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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
L Casarini, G Brigante, M Simoni, D Santi
Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and hCG) act in concert in the regulation of female reproductive system. Exploiting this influence, they are part of the assisted reproductive technique protocols. In this review we analyze the effectiveness of the different available gonadotropin formulations and the consequent adverse events. Moreover, different protocols for poor-responders and polycystic ovary syndrome affected women are explored. All these clinical different approaches have specific molecular bases, covered in this review starting from evolution and population genetics, getting to in vitro studies of gonadotropins action...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
T Rajendra Kumar
Gonadotropins play fundamental roles in reproduction. More than 30years ago, Cga transgenic mice were generated, and more than 20years ago, the phenotypes of Cga null mice were reported. Since then, numerous mouse strains have been generated and characterized to address several questions in reproductive biology involving gonadotropin synthesis, secretion, and action. More recently, extragonadal expression, and in some cases, functions of gonadotropins in nongonadal tissues have been identified. Several genomic and proteomic approaches including novel mouse genome editing tools are available now...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
S L Asa, S Ezzat
Gonadotrope tumors arise from the gonadotropes of the adenohypophysis. These cells rarely give rise to hyperplasia, usually only in the setting of long-standing premature gonadal failure. In contrast, gonadotrope tumors represent one of the most frequent types of pituitary tumors. Despite their relatively common occurrence, the pathogenesis of gonadotrope tumors remains unknown. Effective nonsurgical therapies remain out of reach. We review the pituitary gonadotrope from the morphologic and functional perspectives to better understand its involvement as the cell of origin of a frequent type of pituitary tumor...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
A Ulloa-Aguirre, S Lira-Albarrán
The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play a pivotal role in reproduction. The synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins are regulated by complex interactions among several endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors of diverse chemical structure. In men, LH regulates the synthesis of androgens by the Leydig cells, whereas FSH promotes Sertoli cell function and thereby influences spermatogenesis. Gonadotropins are complex molecules composed of two subunits, the α- and β-subunit, that are noncovalently associated...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
C E Stallings, J Kapali, B S Ellsworth
The pituitary gonadotrope is central to reproductive function. Gonadotropes develop in a systematic process dependent on signaling factors secreted from surrounding tissues and those produced within the pituitary gland itself. These signaling pathways are important for stimulating specific transcription factors that ultimately regulate the expression of genes and define gonadotrope identity. Proper gonadotrope development and ultimately gonadotrope function are essential for normal sexual maturation and fertility...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
S A Gray, R N Coler, D Carter, A A Siddiqui
There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria, as well as for chronic and debilitating infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The term "NTD" emerged at the beginning of the new millennium to describe a set of diseases that are characterized as (1) poverty related, (2) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, (3) lacking public health attention and inadequate industrial investment, (4) having poor research funding and a weak research and development (R&D) pipeline, (5) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and (6) often having no safe and long-lasting treatment available...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
A Q Byrne, J Voyles, G Rios-Sotelo, E B Rosenblum
Advances in genetics and genomics have provided new tools for the study of emerging infectious diseases. Researchers can now move quickly from simple hypotheses to complex explanations for pathogen origin, spread, and mechanisms of virulence. Here we focus on the application of genomics to understanding the biology of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a novel and deadly pathogen of amphibians. We provide a brief history of the system, then focus on key insights into Bd variation garnered from genomics approaches, and finally, highlight new frontiers for future discoveries...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
F Meyer
Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
C Watters, D Fleming, D Bishop, K P Rumbaugh
From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
J A Colmer-Hamood, N Dzvova, C Kruczek, A N Hamood
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and acute systemic infections in severely burned patients and immunocompromised patients including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and HIV infected individuals. In response to the environmental conditions at specific infection sites, P. aeruginosa expresses certain sets of cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors that produce tissue damage. Analyzing the mechanisms that govern the production of these virulence factors in vitro requires media that closely mimic the environmental conditions within the infection sites...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
J Thekkiniath, R Ravirala, M San Francisco
Plant pathogens belonging to the genus Erwinia cause diseases in several economically important plants. Plants respond to bacterial infection with a powerful chemical arsenal and signaling molecules to rid themselves of the microbes. Although our understanding of how Erwinia initiate infections in plants has become clear, a comprehensive understanding of how these bacteria rid themselves of noxious antimicrobial agents during the infection is important. Multidrug efflux pumps are key factors in bacterial resistance toward antibiotics by reducing the level of antimicrobial compounds in the bacterial cell...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
N Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat
Dickeya, a genus of the Enterobacteriaceae family, all cause plant diseases. They are aggressive necrotrophs that have both a wide geographic distribution and a wide host range. As a plant pathogen, Dickeya has had to adapt to a vegetarian diet. Plants constitute a large storage of carbohydrates; they contain substantial amounts of soluble sugars and the plant cell wall is composed of long polysaccharides. Metabolic functions used by Dickeya in order to multiply during infection are essential aspects of pathogenesis...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
S Reverchon, G Muskhelisvili, W Nasser
The pectinolytic Dickeya spp. are Gram-negative bacteria causing severe disease in a wide range of plant species. Although the Dickeya genus was initially restricted to tropical and subtropical areas, two Dickeya species (D. dianthicola and D. solani) emerged recently in potato cultures in Europe. Soft-rot, the visible symptoms, is caused by plant cell wall degrading enzymes, mainly pectate lyases (Pels) that cleave the pectin polymer. However, an efficient colonization of the host requires many additional elements including early factors (eg, flagella, lipopolysaccharide, and exopolysaccharide) that allow adhesion of the bacteria and intermediate factors involved in adaptation to new growth conditions encountered in the host (eg, oxidative stress, iron starvation, and toxic compounds)...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
N German, F Lüthje, X Hao, R Rønn, C Rensing
Transition metals, such as iron, copper, zinc, and manganese play an important role in many bacterial biological processes that add to an overall evolutional fitness of bacteria. They are often involved in regulation of bacterial virulence as a mechanism of host invasion. However, the same transition metals are known to play an important role in host-defense mechanisms against bacteria through Fenton chemistry evoked toxicity as an example. Copper and zinc are used as a mechanism to poison bacteria whereas other metals, such as, iron and manganese are withheld by the predator to prevent reconstruction of Fe-S clusters and the use of Mn as a protectant against reactive oxygen species...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
J L Kelliher, T E Kehl-Fie
Transition metals such as manganese are essential nutrients for both pathogen and host. Vertebrates exploit this necessity to combat invading microbes by restricting access to these critical nutrients, a defense known as nutritional immunity. During infection, the host uses several mechanisms to impose manganese limitation. These include removal of manganese from the phagolysosome, sequestration of extracellular manganese, and utilization of other metals to prevent bacterial acquisition of manganese. In order to cause disease, pathogens employ a variety of mechanisms that enable them to adapt to and counter nutritional immunity...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Sudha K Shenoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
P-Y Jean-Charles, N J Freedman, S K Shenoy
β-Arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 are homologous adaptor proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. They belong to a four-member family of arrestins that regulate the vast family of seven-transmembrane receptors that couple to heterotrimeric G proteins (7TMRs or GPCRs), and that modulate 7TMR signal transduction. β-Arrestins were originally identified in the context of signal inhibition via the 7TMRs because they competed with and thereby blocked G protein coupling to 7TMRs. Currently, in addition to their role as desensitizers of signaling, β-arrestins are appreciated as multifunctional adaptors that mediate trafficking and signal transduction of not only 7TMRs, but a growing list of additional receptors, ion channels, and nonreceptor proteins...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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