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Global Health Action

Cecilia Lindsjö, Chawanangwa Mahebere Chirambo, Josephine Langton, Queen Dube, Tim Baker, Helena Hildenwall
BACKGROUND: Acutely sick children in resource-constrained settings who present with hypoglycaemia have poor outcomes. Studies have questioned the current hypoglycaemia treatment cut-off level of 2.5 mmol/l. Improved knowledge about health workers' attitudes towards and management of hypoglycaemia is needed to understand the potential effects of a raised cut-off level. OBJECTIVE: This research explored health workers' perceptions about managing acutely ill children with hypoglycaemia in a Malawian referral hospital...
2018: Global Health Action
Engelbert Adamwaba Nonterah, Cornelius Debpuur, Godfred Agongo, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Nigel J Crowther, Michèle Ramsay, Abraham Rexford Oduro
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases are increasing in urban sub-Saharan Africa due to a complex epidemiological and nutritional transition. Related data on rural communities is scarce. OBJECTIVES: The study characterized the socio-demographic and behavioural factors influencing body mass index (BMI) among adults in rural Northern Ghana Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study involving adults aged 40-60 years residing in the Kassena-Nankana districts was undertaken...
2018: Global Health Action
Cecilia Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Nicaraguans have migrated internally and internationally for centuries due to economic, political and sociocultural factors. Deficiencies in the country's health care system have produced inequities in people's access to health care and medicines. Remittances have become an important source of income, partly invested in health. OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of the study was to analyse migration-health relations in contemporary Nicaragua within a broader context of socio-economic transformations...
2018: Global Health Action
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Anne Schlotheuber, Devaki Nambiar, Zev Ross
As a key step in advancing the sustainable development goals, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has placed emphasis on building capacity for measuring and monitoring health inequalities. A number of resources have been developed, including the Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT), a software application that facilitates the assessment of within-country health inequalities. Following user demand, an Upload Database Edition of HEAT, HEAT Plus, was developed. Launched in July 2017, HEAT Plus allows users to upload their own databases and assess inequalities at the global, national or subnational level for a range of (health) indicators and dimensions of inequality...
2018: Global Health Action
M Klingberg-Allvin, S Atuhairwe, A Cleeve, J K Byamugisha, E C Larsson, M Makenzius, M Oguttu, K Gemzell-Danielsson
Universal access to comprehensive abortion care (CAC) is a reproductive right and is essential to reduce preventable maternal mortality and morbidity. In East Africa, abortion rates are consistently high, and the vast majority of all abortions are unsafe, significantly contributing to unnecessary mortality and morbidity. The current debate article reflects and summarises key action points required to continue to speed the implementation of and expand access to CAC in the East, Central, and Southern African (ECSA) health community...
2018: Global Health Action
Andrea Nove, Sally Pairman, Leah F Bohle, Shantanu Garg, Nester T Moyo, Michaela Michel-Schuldt, Axel Hoffmann, Gonçalo Castro
BACKGROUND: Many countries are responding to the global shortage of midwives by increasing the student intake to their midwifery schools. At the same time, attention must be paid to the quality of education being provided, so that quality of midwifery care can be assured. Methods of assuring quality of education include accreditation schemes, but capacity to implement such schemes is weak in many countries. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the process of developing and pilot testing the International Confederation of Midwives' Midwifery Education Accreditation Programme (ICM MEAP), based on global standards for midwifery education, and discusses the potential contribution it can make to building capacity and improving quality of care for mothers and their newborns...
2018: Global Health Action
Gershim Asiki, Shukri F Mohamed, David Wambui, Caroline Wainana, Stella Muthuri, Michelle Ramsay, Catherine Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is rising globally with a faster increase in urban areas in low- and middle-income countries. It is critical to identify modifiable risk factors for BMI to prevent the occurrence of associated health consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate socio-demographic, behavioural and biological factors associated with BMI in Nairobi slums. METHODS: In 2014-2015, a cross sectional study of men and women aged 40-60 years in Nairobi slums (Korogocho and Viwandani) was conducted...
2018: Global Health Action
B Adlard, S G Donaldson, J O Odland, P Weihe, J Berner, A Carlsen, E C Bonefeld-Jorgensen, A A Dudarev, J C Gibson, E M Krümmel, K Olafsdottir, K Abass, A Rautio, I A Bergdahl, G Mulvad
For the last two and a half decades, a network of human health experts under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) has produced several human health assessment reports. These reports have provided a base of scientific knowledge regarding environmental contaminants and their impact on human health in the Arctic. These reports provide scientific information and policy-relevant recommendations to Arctic governments. They also support international agreements such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and the Minamata Convention on Mercury...
2018: Global Health Action
Manish Kakkar, Pranab Chatterjee, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Delia Grace, Johanna Lindahl, Arlyne Beeche, Fang Jing, Suwit Chotinan
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few...
2018: Global Health Action
Konrad Obermann, Matthew Jowett, Soonman Kwon
BACKGROUND: Achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has by now become a key health policy goal in many countries and some form of National Health Insurance (NHI) is often used for this. The Philippines has had more than 50 years' experience with social health insurance and in 1995 established PhilHealth, the country's national health insurer. OBJECTIVES: Analyzing the role of the Philippine NHI scheme in moving towards UHC, identifying potential avenues for improvement as well as indicating challenges and areas for further development...
