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Global Health Action

David Cameron, Jasper Ubels, Fredrik Norström
BACKGROUND: The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)...
2018: Global Health Action
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Michael Schriver, Vincent Kalumire Cubaka, Peter Vedsted, Innocent Besigye, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: External supervision of primary health care facilities to monitor and improve services is common in low-income countries. Currently there are no tools to measure the quality of support in external supervision in these countries. AIM: To develop a provider-reported instrument to assess the support delivered through external supervision in Rwanda and other countries. METHODS: "External supervision: Provider Evaluation of Supervisor Support" (ExPRESS) was developed in 18 steps, primarily in Rwanda...
2018: Global Health Action
Lily Kpobi, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: Many current debates about global mental health have increasingly called for collaboration between biomedical and traditional medical health systems. Despite these calls, not much has been written about the variables that would influence such collaboration. To a large extent, collaboration dialogues have considered biomedicine on the one hand, and a wide range of traditional and faith-based treatments on the other hand. However, this dualistic bifurcation does not reflect the plurality of healing systems in operation in many contexts, and the diverse investments that different non-biomedical healing approaches may have in their own power to heal...
2018: Global Health Action
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
Eduard J Beck, J Mark Shields, Gaurang Tanna, Gerrit Henning, Ian de Vega, Gail Andrews, Philippe Boucher, Lionel Benting, Jesus Maria Garcia-Calleja, John Cutler, Whitney Ewing, Boonchai Kijsanayotin, Tapiwanashe Kujinga, Mary Mahy, Keletso Makofane, Kim Marsh, Chujit Nacheeva, Noma Rangana, Mary Felissa Reyes Vega, Keith Sabin, Olga Varetska, Steven Macharia Wanyee, Stephen Watiti, Brian Williams, Jinkou Zhao, Cesar Nunez, Peter Ghys, Daniel Low-Beer
Many resource-limited countries are scaling up health services and health-information systems (HISs). The HIV Cascade framework aims to link treatment services and programs to improve outcomes and impact. It has been adapted to HIV prevention services, other infectious and non-communicable diseases, and programs for specific populations. Where successful, it links the use of health services by individuals across different disease categories, time and space. This allows for the development of longitudinal health records for individuals and de-identified individual level information is used to monitor and evaluate the use, cost, outcome and impact of health services...
2018: Global Health Action
Patrick McMullan, Vamadevan S Ajay, Ravi Srinivas, Sandeep Bhalla, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Amitava Banerjee
BACKGROUND: In India, 50-65% of the population face difficulties in accessing medicines. The Health Impact Fund (HIF) is a novel proposal whereby pharmaceutical companies would be paid based on the measured global health impact of their drugs. We conducted a key stakeholder analysis to explore access to medicines in India, acceptability of the HIF and potential barriers and facilitators at policy level. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a stakeholder analysis of the HIF in India: to determine key stakeholder views regarding access to medicines in India; to evaluate acceptability of the HIF; and to assess potential barriers and facilitators to the HIF as a policy...
2018: Global Health Action
Tingzhong Yang, Sihui Peng, Ross Barnett, Chichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. OBJECTIVES: The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. METHODS: Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities...
2018: Global Health Action
Khem Narayan Pokhrel, Kalpana Gaulee Pokhrel, Sanjeev Raj Neupane, Vidya Dev Sharma
BACKGROUND: People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often suffer from alcohol-use disorders resulting in their poor health and treatment outcomes. Little is known about the association of harmful alcohol drinking with their adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and health-related quality of life (QOL) in low-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between harmful alcohol drinking, adherence to ART and health-related QOL in HIV-positive people, stratified by gender, in Nepal...
2018: Global Health Action
Lars Jerdén, James Dalton, Helene Johansson, Julie Sorensen, Paul Jenkins, Lars Weinehall
BACKGROUND: Despite various guidelines, shortcomings in lifestyle counseling in primary care have been demonstrated. Comparisons between countries may provide insight on how to improve such counseling. To the best of our knowledge, studies comparing patients' views of lifestyle counseling beween the United States (US) and European countries have not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare patients' perspectives in the US and Sweden on primary care providers' counseling on weight, eating habits, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption...
