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Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214038/mechanisms-by-which-gut-microorganisms-influence-food-sensitivities
#1
REVIEW
Alberto Caminero, Marlies Meisel, Bana Jabri, Elena F Verdu
Finely tuned mechanisms enable the gastrointestinal tract to break down dietary components into nutrients without mounting, in the majority of cases, a dysregulated immune or functional host response. However, adverse reactions to food have been steadily increasing, and evidence suggests that this process is environmental. Adverse food reactions can be divided according to their underlying pathophysiology into food intolerances, when, for instance, there is deficiency of a host enzyme required to digest the food component, and food sensitivities, when immune mechanisms are involved...
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214037/senescence-prevents-regeneration-after-acute-liver-injury
#2
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194448/exploring-human-gastric-cancers-through-organoid-culture
#3
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185916/the-metabolic-role-of-vagal-afferent-innervation
#4
REVIEW
T M Zaved Waise, Helen J Dranse, Tony K T Lam
The regulation of energy and glucose balance contributes to whole-body metabolic homeostasis, and such metabolic regulation is disrupted in obesity and diabetes. Metabolic homeostasis is orchestrated partly in response to nutrient and vagal-dependent gut-initiated functions. Specifically, the sensory and motor fibres of the vagus nerve transmit intestinal signals to the central nervous system and exert biological and physiological responses. In the past decade, the understanding of the regulation of vagal afferent signals and of the associated metabolic effect on whole-body energy and glucose balance has progressed...
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185915/inflammasomes-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-infection-cancer-and-gut-microbiota-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Si Ming Man
Inflammasome signalling is an emerging pillar of innate immunity and has a central role in the regulation of gastrointestinal health and disease. Activation of the inflammasome complex mediates both the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and the execution of a form of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. In most cases, these mediators of inflammation provide protection against bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. However, unchecked inflammasome activities perpetuate chronic inflammation, which underpins the molecular and pathophysiological basis of gastritis, IBD, upper and lower gastrointestinal cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity...
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181611/gut-adaptation-after-metabolic-surgery-and-its-influences-on-the-brain-liver-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Piriyah Sinclair, Donal J Brennan, Carel W le Roux
Metabolic surgery is the best treatment for long-term weight loss maintenance and comorbidity control. Metabolic operations were originally intended to change anatomy to alter behaviour, but we now understand that the anatomical changes can modulate physiology to change behaviour. They are no longer considered only mechanically restrictive and/or malabsorptive procedures; rather, they are considered metabolic procedures involving complex physiological changes, whereby gut adaptation influences signalling pathways in several other organs, including the liver and the brain, regulating hunger, satiation, satiety, body weight, glucose metabolism and immune functions...
September 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181610/endocannabinoids-counterbalance-intestinal-inflammation
#7
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158571/gut-microbiome-microbial-metabolites-and-the-development-of-nafld
#8
Cyrielle Caussy, Rohit Loomba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158570/the-changing-epidemiology-of-liver-diseases-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#9
REVIEW
Martin C S Wong, Jason L W Huang, Jacob George, Junjie Huang, Colette Leung, Mohammed Eslam, Henry L Y Chan, Siew C Ng
This Review presents current epidemiological trends of the most common liver diseases in Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the primary cause of cirrhosis; despite declining prevalence in most Asian nations, this virus still poses a severe threat in some territories and regions. Mortality resulting from HBV infection is declining as a result of preventive measures and antiviral treatments. The epidemiological transition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has varied in the region in the past few decades, but the medical burden of infection and the prevalence of its related cancers are increasing...
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158569/energy-balance-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk-interventions-outcomes-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Cornelia M Ulrich, Caroline Himbert, Andreana N Holowatyj, Stephen D Hursting
Obesity increases the risk of multiple gastrointestinal cancers and worsens disease outcomes. Conversely, strong inverse associations have emerged between physical activity and colon cancer and possibly other gastrointestinal malignancies. The effect of weight loss interventions - such as modifications of diet and/or physical activity or bariatric surgery - remains unclear in patients who are obese and have gastrointestinal cancer, although large clinical trials are underway. Human intervention studies have already shed light on potential mechanisms underlying the energy balance-cancer relationship, with preclinical models supporting emerging pathway effects...
August 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127489/immunotherapy-responsive-gastric-cancers-identified
#11
Peter Sidaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069036/neuroimmunophysiology-of-the-gut-advances-and-emerging-concepts-focusing-on-the-epithelium
#12
REVIEW
Keith A Sharkey, Paul L Beck, Derek M McKay
The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract serves as the interface for digestion and absorption of nutrients and water and as a defensive barrier. The defensive functions of the intestinal epithelium are remarkable considering that the gut lumen is home to trillions of resident bacteria, fungi and protozoa (collectively, the intestinal microbiota) that must be prevented from translocation across the epithelial barrier. Imbalances in the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the host lead to the manifestation of diseases that range from disorders of motility and sensation (IBS) and intestinal inflammation (IBD) to behavioural and metabolic disorders, including autism and obesity...
August 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061595/open-data-informatics-and-data-repurposing-for-ibd
#13
Vivek A Rudrapatna, Atul J Butte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046146/organoidomics-falling-star-or-new-galaxy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Thomas Seufferlein, Alexander Kleger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026556/novel-perspectives-in-the-management-of-decompensated-cirrhosis
#15
REVIEW
Mauro Bernardi, Paolo Caraceni
The current approaches to the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis are based on targeted strategies aimed at preventing or treating specific complications of the disease. The improved knowledge of the pathophysiological background of advanced cirrhosis, represented by a sustained systemic inflammation strictly linked to a circulatory dysfunction, provides a novel paradigm for the management of these patients, with the ambitious target of modifying the course of the disease by preventing the onset of complications and multiorgan failure; these interventions will eventually improve patients' quality of life, prolong survival and reduce health-care costs...
July 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013103/gut-microbiota-as-gatekeeper-of-anti-tumour-responses-in-the-liver
#16
Timon E Adolph, Herbert Tilg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991816/gut-microbiota-a-new-way-to-take-your-vitamins
#17
João Carlos Gomes-Neto, June L Round
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973676/the-elusive-case-of-human-intraepithelial-t-cells-in-gut-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Lisanne Lutter, David P Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eelco C Brand, Bas Oldenburg, Femke van Wijk
The epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal tract is home to numerous intraepithelial T cells (IETs). IETs are functionally adapted to the mucosal environment and are among the first adaptive immune cells to encounter microbial and dietary antigens. They possess hallmark features of tissue-resident T cells: they are long-lived nonmigratory cells capable of rapidly responding to antigen challenges independent of T cell recruitment from the periphery. Gut-resident T cells have been implicated in the relapsing and remitting course and persisting low-grade inflammation of chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including IBD and coeliac disease...
July 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973675/t-cells-in-coeliac-disease-a-rational-target-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
Melinda Y Hardy, Jason A Tye-Din
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970888/adiposity-and-gastrointestinal-cancers-epidemiology-mechanisms-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Neil Murphy, Mazda Jenab, Marc J Gunter
Excess adiposity is a risk factor for several cancers of the gastrointestinal system, specifically oesophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal, small intestine, pancreatic, liver, gallbladder and stomach cancers. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in nearly all regions of the world, this relationship could represent a growing source of cancers of the digestive system. Experimental and molecular epidemiological studies indicate important roles for alterations in insulin signalling, adipose tissue-derived inflammation and sex hormone pathways in mediating the association between adiposity and gastrointestinal cancer...
July 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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