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Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899816/bariatric-surgery-for-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-state-of-the-art
#1
REVIEW
Ninh T Nguyen, J Esteban Varela
Obesity is one of the most important public health conditions worldwide. Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is an effective treatment that results in the improvement and remission of many obesity-related comorbidities, as well as providing sustained weight loss and improvement in quality of life. Contemporary bariatric operations include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band and the duodenal switch. The vast majority of these procedures are now performed using laparoscopic technique, the main advantages of which include rapid recovery, the reduction of postoperative pain and the reduction of wound-related complications, compared with open surgery...
November 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899815/obesity-in-ibd-epidemiology-pathogenesis-disease-course-and-treatment-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh, Parambir S Dulai, Amir Zarrinpar, Sonia Ramamoorthy, William J Sandborn
Incidence of IBD is rising in parallel with overweight and obesity. Contrary to conventional belief, about 15-40% of patients with IBD are obese, which might contribute to the development of IBD. Findings from cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies are conflicting on the effect of obesity on natural history and course of IBD. Most studies are limited by small sample size, low event rates, non-validated assessment of disease activity and lack robust longitudinal follow-up and have incomplete adjustment for confounding factors...
November 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899814/neurogastroenterology-engineering-human-intestinal-organoids-with-a-functional-ens
#3
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876769/gastrointestinal-aspects-of-vasculitides
#4
REVIEW
Medha Soowamber, Adam V Weizman, Christian Pagnoux
Systemic vasculitides are caused by inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any organ and any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatic and biliary system, as well as the pancreas. These disorders can cause a wide array of gastrointestinal manifestations, from asymptomatic elevated transaminase levels and mild abdominal pain to potentially life-threatening bowel perforations and peritonitis. A diagnosis based solely on gastrointestinal symptoms is challenging as these manifestations are not specific...
November 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876768/gut-microbiota-culturomics-illuminating-microbial-dark-matter
#5
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848963/steatohepatitis-parp-inhibition-protective-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-nash
#6
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848962/the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-a-therapeutic-target
#7
REVIEW
Matthew A Odenwald, Jerrold R Turner
A fundamental function of the intestinal epithelium is to act as a barrier that limits interactions between luminal contents such as the intestinal microbiota, the underlying immune system and the remainder of the body, while supporting vectorial transport of nutrients, water and waste products. Epithelial barrier function requires a contiguous layer of cells as well as the junctions that seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Compromised intestinal barrier function has been associated with a number of disease states, both intestinal and systemic...
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848961/diet-microorganisms-and-their-metabolites-and-colon-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Stephen J D O'Keefe
Colorectal cancer is one of the so-called westernized diseases and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. On the basis of global epidemiological and scientific studies, evidence suggests that the risk of colorectal cancer is increased by processed and unprocessed meat consumption but suppressed by fibre, and that food composition affects colonic health and cancer risk via its effects on colonic microbial metabolism. The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes...
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848960/endoscopy-chromoendoscopy-in-ibd-indispensable-in-real-life-screening
#9
Raja Atreya, Markus F Neurath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826139/nafld-the-clinical-and-economic-burden-of-nafld-time-to-turn-the-tide
#10
Manal F Abdelmalek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826138/infection-modulation-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-dietary-zinc
#11
Anna M Seekatz, Vincent B Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826137/imaging-in-pancreatic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Julien Dimastromatteo, Teresa Brentnall, Kimberly A Kelly
Pancreatic diseases, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus, taken together, occur in >10% of the world population. Pancreatic diseases, as with other diseases, benefit from early intervention and appropriate diagnosis. Although imaging technologies have given clinicians an unprecedented toolbox to aid in clinical decision-making, advances in these technologies and development of molecular-based diagnostic tools could enable physicians to identify diseases at an even earlier stage and, thereby, improve patient outcomes...
November 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807372/pancreatitis-cigarette-smoke-factor-aggravates-pancreatitis
#13
Charlotte Ridler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807371/cancer-therapy-for-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases-understanding-resistance
#14
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807370/role-of-endoscopy-in-early-oesophageal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Jayan Mannath, Krish Ragunath
Incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased exponentially in the West over the past few decades. Following detection of advanced cancers, 5-year survival rates remain bleak, making identification of early neoplasia, which has a better outcome, important. Detection of subtle oesophageal lesions during endoscopy can be challenging, and advanced imaging techniques might improve their detection. High-definition endoscopy has become a standard in most endoscopy centres, and this technology probably provides better delineation of mucosal features than standard-definition endoscopy...
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780973/colorectal-cancer-crc-endothelial-regulation
#16
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780971/patient-optimization-for-surgery-relating-to-crohn-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kamal V Patel, Amir A Darakhshan, Nyree Griffin, Andrew B Williams, Jeremy D Sanderson, Peter M Irving
The majority of patients with Crohn's disease require abdominal surgery during their lifetime, some of whom will require multiple operations. Postoperative complications are seen more frequently in patients requiring abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease than in patients requiring abdominal surgery for other conditions. In this article, we review the evidence supporting preoperative optimization, discussing strategies that potentially improve surgical outcomes and reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756919/problems-with-extracellular-recording-of-electrical-activity-in-gastrointestinal-muscle
#19
REVIEW
Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward, Grant W Hennig
Motility patterns of the gastrointestinal tract are important for efficient processing of nutrients and waste. Peristalsis and segmentation are based on rhythmic electrical slow waves that generate the phasic contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility. Slow waves are generated and propagated actively by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events conduct to smooth muscle cells to elicit excitation-contraction coupling. Extracellular electrical recording has been utilized to characterize slow-wave generation and propagation and abnormalities that might be responsible for gastrointestinal motility disorders...
October 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756918/radiotherapy-pharmacological-quiescence-for-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#20
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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