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Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006594/iec-mitophagy-promotes-anti-tumour-immunity
#1
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002476/inherited-pancreatic-cancer-risk
#2
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991816/gut-microbiota-a-new-way-to-take-your-vitamins
#3
João Carlos Gomes-Neto, June L Round
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985452/balance-of-stresses-guides-metastasis
#4
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973676/the-elusive-case-of-human-intraepithelial-t-cells-in-gut-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Lisanne Lutter, David P Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eelco C Brand, Bas Oldenburg, Femke van Wijk
The epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal tract is home to numerous intraepithelial T cells (IETs). IETs are functionally adapted to the mucosal environment and are among the first adaptive immune cells to encounter microbial and dietary antigens. They possess hallmark features of tissue-resident T cells: they are long-lived nonmigratory cells capable of rapidly responding to antigen challenges independent of T cell recruitment from the periphery. Gut-resident T cells have been implicated in the relapsing and remitting course and persisting low-grade inflammation of chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including IBD and coeliac disease...
July 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973675/t-cells-in-coeliac-disease-a-rational-target-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#6
Melinda Y Hardy, Jason A Tye-Din
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970888/adiposity-and-gastrointestinal-cancers-epidemiology-mechanisms-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Neil Murphy, Mazda Jenab, Marc J Gunter
Excess adiposity is a risk factor for several cancers of the gastrointestinal system, specifically oesophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal, small intestine, pancreatic, liver, gallbladder and stomach cancers. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in nearly all regions of the world, this relationship could represent a growing source of cancers of the digestive system. Experimental and molecular epidemiological studies indicate important roles for alterations in insulin signalling, adipose tissue-derived inflammation and sex hormone pathways in mediating the association between adiposity and gastrointestinal cancer...
July 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955157/ingestible-biosensors-for-gastrointestinal-diagnosis
#8
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934558/microbiota-modulate-ens-maturation
#9
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930260/new-treatments-and-therapeutic-targets-for-ibs-and-other-functional-bowel-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Magnus Simrén, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are a spectrum of disorders characterized by combinations of symptoms attributable to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Most current first-line therapies for IBS and other FBDs target the predominant symptom and mainly affect one symptom in the symptom complex. Additional broadly effective treatment alternatives targeting the entire symptom complex are needed. New drugs for FBDs (such as lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, prucalopride, eluxadoline and rifaximin) target key mechanisms in the pathophysiology of these disorders and improve both the abnormal bowel habit and other key symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating...
June 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904153/mouse-models-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-overview-and-highlights-for-immunotherapy-research
#11
REVIEW
Zachary J Brown, Bernd Heinrich, Tim F Greten
Mouse models are the basis of preclinical and translational research in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple methods exist to induce tumour formation in mice, including genetically engineered mouse models, chemotoxic agents, intrahepatic or intrasplenic injection of tumour cells and xenograft approaches. Additionally, as HCC generally develops in the context of diseased liver, methods exist to induce liver disease in mice to mimic viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, alcohol-induced liver disease and cholestasis...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875470/reverse-engineering-the-serrated-neoplasia-pathway-using-crispr-cas9
#12
Arne Bleijenberg, Evelien Dekker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875469/wireless-optogenetic-control-of-gut-motility
#13
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872118/clinical-measurement-of-gastrointestinal-motility-and-function-who-when-and-which-test
#14
REVIEW
Mark R Fox, Peter J Kahrilas, Sabine Roman, C Prakash Gyawali, S Mark Scott, Satish S Rao, Jutta Keller, Michael Camilleri
Symptoms related to abnormal gastrointestinal motility and function are common. Oropharyngeal and oesophageal dysphagia, heartburn, bloating, abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits are among the most frequent reasons for seeking medical attention from internists or general practitioners and are also common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons. However, the nonspecific nature of gastrointestinal symptoms, the absence of a definitive diagnosis on routine investigations (such as endoscopy, radiology or blood tests) and the lack of specific treatments make disease management challenging...
June 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844588/noninvasive-biomarkers-in-nafld-and-nash-current-progress-and-future-promise
#15
REVIEW
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Leon A Adams, Victor de Lédinghen, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Silvia Sookoian
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of the global adult population and is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the active form of NAFLD, with hepatic necroinflammation and faster fibrosis progression. With an increasing number of patients developing NASH-related end-stage liver disease and pharmacological treatments on the horizon, there is a pressing need to develop NAFLD and NASH biomarkers for prognostication, selection of patients for treatment and monitoring...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844587/mitochondrial-function-gatekeeper-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Eva Rath, Antonio Moschetta, Dirk Haller
The intestinal epithelium is a multicellular interface in close proximity to a dense microbial milieu that is completely renewed every 3-5 days. Pluripotent stem cells reside at the crypt, giving rise to transient amplifying cells that go through continuous steps of proliferation, differentiation and finally anoikis (a form of programmed cell death) while migrating upwards to the villus tip. During these cellular transitions, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) possess distinct metabolic identities reflected by changes in mitochondrial activity...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844586/liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-gatekeepers-of-hepatic-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Shishir Shetty, Patricia F Lalor, David H Adams
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) line the low shear, sinusoidal capillary channels of the liver and are the most abundant non-parenchymal hepatic cell population. LSECs do not simply form a barrier within the hepatic sinusoids but have vital physiological and immunological functions, including filtration, endocytosis, antigen presentation and leukocyte recruitment. Reflecting these multifunctional properties, LSECs display unique structural and phenotypic features that differentiate them from the capillary endothelium present within other organs...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844585/gut-microbiota-mediated-inflammation-in-obesity-a-link-with-gastrointestinal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Patrice D Cani, Benedicte F Jordan
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of developing metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, besides these metabolic diseases, excess body weight is also associated with different cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers, such as liver, pancreatic and colon cancers. Inflammation is a common feature of both obesity and cancer; however, the origin of this inflammation has been largely debated. Over the past decade, growing evidence has shown that the composition of the gut microbiota and its activity might be associated not only with the onset of inflammation but also with metabolic disorders and cancer...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789682/the-role-of-diet-in-the-aetiopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785003/publisher-correction-the-gut-liver-axis-and-the-intersection-with-the-microbiome
#20
Anupriya Tripathi, Justine Debelius, David A Brenner, Michael Karin, Rohit Loomba, Bernd Schnabl, Rob Knight
In the original version of Table 1 published online, upward arrows to indicate increased translocation of PAMPs were missing from the row entitled 'Translocation' for both the column on alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This error has now been updated in the PDF and HTML version of the article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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