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Biophysical Reviews

Tetsuya Tsuda, Koshi Kawakami, Eiko Mochizuki, Susumu Kuwabata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Tom Welton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Rebecca C Poulos, Jason W H Wong
In the last decade, the costs of genome sequencing have decreased considerably. The commencement of large-scale cancer sequencing projects has enabled cancer genomics to join the big data revolution. One of the challenges still facing cancer genomics research is determining which are the driver mutations in an individual cancer, as these contribute only a small subset of the overall mutation profile of a tumour. Focusing primarily on somatic single nucleotide mutations in this review, we consider both coding and non-coding driver mutations, and discuss how such mutations might be identified from cancer sequencing datasets...
April 2, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ewa Anna Oprzeska-Zingrebe, Jens Smiatek
Ionic liquids (ILs) are versatile solvents for a broad range of biotechnological applications. Recent experimental and simulation results highlight the potential benefits of dilute ILs in aqueous solution (aqueous ILs) in order to modify protein and DNA structures systematically. In contrast to a limited number of standard co-solutes like urea, ectoine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), or guanidinium chloride, the large amount of possible cation and anion combinations in aqueous ILs can be used to develop tailor-made stabilizers or destabilizers for specific purposes...
April 2, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner
Cytochrome c is known as an electron-carrying protein in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Over the last 20 years, however, alternative functions of this very versatile protein have become the focus of research interests. Upon binding to anionic lipids such as cardiolipin, the protein acquires peroxidase activity. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this requires a conformational change of the protein which involves partial unfolding of its tertiary structure. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of how cytochrome c interacts with cardiolipin-containing surfaces and how this affects its structure and function...
March 24, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
V K Sharma, R Mukhopadhyay
Ionic liquids (ILs) are a special class of low-temperature (typically < 100 °C) molten salts, which have huge upsurge interest in the field of chemical synthesis, catalysis, electrochemistry, pharmacology, and biotechnology, mainly due to their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties. However, practical uses of ILs are restricted mainly due to their adverse actions on organisms. Understanding interactions of ILs with biomembrane is prerequisite to assimilate the actions of these ionic compounds on the organism...
March 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Awanish Kumar, Pannuru Venkatesu
Mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted our attention because of their extraordinary performances in extraction technologies and in absorbing large amount of CO2 gas. It has been observed that when two or more ILs are mixed in different proportions, a new solvent is obtained which is much better than that of each component of ILs from which the mixture is obtained. Within a mixture of ILs, several unidentified interactions occur among several ions which give rise to unique solvent properties to the mixture...
March 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Lena Rakers, Frank Glorius
In the last years, ionic liquids gained a lot of interest in materials sciences. Especially their interactions with biomolecules like lipids or proteins became more and more fascinating. One substance class of ionic liquids are imidazolium salts, which are usually known as the precursors of the more prominent N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Due to their high stability and easy synthesis, imidazolium salts became more attractive for applications in biological systems. In 2015, imidazolium salts bearing long alkyl chains in their backbone were established as lipid analogs...
March 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ayori Mitsutake, Hiroshi Takano
Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful method for investigating the structural stability, dynamics, and function of biopolymers at the atomic level. In recent years, it has become possible to perform simulations on time scales of the order of milliseconds using special hardware. However, it is necessary to derive the important factors contributing to structural change or function from the complicated movements of biopolymers obtained from long simulations. Although some analysis methods for protein systems have been developed using increasing simulation times, many of these methods are static in nature (i...
March 15, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Rupam Dutta, Sangita Kundu, Nilmoni Sarkar
In the last two decades, researchers have extensively studied highly stable and ordered supramolecular assembly formation using oppositely charged surfactants. Thereafter, surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs), a special class of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), replace the surfactants to form various supramolecular aggregates. Therefore, in the last decade, the building blocks of the supramolecular aggregates (micelle, mixed micelle, and vesicular assemblies) have changed from oppositely charged surfactant/surfactant pair to surfactant/SAIL and SAIL/SAIL pair...
