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Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811675/biomarkers-matching-mutations-to-immunotherapy-response
#1
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#2
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790454/in-the-news
#3
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790453/perianal-fistulizing-crohn-s-disease-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Julián Panés, Jordi Rimola
Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease has a major negative effect on patient quality of life and is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease include an increased production of transforming growth factor β, TNF and IL-13 in the inflammatory infiltrate that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases, leading to tissue remodelling and fistula formation. Care of patients with perianal Crohn's disease requires a multidisciplinary approach...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790452/a-clinician-s-guide-to-microbiome-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Marcus J Claesson, Adam G Clooney, Paul W O'Toole
Microbiome analysis involves determining the composition and function of a community of microorganisms in a particular location. For the gastroenterologist, this technology opens up a rapidly evolving set of challenges and opportunities for generating novel insights into the health of patients on the basis of microbiota characterizations from intestinal, hepatic or extraintestinal samples. Alterations in gut microbiota composition correlate with intestinal and extraintestinal disease and, although only a few mechanisms are known, the microbiota are still an attractive target for developing biomarkers for disease detection and management as well as potential therapeutic applications...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790451/liver-seeding-bioartificial-livers
#6
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765583/liver-cancer-translating-omics-results-into-precision-medicine-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Daniela Sia, Josep M Llovet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765582/pancreatic-cancer-biomarkers-for-the-early-detection-of-pdac
#8
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743983/liver-cholangiocytes-regenerate-hepatocytes-during-severe-liver-injury
#9
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743982/oesophageal-cancer-rna-editing-of-slc22a3-mrnas-causative-relevance-to-familial-escc
#10
Kazuko Nishikura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743984/gut-microbiota-and-ibd-causation-or-correlation
#11
REVIEW
Josephine Ni, Gary D Wu, Lindsey Albenberg, Vesselin T Tomov
A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. Moreover, evidence from these experimental models suggest that although gut bacteria often drive immune activation, chronic inflammation in turn shapes the gut microbiota and contributes to dysbiosis...
July 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743981/nafld-type-2-immunity-drives-progression-of-nafld
#12
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698664/regenerative-medicine-bioengineering-the-common-bile-duct
#13
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698663/medical-devices-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Phong Ching Lee, John Dixon
Obesity is a major public health concern that leads to numerous metabolic, mechanical and psychological complications. Although lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone of obesity management, subsequent physiological neurohormonal adaptations limit weight loss, strongly favour weight regain and counteract sustained weight loss. A range of effective therapies are therefore needed to manage this chronic relapsing disease. Bariatric surgery delivers substantial, durable weight loss but limited access to care, perceived high risks and costs restrict uptake...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698662/the-extracellular-matrix-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-a-regenerative-medicine-platform
#15
REVIEW
George S Hussey, Timothy J Keane, Stephen F Badylak
The synthesis and secretion of components that constitute the extracellular matrix (ECM) by resident cell types occur at the earliest stages of embryonic development, and continue throughout life in both healthy and diseased physiological states. The ECM consists of a complex mixture of insoluble and soluble functional components that are arranged in a tissue-specific 3D ultrastructure, and it regulates numerous biological processes, including angiogenesis, innervation and stem cell differentiation. Owing to its composition and influence on embryonic development, as well as cellular and organ homeostasis, the ECM is an ideal therapeutic substrate for the repair of damaged or diseased tissues...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676708/ibd-to-switch-or-not-to-switch-that-is-the-biosimilar-question
#16
Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676707/the-gut-microbiome-and-liver-cancer-mechanisms-and-clinical-translation
#17
REVIEW
Le-Xing Yu, Robert F Schwabe
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality. HCC almost exclusively develops in patients with chronic liver disease, driven by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation and regeneration that typically spans decades. Increasing evidence points towards a key role of the bacterial microbiome in promoting the progression of liver disease and the development of HCC. Here, we will review mechanisms by which the gut microbiota promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on the leaky gut, bacterial dysbiosis, microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial metabolites as key pathways that drive cancer-promoting liver inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity...
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655884/intestinal-lymphatic-vasculature-structure-mechanisms-and-functions
#18
REVIEW
Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Tatiana V Petrova
The mammalian intestine is richly supplied with lymphatic vasculature, which has functions ranging from maintenance of interstitial fluid balance to transport of antigens, antigen-presenting cells, dietary lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this Review, we provide in-depth information concerning the organization and structure of intestinal lymphatics, the current view of their developmental origins, as well as molecular mechanisms of intestinal lymphatic patterning and maintenance. We will also discuss physiological aspects of intestinal lymph flow regulation and the known and emerging roles of intestinal lymphatic vessels in human diseases, such as IBD, infection and cancer...
June 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611479/nafld-pnpla3-and-obesity-a-synergistic-relationship-in-nafld
#19
Jake P Mann, Quentin M Anstee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676712/nafld-increased-familial-risk-of-fibrosis-in-nafld
#20
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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