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Biophysical Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825203/going-deep-into-protein-secondary-structure-with-synchrotron-radiation-circular-dichroism-spectroscopy
#1
REVIEW
Patricia S Kumagai, Ana P U Araujo, Jose L S Lopes
Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a fast, powerful, well-established, and widely used analytical technique in the biophysical and structural biology community to study protein secondary structure and to track changes in protein conformation in different environments. The use of the intense light of a synchrotron beam as the light source for collecting CD measurements has emerged as an enhanced method, known as synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy, that has several advantages over the conventional CD method, including a significant spectral range extension for data collection, deeper access to the lower limit (cut-off) of conventional CD spectroscopy, an improved signal-to-noise ratio to increase accuracy in the measurements, and the possibility to collect measurements in highly absorbing solutions...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823106/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-permeabilization-a-focus-on-the-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-structural-organization
#2
REVIEW
Siti Haji Suhaili, Hamed Karimian, Matthew Stellato, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar
Apoptosis is important in regulating cell death turnover and is mediated by the intrinsic and death receptor-based extrinsic pathways which converge at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP results in the release of apoptotic proteins that further activate the downstream pathway of apoptosis. Thus, tight regulation of MOMP is crucial in controlling apoptosis, and a lack of control may lead to tissue and organ malformation and the development of cancers...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823080/the-many-faces-and-phases-of-ceramide-and-sphingomyelin-ii-binary-mixtures
#3
REVIEW
María Laura Fanani, Bruno Maggio
A rather widespread idea on the functional importance of sphingolipids in cell membranes refers to the occurrence of ordered domains enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide that are largely assumed to exist irrespective of the type of N-acyl chain in the sphingolipid. Ceramides and sphingomyelins are the simplest kind of two-chained sphingolipids and show a variety of species, depending on the fatty acyl chain length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. Abundant evidences have shown that variations of the N-acyl chain length in ceramides and sphingomyelins markedly affect their phase state, interfacial elasticity, surface topography, electrostatics, and miscibility, and that even the usually conceived "condensed" sphingolipids and many of their mixtures may exhibit liquid-like expanded states...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823025/nanomedicine-associated-with-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Leonardo B de Paula, Fernando L Primo, Antonio C Tedesco
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most recurrent and malignant astrocytic glioma found in adults. Biologically, GBMs are highly aggressive tumors that often show diffuse infiltration of the brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection difficult. GBM is not curable with surgery alone because tumor cells typically invade the surrounding brain, rendering complete resection unsafe. Consequently, present-day therapy for malignant glioma remains a great challenge. The location of the invasive tumor cells presents several barriers to therapeutic delivery...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819924/dynamic-imaging-of-mitochondrial-membrane-proteins-in-specific-sub-organelle-membrane-locations
#5
REVIEW
Timo Appelhans, Karin B Busch
Mitochondria are cellular organelles with multifaceted tasks and thus composed of different sub-compartments. The inner mitochondrial membrane especially has a complex nano-architecture with cristae protruding into the matrix. Related to their function, the localization of mitochondrial membrane proteins is more or less restricted to specific sub-compartments. In contrast, it can be assumed that membrane proteins per se diffuse unimpeded through continuous membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a versatile technology used in mobility analyses to determine the mobile fraction of proteins, but it cannot provide data on subpopulations or on confined diffusion behavior...
August 17, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815463/the-many-faces-and-phases-of-ceramide-and-sphingomyelin-i-single-lipids
#6
REVIEW
María Laura Fanani, Bruno Maggio
Ceramides, the simplest kind of two-chained sphingolipids, contain a single hydroxyl group in position 1 of the sphingoid base. Sphingomyelins further contain a phosphocholine group at the OH of position 1 of ceramide. Ceramides and sphingomyelins show a variety of species depending on the fatty acyl chain length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. Because of the relatively high transition temperature of sphingomyelin compared to lecithin and, particularly, of ceramides with 16:0-18:0 saturated chains, a widespread idea on their functional importance refers to formation of rather solid domains enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide...
August 16, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812293/overview-of-the-ionic-liquids-meet-biomolecules-session-at-the-19th-international-iupab-and-11th-ebsa-congress
#7
LETTER
Antonio Benedetto, Hans-Joachim Galla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812278/monomer-dependent-secondary-nucleation-in-amyloid-formation
#8
REVIEW
Sara Linse
Secondary nucleation of monomers on the surface of an already existing aggregate that is formed from the same kind of monomers may lead to autocatalytic amplification of a self-assembly process. Such monomer-dependent secondary nucleation occurs during the crystallization of small molecules or proteins and self-assembled materials, as well as in protein self-assembly into fibrous structures. Indications of secondary nucleation may come from analyses of kinetic experiments starting from pure monomers or monomers supplemented with a low concentration of pre-formed aggregates (seeds)...
August 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812259/evolutionary-dynamics-in-the-fungal-polarization-network-a-mechanistic-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Eveline T Diepeveen, Leila Iñigo de la Cruz, Liedewij Laan
Polarity establishment underlies proper cell cycle completion across virtually all organisms. Much progress has been made in generating an understanding of the structural and functional components of this process, especially in model species. Here we focus on the evolutionary dynamics of the fungal polarization protein network in order to determine general components and mechanistic principles, species- or lineage-specific adaptations and the evolvability of the network. The currently available genomic and proteomic screens in a variety of fungal species have shown three main characteristics: (1) certain proteins, processes and functions are conserved throughout the fungal clade; (2) orthologous functions can never be assumed, as various cases have been observed of homologous loci with dissimilar functions; (3) species have, typically, various species- or lineage-specific proteins incorporated in their polarization network...
