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Biophysical Reviews

Mehreen Ali, Tero Aittokallio
In-depth modeling of the complex interplay among multiple omics data measured from cancer cell lines or patient tumors is providing new opportunities toward identification of tailored therapies for individual cancer patients. Supervised machine learning algorithms are increasingly being applied to the omics profiles as they enable integrative analyses among the high-dimensional data sets, as well as personalized predictions of therapy responses using multi-omics panels of response-predictive biomarkers identified through feature selection and cross-validation...
August 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
A Beqqali
Alternative splicing is an important mechanism used by the cell to generate greater transcriptomic and proteomic diversity from the genome. In the heart, alternative splicing is increasingly being recognised as an important layer of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial process governing complex biological processes during cardiac development and disease. The recent identification of several cardiac splice factors, such as RNA-binding motif protein 20 and 24, not only provided important insight into the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing but also revealed how these splicing factors impact functional properties of the heart...
July 26, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Joelle V F Coumans, Rhonda J Davey, Pierre D J Moens
This review covers aspects of cofilin and profilin regulations and their influence on actin polymerisation responsible for cell motility and metastasis. The regulation of their activity by phosphorylation and nitration, miRs, PI(4,5)P2 binding, pH, oxidative stress and post-translational modification is described. In this review, we have highlighted selected similarities, complementarities and differences between the two proteins and how their interplay affects actin filament dynamics.
July 19, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Kumiko Hayashi
The fluctuation theorem is a representative theorem in non-equilibrium statistical physics actively studied in the 1990s. Relating to entropy production in non-equilibrium states, the theorem has been used to estimate the driving power of motor proteins from fluctuation in their motion. In this review, usage of the fluctuation theorem in experiments on motor proteins is illustrated for biologists, especially those who study mechanobiology, in which force measurement is a central issue. We first introduce the application of the fluctuation theorem in measuring the rotary torque of the rotary motor protein F1 -ATPase...
July 17, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Katja Gehmlich, Elisabeth Ehler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Anita Kiran Vimalanathan, Elisabeth Ehler, Katja Gehmlich
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart disease, associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. ARVC has been termed a 'disease of the desmosome' based on the fact that in many cases, it is caused by mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins at the specialised intercellular junctions between cardiomyocytes, the intercalated discs. Desmosomes maintain the structural integrity of the ventricular myocardium and are also implicated in signal transduction pathways...
July 11, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Pauline M Bennett
Cardiomyocytes interact with each other at their ends through the specialised membrane complex, the intercalated disck (ID). It is a fascinating structure. It allows cardiomyocytes to interact with several neighbouring cells, thereby allowing the complex structure of the heart to develop. It acts as tension transducer, structural prop, and multi signalling domain as well as a regulator of growth. It achieves its many functions through a number of specialised domains and intercellular junctions associated with its complex folded membrane...
July 9, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Stefan Galler, Wolfgang A Linke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
M E Adriaens, C R Bezzina
Genome-wide association studies have shed light on the association between natural genetic variation and cardiovascular traits. However, linking a cardiovascular trait associated locus to a candidate gene or set of candidate genes for prioritization for follow-up mechanistic studies is all but straightforward. Genomic technologies based on next-generation sequencing technology nowadays offer multiple opportunities to dissect gene regulatory networks underlying genetic cardiovascular trait associations, thereby aiding in the identification of candidate genes at unprecedented scale...
June 22, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Andreas Brodehl, Anna Gaertner-Rommel, Hendrik Milting
Increasing usage of next-generation sequencing techniques pushed during the last decade cardiogenetic diagnostics leading to the identification of a huge number of genetic variants in about 170 genes associated with cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, or syndromes with cardiac involvement. Because of the biochemical and cellular complexity, it is challenging to understand the clinical meaning or even the relevant pathomechanisms of the majority of genetic sequence variants. However, detailed knowledge about the associated molecular pathomechanism is essential for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies in future and genetic counseling...
June 20, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Yan Liang, William H Bradford, Jing Zhang, Farah Sheikh
Four and a half LIM domain (FHL) protein family members, FHL1 and FHL2, are multifunctional proteins that are enriched in cardiac muscle. Although they both localize within the cardiomyocyte sarcomere (titin N2B), they have been shown to have important yet unique functions within the context of cardiac hypertrophy and disease. Studies in FHL1-deficient mice have primarily uncovered mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) scaffolding functions for FHL1 as part of a novel biomechanical stretch sensor within the cardiomyocyte sarcomere, which acts as a positive regulator of pressure overload-mediated cardiac hypertrophy...