2018: Global Health Action
Kedar Mehta, Ajay M V Kumar, Sudhir Chawla, Paragkumar Chavda, Kalaiselvi Selvaraj, Kalpita S Shringarpure, Dipak M Solanki, Pramod B Verma, B B Rewari
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Gujarat, India implemented an innovative intervention called 'M-TRACK' (mobile phone reminders once every week for four weeks after diagnosis and electronic patient tracking tool) to reduce pre-treatment loss to follow-up (LFU) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Vadodara district while other districts received standard of care. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of M-TRACK in reducing pre-treatment LFU (proportion of diagnosed PLHIV not registering for HIV care by four weeks after diagnosis) and to explore the implementation enablers and challenges from health care providers' and PLHIV perspective...
2018: Global Health Action
Chris Jenkins, Luu Ngoc Minh, Tran Tuan Anh, Tran Thu Ngan, Ngo Tri Tuan, Kim Bao Giang, Luu Ngoc Hoat, Lynne Lohfeld, Michael Donnelly, Hoang Van Minh, Liam Murray
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence has been increasing consistently in Vietnam. Thus far, there have been no analytical reviews of research produced within this area. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyse the nature andextent of empirical studies about breast cancer in Vietnam, identifying areas for future research and systemsstrengthening. METHODS: We undertook a scoping study using a five-stage framework to review published and grey literature in English and Vietnamese on breast cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment...
2018: Global Health Action
Kazuya Kotani, Kayo Ueda, Xerxes Seposo, Shusuke Yasukochi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Masaji Ono, Akiko Honda, Hirohisa Takano
BACKGROUND: The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group...
2018: Global Health Action
Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Fasil Tessema, Befikadu Tariku, Semaw Ferede Abera, Alemseged Aregay Gebru, Nega Assefa, Desalew Zelalem, Melkamu Dedefo, Mekdes Kondal, Mesfin Kote, Mitike Molla Sisay, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet Terefe, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Firehywot Eshetu, Mulumebet Abera, Yoseph Fekadu, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Etsehiwot Tilahun, Yihunie Lakew
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, though all kinds of mortality due to external causes are an important component of overall mortality often not counted or documented on an individual basis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of mortality from external causes using verbal autopsy (VA) method at the Ethiopian HDSS Network sites. METHODS: All deaths at Ethiopian HDSS sites were routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews...
2018: Global Health Action
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Nicole Bergen, Anne Schlotheuber, Ties Boerma
National health inequality monitoring needs considerably more investment to realize equity-oriented health improvements in countries, including advancement towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Following an overview of national health inequality monitoring and the associated resource requirements, we highlight challenges that countries may encounter when setting up, expanding or strengthening national health inequality monitoring systems, and discuss opportunities and key initiatives that aim to address these challenges...
January 2018: Global Health Action
Kerui Xu, Li-Ming Liu, Paraskevi A Farazi, Hongmei Wang, Fedja A Rochling, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Jian-Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Globally, of the 248 million people chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), 74 million reside in China. Five oral nucleot(s)ide analogs (NUCs) have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine rates of adherence to NUC therapy in patients with CHB, to identify the self-perceived barriers to adherence, and to examine the factors associated with adherence. METHODS: Questionnaire-based interviews were administered among Chinese patients with CHB at hepatology clinics of a tertiary hospital in the city of Wuhan, China...
2018: Global Health Action
Daniel Goodkind, Lisa Lollock, Yoonjoung Choi, Thomas McDevitt, Loraine West
BACKGROUND: Meeting demand for family planning can facilitate progress towards all major themes of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): people, planet, prosperity, peace, and partnership. Many policymakers have embraced a benchmark goal that at least 75% of the demand for family planning in all countries be satisfied with modern contraceptive methods by the year 2030. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the demographic impact (and development implications) of achieving the 75% benchmark in 13 developing countries that are expected to be the furthest from achieving that benchmark...
2018: Global Health Action
Wasif Raza, Bertil Forsberg, Christer Johansson, Johan Nilsson Sommar
BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments...
2018: Global Health Action
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