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Biophysical Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510120/obscurin-variants-and-inherited-cardiomyopathies
#1
REVIEW
Steven Marston
The inherited cardiomyopathies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), have been frequently associated with mutations in sarcomeric proteins. In recent years, advances in DNA sequencing technology has allowed the study of the giant proteins of the sarcomere, such as titin and nebulin. Obscurin has been somewhat neglected in these studies, largely because its functional role is far from clear, although there was an isolated report in 2007 of obscurin mutations associated with HCM...
May 5, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510119/genetic-epidemiology-of-titin-truncating-variants-in-the-etiology-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
REVIEW
Ali M Tabish, Valerio Azzimato, Aris Alexiadis, Byambajav Buyandelger, Ralph Knöll
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome defined by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body's metabolic demands. Major causes of HF are cardiomyopathies (diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction), among which the most common form is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM is defined by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction with normal left ventricular wall thickness, which leads to progressive HF. Over 60 genes are linked to the etiology of DCM...
May 5, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510118/tampering-with-springs-phosphorylation-of-titin-affecting-the-mechanical-function-of-cardiomyocytes
#3
REVIEW
Nazha Hamdani, Melissa Herwig, Wolfgang A Linke
Reversible post-translational modifications of various cardiac proteins regulate the mechanical properties of the cardiomyocytes and thus modulate the contractile performance of the heart. The giant protein titin forms a continuous filament network in the sarcomeres of striated muscle cells, where it determines passive tension development and modulates active contraction. These mechanical properties of titin are altered through post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation. Titin contains hundreds of potential phosphorylation sites, the functional relevance of which is only beginning to emerge...
April 10, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510117/novex-3-the-tiny-titin-of-muscle
#4
REVIEW
Dalma Kellermayer, John E Smith, Henk Granzier
The giant multi-functional striated muscle protein titin is the third most abundant muscle protein after myosin and actin. Titin plays a pivotal role in myocardial passive stiffness, structural integrity and stress-initiated signaling pathways. The complete sequence of the human titin gene contains three isoform-specific mutually exclusive exons [termed novel exons (novex)] coding for the I-band sequence, named novex-1 (exon 45), novex-2 (exon 46) and novex-3 (exon 48). Transcripts containing either the novex-1 or novex-2 exons code for the novex-1 and novex-2 titin isoforms...
April 7, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510116/obscure-functions-the-location-function-relationship-of-obscurins
#5
REVIEW
Heather R Manring, Olivia A Carter, Maegen A Ackermann
The obscurin family of polypeptides is essential for normal striated muscle function and contributes to the pathogenesis of fatal diseases, including cardiomyopathies and cancers. The single mammalian obscurin gene, OBSCN, gives rise to giant (∼800 kDa) and smaller (∼40-500 kDa) proteins that are composed of tandem adhesion and signaling motifs. Mammalian obscurin proteins are expressed in a variety of cell types, including striated muscles, and localize to distinct subcellular compartments where they contribute to diverse cellular processes...
March 29, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510090/the-melatonin-immunomodulatory-actions-in-radiotherapy
#6
REVIEW
M Najafi, A Shirazi, E Motevaseli, Gh Geraily, F Norouzi, M Heidari, S Rezapoor
Radiotherapy has a key role in cancer treatment in more than half of patients with cancer. The management of severe side effects of this treatment modality is a limiting factor to appropriate treatment. Immune system responses play a pivotal role in many of the early and late side effects of radiation. Moreover, immune cells have a significant role in tumor response to radiotherapy, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. Melatonin as a potent antioxidant has shown appropriate immune regulatory properties that may ameliorate toxicity induced by radiation in various organs...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510089/porphyrin-based-cationic-amphiphilic-photosensitisers-as-potential-anticancer-antimicrobial-and-immunosuppressive-agents
#7
REVIEW
Nela Malatesti, Ivana Munitic, Igor Jurak
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines a photosensitiser, light and molecular oxygen to induce oxidative stress that can be used to kill pathogens, cancer cells and other highly proliferative cells. There is a growing number of clinically approved photosensitisers and applications of PDT, whose main advantages include the possibility of selective targeting, localised action and stimulation of the immune responses. Further improvements and broader use of PDT could be accomplished by designing new photosensitisers with increased selectivity and bioavailability...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510088/seeing-the-light-with-bluf-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Sam-Yong Park, Jeremy R H Tame
First described about 15 years ago, BLUF (Blue Light Using Flavin) domains are light-triggered switches that control enzyme activity or gene expression in response to blue light, remaining activated for seconds or even minutes after stimulation. The conserved, ferredoxin-like fold holds a flavin chromophore that captures the light and somehow triggers downstream events. BLUF proteins are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and have a variety of architectures and oligomeric forms, but the BLUF domain itself seems to have a well-preserved structure and mechanism that have been the focus of intense study for a number of years...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510087/why-we-need-to-stop-explaining-science
