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Global Health Action

Sanjeev Sridharan, Amanda Pereira, Katherine Hay, Arnab Dey, Dharmendra Chandurkar, Scott Veldhuizen, April Nakaima
BACKGROUND: This paper explores the heterogeneities in antenatal care (ANC) utilization in India's most populated state, Uttar Pradesh. Taking an intersectionality lens, multiple individual- and district-level factors are used to identify segments of any antenatal care usage in Uttar Pradesh Objective: This paper seeks to understand the multilevel contexts of ANC utilization. The planning and programming challenge is that such knowledge of contextual specificity is rarely known upfront at the initial stages of planning or implementing an intervention...
2018: Global Health Action
Kremlin Wickramasinghe, Elizabeth Wilkins, Charlie Foster, Ibtihal Fadhil, Asmus Hammerich, Slim Slama, Hicham El Berri, Manal Elimam, Salim Adib, Mona Al-Mudwahi, Nick Townsend
BACKGROUND: In October 2012, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) developed a Regional Framework for Action to implement multisectoral action plans (MAPs) for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this project was to draw on the experiences of four EMR countries that had made good progress in developing these MAPs, to identify best practice and barriers in the development of them. METHODS: Structured interviews were held with key stakeholders in the development of the MAPs from the four focal EMR countries: Lebanon, Morocco, Sudan, and Yemen...
2018: Global Health Action
Julie A King, Mark J King, Niki Edwards, Sara A Hair, Sarim Cheang, Anita Pearson, Sophie Coelho
BACKGROUND: The intersection between health, disability and transport has significant practical challenges for people with a disability living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where road infrastructure is poor and travel unsafe. Lack of transport access to health, education, employment and other services impedes achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and affects quality of life. The Journey Access Tool (JAT) combines access audit and road safety audit approaches to identify barriers to transport on journeys taken by people with a disability...
2018: Global Health Action
Yacob Ruru, Mariana Matasik, Antonius Oktavian, Rosliana Senyorita, Yunita Mirino, Lukman Hakim Tarigan, Marieke J van der Werf, Edine Tiemersma, Bachti Alisjahbana
BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) strategy in all public health centers in Papua Province, Indonesia, since 1998, the rate of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains high (above 16%). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify factors associated with non-adherence during TB treatment among patients treated at public health centers (PHCs) in Jayapura, Papua. METHOD: We conducted a case-control study including new TB patients registered at eight PHCs from 2007 to 2009...
2018: Global Health Action
Felistas Mashinya, Marianne Alberts, Ian Cook, Sam Ntuli
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (DHDSS) site where we have observed increasing obesity levels, particularly in women, despite evidence of high physical activity (PA) and a relatively low daily energy intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic, behavioural and biological determinants of body mass index (BMI) in adult residents permanently residing in the DHDSS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which socio-demographic, behavioural and biological characteristics from 1143 participants (aged 40-60 years) were collected using a paper questionnaire and standard anthropometric measures...
2018: Global Health Action
Sibone Mocumbi, Kevin McKee, Khátia Munguambe, Rogério Chiau, Ulf Högberg, Claudia Hanson, Lars Wallin, Esperança Sevene, Anna Bergström
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in the provision of evidence-based obstetric care are common in low-income countries, including Mozambique. Constraints relate to lack of human and financial resources and weak health systems, however limited resources alone do not explain the variance. Understanding the healthcare context ahead of implementing new interventions can inform the choice of strategies to achieve a successful implementation. The Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was developed to assess modifiable aspects of the healthcare context that theoretically influence the implementation of evidence...
2018: Global Health Action
Daniel C Ogbuabor, Obinna E Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Studies examining how the capacity of health facilities affect implementation of free healthcare policies in low and middle-income countries are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study describes how the context and institutional capacity of health facilities influenced implementation of the free maternal and child health programme (FMCHP) in Enugu state, South-east Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative case study at the state level and in two health districts (Isi-Uzo and Enugu Metropolis) in Enugu State...
2018: Global Health Action
Landiwe Khuzwayo, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: Major national primary healthcare reforms are seldom implemented, and few studies have explored the benefits of primary healthcare outreach teams to rural households, a knowledge gap we sought to address with this study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the community benefits in the context of PHC services delivered in rural households by outreach teams. METHODS: The study was conducted in the iLembe District on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between July 2015 and January 2017...
2018: Global Health Action
Kim MacQuilkan, Peter Baker, Laura Downey, Francis Ruiz, Kalipso Chalkidou, Shankar Prinja, Kun Zhao, Thomas Wilkinson, Amanda Glassman, Karen Hofman
BACKGROUND: Resource allocation in health is universally challenging, but especially so in resource-constrained contexts in the Global South. Pursuing a strategy of evidence-based decision-making and using tools such as Health Technology Assessment (HTA), can help address issues relating to both affordability and equity when allocating resources. Three BRICS and Global South countries, China, India and South Africa have committed to strengthening HTA capacity and developing their domestic HTA systems, with the goal of getting evidence translated into policy...
2018: Global Health Action
Romuald Palwende Boua, Hermann Sorgho, Toussaint Rouamba, Seydou Nakanabo Diallo, Joel D Bognini, Sophie Z Konkobo, Daniel Valia, Moussa Lingani, Serge Ouoba, Alain S Tougma, Biebo Bihoun, Nigel J Crowther, Shane A Norris, Michèle Ramsay, Halidou Tinto
BACKGROUND: The global health transition is linked with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases with cardiovascular diseases leading the epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the prevalence of obesity has increased during the past decades and there is a need to investigate the associated driving factors. In Burkina Faso obesity remains low, especially in rural areas. In this study we recruited middle-aged adults, as part of a larger study on genetic and environmental contributions to cardiometabolic disease among Africans...
