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Global Health Action

Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Devaki Nambiar, Suparmi, Nunik Kusumawardani
The task of health inequality monitoring is not possible without the availability of appropriate and high-quality data at various levels. Data source mapping - a process by which data sources are systematically enlisted, their properties detailed and each source appraised for the purposes of monitoring - is an essential initial step for health inequality monitoring. We outline a simple process along with a template for data source mapping and its application in Indonesia, concluding with the lessons learned from this process, in terms of both challenges as well as the opportunities and advantages arising from the use of equity-related data from the Indonesian health information system...
2018: Global Health Action
Jane Doherty, Doris Kirigia, Chijioke Okoli, Jane Chuma, N Ezumah, Hyacinth Ichoku, Kara Hanson, Diane McIntyre
BACKGROUND: The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. METHODS: Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach...
2018: Global Health Action
I D Ebuenyi, E V Syurina, J F G Bunders, B J Regeer
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of inclusive employment, described in Goal 8 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), employment of persons with psychiatric disabilities in Africa is lower than among the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review is to explore evidence related to the barriers to and facilitators of employment of persons with psychiatric disabilities in Africa. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using six relevant electronic databases of articles published between 1990 and 2017...
2018: Global Health Action
Shouneez Yousuf Hussein, De Wet Swanepoel, Faheema Mahomed, Leigh Biagio de Jager
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the most common developmental disorders identifiable at birth with its prevalence increasing throughout school years. However, early detection programs are mostly unavailable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where more than 80% of children with hearing loss reside. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the feasibility of a smartphone-based hearing screening program for preschool children operated by community healthcare workers (CHWs) in community-based early childhood development (ECD) centers...
2018: Global Health Action
Rahab Mbau, Lucy Gilson
BACKGROUND: Health systems, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, are commonly plagued by poor access, poor performance, inefficient use and inequitable distribution of resources. To improve health system efficiency, equity and effectiveness, the World Development Report of 1993 proposed a first wave of health sector reforms, which has been followed by further waves. Various authors, however, suggest that the early reforms did not lead to the anticipated improvements. They offer, as one plausible explanation for this gap, the limited consideration given to the influence over implementation of the software aspects of the health system, such as organisational culture - which has not previously been fully investigated...
2018: Global Health Action
Tom Decroo, Rafael Van den Bergh, Ajay M V Kumar, Rony Zachariah, Erin Schillberg, Philip Owiti, Wilma van den Boogaard, Guido Benedetti, Safieh Shah, Engy Ali, Anthony D Harries, Anthony J Reid
The Structured Operational Research Training Initiative (SORT-IT) has been shown to be very effective in strengthening capacity for conducting operational research, publishing in scientific journals and fostering policy and practice change. The 'classic' model includes three face-to-face modules during which, respectively, a study protocol, a data analysis plan, and a manuscript are elaborated. Meanwhile, the lectures of the SORT-IT are available online as YouTube videos. Given the availability of this online material and the experiences with online mentorship of the faculty, we piloted a first blended distance/residential SORT-IT...
2018: Global Health Action
Mahmoud Werfalli, Reshma Kassanjee, Sebastiana Kalula, Paul Kowal, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Naomi S Levitt
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease with severe late complications. It is known to impact the quality of life and cause disability, which may affect an individual's capacity to manage and maintain longer-term health and well-being. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of self-report diabetes, and association between diabetes and each of health-related quality of life and disability amongst South Africa's older adults. To study both the direct relationship between diabetes and these two measures, as well as moderation effects, i...
2018: Global Health Action
Apollonia Kasege Peneza, Stephen Oswald Maluka
BACKGROUND: Male involvement in pregnancy and childbirth has been shown to improve maternal and child health. Many countries have used different strategies to promote participation of men in antenatal care services. While many strategies have been employed to promote male participation in antenatal care, few have been evaluated to provide much-needed lessons to support wider adoption. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing strategies that were used by health providers and the community to promote male participation in antenatal care services and challenges associated with the implementation of these interventions in Southern Tanzania...
2018: Global Health Action
Rebecca Helman, Kopano Ratele
BACKGROUND: In light of the global health burden of violence, which is predominantly perpetrated by men, studies have explored the relationship between masculinities and violence. However, there is a relative lack of work focusing on non-hegemonic men and masculinities in relation to violence. Such work has the potential to advance violence prevention work. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to show the shifting relationship between constructions of violent and non-violent masculinity in the talk of a genderqueer man...
2018: Global Health Action
Katharina Wahedi, Walter Flores, Claudia Beiersmann, Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Albrecht Jahn
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the Centre for the Studies of Equity and Governance in Health Systems (CEGSS) in Guatemala launched an online platform, which facilitates complaints about health services via text messages. The aim is to collect, systemise and forward such complaints to relevant institutions, and to create a data pool on perceived deficits of health care in rural Guatemala. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the online platform is an accepted, user-friendly and efficient medium to engage citizens in the reporting of health care deficiencies in Guatemala...
