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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413033/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Raouf A Khalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413032/matrix-metalloproteinases-in-myocardial-infarction-and-heart-failure
#2
Kristine Y DeLeon-Pennell, Cesar A Meschiari, Mira Jung, Merry L Lindsey
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death, accounting for 600,000 deaths each year in the United States. In addition, heart failure accounts for 37% of health care spending. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) increase after myocardial infarction (MI) and correlate with left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure patients. MMPs regulate the remodeling process by facilitating extracellular matrix turnover and inflammatory signaling. Due to the critical role MMPs play during cardiac remodeling, there is a need to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of MMPs, including the biological function of the downstream products of MMP proteolysis...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413031/matrix-metalloproteinases-in-remodeling-of-lower-extremity-veins-and-chronic-venous-disease
#3
Yunfei Chen, Wei Peng, Joseph D Raffetto, Raouf A Khalil
The veins of the lower extremity are equipped with efficient wall, contractile vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and competent valves in order to withstand the high venous hydrostatic pressure in the lower limb and allow unidirectional movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart. The vein wall structure and function are in part regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by different cells in the venous wall including fibroblasts, VSM, and leukocytes...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413030/the-role-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-production-of-aortic-aneurysm
#4
Simon W Rabkin
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm because the histology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by the loss of smooth muscle cells in the aortic media and the destruction of extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, AAA have evidence of inflammation and the cellular elements involved in inflammation such as macrophages can produce and/or activate MMPs This chapter focuses on human aortic aneurysm that are not due to specific known genetic causes because this type of aneurysm is the more common type...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413029/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-matrix-degrading-metalloproteinases-mmps-in-atherosclerosis
#5
Bethan A Brown, Helen Williams, Sarah J George
Atherosclerosis leads to blockage of arteries, culminating in myocardial infarction, and stroke. The involvement of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) in atherosclerosis is established and many studies have highlighted the importance of various MMPs in this process. MMPs were first implicated in atherosclerosis due to their ability to degrade extracellular matrix components, which can lead to increased plaque instability. However, more recent work has highlighted a multitude of roles for MMPs in addition to breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413028/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-leukocyte-activation
#6
Kate S Smigiel, William C Parks
As their name implies, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to degrade extracellular matrix proteins, a function that is indeed performed by some members. However, regardless of their cell source, matrix degradation is not the only function of these enzymes. Rather, individual MMPs have been shown to regulate specific immune processes, such as leukocyte influx and migration, antimicrobial activity, macrophage activation, and restoration of barrier function, typically by processing a range of nonmatrix protein substrates...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413027/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-platelet-function
#7
Paolo Gresele, Emanuela Falcinelli, Manuela Sebastiano, Stefania Momi
Platelets contain and release several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), including MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -14 and TIMP-1, -2, and -4. Although devoid of a nucleus, platelets also synthesize TIMP-2 upon activation. Platelet-released MMPs/TIMPs, as well as MMPs generated by other cells within the cardiovascular system, modulate platelet function in health and disease. In particular, a normal hemostatic platelet response to vessel wall injury may be transformed into pathologic thrombus formation by the release from platelets and/or by the local generation of some MMPs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413026/the-balance-between-metalloproteinases-and-timps-critical-regulator-of-microvascular-endothelial-cell-function-in-health-and-disease
#8
Marcello G Masciantonio, Christopher K S Lee, Valerie Arpino, Sanjay Mehta, Sean E Gill
Endothelial cells (EC), especially the microvascular EC (MVEC), have critical functions in health and disease. For example, healthy MVEC provide a barrier between the fluid and protein found within the blood, and the surrounding tissue. Following tissue injury or infection, the microvascular barrier is often disrupted due to activation and dysfunction of the MVEC. Multiple mechanisms promote MVEC activation and dysfunction, including stimulation by cytokines, mechanical interaction with activated leukocytes, and exposure to harmful leukocyte-derived molecules, which collectively result in a loss of MVEC barrier function...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413025/biochemical-and-biological-attributes-of-matrix-metalloproteinases
#9
Ning Cui, Min Hu, Raouf A Khalil
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in the degradation of various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain. MMPs are commonly classified on the basis of their substrates and the organization of their structural domains into collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type (MT)-MMPs, and other MMPs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253993/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
