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Journal of Evidence-based Medicine

Qiaozhi Hu, Bin Wu, Mei Zhan, Weiguo Jia, Yimei Huang, Ting Xu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the level, preventability and categories of adverse events (AEs) in Chinese geriatric patients identified by medical record review using the Global Trigger Tool. The applicability of the GTT was also assessed to explore possible modifications for trigger tools. METHODS: The study was conducted at a 4300-bed tertiary teaching hospital. Twenty randomly-selected medical records for patients over 60 were reviewed every 2 weeks from January 1 2015 to December 31st, 2015...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Daniel Simancas-Racines, Nadia Montero-Oleas, Robin W M Vernooij, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Paulina Fuentes, Ignasi Gich, Ricardo Hidalgo, Maria José Martinez-Zapata, Xavier Bonfill, Pablo Alonso-Coello
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are essential in health care. The quality of recommendations included in clinical practice guidelines (CPG), regarding this intervention, has not been systematically evaluated. This paper systematically assessed CPGs for RBC-transfusion, to appraise their methodological quality, to explore changes in quality over time, and to assess the consistency of the hemoglobin threshold (HT) recommendations. METHODS: We searched for CPGs that included recommendations of RBC-transfusion in generic databases, compiler entities, registries, clearinghouses and guideline developers...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Aryono Hendarto, Mikhael Yosia, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro
OBJECTIVE: To determine the quality of reports of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the field of pediatrics conducted by Indonesian investigators. METHODS: All pediatric RCTs conducted by Indonesian researchers were sourced from international and national (local) publications. The assessment was done using both the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trial (CONSORT) 2010 statement and Jadad Scale. Overall scores from each assessment are reported with a comparison of overall scores between studies in international and local publications...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Robert L Grant
AIM: Bayesian statistical methods can allow for more complete and accurate incorporation of evidence in meta-analyses. However, these methods remain under-utilized. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to examine the proportion of biomedical meta-analyses that used Bayesian methods in the period 2005-2016. The review also examined the reproducibility of the work, the cited sources, the reasons for it, its success or failure, the type of model and prior distributions, and whether a mixture of Bayesian and frequentist methods were employed...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Paula Miliana Leal, Carolina de Castro Martins, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia, Sérgio d'Avila
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the risk factors for maxillofacial injuries among victims of traffic accidents. METHOD: A systematic review of articles published until February 2017 was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers (ϰ = 0.841). The risk of bias in the selected studies was assessed using an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Reza Jannati, Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Seyedeh Zahra Allahgholipour, Milad Eidy, Mojtaba Hajihoseini
OBJECTIVE: During the last years, different prevalences of dental pulps had been reported from different parts of the world. Combining these original estimates will provide useful information for policymaking in the field of health, treatment and research. This study aims to estimate the global prevalence of pulp stones. METHODS: Electronic databanks such as PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Cochrane, and also Google scholar motor engine were searched by 2 researchers using related keywords...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Frank Peinemann, Alexander Labeit
BACKGROUND: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) proposes to provide better wound healing than standard wound management. Evidence quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) varies. METHODS: We included participants with any kind of wounds and commercial as well as the homemade NPWT system. Comparators were any other wound dressing including variant NPWTs. We included RCTs randomizing patients or wounds in parallel or crossover designs. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library on January 03, 2018...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Pouran Mokhtari Zanjani, Elahe Ahmadnia, Roghieh Kharaghani
OBJECTIVE: There are some studies on the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in a different population of Iranian women. This study aimed to estimate the ectopic pregnancy prevalence in obstetrical clients and infertile patients treated by assisted reproductive technologies in Iran. METHODS: International and national databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Magiran, Iran doc, and Iran Medex were searched up to January 2016. Also, conference databases were searched...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Wisit Kaewput, Charat Thongprayoon, Mathirut Mungthin, Sarawut Jindarat, Narittaya Varothai, Picha Suwannahitatorn, Ram Rangsin, Michael A Mao, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the nationwide trends in optimal diabetic care and complications of elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients over a 6-year period in Thailand. METHODS: T2DM patients aged 65 years or older who received medical care at public hospitals in Thailand from 2010 to 2015 were included. The optimal T2DM care in elderly patients was defined as (1) blood pressure (BP) < 140/90, (2) hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) < 7%, (3) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 100 mg/dL, (4) use of antiplatelet medications, and (5) use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in hypertensive patients...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Arsenio Paez