2018: Global Health Action
Tolib Mirzoev, Sumit Kane
BACKGROUND: Information from patient complaints - a widely accepted measure of patient satisfaction with services - can inform improvements in service quality, and contribute towards overall health systems performance. While analyses of data from patient complaints received much emphasis, there is limited published literature on key interventions to improve complaint management systems. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are two-fold: first, to synthesise existing evidence and provide practical options to inform future policy and practice and, second, to identify key outstanding gaps in the existing literature to inform agenda for future research...
2018: Global Health Action
Hanna Strømholt Bremnes, Åsil Kjøl Wiig, Muzdalifat Abeid, Elisabeth Darj
BACKGROUND: Maternal and infant mortality rates in Tanzania have decreased over the past decades, but remain high. One of the challenges the country faces, is the lack of skilled health care workers. High fertility rates make midwives and their patients particularly susceptible to stress as a result of understaffing. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the challenges midwives face in their day-to-day practice at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania, and investigates which measures the midwives themselves find necessary to implement to improve their situation...
2018: Global Health Action
Sarah McCuskee, Andres Garchitorena, Ann C Miller, Lara Hall, Mohammed Ali Ouenzar, Victor R Rabeza, Ranto H Ramananjato, Hery-Tiana Rahaniraka Razanadrakato, Marius Randriamanambintsoa, Michele Barry, Matthew H Bonds
BACKGROUND: Child malnutrition, a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is particularly severe in Madagascar, where 47% of children under 5 years are stunted (low height-for-age) and 8% are wasted (low weight-for-height). Widespread poverty and a weak health system have hindered attempts to implement life-saving malnutrition interventions in Madagascar during critical periods for growth faltering. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to shed light on the most important factors associated with child malnutrition, both acute and chronic, and the timing of growth faltering, in Ifanadiana, a rural district of Madagascar...
2018: Global Health Action
Jongho Heo, Soo-Young Yu, Jinseon Yi, You-Seon Nam, Dinh Thai Son, Juhwan Oh, Jong-Koo Lee
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of underweight is high among women in Asian countries, despite nutritional changes in the region. Previous studies have demonstrated independent associations between female body weight, marital status and economic status. However, few studies have investigated possible interaction between marital and economic status in relation to Asian women's body weight. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test associations between household wealth, marital status and underweight among women living in the Quoc Oai district of Vietnam and to identify wealth-marital status interaction in relation to body weight in these women...
2018: Global Health Action
Easter Olwanda, Jennifer Shen, James G Kahn, Katelyn Bryant-Comstock, Megan J Huchko
BACKGROUND: Improving patient flow and reducing over-crowding can improve quality, promptness of care, and patient satisfaction. Given low utilization of preventive care in low-resource countries, improved patient flows are especially important in these settings. OBJECTIVE: Compare patient flow and provider efficiency between two cervical cancer screening strategies via self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: We collected time and motion data for patients screened for cervical cancer in 12 communities in rural Migori County, Kenya as part of a larger cluster randomized trial...
2018: Global Health Action
Lily Beth Lumagbas, Harry Laurence Selby Coleman, Joske Bunders, Antoine Pariente, Anne Belonje, Tjard de Cock Buning
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled...
2018: Global Health Action
Theadora Swift Koller, Victoria Saint, Rustini Floranita, Gita Maya Koemara Sakti, Imran Pambudi, Lukas Hermawan, Benedicte Briot, Patricia Frenz, Orielle Solar, Pilar Campos, Eugenio Villar, Veronica Magar
The World Health Organization's Innov8 Approach for Reviewing National Health Programmes to Leave No One Behind is an eight-step process that supports the operationalization of the Sustainable Development Goals' commitment to 'leave no one behind'. In 2014-2015, Innov8 was adapted and applied in Indonesia to review how the national neonatal and maternal health action plans could become more equity-oriented, rights-based and gender-responsive, and better address critical social determinants of health. The process was led by the Indonesian Ministry of Health, with the support of WHO...
January 2018: Global Health Action
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Devaki Nambiar, Jihane Tawilah, Anne Schlotheuber, Benedicte Briot, Massee Bateman, Tamzyn Davey, Nunik Kusumawardani, Theingi Myint, Mariet Tetty Nuryetty, Sabarinah Prasetyo, Suparmi, Rustini Floranita
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in health represent a major problem in many countries, including Indonesia. Addressing health inequality is a central component of the Sustainable Development Goals and a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO provides technical support for health inequality monitoring among its member states. Following a capacity-building workshop in the WHO South-East Asia Region in 2014, Indonesia expressed interest in incorporating health-inequality monitoring into its national health information system...
January 2018: Global Health Action
David Cameron, Jasper Ubels, Fredrik Norström
BACKGROUND: The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)...
2018: Global Health Action
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
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