#9
LETTER
Philip Dooley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510086/new-insights-into-real-time-multiprotein-fluorescence-microscopy
#10
EDITORIAL
Cris G Dos Remedios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510085/cardiac-aging-and-heart-disease-in-humans
#11
REVIEW
Marja Steenman, Gilles Lande
The world population continues to grow older rapidly, mostly because of declining fertility and increasing longevity. Since age represents the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of these pathologies increases dramatically with increasing age. In order to improve patient care and prevention for age-related cardiac diseases, insight should be gained from the analysis of processes involved in and leading to cardiac aging. It is from this perspective that we provide here an overview of changes associated with age in the heart on four levels: functional, structural, cellular and molecular...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510084/innovations-in-publication-free-sharing-of-all-biophysical-reviews-content
#12
EDITORIAL
Damien Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510083/software-for-molecular-docking-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Nataraj S Pagadala, Khajamohiddin Syed, Jack Tuszynski
Molecular docking methodology explores the behavior of small molecules in the binding site of a target protein. As more protein structures are determined experimentally using X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, molecular docking is increasingly used as a tool in drug discovery. Docking against homology-modeled targets also becomes possible for proteins whose structures are not known. With the docking strategies, the druggability of the compounds and their specificity against a particular target can be calculated for further lead optimization processes...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510082/biomedical-applications-of-nanotechnology
#14
REVIEW
Ana P Ramos, Marcos A E Cruz, Camila B Tovani, Pietro Ciancaglini
The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424742/fret-from-single-to-multiplexed-signaling-events
#15
REVIEW
Gertrude Bunt, Fred S Wouters
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for the visualization of molecular signaling events such as protein activities and interactions in cells. In its different implementations, FRET microscopy has been mainly used for monitoring single events. Recently, there has been a trend of extending FRET imaging towards the simultaneous detection of multiple events and interactions. The concomitant increase in experimental complexity requires a deeper understanding of the biophysical background of FRET...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424741/catalytic-robustness-and-torque-generation-of-the-f1-atpase
#16
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Noji, Hiroshi Ueno, Duncan G G McMillan
The F1-ATPase is the catalytic portion of the FoF1 ATP synthase and acts as a rotary molecular motor when it hydrolyzes ATP. Two decades have passed since the single-molecule rotation assay of F1-ATPase was established. Although several fundamental issues remain elusive, basic properties of F-type ATPases as motor proteins have been well characterized, and a large part of the reaction scheme has been revealed by the combination of extensive structural, biochemical, biophysical, and theoretical studies. This review is intended to provide a concise summary of the fundamental features of F1-ATPases, by use of the well-described model F1 from the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 (TF1)...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424740/essential-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-de-novo-chromatin-modifications-the-genomic-address-code-hypothesis
#17
Ken Nishikawa, Akira R Kinjo
The epigenome, i.e., the whole of chromatin modifications, is transferred from mother to daughter cells during cell differentiation. When de novo chromatin modifications (establishment or erasure of, respectively, new or pre-existing DNA methylations and/or histone modifications) are made in a daughter cell, however, it has a different epigenome than its mother cell. Although de novo chromatin modification is an important event that comprises elementary processes of cell differentiation, its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510044/a-review-and-summary-of-the-contents-of-biophysical-reviews-volume-8-2016
#18
EDITORIAL
Cris Dos Remedios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510043/pseudophosphorylation-of-cardiac-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-a-promising-new-tool-for-treatment-of-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Sunil Yadav, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
Many genetic mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) encoded by the MYL2 gene, have been implicated in familial cardiomyopathies. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which these mutant proteins regulate cardiac muscle mechanics in health and disease remain poorly understood. Evidence has been accumulating that RLC phosphorylation has an influential role in striated muscle contraction and, in addition to the conventional modulation via Ca(2+) binding to troponin C, it can regulate cardiac muscle function...
February 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510042/a-career-in-biophysical-chemistry-beckons-thoughts-on-the-beginning-of-a-journey-from-a-young-female-scientist
#20
EDITORIAL
Charlotte K Rouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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