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Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684959/association-between-virulence-factors-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-compared-to-nonproducing-isolates
#1
Mustafa Muhammad Gharrah, Areej Mostafa El-Mahdy, Rasha Fathy Barwa
Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an important opportunistic multidrug-resistant pathogen. Extended spectrum ╬▓-lactamases (ESBLs) and expression of a multitude of virulence factors may work in a harmony resulting in treatment failure. This study was undertaken to compare the virulence characteristics and genetic relatedness between ESBL and non-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. Methods. Antibiotic sensitivity test of all isolates was determined by disc diffusion assay. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL were done...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529523/epidemiological-and-clinical-parameters-features-of-patients-with-clonorchiasis-in-the-geum-river-basin-republic-of-korea
#2
Hee-Eun Shin, Myoung-Ro Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Byong-Suk Jeong, Mi-Yeoun Park, Keoung-Sook Lee, Shin-Hyeong Cho
This study was conducted to evaluate the infection rates of Clonorchis sinensis and laboratory findings in infected people. The 3,167 fecal samples, from nine villages in Okcheon-gun, were examined.
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298924/hematological-parameters-and-hemozoin-containing-leukocytes-and-their-association-with-disease-severity-among-malaria-infected-children-a-cross-sectional-study-at-pawe-general-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Muluken Birhanu, Yaregal Asres, Wondimagegn Adissu, Tilahun Yemane, Endalew Zemene, Lealem Gedefaw
Hematological parameter changes are the most common complications in malaria. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters and hemozoin-containing leukocytes and their association with disease severity in malaria infected children aged between 1 and 15 years. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pawe General Hospital from July 31 to December 30, 2014. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each study participant for hematological investigations...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203251/sulfated-glycans-and-related-digestive-enzymes-in-the-zika-virus-infectivity-potential-mechanisms-of-virus-host-interaction-and-perspectives-in-drug-discovery
#4
REVIEW
Vitor H Pomin
As broadly reported, there is an ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in countries of Latin America. Recent findings have demonstrated that ZIKV causes severe defects on the neural development in fetuses in utero and newborns. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the ZIKV infectivity. Potential therapeutic agents are also under investigation. In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070187/prevalence-characteristics-and-one-year-follow-up-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-isfahan-city-iran
#5
Pegah Karimian, Omid Yaghini, Hossein Nasr Azadani, Majid Mohammadizadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh, Atosa Adibi, Hamid Rahimi
Introduction. Need of neonatal screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is under debate, in part because of limited data on importance of the disease regarding the prevalence of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection and associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of cCMV infection in Iran, where there is high maternal seroprevalence of CMV. Methodology. This prospective study was conducted in Isfahan city, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. CMV was investigated in urine specimens by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994621/antimicrobial-stewardship-a-cross-sectional-survey-assessing-the-perceptions-and-practices-of-community-pharmacists-in-ethiopia
#6
Daniel Asfaw Erku
Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974890/clinical-significance-of-molecular-diagnostic-tools-for-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Jean Pierre Rutanga, Therese Nyirahabimana
Bacterial bloodstream infection (bBSI) represents any form of invasiveness of the blood circulatory system caused by bacteria and can lead to death among critically ill patients. Thus, there is a need for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with septicemia. So far, different molecular diagnostic tools have been developed. The majority of these tools focus on amplification based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows the detection of nucleic acids (both DNA and small RNAs) that are specific to bacterial species and sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization that allows the detection of bacteria in order to reduce delay of appropriate antibiotic therapy...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818683/retracted-contamination-of-hospital-water-supplies-in-gilan-iran-with-legionella-pneumophila-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Interdisciplinary Perspectives On Infectious Diseases
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/809842.].
