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Nature Reviews. Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518178/physical-function-and-exercise-training-in-older-patients-with-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Andrew J Stewart Coats, Daniel E Forman, Mark Haykowsky, Dalane W Kitzman, Amy McNeil, Tavis S Campbell, Ross Arena
Heart failure (HF) is a common end point for numerous cardiovascular conditions, including coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and hypertension. HF predominantly affects older individuals (aged ≥70 years), particularly those living in developed countries. The pathophysiological sequelae of HF progression have a substantial negative effect on physical function. Diminished physical function in older patients with HF, which is the result of combined disease-related and age-related effects, has important implications on health...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518177/genetics-smoking-reduces-genetic-protection-against-chd
#2
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518176/seasonal-variations-in-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Simon Stewart, Ashley K Keates, Adele Redfern, John J V McMurray
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) follows a seasonal pattern in many populations. Broadly defined winter peaks and clusters of all subtypes of CVD after 'cold snaps' are consistently described, with corollary peaks linked to heat waves. Individuals living in milder climates might be more vulnerable to seasonality. Although seasonal variation in CVD is largely driven by predictable changes in weather conditions, a complex interaction between ambient environmental conditions and the individual is evident. Behavioural and physiological responses to seasonal change modulate susceptibility to cardiovascular seasonality...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518175/dyslipidaemia-hdl-related-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518174/cardiac-resuscitation-benefit-of-bystander-cpr-and-defibrillation
#5
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492289/peripheral-artery-disease-drug-coated-balloon-superior-to-standard-balloon-angioplasty
#6
Karina Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492288/epidemiology-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#7
REVIEW
Shannon M Dunlay, Véronique L Roger, Margaret M Redfield
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome associated with poor quality of life, substantial health-care resource utilization, and premature mortality. We summarize the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of HFpEF with a focus on community-based studies relevant to quantifying the population burden of HFpEF. Current data regarding the prevalence and incidence of HFpEF in the community as well as associated conditions and risk factors, risk of morbidity and mortality after diagnosis, and quality of life are presented...
May 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492287/dyslipidaemia-pcsk9-inhibitors-and-foamy-monocytes-in-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#8
Huaizhu Wu, Christie M Ballantyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492286/has-the-sprint-trial-introduced-a-new-blood-pressure-goal-in-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, José R Banegas, Pantelis A Sarafidis, Massimo Volpe, Bryan Williams, Luis M Ruilope
SPRINT is the first randomized, controlled trial showing that a systolic blood-pressure goal of <120 mmHg can be attained with cardiovascular benefits in a select group of patients with hypertension and an elevated cardiovascular risk with different origins. Although the patient population with characteristics like those in SPRINT makes up only 20-30% of the total hypertensive population, SPRINT is a landmark study that highlights the need to consider lower blood- pressure goals in the treatment of hypertension...
May 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470179/autoimmune-channelopathies-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-cardiac-arrhythmias
#10
REVIEW
Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Pier Leopoldo Capecchi, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Mohamed Boutjdir
Cardiac arrhythmias confer a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Although coronary artery disease and heart failure are the prevalent causes of cardiac arrest, in 5-15% of patients, structural abnormalities at autopsy are absent. In a proportion of these patients, mutations in genes encoding cardiac ion channels are documented (inherited channelopathies), but, to date, the molecular autopsy is negative in nearly 70% of patients. Emerging evidence indicates that autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias...
