four works have been published showing that this giardial protein might play diverse functions...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123146/intesive-fludarabine-high-dose-cytarabine-idarubicin-combination-as-induction-therapy-with-risk-adapted-consolidation-may-improve-treatment-efficacy-in-younger-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-patients-rationales-evidences-and-future-perspectives
#13
Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Marino Clavio, Maurizio Miglino, Roberto Massimo Lemoli, Marco Gobbi
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the commonest form of leukemia in the adults, with an incidence of 3-4 cases per 100,000 people/year. After the first description of the effective cytarabine + antracycline (3+7) induction regimen, in the last 3 decades, no effective targeted drug has been included in the standard treatment of AML. Many efforts of modifying 3+7 adding a third drug or increasing the dose of anthracycline, cytarabine or both did not lead to substantial improvements, mainly due to increased toxicity...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111379/knocking-down-tcf8-inhibits-high-glucose-and-angiotensin-ii-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-podocytes
#14
Changhuan Bai, Shumei Liang, Yunshan Wang, Bo Jiao
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological phenomenon in mammalian embryogenesis by which epithelial cells become mesenchymal stem cells. Studies have indicated that an inappropriate EMT plays a key role in a variety of pathogenic processes such as embryonic development and tumor metastasis. Moreover, recent studies have indicated EMT also plays an important role in renal fibrosis. In the current study, glucose and angiotensin II promoted EMT in podocytes as well as changes in the cellular morphology of podocytes...
January 22, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100890/research-progress-on-the-direct-antiviral-drugs-for-hepatitis-c-virus
#15
Jianjun Gao, Chuanxia Ju
Hepatitis C, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation, is a severe threat to human health. Pegylated interferon α (INF-α) and ribavirin based therapy was once the standard therapy for HCV infection. However, it is suboptimal in efficacy and poorly tolerated in some patients. In the last five years, four classes of direct antiviral drugs (NAAs) that target non-structural proteins (NS) of the virus including NS3/NS4A, NS5A, and NS5B have been developed and opened a new era in HCV treatment as they are more effective and tolerable than the INF-α and ribavirin combination regimen...
January 19, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049883/neuron-specific-splicing
#16
Nor Hakimah Ab Hakim, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, Hitoshi Suzuki, Toshifumi Tsukahara
During pre-mRNA splicing events, introns are removed from the pre-mRNA, and the remaining exons are connected together to form a single continuous molecule. Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. More than 90% of human genes are known to undergo alternative splicing. The most common type of alternative splicing is exon skipping, which is also known as cassette exon. Other known alternative splicing events include alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, and mutually exclusive exons...
December 31, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025459/tgp-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-regulates-the-expression-of-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-in-the-kidneys-of-diabetic-rats
#17
Yunxia Shao, Xiangming Qi, Xinxing Xu, Kun Wang, Yonggui Wu, Lingling Xia
Recent evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-inflammation chain contributes to diabetic renal injury. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether total glucosides of peony (TGP) could inhibit ERS and attenuate up-regulation of TXNIP in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. TGP was orally administered daily at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphor- eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and TXNIP was assessed...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003635/effects-of-stat3-inhibitors-on-neural-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#18
Meng Cui, Xinlong Ma, Jie Sun, Jinquan He, Lin Shen, Fangguo Li
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can induce primary and secondary injury, resulting in severe neurological damage and dysfunction in patients. Studies have reported that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the inflammatory immune response and neural stem cell differentiation. In order to examine whether a STAT3 inhibitor can prevent worsening of an SCI and promote neural stem cell differentiation, a rat model of surgically induced SCI was created and rats were treated with the STAT3 inhibitor S31-201...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990005/ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation
#19
Yuki Oya, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Takehisa Watanabe, Yoko Yoshimaru, Masaki Honda, Shintaro Hashimoto, Daiki Yoshii, Kaori Isono, Shintaro Hayashida, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Motohiko Tanaka, Yutaka Sasaki, Yukihiro Inomata
Management of recurrent hepatitis C following liver transplantation still remains a challenge. Here, we report five patients who achieved viral responses following combined treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. All the patients received tacrolimus for immunosuppression. No dose adjustment was made before the ledipasvir and sofosbuvir therapy. All completed the intended 12-week treatment course with the full dose of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. There were no significant adverse events greater than grade 2...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990004/endoscopic-and-surgical-ampullectomy-for-non-invasive-ampullary-tumors-short-term-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Margaux Dubois, Ismail Labgaa, Gian Dorta, Nermin Halkic
Non-invasive ampullary tumors, may be treated with endoscopic (EA) or surgical ampullectomy (SA). However, evidence on the morbidity of these techniques remains limited. This pilot study aimed to assess and compare morbidity of EA and SA. Patients undergoing EA or SA for non-invasive ampullary tumors were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Outcomes were postoperative complications graded with Clavien Classification and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI), and length of stay (LoS). A review of the literature was performed to propose an evidence-based algorithm to treat ampullary tumors...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
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