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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253993/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
P Hemachandra Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253992/molecular-links-and-biomarkers-of-stroke-vascular-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
M Vijayan, S Kumar, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
Stroke is a very common neurological disease, and it occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted and the subsequent shortage of oxygen and nutrients causes damage to the brain tissue. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer a stroke. Stroke can be broadly classified in two major clinical types: ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke. Research also revealed that stroke, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) increase with a number of modifiable factors, and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253991/micrornas-as-peripheral-biomarkers-in-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#3
S Kumar, M Vijayan, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are found in the circulatory biofluids considering the important molecules for biomarker study in aging and age-related diseases. Blood or blood components (serum/plasma) are primary sources of circulatory miRNAs and can release these in cell-free form either bound with some protein components or encapsulated with microvesicle particles, called exosomes. miRNAs are quite stable in the peripheral circulation and can be detected by high-throughput techniques like qRT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253990/mitochondrial-perturbation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes
#4
F Akhter, D Chen, S F Yan, S S Yan
Mitochondria are well-known cellular organelles that play a vital role in cellular bioenergetics, heme biosynthesis, thermogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid catabolism, and other metabolic activities. Given the extensive role of mitochondria in cell function, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a part in many diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence that impaired mitochondrial function is a causative factor in these diseases. Studying mitochondrial function in diseased cells vs healthy cells may reveal the modified mechanisms and molecular components involved in specific disease states...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253989/the-kidney-in-aging-physiological-changes-and-pathological-implications
#5
H Sobamowo, S S Prabhakar
Aging is associated with progressive decline in renal function along with concurrent morphological changes that ultimately lead to glomerulosclerosis. The mechanisms leading to such changes in the kidney with age as well as the basis of controversies that surround the physiological basis vs pathological nature of aging kidney are the focus of this in-depth review. In addition, the renal functional defects of acid-base homeostasis and electrolyte disturbances in elderly and the physiological basis of such disorders are also discussed...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253988/mitochondria-cybrids-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
R H Swerdlow, S Koppel, I Weidling, C Hayley, Y Ji, H M Wilkins
Mitochondrial and bioenergetic function change with advancing age and may drive aging phenotypes. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are also documented in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some instances AD mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are reminiscent of those observed with advancing age but are greater in magnitude. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction could, therefore, link neurodegeneration to brain aging. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects in AD patients are not brain-limited, and mitochondrial function can be linked to classic AD histologic changes including amyloid precursor protein processing to beta amyloid...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253987/metabolic-syndrome-and-the-cellular-phase-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
S Pugazhenthi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and progressive neurodegeneration. The major hallmarks of AD pathology are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, AD often coexists with other brain microvascular lesions caused by comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The risk factors for these comorbidities are collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Clinical AD is preceded by decades of prodromal cellular phase...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253986/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-extended-longevity-and-the-roles-in-various-disease-models
#8
D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253985/mitochondria-targeted-molecules-as-potential-drugs-to-treat-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
A P Reddy, P H Reddy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common multifactorial mental illness affecting the elderly population in the world. Its prevalence increases as person ages. There is no known drug or agent that can delay or prevent the AD and its progression. Extensive research has revealed that multiple cellular pathways involved, including amyloid beta production, mitochondrial structural and functional changes, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and NFT formation, inflammatory responses, and neuronal loss in AD pathogenesis...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#10
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253983/micrornas-aging-cellular-senescence-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
P H Reddy, J Williams, F Smith, J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, R Kandimalla, C S Kuruva, R Wang, M Manczak, X Yin, A P Reddy
Aging is a normal process of living being. It has been reported that multiple cellular changes, including oxidative damage/mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, inflammation, may accelerate the aging process, leading to cellular senescence. These cellular changes induce age-related human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cardiovascular, cancer, and skin diseases. Changes in somatic and germ-line DNA and epigenetics are reported to play large roles in accelerating the onset of human diseases...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253982/clinical-aspects-of-glucose-metabolism-and-chronic-disease
