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Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

L Tang, M Kamat, A Shukla, M Vora, C Kalal, S Kottilil, S Shah
Background: Chronic hepatitis C infection is a major cause for liver failure and liver cancer and can be treated with highly effective all oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) drugs. Generic versions of these DAAs are available in India. Method: This was an open-label, single-center, prospective, nonrandomized observational study for the comparative safety and efficacy of generic versus brand name sofosbuvir with ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (all genotypes)...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mustafa Muhammad Gharrah, Areej Mostafa El-Mahdy, Rasha Fathy Barwa
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/7279830.].
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Sebastian Noe, Christine I Moeckel, Christiane Schwerdtfeger, Celia Oldenbuettel, Hans Jaeger, Eva Wolf, Christoph D Spinner
Background: There is still considerable uncertainty in handling vitamin D deficiency in people living with HIV (PLWH), due to a lack of comparative data and the wide range of recommended daily intake. Nondaily supplementation might be preferred in many PLWH, but recommendation on dosing has not been established. We aimed to compare the efficacy of weekly versus monthly supplementation with cholecalciferol 20,000 IU in a group of PLWH with vitamin D deficiency in Western Europe. Study Design: Longitudinal, retrospective nested cohort study of PLWH from two large clinical care centers in Munich, Germany...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
ALemnesh Jifar, Yohanes Ayele
Purpose: Community plays significant role in the process of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice toward antibiotic use among Harar city and its surrounding community, Eastern Ethiopia. Patient and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 subjects from February 1 to May 1, 2017, through interview using pretested structured questionnaires. The data was entered into EpiData 3...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mukta N Chowta, Priyanka Kamath, John T Ramapuram, K Ashok Shenoy, Sanjay Hadigal
Background and Objectives: The objective was to study the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in HIV patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study that included 171 HIV patients with a follow-up at six months. Demographic details, medical history, details of HIV infection including most recent CD4 count, details of antiretroviral therapy, and other concomitant medication were recorded. Adverse drug reactions were elicited by reviewing patient records and also by interviewing the patient/attendants directly...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Shital Adhikari, Ramesh Sharma Poudel, Shakti Shrestha, Praves Lamichhane
Introduction: This study aimed to explore the predictors of mortality from scrub typhus infection in patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 120 patients with serum ELISA IgM positive for scrub typhus (optical density ≥ 0.5) admitted at the medical ICU of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital between April 2016 and September 2017. Data was extracted from patient medical records and electronic database of the hospital...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Taylor A Zabel, Folashade B Agusto
Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious disease of cattle caused by the obligate intercellular bacterium, Anaplasma marginale , and it primarily occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In this study, an age-structured deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of bovine anaplasmosis was developed; the model incorporates symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle classes. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the parameters with the highest impact on the reproduction number. The dominant parameters were the bovine natural and disease-induced death rates, disease progression rate in adult cattle, the mechanical devices transmission probability and contact rates, the pathogen contamination, and decay rates on the mechanical devices...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Abdolali Moshfe, Nasir Arefkhah, Bahador Sarkari, Saadat Kazemi, Ahmad Mardani
Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne protozoan that can be transmitted through infected blood containing tachyzoite form of the parasite. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii infection and related risk factors among healthy blood donors in Boyer-Ahmad County, southwest Iran. Blood samples were taken from 285 healthy blood donors who voluntarily agreed to participate in this study. Sera and buffy coat were isolated from the blood samples for serological and molecular evaluations...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Hala Fouad, Mona M A Halim, HebatAllah F Algebaly, Nardeen A Elmallakh
Objective: We aimed to study the effect of visual observation of bacterial growth from handprints on healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with hand hygiene (HH). Settings: Medical and postoperative cardiac surgery units. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subject: The study included 40 HCWs. Intervention: Each HCW was interviewed on 3 separate occasions. The 1st interview was held to obtain a handprint culture before and after a session demonstrating the 7 steps of HH using alcohol-based hand rub, allowing comparison of results before and after HH...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Fikru Worku, Dagmawit Tewahido
Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI Info 7 and SPSS 20, respectively...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mohammed Abbas, Faiza A Sharif, Shamselfalah M Osman, Abdallah M Osman, Sulieman M El Sanousi, Mamoun Magzoub, Mutasim E Ibrahim
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infections among schoolchildren and investigate the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and existence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods . A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted during a period from January to December 2012 at Kassala state, east of Sudan. Schoolchildren from different primary schools were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded from each child. A rapid immunochromatographic test was performed for the detection of H...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Samuel Mark
For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Asha Persson, Christy E Newman, Myra Hamilton, Joanne Bryant, Jack Wallace, Kylie Valentine
The concept of "serodiscordance" (mixed infection status) is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundation for illuminating how experiences of serodiscordance within intimate partnerships are much broader than concerns about risk. This body of work attests to serodiscordance holding promise as a valuable concept for understanding viral infections as socially situated and intensely relational phenomena...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Soumyabrata Roy Chaudhuri, Subhayan Bhattacharya, Mainak Chakraborty, Kingshuk Bhattacharjee
Aims: This retrospective study evaluates ferritin as a surrogate marker for dengue infection (NS1 and IgM negative stage) as opposed to other febrile illnesses of infective or inflammatory etiology (OFI). Methodology: Data of all patients admitted to medical ward and medical ITU during the dengue outbreak were collected. Patients admitted between 5 and 10 days of febrile illness without a diagnosis were included. Patients with NS1 positivity (Days 2-8) and/or positive IgM for dengue (Days 6-10) were considered to be dengue cases and those with other confirmed diagnoses were considered in the OFI group...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
O R Pinontoan, I G P Supadmanaba, I B A Manuaba, I D M Sukrama, I B P Manuaba
BACKGROUND: To optimize the preventive measures of malaria, it is important to synchronize the efforts with the behavior of local Anopheles species. However, the data of Anopheles species and their behavior in Indonesia is still lacking. METHOD: Explorative research was conducted from April to September 2016 in Southern Minahasa district. The Anopheles mosquito was baited by using animal and human (indoor or outdoor) from 18.00 to 06.00 hours. Then, the species were identified and Man Biting Rate (MBR) and Man/Animal Biting per Hour (MBPH) were calculated followed by statistical analysis by using SPSS 17...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mustafa Muhammad Gharrah, Areej Mostafa El-Mahdy, Rasha Fathy Barwa
Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an important opportunistic multidrug-resistant pathogen. Extended spectrum β -lactamases (ESBLs) and expression of a multitude of virulence factors may work in a harmony resulting in treatment failure. This study was undertaken to compare the virulence characteristics and genetic relatedness between ESBL and non-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. Methods . Antibiotic sensitivity test of all isolates was determined by disc diffusion assay. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL were done...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Hee-Eun Shin, Myoung-Ro Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Byong-Suk Jeong, Mi-Yeoun Park, Keoung-Sook Lee, Shin-Hyeong Cho
This study was conducted to evaluate the infection rates of Clonorchis sinensis and laboratory findings in infected people. The 3,167 fecal samples, from nine villages in Okcheon-gun, were examined.
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Muluken Birhanu, Yaregal Asres, Wondimagegn Adissu, Tilahun Yemane, Endalew Zemene, Lealem Gedefaw
Hematological parameter changes are the most common complications in malaria. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters and hemozoin-containing leukocytes and their association with disease severity in malaria infected children aged between 1 and 15 years. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pawe General Hospital from July 31 to December 30, 2014. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each study participant for hematological investigations...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Vitor H Pomin
As broadly reported, there is an ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in countries of Latin America. Recent findings have demonstrated that ZIKV causes severe defects on the neural development in fetuses in utero and newborns. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the ZIKV infectivity. Potential therapeutic agents are also under investigation. In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Pegah Karimian, Omid Yaghini, Hossein Nasr Azadani, Majid Mohammadizadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh, Atosa Adibi, Hamid Rahimi
Introduction. Need of neonatal screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is under debate, in part because of limited data on importance of the disease regarding the prevalence of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection and associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of cCMV infection in Iran, where there is high maternal seroprevalence of CMV. Methodology. This prospective study was conducted in Isfahan city, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. CMV was investigated in urine specimens by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
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