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Nature Reviews. Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816237/genetics-human-genome-editing-in-heart-disease
#1
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795689/genetics-from-non-coding-risk-variant-to-biological-mechanism-in-cad
#2
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795688/interventional-and-surgical-occlusion-of-the-left-atrial-appendage
#3
REVIEW
Etem Caliskan, James L Cox, David R Holmes, Bernhard Meier, Dhanunjaya R Lakkireddy, Volkmar Falk, Sacha P Salzberg, Maximilian Y Emmert
With a steadily increasing prevalence, atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia worldwide and an independent risk factor for stroke caused by thromboembolic events. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the primary source of thromboemboli in patients with nonvalvular AF who have a stroke. Novel strategies (such as mechanical and nonpharmacological intervention) targeting the LAA in patients with AF for stroke prevention have become a major focus during the past decade. Some devices for percutaneous LAA occlusion are supported by robust clinical data obtained from randomized trials or large registries, and are a valid alternative to pharmacological stroke prevention...
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795687/antiplatelet-therapy-aspirin-in-the-elderly-tailored-approaches-ahead
#4
Victor Serebruany, Elena Golukhova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795686/hdl-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-genetic-insights-into-complex-biology
#5
REVIEW
Robert S Rosenson, H Bryan Brewer, Philip J Barter, Johan L M Björkegren, M John Chapman, Daniel Gaudet, Daniel Seung Kim, Eric Niesor, Kerry-Anne Rye, Frank M Sacks, Jean-Claude Tardif, Robert A Hegele
Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predict the risk of cardiovascular disease at the epidemiological level, but a direct causal role for HDL in cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Studies in animal models and humans with rare monogenic disorders link only particular HDL-associated mechanisms with causality, including those mechanisms related to particle functionality rather than cholesterol content. Mendelian randomization studies indicate that most genetic variants that affect a range of pathways that increase plasma HDL-C levels are not usually associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, with some exceptions, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein variants...
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748958/new-and-revisited-approaches-to-preserving-the-reperfused-myocardium
#6
REVIEW
Robert A Kloner, David A Brown, Marie Csete, Wangde Dai, James M Downey, Roberta A Gottlieb, Sharon L Hale, Jianru Shi
Early coronary artery reperfusion improves outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but morbidity and mortality after STEMI remain unacceptably high. The primary deficits seen in these patients include inadequate pump function, owing to rapid infarction of muscle in the first few hours of treatment, and adverse remodelling of the heart in the months that follow. Given that attempts to further reduce myocardial infarct size beyond early reperfusion in clinical trials have so far been disappointing, effective therapies are still needed to protect the reperfused myocardium...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748957/management-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-with-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Martin A Alpert, Richard V Milani, Hector O Ventura
The management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with obesity presents numerous challenges. Obesity has a negative effect on almost all of the major CVD risk factors, and adversely influences cardiovascular structure and function. Patients who are overweight or obese have a higher incidence of almost all CVDs compared with patients who are of normal weight. However, those who are overweight or obese seem to have a better short-term and medium-term prognosis after major CVD events and interventional procedures or cardiac surgeries than leaner patients, a phenomenon termed the 'obesity paradox'...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703223/unmasking-the-molecular-link-between-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-brugada-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Javier Moncayo-Arlandi, Ramon Brugada
The intercalated discs that connect cardiomyocytes control cell-to-cell adhesion and communication. Several macromolecular structures (desmosomes, fascia adherens junctions, gap junctions, and sodium-channel complexes) coexist in, and confer their mechanical and electrical properties to, the intercalated disc. Traditionally, each structure was assumed to have a unique function in the intercalated disc. However, growing evidence suggests that these complexes act together in intercellular communication and adhesion, forming a single structural and functional entity - the connexome...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682324/matching-patients-with-the-ever-expanding-range-of-tavi-devices
#9
REVIEW
Brandon M Jones, Amar Krishnaswamy, E Murat Tuzcu, Stephanie Mick, Wael A Jaber, Lars G Svensson, Samir R Kapadia
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a widely accepted strategy for the treatment of aortic stenosis in patients at intermediate, high, or prohibitive surgical risk. After >1 decade of innovation and clinical trial experience, the available technology for TAVI has grown enormously, and now includes a myriad of vascular access approaches and innovative valve designs. As a result, the range of patients who can benefit from these advances continues to grow rapidly. Furthermore, given the improved safety profile and clinical success of current-generation devices in randomized trials, the use of TAVI among even low-risk populations is justified in current trials...