#12
J W Culberson
The burden of chronic disease is an emerging world health problem. Advances made in the treatment of individual disease states often fail to consider multimorbidity patterns in clinical research models. Adjusting for age as a confounder ignores its contribution as a powerful risk factor for most chronic diseases. Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, which is accelerated by chronic inflammation and its resulting cascade of cytokines. Skeletal muscle loss results in insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and altered mitochondrial glucose signaling pathways...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110756/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
W R Huckle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110755/the-phylogeny-of-placental-evolution-through-dynamic-integrations-of-retrotransposons
#14
K Imakawa, S Nakagawa
Trophoblasts, a major constituent of the placenta, are known to express genes derived from various endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) as well as LTR retrotransposons. However, the evolutionary significance of ERV-derived genes involved in placental development has not been well characterized. In this review, we catalog the diverse morphology of placental structure among mammalian species with note of counterintuitive developments. We then detail the history of ancient placenta development with paternally expressed gene 10 (Peg10/Sirh1), Peg11/Sirh2, and Sirh7/Ldoc1 as LTR retrotransposons, followed by independent captures of ERV-env-related genes such as Syncytin-1, -2, -A, -B, -Rum1, and Fematrin-1 responsible for trophoblast cell fusion, resulting in multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast formation, and possibly morphological diversification of placentas...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110754/transcription-factors-that-regulate-trophoblast-development-and-function
#15
K J Baines, S J Renaud
The placenta is a transient organ that plays a critical role in sustaining pregnancy and supporting fetal growth and nutrition. The placental epithelium is comprised of trophoblast cells. Trophoblast cells are the first cell type to differentiate during embryogenesis and ultimately diversify into a heterogeneous population of cells specializing in distinct functions essential for placentation. The emergence of the trophoblast lineage and subsequent specialization into distinct trophoblast sublineages is tightly regulated by transcription factors...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110753/cell-and-tissue-based-models-for-study-of-placental-development
#16
W R Huckle
Decades of research into the molecular mechanisms by which the placenta forms and functions have sought to improve prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of this vital tissue. This research has included development of experimental models intended to replicate behavior of the native placenta in both health and disease. Animal models devised in rodents, sheep, cattle, or other domestic animal species have the advantage of being biologically "complete," but all differ to some degree in developmental timing and anatomical details compared to the human, suggesting subtle differences in molecular mechanism...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110752/regulation-of-placental-amino-acid-transport-and-fetal-growth
#17
O R Vaughan, F J Rosario, T L Powell, T Jansson
The fetus requires amino acids for the processes of protein synthesis, carbon accretion, oxidative metabolism, and biosynthesis, which ultimately determine growth rate in utero. The fetal supply of amino acids is critically dependent on the transport capacity of the placenta. System A amino acid transporters in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane, directed toward maternal blood, actively accumulate amino acids, while system L exchangers mediate uptake of essential amino acids from the maternal circulation...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110751/novel-regulators-of-hemodynamics-in-the-pregnant-uterus
#18
N C Clark, C A Pru, J K Pru
The uterus is a highly dynamic organ, undergoing dramatic physiological changes during normal cyclicity and pregnancy. Many of these changes involve remodeling of the uterine vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the developing embryo/fetus. Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation/vasoconstriction, and vascular permeability are coordinated by a vast network of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine-signaling factors that derive from a number of cellular sources at the maternal:fetal interface, as well as from tissue outside the uterus...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110750/role-of-exosomes-in-placental-homeostasis-and-pregnancy-disorders
#19
C Salomon, G E Rice
The human placenta is a unique organ that performs the function of the majority of fetal organs across gestation. How the placenta communicates with maternal tissues to prepare them for pregnancy is not fully understood. Recently, it has been established that placental cells can communicate with maternal tissues to regulate their biological function via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are subclassified into exosomes or microvesicles (MVs) according to their size, cell or tissue of origin, functions, and physical features...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110749/contribution-of-syncytins-and-other-endogenous-retroviral-envelopes-to-human-placenta-pathologies
#20
P-A Bolze, M Mommert, F Mallet
Fusion, proliferation, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, and tissue survival are some of the critical functions involved in the physiological and pathological processes of placenta development. Strikingly, some of these properties are shared by envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses. Part of the overall retroviral world, the human retroviral heritage consists of hundred thousands of elements representing a huge amount of genetic material as compared to our 25,000 genes, whereas only a few tenths of retroviral loci still contain envelope genes exhibiting large open reading frames...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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