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Nature Reviews. Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420622/pcsk9-inhibitors-clinical-evidence-and-implementation
#1
REVIEW
Marc S Sabatine
The gene encoding PCSK9 was first identified and linked to the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolaemia approximately 15 years ago. Soon after, studies uncovered the role of PCSK9 in the regulation of LDL-receptor recycling and identified loss-of-function variants of PCSK9 that were associated with low circulating levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. With amazing rapidity, monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 were developed and studied in large clinical programmes...
November 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410107/the-role-of-b-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Andrew P Sage, Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Christoph J Binder, Ziad Mallat
The cardiovascular system is subject to hyperlipidaemic, inflammatory, and pro-oxidant stressors. Over time, these factors drive prevalent chronic diseases, of which atherosclerosis is most prominent and accounts for the majority of deaths globally. Antibody-producing B cells perform a unique role in responses to stress, injury, and infection. The power, inducibility, and adaptability of the antibody repertoire require an equally complex range of control measures. Defects and chronic perturbations in these checkpoints lead to inappropriate antibody responses, which might have important roles in shaping the development and outcome of atherosclerotic disease...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410106/short-sleep-duration-and-cardiometabolic-risk-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Eleonora Tobaldini, Elisa M Fiorelli, Monica Solbiati, Giorgio Costantino, Lino Nobili, Nicola Montano
Short sleep duration has a substantial influence on the overall health of an individual. Short sleep time can be a consequence of lifestyle habits, environmental factors, or the presence of a sleep disorder, such as insomnia or sleep-disordered breathing. Short sleep time is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disorders (including coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and hypertension). Several biological mechanisms have been proposed as a possible link between short sleep duration and these diseases, such as involvement of the autonomic nervous system, endothelial function, metabolic regulation, inflammation, and the coagulation system...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410105/dietary-metabolism-the-gut-microbiome-and-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397269/a-new-link-for-heart-failure-and-diabetes
#5
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382167/lipoprotein-a-is-an-independent-predictor-of-cvd
#6
Alexandra Le Bras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375494/safety-and-efficacy-of-statin-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Bhavin B Adhyaru, Terry A Jacobson
The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines on blood cholesterol management were a major shift in the delineation of the main patient groups that could benefit from statin therapy and emphasized the use of higher-intensity statin therapies. In 2016, an expert consensus panel from the ACC recommended the use of nonstatin therapies (ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors) in addition to maximally tolerated statin therapy in individuals whose LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels remained above certain thresholds after statin treatment...
October 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367136/the-expanding-role-of-implantable-devices-to-monitor-heart-failure-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Magdi H Yacoub, Christopher McLeod
The epidemics of heart failure and, to a lesser extent, of pulmonary arterial hypertension continue unabated worldwide and are extremely costly in terms of loss of life and earnings, as well as the burden of health-care expenditure due to repeated hospitalization. The effectiveness of newly discovered therapies for the two conditions depends on their timely application. To date, symptoms have been used to guide the application and timing of therapy. Compelling evidence now exists that symptoms are preceded by several metabolic and haemodynamic changes, particularly a rise in intravascular pressures during exercise...
October 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367135/reply-to-metabolic-remodelling-in-heart-failure-revisited
#9
LETTER
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367134/metabolic-remodelling-in-heart-failure-revisited
#10
LETTER
Miranda Nabben, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367133/gwas-identifies-new-blood-lipid-associated-genetic-variants
#11
Alexandra Le Bras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361497/computational-models-in-cardiology
#12
REVIEW
Steven A Niederer, Joost Lumens, Natalia A Trayanova
The treatment of individual patients in cardiology practice increasingly relies on advanced imaging, genetic screening and devices. As the amount of imaging and other diagnostic data increases, paralleled by the greater capacity to personalize treatment, the difficulty of using the full array of measurements of a patient to determine an optimal treatment seems also to be paradoxically increasing. Computational models are progressively addressing this issue by providing a common framework for integrating multiple data sets from individual patients...
October 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333526/cardiac-lymphatics-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ebba Brakenhielm, Kari Alitalo
The lymphatic vasculature, which accompanies the blood vasculature in most organs, is indispensable in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and nutritional lipid uptake and transport, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport. In this Review, we discuss the physiological role of the lymphatic system in the heart in the maintenance of cardiac health and describe alterations in lymphatic structure and function that occur in cardiovascular pathology, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction...
October 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323278/can-heart-failure-cause-cancer
#14
A Mark Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310151/cardiovascular-benefit-of-albiglutide
#15
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310150/survival-not-improved-by-defibrillator-vest
#16
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310149/benefit-of-the-mitraclip-for-mitral-regurgitation
#17
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287946/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Evangelos K Oikonomou, Charalambos Antoniades
Accumulating knowledge on the biology and function of the adipose tissue has led to a major shift in our understanding of its role in health and disease. The adipose tissue is now recognized as a crucial regulator of cardiovascular health, mediated by the secretion of several bioactive products, including adipocytokines, microvesicles and gaseous messengers, with a wide range of endocrine and paracrine effects on the cardiovascular system. The adipose tissue function and secretome are tightly controlled by complex homeostatic mechanisms and local cell-cell interactions, which can become dysregulated in obesity...
October 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275499/cognitive-dysfunction-in-atrial-fibrillation
#19
REVIEW
Malini Madhavan, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Jonathan P Piccini, Bernard J Gersh
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults, and its incidence and prevalence increase with age. The risk of cognitive impairment and dementia also increases with age, and both AF and cognitive impairment or dementia share important risk factors. In meta-analyses of published studies, AF is associated with a 2.4-fold and 1.4-fold increase in the risk of dementia in patients with or without a history of stroke, respectively. This association is independent of shared risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus...
October 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250166/prevention-of-atherothrombotic-events-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-from-antithrombotic-therapies-to-new-generation-glucose-lowering-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Patti, Ilaria Cavallari, Felicita Andreotti, Paolo Calabrò, Plinio Cirillo, Gentian Denas, Mattia Galli, Enrica Golia, Ernesto Maddaloni, Rossella Marcucci, Vito Maurizio Parato, Vittorio Pengo, Domenico Prisco, Elisabetta Ricottini, Giulia Renda, Francesca Santilli, Paola Simeone, Raffaele De Caterina
Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for a first cardiovascular event and for worse outcomes after a cardiovascular event has occurred. This situation might be caused, at least in part, by the prothrombotic status observed in patients with diabetes. Therefore, contemporary antithrombotic strategies, including more potent agents or drug combinations, might provide greater clinical benefit in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. In this Consensus Statement, our Working Group explores the mechanisms of platelet and coagulation activity, the current debate on antiplatelet therapy in primary cardiovascular disease prevention, and the benefit of various antithrombotic approaches in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes...
September 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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