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Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443019/control-and-dysregulation-of-redox-signalling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
REVIEW
Eric L Campbell, Sean P Colgan
Redox signalling in the gastrointestinal mucosa is held in an intricate balance. Potent microbicidal mechanisms can be used by infiltrating immune cells, such as neutrophils, to protect compromised mucosae from microbial infection through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Unchecked, collateral damage to the surrounding tissue from neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species can be detrimental; thus, maintenance and restitution of a breached intestinal mucosal barrier are paramount to host survival. Redox reactions and redox signalling have been studied for decades with a primary focus on contributions to disease processes...
November 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429586/tales-from-the-crypt-new-insights-into-intestinal-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Helmuth Gehart, Hans Clevers
The intestinal epithelium withstands continuous mechanical, chemical and biological insults despite its single-layered, simple epithelial structure. The crypt-villus tissue architecture in combination with rapid cell turnover enables the intestine to act both as a barrier and as the primary site of nutrient uptake. Constant tissue replenishment is fuelled by continuously dividing stem cells that reside at the bottom of crypts. These cells are nurtured and protected by specialized epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche...
November 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429585/new-pathways-in-development-of-liver-cancer
#3
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413781/hiv-and-the-liver
#4
Naichaya Chamroonkul, Meena B Bansal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390018/bioelectric-neuromodulation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders-effectiveness-and-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Sophie C Payne, John B Furness, Martin J Stebbing
The gastrointestinal tract has extensive, surgically accessible nerve connections with the central nervous system. This provides the opportunity to exploit rapidly advancing methods of nerve stimulation to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Bioelectric neuromodulation technology has considerably advanced in the past decade, but sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence currently remains the only neuromodulation protocol in general use for a gastrointestinal disorder. Treatment of other conditions, such as IBD, obesity, nausea and gastroparesis, has had variable success...
November 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375507/mechanosensing-regulates-liver-growth
#6
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361614/enterocyte-zonation-along-the-intestinal-villus-reveals-a-division-of-labour
#7
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333527/use-of-hepatitis-c-viraemic-organs-in-kidney-transplantation-a-need-to-hit-the-pause-button
#8
Allison J Kwong, Norah A Terrault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262901/you-are-what-you-eat-diet-health-and-the-gut-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
Niv Zmora, Jotham Suez, Eran Elinav
Since the renaissance of microbiome research in the past decade, much insight has accumulated in comprehending forces shaping the architecture and functionality of resident microorganisms in the human gut. Of the multiple host-endogenous and host-exogenous factors involved, diet emerges as a pivotal determinant of gut microbiota community structure and function. By introducing dietary signals into the nexus between the host and its microbiota, nutrition sustains homeostasis or contributes to disease susceptibility...
September 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250076/apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-the-liver-a-matter-of-life-and-death
#10
REVIEW
Robert F Schwabe, Tom Luedde
Cell death represents a basic biological paradigm that governs outcomes and long-term sequelae in almost every hepatic disease condition. Acute liver failure is characterized by massive loss of parenchymal cells but is usually followed by restitution ad integrum. By contrast, cell death in chronic liver diseases often occurs at a lesser extent but leads to long-term alterations in organ architecture and function, contributing to chronic hepatocyte turnover, the recruitment of immune cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells...
September 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237516/hepatitis-b
#11
Fabien Zoulim, Massimo Levrero, Barbara Testoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214038/mechanisms-by-which-gut-microorganisms-influence-food-sensitivities
#12
REVIEW
Alberto Caminero, Marlies Meisel, Bana Jabri, Elena F Verdu
Finely tuned mechanisms enable the gastrointestinal tract to break down dietary components into nutrients without mounting, in the majority of cases, a dysregulated immune or functional host response. However, adverse reactions to food have been steadily increasing, and evidence suggests that this process is environmental. Adverse food reactions can be divided according to their underlying pathophysiology into food intolerances, when, for instance, there is deficiency of a host enzyme required to digest the food component, and food sensitivities, when immune mechanisms are involved...
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185915/inflammasomes-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-infection-cancer-and-gut-microbiota-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Si Ming Man
Inflammasome signalling is an emerging pillar of innate immunity and has a central role in the regulation of gastrointestinal health and disease. Activation of the inflammasome complex mediates both the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and the execution of a form of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. In most cases, these mediators of inflammation provide protection against bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. However, unchecked inflammasome activities perpetuate chronic inflammation, which underpins the molecular and pathophysiological basis of gastritis, IBD, upper and lower gastrointestinal cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity...
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158571/gut-microbiome-microbial-metabolites-and-the-development-of-nafld
#14
Cyrielle Caussy, Rohit Loomba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158570/the-changing-epidemiology-of-liver-diseases-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#15
REVIEW
Martin C S Wong, Jason L W Huang, Jacob George, Junjie Huang, Colette Leung, Mohammed Eslam, Henry L Y Chan, Siew C Ng
This Review presents current epidemiological trends of the most common liver diseases in Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the primary cause of cirrhosis; despite declining prevalence in most Asian nations, this virus still poses a severe threat in some territories and regions. Mortality resulting from HBV infection is declining as a result of preventive measures and antiviral treatments. The epidemiological transition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has varied in the region in the past few decades, but the medical burden of infection and the prevalence of its related cancers are increasing...
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323319/obesity-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-the-interrelationship-of-adipose-and-tumour-microenvironments
#16
REVIEW
Jacintha O'Sullivan, Joanne Lysaght, Claire L Donohoe, John V Reynolds
Increasing recognition of an association between obesity and many cancer types exists, but how the myriad of local and systemic effects of obesity affect key cellular and non-cellular processes within the tumour microenvironment (TME) relevant to carcinogenesis, tumour progression and response to therapies remains poorly understood. The TME is a complex cellular environment in which the tumour exists along with blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, signalling molecules and the extracellular matrix...
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323318/decoding-hepatocyte-ploidy
#17
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323317/a-gut-brain-neural-connection-for-rapid-nutrient-sensing
#18
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315311/obesity-and-gastrointestinal-cancers-where-do-we-go-from-here
#19
Marc J Gunter, Elio Riboli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315310/intestinal-homeostasis-is-reliant-on-self-maintaining-macrophages
#20
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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