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Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

Andrew G Huff, Nathan Breit, Toph Allen, Karissa Whiting, Christopher Kiley
The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS) is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs) for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel aspects of the software package...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Gemechu Tadesse, Kalkidan Mekete, Afework Hailemariam Tekle, Amha Kebede
Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi) are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Tennison L Malcolm, Le Don Robinson, Alison K Klika, Deepak Ramanathan, Carlos A Higuera, Trevor G Murray
Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone) and (2) whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n = 3,927) and were not screened (n = 1,751) for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Cennet Rağbetli, Mehmet Parlak, Yasemin Bayram, Huseyin Guducuoglu, Nesrin Ceylan
Objective. Recently, community and hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus have increased and raised antibiotic resistant isolates. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profile of S. aureus isolates over several years in various clinical specimens from our hospital. Materials and Methods. S. aureus strains from 2009 to 2014 were isolated from various clinical samples at Yuzuncu Yil University, Dursun Odabas Medical Center, Microbiology Laboratory, and their antibiotic susceptibility test results were retrospectively investigated...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Ko S Chong, Siti A Shazali, Zhen Xu, Ronald R Cutler, Adi Idris
Drug resistant bacteria have been a growing threat to the community and hospitals due to the misuse of antibiotics by humans, industrialization, and lack of novel antimicrobials currently available. Little is known about the prevalence of drug resistant bacteria in nonhealthcare environments in Brunei Darussalam and about how antibiotic resistant genes are transferred within these environments. Human contact points from different types of environments in Brunei Darussalam, varying from urban to jungle settings, were swabbed and cultured onto selective media to isolate staphylococci bacteria before performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the isolates...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mohamed Al-Salahy, Bushra Shnawa, Gamal Abed, Ahmed Mandour, Ali Al-Ezzi
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Fereshte Sheybani, Hamid Reza Naderi, Sareh Sajjadi
The elderly comprise less than 13 percent of world population. Nonetheless, they represent nearly half of all hospitalized adults. Acute change in mental status from baseline is commonly seen among the elderly even when the main process does not involve the central nervous system. The term "geriatric syndrome" is used to capture those clinical conditions in older people that do not fit into discrete disease categories, including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope, and urinary incontinence. Despite the growing number of elderly population, especially those who require hospitalization and the high burden of common infections accompanied by encephalopathy among them, there are several unresolved questions regarding the optimal management they deserve...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Adewumi Adediran, Vincent Osunkalu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Sarah John-Olabode, Akinsegun Akinbami, Ebele Uche, Sulaimon Akanmu
Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Chris R Kenyon, Deven T Hamilton
Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from WHO Survey and TV prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease estimates) and (2) three racial groups in the United States (Add Health Study)...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Manish Kumar Tripathi, Chandra Bhan Pratap, Vinod K Dixit, Tej Bali Singh, Sunit K Shukla, Ashok K Jain, Gopal Nath
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by presence of ulcer in colon and bloody diarrhea. The present study explores the possibility of association between Salmonella and ulcerative colitis. The present study comprised 59 cases of UC, 28 of colon cancer (CC), 127 of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 190 of healthy control. The serological study was done by Widal and Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) for ViAb. Nested PCR was performed targeting fliC, staA, and stkG gene for Typhi and Paratyphi A, respectively...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Sachin C Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
Health care associated infections (HCAIs) add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient's underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Nathan Shaviya, Valentine Budambula, Mark K Webale, Tom Were
Although interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin are key immunopathogenesis mediators of tuberculosis, their association with clinical manifestations of early stage disease is inconclusive. We determined interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin levels in clinically and phenotypically well-characterised non-substance using new pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n = 13) and controls (n = 14) from Kenya. Interferon-gamma levels (P < 0.0001) and interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 (P < 0.001) and interferon-gamma to adiponectin (P = 0...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Sangeetha Vilvanathan, Balan Kandasamy, Abiramy Lakshmy Jayachandran, Sarasa Sathiyanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi Tanjore Singaravelu, Veeraraghavan Krishnamurthy, Vanithadevi Elangovan
Introduction. Semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. There are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. Thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. Semen parameters were analysed based on WHO guidelines. Also, samples were subjected to culture using standard bacteriological techniques...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Hicham Khallafi, Kamran Qureshi
Liver fibrosis represents the repair mechanism in liver injury and is a feature of most chronic liver diseases. The degree of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis infections has major clinical implications and presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis determines prognosis. Treatment initiation for viral hepatitis is indicated in most cases of advanced liver fibrosis and diagnosis of cirrhosis entails hepatology evaluation for specialized clinical care. Liver biopsy is an invasive technique and has been the standard of care of fibrosis assessment for years; however, it has several limitations and procedure related complications...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra, Cristina de Souza Chaves, Zirlane Castelo Branco Coêlho, Naya Lúcia de Castro Rodrigues, Josias Martins Vale, Maria Jânia Teixeira, Francisco Josemar Alves de Oliveira, Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo, Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho
Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992-1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mohammad Aghaali, Siamak Mohebi, Hosein Heydari
Background. Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases of humans and animals and its clinical manifestations differ from asymptomatic infection to chronic illness associated with recurrence of symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of brucellosis in asymptomatic children 7 to 12 years old in Kahak, Iran. Methods. In this study, 186 children 7 to 12 years old were evaluated. Demographic data and exposure to the brucellosis agent were recorded and blood samples for the Wright, Coombs, and 2ME tests were collected...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam, Hamidreza Honarmand, Sajad Asfaram Meshginshahr
This study is designed to determine the contamination degree of hospital water supplies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and E. coli in Gilan, Iran. Samples were collected directly into sterile containers and concentrated by centrifuge. Half part of any sample transferred to yeast extract broth and the second part transferred to Trypticase Soy Broth and incubated for 3 days. DNA was extracted by using commercial kit. Four rounds of PCR were performed as follows: multiplex PCR for detecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Integron 1, and Metallo-β-lactamases gene; PCR for detecting Legionella pneumophila and mip gene separately; PCR for detecting E...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Dejene Getachew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Meshesha Balkew, Akalu Mesfin
Background and Objectives. Entomological survey was carried out from May-June to September-October 2014 to investigate the presence of dengue vectors in discarded tires and artificial water containers in houses and peridomestic areas. Methods. A cross-sectional immature stage survey was done indoors and outdoors in 301 houses. Mosquito larval sampling was conducted using pipette or dipper depending on container types. Larvae were identified morphologically and larval indices were also calculated. Results. A total of 750 containers were inspected, and of these 405 were positive for mosquito larvae...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Sandeep Kumar, Debashish Basak, Amit Kumar, Pralhad Dasar, Prashant Mishra, Arunoday Kumar, Siddharth Kumar Singh, Nitai Debnath, Anjali Gupta
Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Carolyn Kavita Tauro, Nilesh Chandrakant Gawde
Majority of children with tuberculosis are treated in private sector in India with no available data on management practices. The study assessed diagnostic and treatment practices related to childhood pulmonary tuberculosis among paediatricians in Mumbai's private sector in comparison with International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) 2009. In this cross-sectional study, 64 paediatricians from private sector filled self-administered questionnaires. Cough was reported as a symptom of childhood TB by 77...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
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