2018: Global Health Action
N D B Ehelepola, Kusalika Ariyaratne, Amithe Jayaratne
BACKGROUND: Severe wheezing is a common medical emergency. Past studies have demonstrated associations between exacerbation of wheezing and meteorological factors and atmospheric pollution. There are no past studies from Sri Lanka that analyzed correlation between daily multiple meteorological variables and exacerbation of wheezing. OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlations between daily counts of patients nebulized at the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Teaching Hospital - Kandy (THK) and local meteorological variables, and to explore the utility of that information...
2018: Global Health Action
Thirunavukkarasu Prasanna, Kathiresan Jeyashree, Palanivel Chinnakali, Yogesh Bahurupi, Kavita Vasudevan, Mrinalini Das
BACKGROUND: The average expenditure incurred by patients in low- and middle-income countries towards diagnosis and treatment of TB ranges from $55 to $8198. This out-of-pocket expenditure leads to impoverishment of households. One of the three main targets of the End TB Strategy (2016-2035) is that no TB-affected household suffers catastrophic costs due to TB. Study setting was free care under national tuberculosis program (NTP), Puducherry district, India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were among the newly diagnosed and previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients, to (a) estimate patient costs during diagnosis and intensive phase of treatment, (b) determine the proportion of households experiencing catastrophic costs, and (c) explore coping strategies...
2018: Global Health Action
Kirsten E Sildén
BACKGROUND: The United States (US) is currently facing a public health crisis due to the percentage of obesity in adolescents. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) stated the risks for children due to obesity are many. Adolescents obtain a large portion of their daily caloric intake at school; therefore, what foods/drinks they are consuming is so serious. OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze literature on the effects of competitive foods in public schools on adolescent weight, or Body Mass Index (BMI), and possible impacts they may have on adolescent obesity in the United States...
2018: Global Health Action
Dario Novak, Arunas Emeljanovas, Brigita Mieziene, Lovro Štefan, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent's social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear...
2018: Global Health Action
Bruno Lankoandé, Géraldine Duthé, Abdramane Soura, Gilles Pison
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the literature on end of life is limited and focuses on place of death as an indicator of access and utilization of health-care resources. Little is known about population mobility at the end of life. OBJECTIVE: To document the magnitude, motivations and associated factors of short-term mobility before death among adults over 15 years of age in Burkina Faso and Senegal. METHODS: The study was based on deaths of adult residents reported in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in urban (Ouagadougou) and semi-rural areas (Kaya) of Burkina Faso, and rural areas of Senegal (Mlomp)...
2018: Global Health Action
Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Alemayehu Worku, Araya Abrha Medhanyie, Yemane Berhane
BACKGROUND: The provision of respectful and satisfactory maternity care is essential for promoting timely care-seeking behaviour, and ultimately ensuring the health and well-being of mothers and their babies. Disrespectful and abusive care has been recognized as one of the barriers to seeking timely maternity health services. However, the issue has not been adequately researched in community settings in low- and middle-income countries using validated measurement tools. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the extent of, and factors associated with, disrespectful and abusive maternity care reported by women who utilized facility-based delivery services in northern Ethiopia...
2018: Global Health Action
John P Morgan, Moses Isyagi, Joseph Ntaganira, Agnes Gatarayiha, Sarah E Pagni, Tamar C Roomian, Matthew Finkelman, Jane E M Steffensen, Jane R Barrow, Chrispinus H Mumena, Donna M Hackley
BACKGROUND: Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. OBJECTIVE: To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies...
2018: Global Health Action
Nunik Kusumawardani, Ingan Tarigan, Suparmi, Anne Schlotheuber
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adolescent tobacco use in Indonesia is among the highest in the world. Monitoring the extent and distribution of adolescent cigarette smoking is crucial to being able to target prevention and reduction strategies and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of adolescent cigarette smoking in Indonesia and assess the association with key socio-economic, demographic and geographic factors. METHODS: We used data from the 2013 Indonesian Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) national household survey to quantify the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adolescents aged 10-18 years by sex, age, education, economic status, place of residence and province...
2018: Global Health Action
Virginia Elizabeth Melvill Zweigenthal, William M Pick, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: South African physicians can specialise in public health through a four-year 'registrar' programme. Despite national health policies that seemingly value public health (PH) approaches, the Public Health Medicine (PHM) speciality is largely invisible in the health services. Nevertheless, many physicians enrol for specialist training. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated physicians' motivations for specialising in PHM, their intended career paths, perceptions of training, and perspectives about the future of the speciality...
2018: Global Health Action
Gerardo Zamora, Theadora Swift Koller, Rebekah Thomas, Mary Manandhar, Eva Lustigova, Adama Diop, Veronica Magar
The objective of this article is to present specific resources developed by the World Health Organization on equity, gender and human rights in order to support Member States in operationalizing their commitment to leave no one behind in the health Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and other health-related goals and targets. The resources cover: (i) health inequality monitoring; (ii) barrier analysis using mixed methods; (iii) human rights monitoring; (iv) leaving no one behind in national and subnational health sector planning; and (v) equity, gender and human rights in national health programme reviews...
2018: Global Health Action
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