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Global Health Action

Zhiqi Yang, Changming Zhou, Zhu Ning, Wei Lu, Qi Zhao, Yi Hu, Vinod K Diwan, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: In China, less than one-fifth of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases are detected. MDR-TB screening is conducted amongst the following five high-risk groups of TB patients: chronic cases, close contacts of MDR-TB patients, patients with treatment failure, relapsed and returned patients, and smear-positive patients at the end of the third month of initial treatment. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the possibility of detecting MDR-TB cases if only the high-risk screening strategy is applied in China...
2018: Global Health Action
Aung Chan Minn, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Thet Ko Aung, Ohn Mar Mon, Thurain Htun, Myo Minn Oo, July Moe, Aye Aye Mon, Srinath Satyanarayana, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, HIV seropositive children are being enrolled in an integrated HIV care (IHC) Program for HIV treatment and care since 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the: (a) attrition (death or loss-to-follow-up) rates among children (aged ≥ 18 months to < 15 years) enrolled into the programme before and after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) (pre-ART and ART periods); (b) demographic and clinical factors associated with attrition during these two periods...
2018: Global Health Action
Carmen Manciuc, Brooke A Levandowski, Erin Muir, Amanda Radulescu, Monica Barbosu, Timothy D Dye
The WHO/UNAIDS suggests that digital tools - such as social media and online training opportunities, can connect providers in difficult social and medical contexts to providers elsewhere for guidance, support, and advice. Social media is emerging as an innovative option for connecting clinicians together and for enhancing access to professional resources. In Romania, characterized by an atypical HIV/AIDS epidemic which is further challenged by a range of access complexities, it is unclear how often - and which kinds of - social media clinicians use to support clinical care...
2018: Global Health Action
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Vivek Gupta, Srinath Satyanarayana, Atul Kharate, K N Sahai, Lakshmi Murali, Sanjeev Kamble, Madhav Deshpande, Naresh Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Prabhat Pandey, U N Bajpai, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soundappan Kathirvel, Sripriya Pandurangan, Subrat Mohanty, Vaibhav Haribhau Ghule, Karuna D Sagili, Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Sudhi Nath, Priyanka Singh, Kamlesh Singh, Ramesh Singh, Gurukartick Jayaraman, P Rajeswaran, Binod Kumar Srivastava, Moumita Biswas, Gayadhar Mallick, Om Prakash Bera, A James Jeyakumar Jaisingh, Ali Jafar Naqvi, Prafulla Verma, Mohammed Salauddin Ansari, Prafulla C Mishra, G Sumesh, Sanjeeb Barik, Vijesh Mathew, Manas Ranjan Singh Lohar, Chandrashekhar S Gaurkhede, Ganesh Parate, Sharifa Yasin Bale, Ishwar Koli, Ashwin Kumar Bharadwaj, G Venkatraman, K Sathiyanarayanan, Jinesh Lal, Ashwini Kumar Sharma, Raghuram Rao, Ajay M V Kumar, Sarabjit Singh Chadha
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on whether active case finding (ACF) among marginalised and vulnerable populations mitigates the financial burden during tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of ACF among marginalised and vulnerable populations on prevalence and inequity of catastrophic costs due to TB diagnosis among TB-affected households when compared with passive case finding (PCF). METHODS: In 18 randomly sampled ACF districts in India, during March 2016 to February 2017, we enrolled all new sputum-smear-positive TB patients detected through ACF and an equal number of randomly selected patients detected through PCF...
2018: Global Health Action
Ariel Eytan, Alfred Ngirababyeyi, Charles Nkubili, Paul Nkubamugisha Mahoro
Forensic psychiatry has often been neglected in nonwestern countries, including the African continent. Our aim was to assess the practices and needs for improvement in the field of forensic psychiatry in Rwanda. During a one-week visit conducted in October 2017, we interviewed key-informants working at decisional levels in the domains of health, justice and security. Two clinical workshops involving psychiatrists, psychologists and nurses were held in psychiatric facilities, including at Ndera, the main psychiatric hospital of the country...