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698665/evaluation-and-verification-of-the-global-rapid-identification-of-threats-system-for-infectious-diseases-in-textual-data-sources
#9
Andrew G Huff, Nathan Breit, Toph Allen, Karissa Whiting, Christopher Kiley
The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS) is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs) for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel aspects of the software package...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648069/epidemiological-mapping-of-human-onchocerciasis-in-transmission-suspected-districts-of-bale-borena-and-west-arsi-zones-of-eastern-ethiopia
#10
Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Gemechu Tadesse, Kalkidan Mekete, Afework Hailemariam Tekle, Amha Kebede
Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi) are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528869/predictors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-results-after-decolonization
#11
Tennison L Malcolm, Le Don Robinson, Alison K Klika, Deepak Ramanathan, Carlos A Higuera, Trevor G Murray
Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone) and (2) whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n = 3,927) and were not screened (n = 1,751) for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247572/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-by-years
#12
Cennet Ra─čbetli, Mehmet Parlak, Yasemin Bayram, Huseyin Guducuoglu, Nesrin Ceylan
Objective. Recently, community and hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus have increased and raised antibiotic resistant isolates. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profile of S. aureus isolates over several years in various clinical specimens from our hospital. Materials and Methods. S. aureus strains from 2009 to 2014 were isolated from various clinical samples at Yuzuncu Yil University, Dursun Odabas Medical Center, Microbiology Laboratory, and their antibiotic susceptibility test results were retrospectively investigated...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127505/using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-to-identify-drug-resistant-staphylococcal-isolates-from-nonhospital-environments-in-brunei-darussalam
#13
Ko S Chong, Siti A Shazali, Zhen Xu, Ronald R Cutler, Adi Idris
Drug resistant bacteria have been a growing threat to the community and hospitals due to the misuse of antibiotics by humans, industrialization, and lack of novel antimicrobials currently available. Little is known about the prevalence of drug resistant bacteria in nonhealthcare environments in Brunei Darussalam and about how antibiotic resistant genes are transferred within these environments. Human contact points from different types of environments in Brunei Darussalam, varying from urban to jungle settings, were swabbed and cultured onto selective media to isolate staphylococci bacteria before performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the isolates...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051422/parasitaemia-and-its-relation-to-hematological-parameters-and-liver-function-among-patients-malaria-in-abs-hajjah-northwest-yemen
#14
Mohamed Al-Salahy, Bushra Shnawa, Gamal Abed, Ahmed Mandour, Ali Al-Ezzi
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989409/the-optimal-management-of-acute-febrile-encephalopathy-in-the-aged-patient-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Fereshte Sheybani, Hamid Reza Naderi, Sareh Sajjadi
The elderly comprise less than 13 percent of world population. Nonetheless, they represent nearly half of all hospitalized adults. Acute change in mental status from baseline is commonly seen among the elderly even when the main process does not involve the central nervous system. The term "geriatric syndrome" is used to capture those clinical conditions in older people that do not fit into discrete disease categories, including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope, and urinary incontinence. Despite the growing number of elderly population, especially those who require hospitalization and the high burden of common infections accompanied by encephalopathy among them, there are several unresolved questions regarding the optimal management they deserve...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989408/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-zidovudine-therapy-on-rbc-parameters-and-urine-methylmalonic-acid-levels
#16
Adewumi Adediran, Vincent Osunkalu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Sarah John-Olabode, Akinsegun Akinbami, Ebele Uche, Sulaimon Akanmu
Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949392/correlation-between-trichomonas-vaginalis-and-concurrency-an-ecological-study
#17
Chris R Kenyon, Deven T Hamilton
Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from WHO Survey and TV prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease estimates) and (2) three racial groups in the United States (Add Health Study)...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904116/ulcerative-colitis-and-its-association-with-salmonella-species
#18
Manish Kumar Tripathi, Chandra Bhan Pratap, Vinod K Dixit, Tej Bali Singh, Sunit K Shukla, Ashok K Jain, Gopal Nath
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by presence of ulcer in colon and bloody diarrhea. The present study explores the possibility of association between Salmonella and ulcerative colitis. The present study comprised 59 cases of UC, 28 of colon cancer (CC), 127 of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 190 of healthy control. The serological study was done by Widal and Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) for ViAb. Nested PCR was performed targeting fliC, staA, and stkG gene for Typhi and Paratyphi A, respectively...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904115/medical-device-associated-candida-infections-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-of-india
#19
Sachin C Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
Health care associated infections (HCAIs) add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient's underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880909/circulating-interferon-gamma-levels-are-associated-with-low-body-weight-in-newly-diagnosed-kenyan-non-substance-using-tuberculosis-individuals
#20
Nathan Shaviya, Valentine Budambula, Mark K Webale, Tom Were
Although interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin are key immunopathogenesis mediators of tuberculosis, their association with clinical manifestations of early stage disease is inconclusive. We determined interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin levels in clinically and phenotypically well-characterised non-substance using new pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n = 13) and controls (n = 14) from Kenya. Interferon-gamma levels (P < 0.0001) and interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 (P < 0.001) and interferon-gamma to adiponectin (P = 0...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
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