2018: Global Health Action
Justin Bruno Tongun, Mohamedi Boy Sebit, Grace Ndeezi, David Mukunya, Thorkild Tylleskar, James K Tumwine
BACKGROUND: Pre-lacteal feeding (PLF) is a barrier to optimal breastfeeding and increases the risk of diarrhoea and acute respiratory tract infections in infants.The prevalence and predictors of PLF are not well studied in South Sudan. Understanding the predictors of PLF is crucial in designing interventions to increase exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with PLF in Jubek State, South Sudan. METHOD: This was a community based cross-sectional study of 810 mothers of children under two years of age in Jubek State, South Sudan...
2018: Global Health Action
Sanghita Bhattacharyya, Aradhana Srivastava, Malvika Saxena, Mousumi Gogoi, Pravesh Dwivedi, Katie Giessler
BACKGROUND: Persistently high maternal mortality levels are a concern in developing countries. In India, monetary incentive schemes have increased institutional delivery rates appreciably, but have not been equally successful in reducing maternal mortality. Maternal outcomes are affected by quality of obstetric care and socio-cultural norms. In this light there is need to examine the quality of care provided to women delivering in institutions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine pregnant women's expectations of high-quality care in public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India, and to contrast this with provider's perceptions of the same, as well as the barriers that limit their ability to provide high-quality care...
2018: Global Health Action
Henry Zakumumpa, Japheth Kwiringira, Joseph Rujumba, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: In the context of declining international assistance for ART scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa, the institutionalization of ART programs through integrating them in the organizational routines of health facilities is gaining importance as a program sustainability strategy. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were; (i) to compare the level of institutionalization of ART programs in health facilities in Uganda and (ii) to explore reasons for variations in the degree of program institutionalization...
2018: Global Health Action
Shehrin Shaila Mahmood, Syed Manjoor Ahmed Hanifi, Mohammad Nahid Mia, Asiful Haidar Chowdhury, Mahabubur Rahman, Mohammad Iqbal, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND: Micro health insurance (MHI) has proved to be a potential health-financing tool for many developing countries. Bangladesh also included MHI in its current health-financing strategy which aims to achieve universal health coverage. However, low uptake, low renewal and high dropouts have historically challenged financial sustainability of these schemes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify factors influencing people from low-resource settings, particularly those from Bangladesh, to enrol in MHI schemes...
2018: Global Health Action
Julia H Rogers, Lassana Jabateh, Jason Beste, Bradley H Wagenaar, Ryan McBain, Daniel Palazuelos, Eugene Wickett, Catherine Oswald, Harriet G Napier, Julia Toomey-Garbo
BACKGROUND: Partners In Health (PIH) committed to improving health care delivery in Maryland County, Liberia following the Ebola epidemic by employing 71 community health workers (CHWs) to provide treatment support to tuberculosis (TB), HIV and leprosy patients. PIH simultaneously deployed a socioeconomic assistance program with three core components: transportation reimbursement to clinics; food support; and additional social assistance in select cases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate how a CHW program for community treatment support and addressing socioeconomic barriers to care can impact patient outcomes in a post-conflict and post-epidemic context...
2018: Global Health Action
Seungman Cha, Yinseo Cho, Sharon Jiae Kim, YongJoo Lee, Soonyoung Choi, Patrick Asuming, Yongwhan Kim, Yan Jin
BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in water coverage improvements, diseases associated with poor water remain a considerable public health problem in many developing countries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the costs and benefits of drilling or rehabilitating boreholes with handpumps in resource-poor settings and hard-to-reach areas. METHODS: Diarrheal reduction in the population was predicted on the basis of the empirical findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial...
2018: Global Health Action
Maria Wiklund, Christina Ahlgren, Anne Hammarström
BACKGROUND: Gender, class and living conditions shape health and illness. However, few studies have investigated constructs of femininity in relation to health and living conditions among young women who are unemployed and marginalised at an early age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to elucidate constructs of femininities in relation to structuring living conditions and expressions of health in Northern Swedish women. The time period of interest was the transition from unemployed teenagers to young adults in a social context of high unemployment and societal change across the critical 'school-to-work-transition' period of the life course...
2018: Global Health Action
Mercilene T Machisa, Nicola Christofides, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) increase their risk for mental ill health. However, some women exposed to IPV and adversity are psychologically resilient and function well despite these exposures. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a study to investigate the factors that are associated with psychological resilience among abused women, using data collected in a household survey conducted in Gauteng province of South Africa. METHODS: Data is from a cross-sectional study...
2018: Global Health Action
Chol Chol, Joel Negin, Alberto Garcia-Basteiro, Tesfay Gebregzabher Gebrehiwot, Berhane Debru, Maria Chimpolo, Kingsley Agho, Robert G Cumming, Seye Abimbola
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has had more major armed conflicts (wars) in the past two decades - including 13 wars during 1990-2015 - than any other part of the world, and this has had an adverse effect on health systems in the region. OBJECTIVE: To understand the best health system practices in five SSA countries that experienced wars during 1990-2015, and yet managed to achieve a maternal mortality reduction - equal to or greater than 50% during the same period - according to the Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG)...
2018: Global Health Action
Elif Okşan Çalıkoglu, Aysun Aras, Maysa Hamza, Ayşegül Aydin, Onur Nacakgedigi, Patrick Marius Koga
BACKGROUND: In Turkey, almost every 4 out of 10 married women have been subjected to physical abuse by their spouses. Although studies on the prevalence of domestic violence in Turkey abound, little has been published about first responders' attitudes and behaviors towards violence against women and on sexism. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined the attitudes and behaviors of Erzurum City medical emergency services workers towards violence against women, and their relationship with sexist attitudes...
2018: Global Health Action
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