August 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808978/the-role-of-negative-conductances-in-neuronal-subthreshold-properties-and-synaptic-integration
#10
REVIEW
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Based on passive cable theory, an increase in membrane conductance produces a decrease in the membrane time constant and input resistance. Unlike the classical leak currents, voltage-dependent currents have a nonlinear behavior which can create regions of negative conductance, despite the increase in membrane conductance (permeability). This negative conductance opposes the effects of the passive membrane conductance on the membrane input resistance and time constant, increasing their values and thereby substantially affecting the amplitude and time course of postsynaptic potentials at the voltage range of the negative conductance...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808947/the-sydney-heart-bank-improving-translational-research-while-eliminating-or-reducing-the-use-of-animal-models-of-human-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
C G Dos Remedios, S P Lal, A Li, J McNamara, A Keogh, P S Macdonald, R Cooke, E Ehler, R Knöll, S B Marston, J Stelzer, H Granzier, C Bezzina, S van Dijk, F De Man, G J M Stienen, J Odeberg, F Pontén, W Linke, J van der Velden
The Sydney Heart Bank (SHB) is one of the largest human heart tissue banks in existence. Its mission is to provide high-quality human heart tissue for research into the molecular basis of human heart failure by working collaboratively with experts in this field. We argue that, by comparing tissues from failing human hearts with age-matched non-failing healthy donor hearts, the results will be more relevant than research using animal models, particularly if their physiology is very different from humans. Tissue from heart surgery must generally be used soon after collection or it significantly deteriorates...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803434/special-issue-of-biophysical-reviews-dedicated-to-the-19-th-iupab-conference-in-edinburgh-scotland-july-2017-%C3%AF
#12
EDITORIAL
Damien Hall, Cristobal G Dos Remedios
From the 16th to the 20th of July 2017, the 19th IUPAB (International Union of Pure and Applied Biophysics) world congress was held in Edinburgh, Scotland. Organized in conjunction with the 11th EBSA (European Biophysical Societies' Association) the meeting attracted over 1430 participants, had 35 scientific sessions and 10 plenary speakers. Each invited speaker was invited to contribute either a short review or a letter article that summarized the contents of their session. This special issue of Biophysical Reviews is dedicated to providing contextual background to some of the many talks presented at the meeting in Edinburgh...
August 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801801/nuclear-envelope-a-new-frontier-in-plant-mechanosensing
#13
REVIEW
Kateryna Fal, Atef Asnacios, Marie-Edith Chabouté, Olivier Hamant
In animals, it is now well established that forces applied at the cell surface are propagated through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus, leading to deformations of the nuclear structure and, potentially, to modification of gene expression. Consistently, altered nuclear mechanics has been related to many genetic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and progeria. In plants, the integration of mechanical signals in cell and developmental biology has also made great progress. Yet, while the link between cell wall stresses and cytoskeleton is consolidated, such cortical mechanical cues have not been integrated with the nucleoskeleton...
August 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801788/overview-of-the-experimental-and-computational-approaches-to-protein-design-session-at-the-19-th-iupab-congress-and-11-th-ebsa-congress
#14
LETTER
Elizabeth H C Bromley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799089/searching-for-the-pareto-frontier-in-multi-objective-protein-design
#15
REVIEW
Vikas Nanda, Sandeep V Belure, Ofer M Shir
The goal of protein engineering and design is to identify sequences that adopt three-dimensional structures of desired function. Often, this is treated as a single-objective optimization problem, identifying the sequence-structure solution with the lowest computed free energy of folding. However, many design problems are multi-state, multi-specificity, or otherwise require concurrent optimization of multiple objectives. There may be tradeoffs among objectives, where improving one feature requires compromising another...
August 10, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786029/molecular-machines
#16
LETTER
Robert Cross, Claudia Veigel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779453/room-temperature-ionic-liquids-meet-bio-membranes-the-state-of-the-art
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Benedetto
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are a new class of organic salts whose melting temperature falls below the conventional limit of 100 °C. Their low vapor pressure, moreover, has made these ionic compounds the solvents of choice of the so-called green chemistry. For these and other peculiar characteristics, they are increasingly used in industrial applications. However, studies of their interaction with living organisms have highlighted mild to severe health hazards. Since their cytotoxicity shows a positive correlation with their lipophilicity, several chemical-physical studies of their interactions with biomembranes have been carried out in the last few years, aiming to identify the molecular mechanisms behind their toxicity...
August 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779452/overview-of-the-quantum-biology-session-at-the-19th-iupab-congress-and-11th-ebsa-congress
#18
LETTER
Jim Al-Khalili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776257/protein-nucleic-acids-interactions-new-ways-of-connecting-structure-dynamics-and-function
#19
LETTER
Maria Spies, Brian O Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776256/imaging-the-cell
#20
LETTER
José L Carrascosa, Mark C Leake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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