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Cancer Cytopathology

Bryce Noll, Wei-Lien Wang, Yun Gong, Jun Zhao, Neda Kalhor, Victor Prieto, Gregg Staerkel, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), have emerged as a therapeutic approach for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). PD-L1 expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), is used to select patients for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy. Most studies have been performed with histology specimens, with limited data available on the performance in cytology specimens...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Claudio Bellevicine, Roberta Sgariglia, Ilaria Migliatico, Elena Vigliar, Melania D'Anna, Maria Antonia Nacchio, Nicola Serra, Umberto Malapelle, Massimo Bongiovanni, Giancarlo Troncone
BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) includes fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that cannot straightforwardly be classified as benign or malignant. To determine whether morphological subcategorization based on atypia qualifiers and molecular testing could improve malignancy risk stratification of AUS/FLUS patients, this study assessed the correlation between these qualifiers and the molecular alterations commonly harbored by thyroid neoplasms...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Tatjana Vlajnic, Spasenija Savic, Audrey Barascud, Betty Baschiera, Michel Bihl, Bruno Grilli, Michelle Herzog, Julien Rebetez, Lukas Bubendorf
BACKGROUND: Rearrangements of the ROS1 oncogene are found in 1% to 2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and are regarded as mutually exclusive oncogenic driver mutations. Since the approval of targeted therapy for ROS1-positive NSCLC, ROS1 testing has become a part of the diagnostic routine. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), optionally selected for by immunohistochemistry on histological material, is a common practice for the detection of ROS1 rearrangements. However, NSCLC often is diagnosed by cytology alone, requiring predictive marker testing on cytological specimens...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Carlie S Sigel, Vitor Werneck Krauss Silva, Michelle D Reid, David Chhieng, Olca Basturk, Keith M Sigel, Tanisha D Daniel, David S Klimstra, Laura H Tang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms with a Ki-67 labeling index greater than 20% were reclassified in 2017 by the World Health Organization into well differentiated (WD) and poorly differentiated grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The authors describe the cytologic features of grade 3 WD pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms compared with grade 2 neoplasms and NEC. METHODS: Fine-needle aspirates from 65 pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms were reviewed, and their cytomorphologic features were compared across grade 2, WD grade 3, and PD small cell type (PD-S), large cell type (PD-L), and type not otherwise specified (PD-NOS) neoplasms...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Xiaofei Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Siamak Sabour, Fatemeh Hadavand, Somayeh Derakhshan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Jen-Fan Hang, William H Westra, Amy G Zhou, David S Cooper, Syed Z Ali
BACKGROUND: The recent revision in terminology, with noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) replacing noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, has reclassified the clinically indolent tumor as nonmalignant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of this change on the rate of malignancy (ROM) for subcategories of an atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology...
February 9, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Marius Ilie, Jonathan Juco, Lingkang Huang, Veronique Hofman, Shirin Khambata-Ford, Paul Hofman
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab monotherapy is a standard-of-care treatment for the first- and second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) values ≥ 50% and ≥ 1%, respectively. PD-L1 testing with the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx companion assay has been validated on tumor tissue with the Dako Autostainer Link 48 (ASL48). 22C3 anti-PD-L1 antibody-based laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) compatible with other autostainers and cytology samples are essential to support pembrolizumab treatment decisions across institutions globally...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Eleanor Russell-Goldman, Sasha Kravets, Suzanne E Dahlberg, Lynette M Sholl, Marina Vivero
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors increasingly are being used to treat patients with advanced lung carcinomas. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs) is used to select patients for programmed cell death protein 1 inhibition, but few studies have evaluated PD-L1 IHC in cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to compare PD-L1 IHC in cytology cell blocks and matched surgical specimens...
February 5, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Omer Basar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Jeffrey K Mito, James R Conner, Jason L Hornick, Edmund S Cibas, Xiaohua Qian
BACKGROUND: The characterization of poorly differentiated neoplasms in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and small biopsy specimens usually requires immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a panel of markers. Because of an increasing need to preserve limited diagnostic material for tumor genotyping and a mounting demand for cost containment, the authors investigated the usefulness of dual-color IHC with antibodies directed against broad-spectrum keratins and SOX10, a neuroectodermal transcription factor consistently expressed in melanoma, in the workup of epithelioid malignant neoplasms...
January 31, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Natalya V Guseva, Omar Jaber, Aaron A Stence, Krishnaveni Sompallae, Amani Bashir, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Aaron D Bossler, Chris S Jensen, Deqin Ma
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) fusion is routinely performed in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma to assess their eligibility for targeted therapy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-derived material frequently is the only pathologic material available. The identification of genomic aberrations in thyroid nodules from FNA smears may help stratify cancer risk and spare patients from a second surgery...
January 24, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Giancarlo Troncone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Francesco Pierconti, Esther Diana Rossi, Patrizia Straccia, Guido Fadda, Luigi Maria Larocca, Pier Francesco Bassi, Emilio Sacco, Giovanni Schinzari
BACKGROUND: Chemohyperthermia (C-HT) or electromotive drug administration (EMDA) are alternative therapies to radical cystectomy in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who do not respond to intravesical therapy with bacille Calmette-Guérin. METHODS: The authors investigated a group of 87 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. Of these, 45 patients received EMDA of mitomycin (EMDA/MMC) and 42 patients were treated with C-HT and mitomycin therapy (C-HT/MMC)...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Philipp Schindler, Juozas Kupcinskas, Simonas Juzenas, Jurgita Skieceviciene, Violeta Salteniene, Christian Schulz, Jochen Weigt, Peter Malfertheiner, Alexander Link
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PCA) has a prognostic role in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The differential diagnosis may be challenging due to the low sensitivity of cytology. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been a focus of various specimens and diseases, to the best of the authors' knowledge only limited knowledge exists regarding ascites. Herein, the authors systematically evaluated preanalytical factors and the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers of ascites. METHODS: The authors prospectively analyzed samples from patients with PCA, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and portal hypertension (no SBP/PCA)...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Erika E Doxtader, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aims of this study were to determine whether INSM1 can be reliably used in cytology (Cellient) cell blocks, to ascertain whether staining correlates with paired surgical pathology specimens, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with those of synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin (CHR), and CD56 for neuroendocrine lung tumors. METHODS: Seventy-four primary lung neoplasms diagnosed on cytology were stained with INSM1, SYN, CHR, and CD56: 41 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 10 carcinoid tumors, 11 adenocarcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 mesothelioma and 1 poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
J Judd Fite, Dorothy L Rosenthal, Christopher J VandenBussche
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract cytology (UTC) specimens diagnosed using high-risk indeterminate categories such as "atypical urothelial cells, cannot exclude high-grade urothelial carcinoma" (AUC-H) or "suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma" (SHGUC) have a high rate of detection of high-grade urothelial carcinoma on subsequent biopsy. Although urologists are familiar with such terminology, it is unclear whether patients receive appropriate follow-up when UTC is ordered by nonurologists...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Vania Zayat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Celeste N Powers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
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