P Hemachandra Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253992/molecular-links-and-biomarkers-of-stroke-vascular-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
M Vijayan, S Kumar, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
Stroke is a very common neurological disease, and it occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted and the subsequent shortage of oxygen and nutrients causes damage to the brain tissue. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer a stroke. Stroke can be broadly classified in two major clinical types: ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke. Research also revealed that stroke, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) increase with a number of modifiable factors, and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253991/micrornas-as-peripheral-biomarkers-in-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#12
S Kumar, M Vijayan, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are found in the circulatory biofluids considering the important molecules for biomarker study in aging and age-related diseases. Blood or blood components (serum/plasma) are primary sources of circulatory miRNAs and can release these in cell-free form either bound with some protein components or encapsulated with microvesicle particles, called exosomes. miRNAs are quite stable in the peripheral circulation and can be detected by high-throughput techniques like qRT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253990/mitochondrial-perturbation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes
#13
F Akhter, D Chen, S F Yan, S S Yan
Mitochondria are well-known cellular organelles that play a vital role in cellular bioenergetics, heme biosynthesis, thermogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid catabolism, and other metabolic activities. Given the extensive role of mitochondria in cell function, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a part in many diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence that impaired mitochondrial function is a causative factor in these diseases. Studying mitochondrial function in diseased cells vs healthy cells may reveal the modified mechanisms and molecular components involved in specific disease states...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253989/the-kidney-in-aging-physiological-changes-and-pathological-implications
#14
H Sobamowo, S S Prabhakar
Aging is associated with progressive decline in renal function along with concurrent morphological changes that ultimately lead to glomerulosclerosis. The mechanisms leading to such changes in the kidney with age as well as the basis of controversies that surround the physiological basis vs pathological nature of aging kidney are the focus of this in-depth review. In addition, the renal functional defects of acid-base homeostasis and electrolyte disturbances in elderly and the physiological basis of such disorders are also discussed...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253988/mitochondria-cybrids-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
R H Swerdlow, S Koppel, I Weidling, C Hayley, Y Ji, H M Wilkins
Mitochondrial and bioenergetic function change with advancing age and may drive aging phenotypes. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are also documented in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some instances AD mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are reminiscent of those observed with advancing age but are greater in magnitude. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction could, therefore, link neurodegeneration to brain aging. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects in AD patients are not brain-limited, and mitochondrial function can be linked to classic AD histologic changes including amyloid precursor protein processing to beta amyloid...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253987/metabolic-syndrome-and-the-cellular-phase-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
S Pugazhenthi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and progressive neurodegeneration. The major hallmarks of AD pathology are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, AD often coexists with other brain microvascular lesions caused by comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The risk factors for these comorbidities are collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Clinical AD is preceded by decades of prodromal cellular phase...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253986/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-extended-longevity-and-the-roles-in-various-disease-models
#17
D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253985/mitochondria-targeted-molecules-as-potential-drugs-to-treat-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
A P Reddy, P H Reddy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common multifactorial mental illness affecting the elderly population in the world. Its prevalence increases as person ages. There is no known drug or agent that can delay or prevent the AD and its progression. Extensive research has revealed that multiple cellular pathways involved, including amyloid beta production, mitochondrial structural and functional changes, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and NFT formation, inflammatory responses, and neuronal loss in AD pathogenesis...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#19
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253983/micrornas-aging-cellular-senescence-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
P H Reddy, J Williams, F Smith, J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, R Kandimalla, C S Kuruva, R Wang, M Manczak, X Yin, A P Reddy
Aging is a normal process of living being. It has been reported that multiple cellular changes, including oxidative damage/mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, inflammation, may accelerate the aging process, leading to cellular senescence. These cellular changes induce age-related human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cardiovascular, cancer, and skin diseases. Changes in somatic and germ-line DNA and epigenetics are reported to play large roles in accelerating the onset of human diseases...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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