March 8, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Mouhamad Reslan, Veysel Kayser
Ionic liquids (ILs) have recently emerged as versatile solvents and additives in the field of biotechnology, particularly as stabilizers of proteins and enzymes. Of interest to the biotechnology industry is the formulation of stable biopharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines which have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases including debilitating conditions such as cancers and auto-immune diseases. The stabilization of therapeutic proteins is typically achieved using additives that prevent unfolding and aggregation of these proteins during manufacture, transport, and long-term storage...
March 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Damien Hall, Junichi Takagi, Haruki Nakamura
This issue of Biophysical Reviews, titled 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', is a collection of articles dedicated in honour of Professor Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday. Initially, working in the fields of haemocyanin and actin filament assembly, Fumio went on to publish important work on the elucidation of structural and functional aspects of T4 phage biology. As his career has transitioned levels of complexity from proteins (hemocyanin) to large protein complexes (actin) to even more massive bio-nanomachinery (phage), it is fitting that the subject of this special issue is similarly reflective of his multiscale approach to structural biology...
March 2, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Akiyuki Toda, Hideaki Tanaka, Genji Kurisu
Dynein motors are biologically important bio-nanomachines, and many atomic resolution structures of cytoplasmic dynein components from different organisms have been analyzed by X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM, and NMR spectroscopy. This review provides a historical perspective of structural studies of cytoplasmic and axonemal dynein including accessory proteins. We describe representative structural studies of every component of dynein and summarize them as a structural atlas that classifies the cytoplasmic and axonemal dyneins...
February 24, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ken Nishikawa, Akira R Kinjo
Conrad H. Waddington discovered the phenomenon of genetic assimilation through a series of experiments on fruit flies. In those experiments, artificially exerted environmental stress induced plastic phenotypic changes in the fruit flies, but after some generations, the same phenotypic variant started to appear without the environmental stress. Both the initial state (where the phenotypic changes were environmentally induced and plastic) and the final state (where the phenotypic changes were genetically fixed and constitutive) are experimental facts...
February 21, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Satoshi Takahashi, Aya Yoshida, Hiroyuki Oikawa
We propose a hypothesis that explains two apparently contradicting observations for the heterogeneity of the unfolded proteins. First, the line confocal method of the single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) spectroscopy revealed that the unfolded proteins possess broad peaks in the FRET efficiency plot, implying the significant heterogeneity that lasts longer than milliseconds. Second, the fluorescence correlation method demonstrated that the unfolded proteins fluctuate in the time scale shorter than 100 ns...
February 14, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Muhamad Sahlan, Tamotsu Zako, Masafumi Yohda
Prefoldin is a hexameric molecular chaperone found in the cytosol of archaea and eukaryotes. Its hexameric complex is built from two related classes of subunits and has the appearance of a jellyfish: its body consists of a double beta-barrel assembly with six long tentacle-like coiled coils protruding from it. Using the tentacles, prefoldin captures an unfolded protein substrate and transfers it to a group II chaperonin. The prefoldin-group II chaperonin system is thought to be important for the folding of newly synthesized proteins and for their maintenance, or proteostasis, in the cytosol...
February 9, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Debasis Saha, Arnab Mukherjee
The remarkable progress in the field of ionic liquids (ILs) in the last two decades has involved investigations on different aspects of ILs in various conditions. The nontoxic and biocompatible nature of ILs makes them a suitable substance for the storage and application of biomolecules. In this regard, the aqueous IL solutions have attracted a large number of studies to comprehend the role of water in modulating various properties of biomolecules. Here, we review some of the recent studies on aqueous ILs that concern the role of water in altering the behavior of ILs in general and in case of biomolecules solvated in ILs...
February 8, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Fumio Arisaka
This short biographical note was written as part of the lead-in material for a festschrift kindly organized for me on the occasion of my 70th birthday. The collection of articles assembled in this issue range within the spectrum of the topics covered in the special issue 'Multiscale structural biology-biophysical principles and practice ranging from biomolecules to bionanomachines.' Here I describe some of the high points of my 40 years of research science conducted in the USA, Switzerland and Japan. I also use this opportunity to express my sincerest thanks to my former colleagues and the very many contributors who so kindly contributed to this special issue...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Peter Schuck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
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