2018: Global Health Action
Dandan Peng, Xiaomin Wang, Yannan Xu, Chenhui Sun, Xudong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a great threat to public health. The primary cause of AMR is human antibiotic misuse. Little is known about regional differences of antibiotic misuse behaviours in China. OBJECTIVES: To explore the antibiotic misuse behaviours among university students in western and eastern China and find out the regional differences. METHODS: Participants were recruited from universities in less developed Guizhou Province and developed Zhejiang Province using a cluster random sampling method...
2018: Global Health Action
Jiye Fu, Chu Jiang, Juguang Wang, Yan Xing
Recently, China has played a more and more important role in global health, mainly by improving health outcomes of its own population nationwide and participating international health activities. In addition, China has participated in a dozen of international organizations, which all contained health domains, particularly the Belt and Road Initiative with an ambitious goal to improve health of the people in the countries alongside closely partnered with the World Health Organization. All these highlight the need of human resource for global health at the national level...
2018: Global Health Action
Manuel Lillo-Crespo, Jorge Riquelme, Rhoda Macrae, Wilson De Abreu, Elizabeth Hanson, Iva Holmerova, Mª José Cabañero, Rosario Ferrer, Debbie Tolson
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of robust research concerning the care experiences of peoplewith advanced dementia within Europe. It is essential to understand these experiences if weare to address care inequalities and create impactful dementia policies to improve servicesthat support individuals and enable family caring. OBJECTIVES: To identify the strengths and weaknesses in daily life perceived by people with dementia and family caring across Europe by exemplifying experiences and the range of typical care settings for advanced dementia care in seven partner countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Kathryn Beck, Angelique Mukantaganda, Scheilla Bayitondere, Richard Ndikuriyo, Almaque Dushimirimana, Vianney Bihibindi, Souzane Nyiranganji, Michel Habiyaremye, Jennifer Werdenberg
In low-resource settings, inpatient case fatality for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains high despite evidenced-based protocols and resources to treat SAM. Key reasons include a combination of insufficiently trained staff, poor teamwork and inadequate compliance to WHO treatment guidelines which are proven to reduce mortality. Checklists have been used in surgery and obstetrics to ameliorate similarly complicated yet repetitive work processes and may be a key strategy to improving inpatient SAM protocol adherence and reducing unnecessary death...
2018: Global Health Action
Ahmad Watsiq Maula, Anis Fuad, Adi Utarini
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease with high incidence in over 128 countries. WHO estimates 500,000 people with severe dengue are hospitalized annually and 2.5% of those affected die. Indonesia is a hyperendemic country for dengue with an increasing number of cases in the last decade. Unfortunately, the trends of Indonesian dengue research are relatively unknown. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to depict bibliographic trends and knowledge structure of dengue publications in Indonesia relative to that of South-east Asia (SEA) from 2007 to 2016...
2018: Global Health Action
Joseph K B Matovu, Rose Kisa, Esther Buregyeya, Harriet Chemusto, Shaban Mugerwa, William Musoke, Caroline J Vrana, Angela M Malek, Jeffrey E Korte, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can improve HIV-testing rates in 'hard-to-reach' populations, including men. We explored HIVST perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative study implemented as part of a pilot, cluster-randomized oral HIVST intervention trial among 1,514 pregnant women attending antenatal care services at three health facilities in Central Uganda...
2018: Global Health Action
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Ajay Mv Kumar, Nathalie Guillerm, Selma Dar Berger, Karen Bissell, Anthony Reid, Rony Zachariah, Andrew Ramsay, Anthony D Harries
BACKGROUND: The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) is a successful model of integrated operational research and capacity building with about 90% of participants completing the training and publishing in scientific journals. OBJECTIVE: The study aims at assessing the influence of research papers from six SORT IT courses conducted between April 2014 and January 2015 on policy and/or practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional mixed-method study involving e-mail based, self-administered questionnaires sent to course participants coupled with telephone/Skype/in-person responses from participants, senior facilitators and local co-authors of course papers...