May 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447664/efficient-design-of-clinical-trials-and-epidemiological-research-is-it-possible
#11
REVIEW
Michael S Lauer, David Gordon, Gina Wei, Gail Pearson
Randomized clinical trials and large-scale, cohort studies continue to have a critical role in generating evidence in cardiovascular medicine; however, the increasing concern is that ballooning costs threaten the clinical trial enterprise. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the changing landscape of clinical research, and clinical trials in particular, focusing on reasons for the increasing costs and inefficiencies. These reasons include excessively complex design, overly restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria, burdensome regulations, excessive source-data verification, and concerns about the effect of clinical research conduct on workflow...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447662/expert-consensus-document-echocardiography-and-lung-ultrasonography-for-the-assessment-and-management-of-acute-heart-failure
#12
REVIEW
Susanna Price, Elke Platz, Louise Cullen, Guido Tavazzi, Michael Christ, Martin R Cowie, Alan S Maisel, Josep Masip, Oscar Miro, John J McMurray, W Frank Peacock, F Javier Martin-Sanchez, Salvatore Di Somma, Hector Bueno, Uwe Zeymer, Christian Mueller
Echocardiography is increasingly recommended for the diagnosis and assessment of patients with severe cardiac disease, including acute heart failure. Although previously considered to be within the realm of cardiologists, the development of ultrasonography technology has led to the adoption of echocardiography by acute care clinicians across a range of specialties. Data from echocardiography and lung ultrasonography can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy, guide and monitor the response to interventions, and communicate important prognostic information in patients with acute heart failure...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436488/pathology-imaging-and-treatment-of-cardiac-tumours
#13
REVIEW
Joseph J Maleszewski, Nandan S Anavekar, Timothy J Moynihan, Kyle W Klarich
Cardiac tumours are a rare, but often devastating, clinical diagnosis. They encompass a broad set of lesions that include both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. Cardiac tumours are often diagnosed incidentally during work-up for other conditions, or during ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans for unusual or nonspecific symptoms. In the past decade, important changes have been made in the nomenclature and the recommendations for diagnosis of cardiac tumours, as highlighted by the WHO's 2015 revision of the classification of cardiac tumours...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436487/redefining-the-identity-of-cardiac-fibroblasts
#14
REVIEW
Michelle D Tallquist, Jeffery D Molkentin
Cardiac fibroblasts deposit and maintain extracellular matrix during organogenesis and under physiological conditions. In the adult heart, activated cardiac fibroblasts also participate in the healing response after acute myocardial infarction and during chronic disease states characterized by augmented interstitial fibrosis and ventricular remodelling. However, delineation of the characteristics, plasticity, and origins of cardiac fibroblasts is an area of ongoing investigation and controversy. A set of genetic mouse models has been developed that specifically addresses the nature of these cells, in terms of both their origins and their response during cardiac disease and ventricular remodelling...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406184/monocytes-and-macrophages-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#15
REVIEW
Juliette Raffort, Fabien Lareyre, Marc Clément, Réda Hassen-Khodja, Giulia Chinetti, Ziad Mallat
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity, and high mortality in the event of aortic rupture. Major advances in open surgical and endovascular repair of AAA have been achieved during the past 2 decades. However, drug-based therapies are still lacking, highlighting a real need for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AAA formation and progression. The main pathological features of AAA include extracellular matrix remodelling associated with degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and accumulation and activation of inflammatory cells...
April 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383023/demystifying-rotors-and-their-place-in-clinical-translation-of-atrial-fibrillation-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Stanley Nattel, Feng Xiong, Martin Aguilar
Treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice, remains challenging. Improved understanding of underlying mechanisms is needed to improve therapy. Functional re-entry is central to AF maintenance. The first detailed, quantitative theory of functional re-entry, the 'leading circle' model, was developed 40 years ago. Subsequently, an alternative paradigm based on 'spiral waves' has evolved. Spiral-wave generators, or 'rotors', have been identified using advanced mapping methods in experimental and clinical AF...
April 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383022/high-sensitivity-assays-for-troponin-in-patients-with-cardiac-disease
#17
REVIEW
Dirk Westermann, Johannes Tobias Neumann, Nils Arne Sörensen, Stefan Blankenberg
Troponin is a widely used biomarker in patients with cardiac disease. The use of troponin is well established in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but troponin measurement is also used in other acute and nonacute settings. In patients with suspected AMI, early decision-making is crucial to allow rapid treatment and further diagnostic evaluation. Current guidelines recommend serial measurements of troponin with a cut-off concentration at the 99th percentile to triage patients in the emergency department...
April 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361977/myocardial-stress-and-autophagy-mechanisms-and-potential-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Lea M D Delbridge, Kimberley M Mellor, David J Taylor, Roberta A Gottlieb
Autophagy is a ubiquitous cellular catabolic process responsive to energy stress. Research over the past decade has revealed that cardiomyocyte autophagy is a prominent homeostatic pathway, important in adaptation to altered myocardial metabolic demand. The cellular machinery of autophagy involves targeted direction of macromolecules and organelles for lysosomal degradation. Activation of autophagy has been identified as cardioprotective in some settings (that is, ischaemia and ischaemic preconditioning). In other situations, sustained autophagy has been linked with cardiopathology (for example, sustained pressure overload and heart failure)...
March 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#19
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300081/effects-of-dyslipidaemia-on-monocyte-production-and-function-in-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Mohammed Shamim Rahman, Andrew J Murphy, Kevin J Woollard
Monocytes are heterogeneous effector cells involved in the maintenance and restoration of tissue integrity. Monocytes and macrophages are involved in cardiovascular disease progression, and are associated with the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Hyperlipidaemia can accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, monocyte responses to hyperlipidaemia are poorly understood. In the past decade, accumulating data describe the relationship between the dynamic blood lipid environment and the heterogeneous circulating monocyte pool, which might have profound consequences for cardiovascular disease...
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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