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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110756/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
W R Huckle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110755/the-phylogeny-of-placental-evolution-through-dynamic-integrations-of-retrotransposons
#2
K Imakawa, S Nakagawa
Trophoblasts, a major constituent of the placenta, are known to express genes derived from various endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) as well as LTR retrotransposons. However, the evolutionary significance of ERV-derived genes involved in placental development has not been well characterized. In this review, we catalog the diverse morphology of placental structure among mammalian species with note of counterintuitive developments. We then detail the history of ancient placenta development with paternally expressed gene 10 (Peg10/Sirh1), Peg11/Sirh2, and Sirh7/Ldoc1 as LTR retrotransposons, followed by independent captures of ERV-env-related genes such as Syncytin-1, -2, -A, -B, -Rum1, and Fematrin-1 responsible for trophoblast cell fusion, resulting in multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast formation, and possibly morphological diversification of placentas...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110754/transcription-factors-that-regulate-trophoblast-development-and-function
#3
K J Baines, S J Renaud
The placenta is a transient organ that plays a critical role in sustaining pregnancy and supporting fetal growth and nutrition. The placental epithelium is comprised of trophoblast cells. Trophoblast cells are the first cell type to differentiate during embryogenesis and ultimately diversify into a heterogeneous population of cells specializing in distinct functions essential for placentation. The emergence of the trophoblast lineage and subsequent specialization into distinct trophoblast sublineages is tightly regulated by transcription factors...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110753/cell-and-tissue-based-models-for-study-of-placental-development
#4
W R Huckle
Decades of research into the molecular mechanisms by which the placenta forms and functions have sought to improve prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of this vital tissue. This research has included development of experimental models intended to replicate behavior of the native placenta in both health and disease. Animal models devised in rodents, sheep, cattle, or other domestic animal species have the advantage of being biologically "complete," but all differ to some degree in developmental timing and anatomical details compared to the human, suggesting subtle differences in molecular mechanism...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110752/regulation-of-placental-amino-acid-transport-and-fetal-growth
#5
O R Vaughan, F J Rosario, T L Powell, T Jansson
The fetus requires amino acids for the processes of protein synthesis, carbon accretion, oxidative metabolism, and biosynthesis, which ultimately determine growth rate in utero. The fetal supply of amino acids is critically dependent on the transport capacity of the placenta. System A amino acid transporters in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane, directed toward maternal blood, actively accumulate amino acids, while system L exchangers mediate uptake of essential amino acids from the maternal circulation...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110751/novel-regulators-of-hemodynamics-in-the-pregnant-uterus
#6
N C Clark, C A Pru, J K Pru
The uterus is a highly dynamic organ, undergoing dramatic physiological changes during normal cyclicity and pregnancy. Many of these changes involve remodeling of the uterine vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the developing embryo/fetus. Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation/vasoconstriction, and vascular permeability are coordinated by a vast network of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine-signaling factors that derive from a number of cellular sources at the maternal:fetal interface, as well as from tissue outside the uterus...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110750/role-of-exosomes-in-placental-homeostasis-and-pregnancy-disorders
#7
C Salomon, G E Rice
The human placenta is a unique organ that performs the function of the majority of fetal organs across gestation. How the placenta communicates with maternal tissues to prepare them for pregnancy is not fully understood. Recently, it has been established that placental cells can communicate with maternal tissues to regulate their biological function via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are subclassified into exosomes or microvesicles (MVs) according to their size, cell or tissue of origin, functions, and physical features...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110749/contribution-of-syncytins-and-other-endogenous-retroviral-envelopes-to-human-placenta-pathologies
#8
P-A Bolze, M Mommert, F Mallet
Fusion, proliferation, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, and tissue survival are some of the critical functions involved in the physiological and pathological processes of placenta development. Strikingly, some of these properties are shared by envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses. Part of the overall retroviral world, the human retroviral heritage consists of hundred thousands of elements representing a huge amount of genetic material as compared to our 25,000 genes, whereas only a few tenths of retroviral loci still contain envelope genes exhibiting large open reading frames...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110748/comparative-placental-anatomy-divergent-structures-serving-a-common-purpose
#9
S Hafez
The placenta, one of the most important transient organs, forms by the apposition of fetal membranes and maternal tissues. Its role is to mediate physiological exchanges between mother and fetus. The word "apposition" covers a wide range of structural variations. It includes approximation, adhesion, interdigitation, or actual fusion between fetal and maternal tissues.(1) Formation of the placenta establishes hemotropic nutrition for the fetus: essential metabolites must be provided to maintain the growing fetus, and these must come to it via the maternal circulatory system...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865470/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
Kevin Pruitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865469/interplay-between-inflammation-and-epigenetic-changes-in-cancer
#11
A R Maiuri, H M O'Hagan
Immune responses can suppress tumorigenesis, but also contribute to cancer initiation and progression suggesting a complex interaction between the immune system and cancer. Epigenetic alterations, which are heritable changes in gene expression without changes to the DNA sequence, also play a role in carcinogenesis through silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes and activating oncogenic signaling. Interestingly, epithelial cells at sites of chronic inflammation undergo DNA methylation alterations that are similar to those present in cancer cells, suggesting that inflammation may initiate cancer-specific epigenetic changes in epithelial cells...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865468/molecular-and-cellular-changes-in-breast-cancer-and-new-roles-of-lncrnas-in-breast-cancer-initiation-and-progression
#12
M Kumar, R S DeVaux, J I Herschkowitz