The role of expertise in evidence-based medicine (EBM) and practice (EBP) has long been debated. In the early years of the EBP movement, the role of expertise and experience were diminished in clinical decision-making. However, the concepts of EBP are evolving. A more nuanced view of the value of clinician expertise, based on experience and clinical judgement, has emerged. This article proposes that clinical expertise does not belong within the evidence hierarchy's decision-making pyramid as the lowest form of evidence, but rather alongside it, representing a complementary source of knowledge that supports the processes of EBP...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Ronpichai Chokesuwattanaskul, Tarun Bathini, Charat Thongprayoon, Somchai Preechawat, Oisin A O'Corragain, Pavida Pachariyanon, Patompong Ungprasert, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested a high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart transplant recipients. However, incidence trends of AF in heart transplant recipients remain unclear. The study's aims were (1) to investigate the pooled incidence/incidence trends of AF following heart transplantation and (2) to assess the mortality risk of heart transplant recipients with AF. METHODS: A literature search for studies that reported the incidence of AF following heart transplantation was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Database from inception through March 2018...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Jingsi Dong, Bingjie Li, Qinghua Zhou, Depei Huang
Tumor immunotherapy is praised as "green therapy," which can attack tumor by mobilizing immune system. By removing the inhibition of immune cells, checkpoint inhibitors help T cells to identify and kill tumor cells. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to its effectiveness as a tumor therapy with a large number of clinical data. Currently, inhibitors of 2 checkpoints, CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, have been approved to be listed. In particular, the latter has achieved breakthrough progress in non-small cell lung cancer in recent years, bringing about changes in the therapeutic strategy of lung cancer, as well as challenges to the evaluation criteria...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Udaya K Ranawaka, Ashwini de Abrew, Manujasri Wimalachandra, Chandanie A Wanigatunge, Lalani C Rajapakse, Colvin Goonaratna
AIM: Prospective registration in a freely accessible public platform is a key step in the ethical conduct of clinical trials. Little is known of the awareness of clinical trial registration among the scientific community. This study aimed to assess awareness of clinical trial registration among participants attending a medical congress in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Knowledge of trial registration was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, which spanned domains such as involvement in research, and knowledge and perceptions regarding trial registration...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Farzaneh Barzkar, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Jalil Koohpayehzadeh
AIM: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of graduate physicians toward evidence-based medicine (EBM) and the barriers to the implementation of EBM worldwide. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched systematically with appropriate search terms up to September 2017. References of the articles detected by the search were screened for any new articles. Risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted from the full-text articles based on the study summary measures and were collected in a data table...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Panadeekarn Panjawatanan, Patompong Ungprasert
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common chronic liver diseases. Several risk factors for the progression of liver fibrosis among these patients have been identified. Use of cannabis could be another risk factor, but the results from epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. METHODS: Comprehensive literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through December 2017 to identify studies that compared the risk of advanced liver fibrosis among HCV-infected patients who use and who do not use cannabis...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Per Lytsy
P-values are often calculated when testing hypotheses in quantitative settings, and low P-values are typically used as evidential measures to support research findings in published medical research. This article reviews old and new arguments questioning the evidential value of P-values. Critiques of the P-value include that it is confounded, fickle, and overestimates the evidence against the null. P-values may turn out falsely low in studies due to random or systematic errors. Even correctly low P-values do not logically provide support to any hypothesis...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Mengqin Zhang, Min Wang, Xiufang Zhao, Jianhua Ren, Jie Xiang, Biru Luo, Jianrong Yao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence rates and risk factors for episiotomy during vaginal childbirth in a Western China context. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based cohort study was conducted using computerized data of 3721 singleton vaginal deliveries after 28 weeks of gestation. Women who underwent episiotomy were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of episiotomy was 44.0% (1636/3721); 52.9% (1458/2756) among primiparas and 18...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Ying Luo, Shaomin Zhang, Rongrong Zheng, Lian Xu, Jinhui Wu
BACKGROUND: Depression is an independent risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of depression on heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: This study included patients with a stable CAD who admitted to our hospital in the geriatric medical center from August 2016 to December 2016. All patients agreed to participate in the study and sign informed consent. The study group included 90 CAD patients with a diagnosis of depression and 99 CAD patients without depression...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Wenwen Chen, Jiajie Yu, Huan Tao, Yujia Cai, Youping Li, Xin Sun
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of motherwort injection alone or combined with oxytocin for preventing postpartum hemorrhage in pregnant women with caesarean section. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials were performed. PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese database Sino-Med, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database, WanFang, and ClinicalTrials...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Susan L Norris
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a leading source of trustworthy guidelines in public health, including in emergencies. In addition to standard guidelines produced in preparation for emergency response, WHO has processes and methods for issuing guidelines in the context of urgent public health need, including rapid advice guidelines (production time 2 to 3 months) and health emergency interim guidelines (days to weeks). There are numerous challenges to producing guidelines in response to an emergency in addition to the compressed timeline which necessitates truncating or modifying standard processes...
August 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
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