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Nature Reviews. Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621341/the-gentle-art-of-saying-no-how-nitric-oxide-gets-things-done-in-the-hypothalamus
#1
REVIEW
Konstantina Chachlaki, John Garthwaite, Vincent Prevot
The chemical signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO), which freely diffuses through aqueous and lipid environments, subserves an array of functions in the mammalian central nervous system, such as the regulation of synaptic plasticity, blood flow and neurohormone secretion. In this Review, we consider the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NO evokes short-term and long-term changes in neuronal activity. We also highlight recent studies showing that discrete populations of neurons that synthesize NO in the hypothalamus constitute integrative systems that support life by relaying metabolic and gonadal signals to the neuroendocrine brain, and thus gate the onset of puberty and adult fertility...
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621338/adipose-tissue-crosstalk-between-adipocytes-and-neurons
#2
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621337/diabetes-sglt2-inhibitors-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-growing-concern
#3
Guillermo E Umpierrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621340/reproductive-endocrinology-elagolix-in-endometriosis
#4
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621339/hepatokines-linking-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance
#5
REVIEW
Ruth C R Meex, Matthew J Watt
Hepatic steatosis is an underlying feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most common form of liver disease and is present in up to ∼70% of individuals who are overweight. NAFLD is also associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and low levels of HDL, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hepatic steatosis is a strong predictor of the development of insulin resistance and often precedes the onset of other known mediators of insulin resistance. This sequence of events suggests that hepatic steatosis has a causal role in the development of insulin resistance in other tissues, such as skeletal muscle...
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621336/obesity-sweetener-associated-with-increased-adiposity-in-young-adults
#6
Susan E Swithers, Jane Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621335/in-the-news-ece2017-highlights-from-the-meeting
#7
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574058/gut-microbiota-trust-your-gut-metformin-and-diabetes
#8
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549063/food-addiction-and-obesity-unnecessary-medicalization-of-hedonic-overeating
#9
REVIEW
Graham Finlayson
The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549061/central-hypothyroidism-a-neglected-thyroid-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Giulia Rodari, Claudia Giavoli, Andrea Lania
Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524171/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Charles E Foulds, Lindsey S Treviño, Brian York, Cheryl L Walker
A growing epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is paralleling the increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in countries that consume a Western diet. As NAFLD can lead to life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, an understanding of the factors that trigger its development and pathological progression is needed. Although by definition this disease is not associated with alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental agents that have been linked to other diseases might have a role in the development of NAFLD...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524168/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#12
REVIEW
Angel Nadal, Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Rubén Nogueiras, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena
Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497813/warming-the-mouse-to-model-human-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Kirthana Ganeshan, Ajay Chawla
Humans prefer to live within their thermal comfort or neutral zone, which they create by making shelters, wearing clothing and, more recently, by regulating their ambient temperature. These strategies enable humans to maintain a constant core temperature (a trait that is conserved across all endotherms, including mammals and birds) with minimal energy expenditure. Although this primordial drive leads us to seek thermal comfort, we house our experimental animals, laboratory mice (Mus musculus), under conditions of thermal stress...
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429780/insulin-analogues-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-getting-better-all-the-time
#14
REVIEW
Chantal Mathieu, Pieter Gillard, Katrien Benhalima
The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387318/comparative-analysis-of-nutritional-guidelines-for-vitamin-d
#15
REVIEW
Roger Bouillon
Vitamin D is essential for calcium and bone homeostasis. Humans are largely dependent on UVB-radiation-induced photosynthesis of vitamin D, as few foods contain vitamin D. However, the same radiation that produces vitamin D is also carcinogenic, albeit with a long lag time, and causes DNA damage. In view of the increasing life expectancy, avoiding excessive sun exposure is prudent. Several groups of people have a shortfall between their requirements for vitamin D and their combined endogenous synthesis and intake from natural foods, and therefore need vitamin D supplementation...
April 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361929/metabolism-liver-and-adipose-tissue-control-uridine-biosynthesis
#16
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574059/adipose-tissue-fsh-antibody-prevents-obesity-and-loss-of-bone
#17
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549062/reproductive-endocrinology-cycling-through-the-menstrual-cycle-an-out-of-body-experience
#18
Donald E Ingber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549060/breast-cancer-increased-risk-with-concurrent-dietary-and-edc-exposures
#19
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524170/thyroid-disease-potential-new-therapy-for-ophthalmopathy
#20
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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