Breast cancer is not just one disease but many variations on a theme, comprising a variety of molecular subtypes with distinct etiologies, cellular origins, treatment strategies, and prognoses. Like mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) differ dramatically in expression across breast cancer subtypes and can be used for classification. While there has been considerable emphasis on miRNAs, our knowledge is still in its infancy about the role of lncRNAs that comprise the majority of the mammalian transcriptome...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865467/molecular-changes-during-breast-cancer-and-mechanisms-of-endocrine-therapy-resistance
#13
S Radhi
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in 75% of breast cancers. ERs and their estrogen ligands play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. ERs have a genomic activity involving direct modulation of expression of genes vital to cell growth and survival by their classic nuclear receptors. The nongenomic activity is mediated by membrane receptor tyrosine kinases that activate signaling pathways resulting in activation of ER pathway modulators. Endocrine therapies inhibit the growth promoting activity of estrogen...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865466/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-mediated-signaling-commonly-altered-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
J Deitrick, W M Pruitt
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in females and the third most common cancer diagnosed in males (Torre et al.(1)). In 2012, there were about 1.4 million cases and 693,900 deaths due to colorectal cancer worldwide. It is more common in developed countries, and North America, Europe, and Australia have the highest incidence rates. In the United States, adults have a 5% chance of developing colorectal cancer (Cancer of the colon and rectum-SEER stat fact sheets(2)). Due to the high prevalence of colorectal cancer, understanding the mechanism underlying its initiation and progression in order to find better therapeutic agents will have a high impact in the field of oncology and may improve the treatment of other cancers with shared mechanistic properties...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865465/dysregulation-of-aromatase-in-breast-endometrial-and-ovarian-cancers-an-overview-of-therapeutic-strategies
#15
P R Manna, D Molehin, A U Ahmed
Aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which play crucial roles on a spectrum of developmental and physiological processes. The biological actions of estrogens are classically mediated by binding to two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. Encoded by the cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1) gene, aromatase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, as well as benign and malignant tumors, and is regulated in a pathway- and tissue-specific manner...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865464/myeloproliferative-neoplasms-molecular-drivers-and-therapeutics
#16
G W Reuther
Activating mutations in genes that drive neoplastic cell growth are numerous and widespread in cancer, and specific genetic alterations are associated with certain types of cancer. For example, classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that affect cells of the myeloid lineage, including erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. An activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase is prevalent in these diseases. In MPN patients that lack such a mutation, other genetic changes that lead to activation of the JAK2 signaling pathway are present, indicating deregulation of JAK2 signaling plays an etiological driving role in MPNs, a concept supported by significant evidence from in vivo experimental MPN systems...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865463/molecular-changes-during-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-evolution-and-identification-of-novel-treatment-strategies-through-molecular-stratification
#17
E Karjalainen, G A Repasky
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by impaired differentiation and uncontrollable proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Due to high relapse rates, overall survival for this rapidly progressing disease is poor. The significant challenge in AML treatment is disease heterogeneity stemming from variability in maturation state of leukemic cells of origin, genetic aberrations among patients, and existence of multiple disease clones within a single patient. Disease heterogeneity and the lack of biomarkers for drug sensitivity lie at the root of treatment failure as well as selective efficacy of AML chemotherapies and the emergence of drug resistance...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865462/molecular-changes-associated-with-tumor-initiation-and-progression-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-targeting-the-genome-and-epigenome
#18
P W Halcrow, M Dancer, M Panteah, C Walden, J E Ohm
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, but generally aggressive tumors which disproportionately affect children and young adults. They represent less than 10% of all cancers, but are one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in pediatric patients. These cancers have a high rate of morbidity and mortality, and their overall incidence has been increasing at an estimated rate of 26% over the last 2 decades. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown but various environmental factors have been implicated. Establishing standard therapeutic strategies is challenging for soft tissue sarcomas as more than 50 different histological subtypes exist, each with their own molecular alterations and clinical characteristics, and this combination of tumor heterogeneity and a limited number of clinical cases make detailed omics level molecular studies particularly challenging...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865461/molecular-and-cellular-changes-during-cancer-progression-resulting-from-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations
#19
K Pruitt
Tumorigenesis is a complex process that involves a persistent dismantling of cellular safeguards and checkpoints. These molecular and cellular changes that accumulate over months or decades lead to a change in the fundamental identity of a cell as it transitions from normal to malignant. In this chapter, we will examine some of the molecular changes in the evolving relationship between the genome and epigenome and highlight some of the key changes that occur as normal cells progress to tumor cells. For many years tumorigenesis was almost exclusively attributed to mutations in protein-coding genes...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865460/current-and-emerging-targeting-strategies-for-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#20
A T Baines, P M Martin, C J Rorie
With a dismal 5-year survival rate of only 8%, pancreatic cancer still remains a very lethal disease. As with most cancers, pancreatic cancer is treated with different combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs which result in side effects and potential drug resistance leading in many cases to the unfortunate demise of the patient. Over recent years, a number of therapies have been developed against numerous molecular targets in cancers. Kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have been shown to target numerous kinases, growth factor receptors, and cell signaling pathways...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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