June 20, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
M M Akhtar, P M Elliott
Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene that result in deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. The worldwide incidence of Fabry's disease is reported to be in the range of 1 in 40,000-117,000, although this value may be a significant underestimate given under recognition of symptoms and delayed or missed diagnosis. Deficiency in alpha-galactosidase A causes an accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in lysosomes within various tissues including the vascular endothelium, kidneys, heart, eyes, skin and nervous system...
June 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Heather R Manring, Lisa E Dorn, Aidan Ex-Willey, Federica Accornero, Maegen A Ackermann
Proper cardiac function requires the synchronous mechanical and electrical coupling of individual cardiomyocytes. The intercalated disc (ID) mediates coupling of neighboring myocytes through intercellular signaling. Intercellular communication is highly regulated via intracellular signaling, and signaling pathways originating from the ID control cardiomyocyte remodeling and function. Herein, we present an overview of the inter- and intracellular signaling that occurs at and originates from the intercalated disc in normal physiology and pathophysiology...
June 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Elisabeth Ehler
It has been known for several decades that mutations in genes that encode for proteins involved in the control of actomyosin interactions such as the troponin complex, tropomyosin and MYBP-C and thus regulate contraction can lead to hereditary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In recent years, it has become apparent that actin-binding proteins not directly involved in the regulation of contraction also can exhibit changed expression levels, show altered subcellular localisation or bear mutations that might lead to hereditary cardiomyopathies...
June 5, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Matthew J Stroud
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex couples the nuclear lamina to the cytoskeleton. The LINC complex and its associated proteins play diverse roles in cells, ranging from genome organization, nuclear morphology, gene expression, to mechanical stability. The importance of a functional LINC complex is highlighted by the large number of mutations in genes encoding LINC complex proteins that lead to skeletal and cardiac myopathies. In this review, the structure, function, and interactions between components of the LINC complex will be described...
June 4, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Benjamin Martial, Thierry Lefèvre, Michèle Auger
It is well established that amyloid proteins play a primary role in neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's diseases are part of a wider family encompassing more than 50 human pathologies related to aggregation of proteins. Although this field of research is thoroughly investigated, several aspects of fibrillization remain misunderstood, which in turn slows down, or even impedes, advances in treating and curing amyloidoses. To solve this problem, several research groups have chosen to focus on short fragments of amyloid proteins, sequences that have been found to be of great importance for the amyloid formation process...
May 31, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Mary Tsikitis, Zoi Galata, Manolis Mavroidis, Stelios Psarras, Yassemi Capetanaki
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are critical regulators in health and disease. The discovery of hundreds of mutations in IF genes and posttranslational modifications has been linked to a plethora of human diseases, including, among others, cardiomyopathies, muscular dystrophies, progeria, blistering diseases of the epidermis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The major IF proteins that have been linked to cardiomyopathies and heart failure are the muscle-specific cytoskeletal IF protein desmin and the nuclear IF protein lamin, as a subgroup of the known desminopathies and laminopathies, respectively...
August 2018: Biophysical Reviews
C G Dos Remedios, A Li, S Lal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ann-Kathrin Rahm, Patrick Lugenbiel, Patrick A Schweizer, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Heart failure (HF) is a complication of multiple cardiac diseases and is characterized by impaired contractile and electric function. Patients with HF are not only limited by reduced contractile function but are also prone to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. HF itself leads to remodeling of ion channels, gap junctions, and intracellular calcium handling abnormalities that in combination with structural remodeling, e.g., fibrosis, produce a substrate for an arrhythmogenic disorders. Not only ventricular life-threatening arrhythmias contribute to increased morbidity and mortality but also atrial arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation (AF), are common in HF patients and contribute to morbidity and mortality...
August 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Derek R Laver
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in striated muscle which play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac pacemaking. Single channel recordings have revealed a wealth of information about ligand regulation of RyRs from mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscle (RyR1 and RyR2, respectively). RyR subunit has a Ca2+ activation site located in the luminal and cytoplasmic domains of the RyR. These sites synergistically feed into a common gating mechanism for channel activation by luminal and cytoplasmic Ca2+ ...
August 2018: Biophysical Reviews
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