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Environmental Microbiology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296273/cyclic-di-gmp-signaling-meets-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Jan Kampf, Jörg Stülke
In order to resist harmful environmental conditions, many bacteria form multicellular aggregates called biofilms. In these biofilms, they protect themselves in a self-produced matrix consisting of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. In many bacteria, biofilm formation is stimulated in the presence of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology Reports, Bedrunka and Graumann have studied matrix production by the proteins encoded in the Bacillus subtilis ydaJKLMN operon...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296199/antibiotics-in-the-environment-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#2
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294562/hierarchical-mutational-events-compensate-for-glutamate-auxotrophy-of-a-bacillus-subtilis-gltc-mutant
#3
Miriam Dormeyer, Anastasia L Lübke, Peter Müller, Sabine Lentes, Daniel R Reuß, Andrea Thürmer, Jörg Stülke, Rolf Daniel, Sabine Brantl, Fabian M Commichau
Glutamate is the major donor of nitrogen for anabolic reactions. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis either utilizes exogenously provided glutamate or synthesizes it using the gltAB-encoded glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In the absence of glutamate, the transcription factor GltC activates expression of the GOGAT genes for glutamate production. Consequently, a gltC mutant strain is auxotrophic for glutamate. Using a genetic selection and screening system, we could isolate and differentiate between gltC suppressor mutants in one step...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276199/new-insights-into-a-hot-environment-for-early-life
#4
REVIEW
Jianghong Dai
Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, I attempt to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology-cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe-to the field. For this purpose, I revisit a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276162/novel-insights-into-ecological-distribution-and-plant-growth-promotion-by-nitrogen-fixing-endophytes-how-specialised-are-they
#5
Ray Dixon, Anton Hartmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251810/the-water-channel-protein-aquaporin-1-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-competitive-fitness-in-a-global-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#6
Gena Lee Meyers, Kwang-Woo Jung, Soohyun Bang, Jungyeon Kim, Sooah Kim, Joohyeon Hong, Eunji Cheong, Kyoung Heon Kim, Yong-Sun Bahn
In this study, an aquaporin protein, Aqp1, in Cryptococcus neoformans, which can lead either saprobic or parasitic lifestyles and causes life-threatening fungal meningitis was identified and characterized. AQP1 expression was rapidly induced (via the HOG pathway) by osmotic or oxidative stress. In spite of such transcriptional regulation, Aqp1 was found to be largely unnecessary for adaptation to diverse environmental stressors, regardless of the presence of the polysaccharide capsule. The latter is shown here to be a key environmental-stress protectant for C...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217926/reduction-oxidation-cycles-of-organic-matter-increase-bacterial-activity-in-the-pelagic-oxycline
#7
Maximilian P Lau, Michael Hupfer, Hans Peter Grossart
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems contains redox-active moieties, which are prone to oxidation and reduction reactions. Oxidized moieties feature reduction potentials Eh , so that the moieties may be used as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) in microbial respiration with a thermodynamic energy yield between nitrate and sulfate reduction. Here, we study the response of pelagic freshwater bacteria to exposure to native DOM with varying availabilities of oxidized moieties and hence redox state...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211189/influence-of-oxygen-availability-on-the-activities-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea
#8
Wei Qin, Kelley A Meinhardt, James W Moffett, Allan H Devol, E Virginia Armbrust, Anitra E Ingalls, David A Stahl
Recent studies point to the importance of oxygen (O2 ) in controlling the distribution and activity of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), one of the most abundant prokaryotes in the ocean. The AOA are associated with regions of low O2 tension in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), and O2 availability is suggested to influence their production of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O). We show that marine AOA available in pure culture sustain high ammonia oxidation activity at low μM O2 concentrations, characteristic of suboxic regions of OMZs (<10 µM O2 ), and that atmospheric concentrations of O2 may inhibit the growth of some environmental populations...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205388/hydrogen-or-formate-alternative-key-players-in-methanogenic-degradation
#9
REVIEW
Bernhard Schink, Dominik Montag, Anja Keller, Nicolai Müller
Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors, and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185400/microdiversity-shapes-the-traits-niche-space-and-biogeography-of-microbial-taxa
#10
REVIEW
Alyse A Larkin, Adam C Martiny
With rapidly improving sequencing technologies, scientists have recently gained the ability to examine diverse microbial communities at high genomic resolution, revealing that both free-living and host-associated microbes partition their environment at fine phylogenetic scales. This 'microdiversity,' or closely related (> 97% similar 16S rRNA gene) but ecologically and physiologically distinct sub-taxonomic groups, appears to be an intrinsic property of microorganisms. However, the functional implications of microdiversity as well as its effects on microbial biogeography are poorly understood...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120549/introduction
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120378/influence-of-the-alginate-production-on-cell-to-cell-communication-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#12
Jiayue Yang, Masanori Toyofuku, Ryosuke Sakai, Nobuhiko Nomura
Many bacteria communicate with each other through signaling molecules, a process known as cell-to-cell communication. During this process, it is important for the signaling molecules to: 1) reach the target cells; and 2) to be received by the cognate receptor. Barriers such as the presence of extracellular matrix may prevent signals from reaching their targets; however, the influence of the extracellular matrix on cell-to-cell communication has scarcely been studied. Here we demonstrate that the overproduction of an extracellular matrix, alginate, in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid variant, alters cell-to-cell communication by interfering with the response to quinolone signals while having no effect on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs)...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085231/long-term-prevalence-of-the-protists-crithidia-bombi-and-apicystis-bombi-and-detection-of-the-microsporidium-nosema-bombi-in-invasive-bumble-bees
#13
Santiago Plischuk, Karina Antúnez, Marina Haramboure, Graciela M Minardi, Carlos E Lange
An initial survey in 2009 carried out at a site in northwestern Patagonia region, Argentina, revealed for the first time in South America the presence of the flagellate Crithidia bombi and the neogregarine Apicystis bombi, two pathogens associated with the Palaearctic invasive bumble bee Bombus terrestris. In order to determine the long-term persistence and dynamics of this microparasite complex, four additional collections at the same site (San Carlos de Bariloche) were conducted along the following seven years...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085220/chemotype-diversity-in-planktothrix-rubescens-cyanobacteria-populations-is-correlated-to-lake-depth
#14
Danka Haruštiaková, Martin Welker
The cyanobacterial species Planktothrix rubescens is known to preferably inhabit deep, stratified, oligo- to mesotrophic lakes. It is also known for the production of diverse bioactive peptides, including the hepatotoxic microcystins. A number of studies showed that P. rubescens populations generally consist of multiple distinct genotypes or chemotypes, respectively. In the present study, variability of chemotype diversity was analysed. Filaments of P. rubescens were isolated from water samples originating from 10 European lakes and analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032688/nature-knows-best-employing-whole-microbial-strategies-to-tackle-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens
#15
Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019711/acknowledging-and-incorporating-mixed-nutrition-into-aquatic-protistan-ecology-finally
#16
David A Caron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019707/weighted-fitness-theory-an-approach-to-symbiotic-communities
#17
Javier Falgueras-Cano, José Miguel Carretero-Díaz, Andrés Moya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225574/the-future-of-environmental-microbiology-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#18
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225573/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943630/nitrate-addition-has-minimal-short-term-impacts-on-greenland-ice-sheet-supraglacial-prokaryotes
#20
Karen A Cameron, Marek Stibal, Nathan Chrismas, Jason Box, Carsten S Jacobsen
Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21(st) century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist...
December 10, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
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