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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865470/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Kevin Pruitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865469/interplay-between-inflammation-and-epigenetic-changes-in-cancer
#2
A R Maiuri, H M O'Hagan
Immune responses can suppress tumorigenesis, but also contribute to cancer initiation and progression suggesting a complex interaction between the immune system and cancer. Epigenetic alterations, which are heritable changes in gene expression without changes to the DNA sequence, also play a role in carcinogenesis through silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes and activating oncogenic signaling. Interestingly, epithelial cells at sites of chronic inflammation undergo DNA methylation alterations that are similar to those present in cancer cells, suggesting that inflammation may initiate cancer-specific epigenetic changes in epithelial cells...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865468/molecular-and-cellular-changes-in-breast-cancer-and-new-roles-of-lncrnas-in-breast-cancer-initiation-and-progression
#3
M Kumar, R S DeVaux, J I Herschkowitz
Breast cancer is not just one disease but many variations on a theme, comprising a variety of molecular subtypes with distinct etiologies, cellular origins, treatment strategies, and prognoses. Like mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) differ dramatically in expression across breast cancer subtypes and can be used for classification. While there has been considerable emphasis on miRNAs, our knowledge is still in its infancy about the role of lncRNAs that comprise the majority of the mammalian transcriptome...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865467/molecular-changes-during-breast-cancer-and-mechanisms-of-endocrine-therapy-resistance
#4
S Radhi
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in 75% of breast cancers. ERs and their estrogen ligands play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. ERs have a genomic activity involving direct modulation of expression of genes vital to cell growth and survival by their classic nuclear receptors. The nongenomic activity is mediated by membrane receptor tyrosine kinases that activate signaling pathways resulting in activation of ER pathway modulators. Endocrine therapies inhibit the growth promoting activity of estrogen...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865466/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-mediated-signaling-commonly-altered-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
J Deitrick, W M Pruitt
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in females and the third most common cancer diagnosed in males (Torre et al.(1)). In 2012, there were about 1.4 million cases and 693,900 deaths due to colorectal cancer worldwide. It is more common in developed countries, and North America, Europe, and Australia have the highest incidence rates. In the United States, adults have a 5% chance of developing colorectal cancer (Cancer of the colon and rectum-SEER stat fact sheets(2)). Due to the high prevalence of colorectal cancer, understanding the mechanism underlying its initiation and progression in order to find better therapeutic agents will have a high impact in the field of oncology and may improve the treatment of other cancers with shared mechanistic properties...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865465/dysregulation-of-aromatase-in-breast-endometrial-and-ovarian-cancers-an-overview-of-therapeutic-strategies
#6
P R Manna, D Molehin, A U Ahmed
Aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which play crucial roles on a spectrum of developmental and physiological processes. The biological actions of estrogens are classically mediated by binding to two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. Encoded by the cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1) gene, aromatase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, as well as benign and malignant tumors, and is regulated in a pathway- and tissue-specific manner...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865464/myeloproliferative-neoplasms-molecular-drivers-and-therapeutics
#7
G W Reuther
Activating mutations in genes that drive neoplastic cell growth are numerous and widespread in cancer, and specific genetic alterations are associated with certain types of cancer. For example, classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that affect cells of the myeloid lineage, including erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. An activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase is prevalent in these diseases. In MPN patients that lack such a mutation, other genetic changes that lead to activation of the JAK2 signaling pathway are present, indicating deregulation of JAK2 signaling plays an etiological driving role in MPNs, a concept supported by significant evidence from in vivo experimental MPN systems...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865463/molecular-changes-during-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-evolution-and-identification-of-novel-treatment-strategies-through-molecular-stratification
#8
E Karjalainen, G A Repasky
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by impaired differentiation and uncontrollable proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Due to high relapse rates, overall survival for this rapidly progressing disease is poor. The significant challenge in AML treatment is disease heterogeneity stemming from variability in maturation state of leukemic cells of origin, genetic aberrations among patients, and existence of multiple disease clones within a single patient. Disease heterogeneity and the lack of biomarkers for drug sensitivity lie at the root of treatment failure as well as selective efficacy of AML chemotherapies and the emergence of drug resistance...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865462/molecular-changes-associated-with-tumor-initiation-and-progression-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-targeting-the-genome-and-epigenome
#9
P W Halcrow, M Dancer, M Panteah, C Walden, J E Ohm
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, but generally aggressive tumors which disproportionately affect children and young adults. They represent less than 10% of all cancers, but are one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in pediatric patients. These cancers have a high rate of morbidity and mortality, and their overall incidence has been increasing at an estimated rate of 26% over the last 2 decades. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown but various environmental factors have been implicated. Establishing standard therapeutic strategies is challenging for soft tissue sarcomas as more than 50 different histological subtypes exist, each with their own molecular alterations and clinical characteristics, and this combination of tumor heterogeneity and a limited number of clinical cases make detailed omics level molecular studies particularly challenging...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865461/molecular-and-cellular-changes-during-cancer-progression-resulting-from-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations
#10
K Pruitt
Tumorigenesis is a complex process that involves a persistent dismantling of cellular safeguards and checkpoints. These molecular and cellular changes that accumulate over months or decades lead to a change in the fundamental identity of a cell as it transitions from normal to malignant. In this chapter, we will examine some of the molecular changes in the evolving relationship between the genome and epigenome and highlight some of the key changes that occur as normal cells progress to tumor cells. For many years tumorigenesis was almost exclusively attributed to mutations in protein-coding genes...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865460/current-and-emerging-targeting-strategies-for-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
A T Baines, P M Martin, C J Rorie
With a dismal 5-year survival rate of only 8%, pancreatic cancer still remains a very lethal disease. As with most cancers, pancreatic cancer is treated with different combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs which result in side effects and potential drug resistance leading in many cases to the unfortunate demise of the patient. Over recent years, a number of therapies have been developed against numerous molecular targets in cancers. Kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have been shown to target numerous kinases, growth factor receptors, and cell signaling pathways...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865459/molecular-pathogenesis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#12
T J Grant, K Hua, A Singh
Pancreatic cancers arise predominantly from ductal epithelial cells of the exocrine pancreas and are of the ductal adenocarcinoma histological subtype (PDAC). PDAC is an aggressive disease associated with a poor clinical prognosis, weakly effective therapeutic options, and a lack of early detection methods. Furthermore, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PDAC complicates efforts to identify universally efficacious therapies. PDACs commonly harbor activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene, which is a potent driver of tumor initiation and maintenance...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865458/the-interaction-between-human-papillomaviruses-and-the-stromal-microenvironment
#13
B Woodby, M Scott, J Bodily
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in stratified squamous epithelia and cause a variety of malignancies. Current efforts in HPV biology are focused on understanding the virus-host interactions that enable HPV to persist for years or decades in the tissue. The importance of interactions between tumor cells and the stromal microenvironment has become increasingly apparent in recent years, but how stromal interactions impact the normal, benign life cycle of HPVs, or progression of lesions to cancer is less understood...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865457/viral-carcinogenesis
#14
A J Smith, L A Smith
Cancer has been recognized for thousands of years. Egyptians believed that cancer occurred at the will of the gods. Hippocrates believed human disease resulted from an imbalance of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile with cancer being caused by excess black bile. The lymph theory of cancer replaced the humoral theory and the blastema theory replaced the lymph theory. Rudolph Virchow was the first to recognize that cancer cells like all cells came from other cells and believed chronic irritation caused cancer...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697206/preface
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697205/clinical-applications-of-gonadotropins-in-the-female-assisted-reproduction-and-beyond
#16
L Casarini, G Brigante, M Simoni, D Santi
Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and hCG) act in concert in the regulation of female reproductive system. Exploiting this influence, they are part of the assisted reproductive technique protocols. In this review we analyze the effectiveness of the different available gonadotropin formulations and the consequent adverse events. Moreover, different protocols for poor-responders and polycystic ovary syndrome affected women are explored. All these clinical different approaches have specific molecular bases, covered in this review starting from evolution and population genetics, getting to in vitro studies of gonadotropins action...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697204/mouse-models-for-the-study-of-synthesis-secretion-and-action-of-pituitary-gonadotropins
#17
T Rajendra Kumar
Gonadotropins play fundamental roles in reproduction. More than 30years ago, Cga transgenic mice were generated, and more than 20years ago, the phenotypes of Cga null mice were reported. Since then, numerous mouse strains have been generated and characterized to address several questions in reproductive biology involving gonadotropin synthesis, secretion, and action. More recently, extragonadal expression, and in some cases, functions of gonadotropins in nongonadal tissues have been identified. Several genomic and proteomic approaches including novel mouse genome editing tools are available now...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697203/gonadotrope-tumors
#18
S L Asa, S Ezzat
Gonadotrope tumors arise from the gonadotropes of the adenohypophysis. These cells rarely give rise to hyperplasia, usually only in the setting of long-standing premature gonadal failure. In contrast, gonadotrope tumors represent one of the most frequent types of pituitary tumors. Despite their relatively common occurrence, the pathogenesis of gonadotrope tumors remains unknown. Effective nonsurgical therapies remain out of reach. We review the pituitary gonadotrope from the morphologic and functional perspectives to better understand its involvement as the cell of origin of a frequent type of pituitary tumor...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697202/beyond-reproduction-pituitary-hormone-actions-on-bone
#19
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697201/clinical-applications-of-gonadotropins-in-the-male
#20
A Ulloa-Aguirre, S Lira-Albarrán
The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play a pivotal role in reproduction. The synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins are regulated by complex interactions among several endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors of diverse chemical structure. In men, LH regulates the synthesis of androgens by the Leydig cells, whereas FSH promotes Sertoli cell function and thereby influences spermatogenesis. Gonadotropins are complex molecules composed of two subunits, the α- and β-subunit, that are noncovalently associated...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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