2018: Global Health Action
Lisa K Micklesfield, Juliana Kagura, Richard Munthali, Nigel J Crowther, Nicole Jaff, Philippe Gradidge, Michèle Ramsay, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: There is a high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in South Africans of all ages. Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity must be identified to provide targets for intervention. OBJECTIVE: To identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged black South African men and women. METHODS: Data on demographic and socio-economic factors were collected via questionnaire on 1027 men and 1008 women from Soweto Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: Global Health Action
Alvona Zi Hui Loh, Kellynn Qi Xuan Oen, Ischelle Jing Yuan Koo, Ying Woo Ng, Jason Chin Huat Yap
BACKGROUND: The effect of maternal weight on pregnancy and birth outcomes is of great public health concern. For example, overweight and obesity among pregnant women is associated with adverse reproductive health outcomes including gestational diabetes, birth defects, macrosomia and infant mortality. OBJECTIVES: To understand the knowledge, perceptions and experiences during pregnancy among overweight and obese women in Singapore. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which employed qualitative techniques...
2018: Global Health Action
Weerati Pongthippat, Mehrdad Darvishpour, Jureerat Kijsomporn, Gunnel Östlund
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence by men against women has detrimental effects on equality, health and integration. Migrated and 'imported' wives experience an increased risk of intimate partner violence. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore Thai immigrant women's lived experiences of intimate partner violence in Sweden. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique with specific questions about experiences of male-to-female intimate partner violence were used to collect data...
2018: Global Health Action
Tin Afifah, Mariet Tetty Nuryetty, Cahyorini, Dede Anwar Musadad, Anne Schlotheuber, Nicole Bergen, Richard Johnston
BACKGROUND: Universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene in Indonesia are vital to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. OBJECTIVES: To quantify subnational regional inequality in access to improved drinking water and sanitation in Indonesia. METHODS: Data about access to improved drinking water and sanitation were derived from the 2015 Indonesian National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSENAS) and disaggregated by 510 districts across the 34 provinces of Indonesia...
2018: Global Health Action
Woldekidan Kifle Amde, David Sanders, Baltazar Chilundo, Etienne Rugigana, Damen Haile Mariam, Uta Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The paper examines external multiple job holding practices in public health training institutions based in prominent public universities in three sub-Saharan Africa countries (Rwanda, Ethiopia, Mozambique). OBJECTIVE: The study aims to contribute to broadening understanding about multiple job holding (nature and scale, drivers and reasons, impact, and efforts to regulate) in public health training schools in public universities. METHODS: A qualitative multiple case study approach was used...
2018: Global Health Action
Khameer K Kidia
In November 2017, following a military intervention, Robert Mugabe was forced to resign as president of Zimbabwe - where he had ruthlessly ruled since 1980. Mugabe's regime was responsible for destroying the country's excellent health system. I argue that this is a unique moment for health reform in Zimbabwe. This reform should focus on three areas: (1) repairing relationships with the international community by focusing on human rights and eliminating corruption, (2) strengthening the health workforce through retention strategies, training, and non-specialist providers, and (3) community engagement...
2018: Global Health Action
Anam Feroz, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Sarah Saleem
In low-and-middle-income countries, epidemiologic transition is taking place very rapidly from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases. NCDs mortality rates are increasing faster and nearly 80% of NCDs deaths occur in LMICs. Existing weak health systems of LMICs are undergoing a devastating human and economic toll as a result of increasing treatment costs and losses to productivity from NCDs. At the same time, the increasing penetration of mobile phone technology and the spread of cellular network and infrastructure have led to the introduction of the mHealth field...
2018: Global Health Action
Cecilia Lindsjö, Chawanangwa Mahebere Chirambo, Josephine Langton, Queen Dube, Tim Baker, Helena Hildenwall
BACKGROUND: Acutely sick children in resource-constrained settings who present with hypoglycaemia have poor outcomes. Studies have questioned the current hypoglycaemia treatment cut-off level of 2.5 mmol/l. Improved knowledge about health workers' attitudes towards and management of hypoglycaemia is needed to understand the potential effects of a raised cut-off level. OBJECTIVE: This research explored health workers' perceptions about managing acutely ill children with hypoglycaemia in a Malawian referral hospital...
2018: Global Health Action
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