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Nature Reviews. Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143812/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Toldo, Antonio Abbate
The heart is extremely sensitive to ischaemic injury. During an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) event, the injury is initially caused by reduced blood supply to the tissues, which is then further exacerbated by an intense and highly specific inflammatory response that occurs during reperfusion. Numerous studies have highlighted the central role of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in this process. The inflammasome, an integral part of the innate immune system, is a macromolecular protein complex that finely regulates the activation of caspase 1 and the production and secretion of powerful pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143811/surgery-circadian-rhythms-influence-surgical-outcomes
#2
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143810/next-generation-pacemakers-from-small-devices-to-biological-pacemakers
#3
REVIEW
Eugenio Cingolani, Joshua I Goldhaber, Eduardo Marbán
Electrogenesis in the heart begins in the sinoatrial node and proceeds down the conduction system to originate the heartbeat. Conduction system disorders lead to slow heart rates that are insufficient to support the circulation, necessitating implantation of electronic pacemakers. The typical electronic pacemaker consists of a subcutaneous generator and battery module attached to one or more endocardial leads. New leadless pacemakers can be implanted directly into the right ventricular apex, providing single-chamber pacing without a subcutaneous generator...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143809/hypertension-promising-mitochondria-targeting-drug-for-pah
#4
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119973/anticoagulation-therapy-oral-anticoagulants-reduce-dementia-risk-in-patients-with-af
#5
Karina Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#6
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022571/epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-young-individuals
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte Andersson, Ramachandran S Vasan
In the past 2 decades, a high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet, has been observed among young individuals living in developed countries. The rate of substance abuse (opioids, cocaine, electronic cigarettes, and anabolic steroids) is also increasing among young adults, whereas cigarette smoking might be declining. Among younger individuals (aged 18-50 years), the incidence of cardiovascular diseases over the same time period has either been steady or has increased, in contrast to the trend towards a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults aged >50 years...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022570/arterial-stiffness-as-a-risk-factor-for-clinical-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Michel E Safar
In patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, cardiac output remains within normal ranges and intravascular volume is normal or low, assuming the presence of a sufficient Windkessel effect and usual resistance and compliance calculations. However, mean circulatory pressure is elevated in these patients. In addition, vascular resistance is augmented, and most importantly, the viscoelasticity of the cardiovascular system is substantially impaired. Such considerations are essential to understanding the mechanisms behind carotid-femoral arterial stiffness, a major risk factor in individuals with hypertension...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933783/reverse-remodelling-and-myocardial-recovery-in-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Gene H Kim, Nir Uriel, Daniel Burkhoff
Advances in medical and device therapies have demonstrated the capacity of the heart to reverse the failing phenotype. The development of normative changes to ventricular size and function led to the concept of reverse remodelling. Among heart failure therapies, durable mechanical circulatory support is most consistently associated with the largest degree of reverse remodelling. Accordingly, research to analyse human tissue after a period of mechanical circulatory support continues to yield a wealth of information...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933782/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-epidemiology-and-risk-factor-burden
#10
REVIEW
Karam Turk-Adawi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Ibtihal Fadhil, Kathryn Taubert, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Nanette K Wenger, Nigel S Tan, Sherry L Grace
The Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) comprises 22 countries or territories spanning from Morocco in the west to Pakistan in the east, and contains a population of almost 600 million people. Like many other developing regions, the burden of disease in the EMR has shifted in the past 30 years from primarily communicable diseases to noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular mortality in the EMR, mostly attributable to ischaemic heart disease, is expected to increase more dramatically in the next decade than in any other region except Africa...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905873/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#11
REVIEW
Pal Pacher, Sabine Steffens, György Haskó, Thomas H Schindler, George Kunos
Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB1R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB2R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB1R and CB2R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB1R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880025/expert-consensus-document-a-diamond-approach-to-personalized-treatment-of-angina
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrari, Paolo G Camici, Filippo Crea, Nicolas Danchin, Kim Fox, Aldo P Maggioni, Athanasios J Manolis, Mario Marzilli, Giuseppe M C Rosano, José L Lopez-Sendon
In clinical guidelines, drugs for symptomatic angina are classified as being first choice (β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, short-acting nitrates) or second choice (ivabradine, nicorandil, ranolazine, trimetazidine), with the recommendation to reserve second-choice medications for patients who have contraindications to first-choice agents, do not tolerate them, or remain symptomatic. No direct comparisons between first-choice and second-choice treatments have demonstrated the superiority of one group of drugs over the other...
September 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857080/cardioprotection-anti-ageing-effects-of-cardiosphere-derived-cells
#13
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836620/future-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-evolving-clinical-indications
#14
REVIEW
Rishi Puri, Chekrallah Chamandi, Tania Rodriguez-Gabella, Josep Rodés-Cabau
Accumulating clinical experience and technological improvements have provided the basis for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to emerge as a well-established means for treating patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis at high or prohibitive surgical risk. During this decade, TAVI has emerged as a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients at intermediate surgical risk, and several studies are currently being performed to evaluate the role of TAVI in patients at low surgical risk...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836619/beyond-gut-feelings-how-the-gut-microbiota-regulates-blood-pressure
#15
REVIEW
Francine Z Marques, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836617/hypertension-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Elena Bartoloni, Alessia Alunno, Roberto Gerli
Evidence for the increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic inflammatory and systemic autoimmune diseases has accumulated during the past 15 years. In these patients, an interplay between several mechanisms, including premature acceleration of subclinical atherosclerotic damage, inflammation, and dysregulation of the immune system, is involved in the induction and progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, traditional cardiovascular risk factors are also likely to contribute, at least in part, to the excess cardiovascular risk...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099096/atherosclerosis-association-between-the-gut-microbiome-and-atherosclerosis
#17
William T Barrington, Aldons J Lusis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072255/anticoagulant-therapy-interaction-between-noacs-and-other-drugs-increases-bleeding-risk
#18
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072254/acute-coronary-syndromes-myocardial-salvage-with-hdl-infusion-after-infarction
#19
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053156/atherosclerosis-mitochondrial-fission-is-crucial-for-efferocytosis
#20
Irene Fernanández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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