July 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682320/management-of-atrial-high-rate-episodes-detected-by-cardiac-implanted-electronic-devices
#10
REVIEW
Ben Freedman, Giuseppe Boriani, Taya V Glotzer, Jeff S Healey, Paulus Kirchhof, Tatjana S Potpara
Cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers and implantable defibrillators that perform atrial sensing typically using an atrial electrode, frequently detect subclinical atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). When the intracardiac electrograms are carefully examined, the majority of AHREs are atrial fibrillation (AF) or other atrial tachyarrhythmias, which have been shown to be associated with both an increased risk of stroke, and subsequent development of clinical AF. However, the absolute risk of stroke among patients with AHREs is less than might be expected for clinically diagnosed paroxysmal AF...
July 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660894/proteostasis-in-cardiac-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Robert H Henning, Bianca J J M Brundel
The incidence and prevalence of cardiac diseases, which are the main cause of death worldwide, are likely to increase because of population ageing. Prevailing theories about the mechanisms of ageing feature the gradual derailment of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and loss of protein quality control as central factors. In the heart, loss of protein patency, owing to flaws in genetically-determined design or because of environmentally-induced 'wear and tear', can overwhelm protein quality control, thereby triggering derailment of proteostasis and contributing to cardiac ageing...
June 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660892/reperfusion-strategies-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-multivessel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Birgit Vogel, Shamir R Mehta, Roxana Mehran
Approximately 50% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have multivessel disease. The optimal reperfusion strategy in these patients is still uncertain. Whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of only the culprit vessel or a strategy of complete revascularization, either in a simultaneous or staged multivessel PCI approach, should be performed remains unclear. Although a large number of observational studies have mostly shown worse clinical outcomes associated with a multivessel PCI approach, increasing evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that multivessel PCI is safe, while reducing the need for revascularization in selected patients, compared with culprit vessel-only PCI...
June 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593996/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Edmund M T Lau, Eleni Giannoulatou, David S Celermajer, Marc Humbert
In the past 2 decades, major changes have occurred in the epidemiological and treatment landscape of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Previously regarded as a disease of the young and middle-aged, contemporary registries from the Western world have demonstrated an increase in the age of patients with PAH, many of whom are elderly with multiple comorbidities. Another important observation is the improvement in survival of patients with PAH in the modern treatment era compared with historical cohorts, before the availability of advanced therapy...
June 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569269/mendelian-randomization-in-cardiometabolic-disease-challenges-in-evaluating-causality
#14
REVIEW
Michael V Holmes, Mika Ala-Korpela, George Davey Smith
Mendelian randomization (MR) is a burgeoning field that involves the use of genetic variants to assess causal relationships between exposures and outcomes. MR studies can be straightforward; for example, genetic variants within or near the encoding locus that is associated with protein concentrations can help to assess their causal role in disease. However, a more complex relationship between the genetic variants and an exposure can make findings from MR more difficult to interpret. In this Review, we describe some of these challenges in interpreting MR analyses, including those from studies using genetic variants to assess causality of multiple traits (such as branched-chain amino acids and risk of diabetes mellitus); studies describing pleiotropic variants (for example, C-reactive protein and its contribution to coronary heart disease); and those investigating variants that disrupt normal function of an exposure (for example, HDL cholesterol or IL-6 and coronary heart disease)...
June 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770869/micrornas-in-muscle-wasting-and-cachexia-induced-by-heart-failure
#15
Yihua Bei, Junjie Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770868/arrhythmias-long-working-hours-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770867/role-of-micrornas-in-wasting-in-heart-failure
#17
Stephan von Haehling, Nicole Ebner, Marcelo R Dos Santos, Jochen Springer, Stefan D Anker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770866/basic-research-where-do-new-endothelial-cells-come-from-in-the-injured-heart
#18
Daniel M Greif, Anne Eichmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726853/dyslipidaemia-effect-of-hypercholesterolaemia-on-hdl-particle-remodelling
#19
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726852/autoimmune-channelopathies-questions-remain
#20
Jin Li, Ange Maguy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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