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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Dafna Bergerbest, Orit Shilkrot, Michal Joseph, Moti Salti
When two targets are presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), recognition of the second target (T2) is usually reduced when presented 150-500 ms after the first target, demonstrating an attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have shown a left visual-field (LVF) advantage in T2 recognition, when T2 was embedded in one of two streams, demanding top-down attention for its recognition. Here, we explored the impact of bottom-up saliency on spatial asymmetry in the AB. When T2 was spatially shifted outside from the RSVP, creating an abrupt onset of T2, right T2s showed a right visual-field (RVF) advantage...
June 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(5), 1432-1441, 2011, Experiment 2) reported that right-handers estimated objects as smaller if they intended to grasp them in their right rather than their left hand. Based on the action-specific account, they argued that this scaling effect occurred because participants believed their right hand could grasp larger objects. However, Collier and Lawson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(4), 749-769, 2017) failed to replicate this effect...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
A number of experiments have demonstrated that observers can accurately identify stimuli that they fail to detect (Rollman and Nachmias, 1972; Harris and Fahle, 1995; Allik et al. 1982, 2014). Using a 2x2AFC double judgements procedure, we demonstrated an analogous pattern of performance in making judgements about the direction of eye gaze. Participants were shown two faces in succession: one with direct gaze and one with gaze offset to the left or right. We found that they could identify the direction of gaze offset (left/right) better than they could detect which face contained the offset gaze...
June 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Beat Meier
The purpose of the present study was to determine how long-lasting the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is. In previous research, incongruent stimuli have been used to induce a conflict because they have relevant features for two different response alternatives. So far, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli has mainly been assessed up to one trial. In the first two experiments, we assessed the persistence of the post-conflict slowing across several trials. To this end, we presented a few incongruent stimuli among non-conflict stimuli...
June 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Michael L Epstein, Tatiana A Emmanouil
A number of studies have provided evidence that the visual system statistically summarizes large amounts of information that would exceed the limitations of attention and working memory (ensemble coding). However the necessity of working memory resources for ensemble coding has not yet been tested directly. In the current study, we used a dual task design to test the effect of object and spatial visual working memory load on size averaging accuracy. In Experiment 1, we tested participants' accuracy in comparing the mean size of two sets under various levels of object visual working memory load...
June 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alessandra S Souza, Klaus Oberauer
We investigated the role of two kinds of attention-visual and central attention-for the maintenance of visual representations in working memory (WM). In Experiment 1 we directed attention to individual items in WM by presenting cues during the retention interval of a continuous delayed-estimation task, and instructing participants to think of the cued items. Attending to items improved recall commensurate with the frequency with which items were attended (0, 1, or 2 times). Experiments 1 and 3 further tested which kind of attention-visual or central-was involved in WM maintenance...
June 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Frances C Lewis, Robert A Reeve, Simon P Kelly, Katherine A Johnson
Response time variability (RTV) is a useful measure of sustained attention; however, little is known about developmental changes in RTV at different temporal frequencies. Thirty-five 6-year-olds, 31 8-year-olds, and 37 10-year-olds completed the fixed-sequence Sustained Attention to Response Task on three occasions, six months apart. Fast Fourier Transform and ex-Gaussian analyses of response time (RT) data assessed momentary fluctuations in RT, gradual changes in RT, and very long responses, thought to reflect attentional control fluctuations, slow-shifting arousal, and infrequent lapses in attention, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Greg Huffman, Jay Pratt
The action effect refers to the finding that faster response times are found when a previously responded to stimulus contains a target item than when it serves as a distracting item in a visual search. The action effect has proven robust to a number of perceptual and attentional manipulations, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. In the current study, we present two experiments investigating a possible underlying mechanism of the action effect; that responding to a stimulus increases its attentional weight causing the system to prioritize it in the visual search...
June 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Avni N Bapat, Anna Shafer-Skelton, Colin N Kupitz, Julie D Golomb
One of the fundamental challenges of visual cognition is how our visual systems combine information about an object's features with its spatial location. A recent phenomenon related to object-location binding, the "spatial congruency bias," revealed that two objects are more likely to be perceived as having the same identity or features if they appear in the same spatial location, versus if the second object appears in a different location. The spatial congruency bias suggests that irrelevant location information is automatically encoded with and bound to other object properties, biasing perceptual judgments...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Piers D L Howe
Can observers determine the gist of a natural scene in a purely feedforward manner, or does this process require deliberation and feedback? Observers can recognise images that are presented for very brief periods of time before being masked. It is unclear whether this recognition process occurs in a purely feedforward manner or whether feedback from higher cortical areas to lower cortical areas is necessary. The current study revealed that the minimum presentation time required to identify or to determine the gist of a natural scene was no different from that required to determine the orientation or colour of an isolated line...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mike E Le Pelley, Tina Seabrooke, Briana L Kennedy, Daniel Pearson, Steven B Most
Recent studies of visual search suggest that learning about valued outcomes (rewards and punishments) influences the likelihood that distractors will capture spatial attention and slow search for a target, even when those value-related distractors have never themselves been the targets of search. In the present study, we demonstrated a related effect in the context of temporal, rather than spatial, selection. Participants were presented with a temporal stream of pictures in a fixed central location and had to identify the orientation of a rotated target picture...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Shawn W Ell, David B Smith, Gabriela Peralta, Sébastien Hélie
When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Frank Papenmeier, Markus Huff
Human observers are capable of tracking multiple objects among identical distractors based only on their spatiotemporal information. Since the first report of this ability in the seminal work of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988, Spatial Vision, 3, 179-197), multiple object tracking has attracted many researchers. A reason for this is that it is commonly argued that the attentional processes studied with the multiple object paradigm apparently match the attentional processing during real-world tasks such as driving or team sports...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Lin Li, Ewald Neumann, Zhe Chen
In selective attention tasks, the efficiency of processing concurrently presented target and distractor stimuli in a given display is often influenced by the relationship these stimuli have with those in the previous display. When a to-be-attended target on a current trial (the probe trial) matches the ignored, non-target distractor on a previous trial (the prime trial), a response to the target is typically delayed compared with when the two stimuli are not associated. This negative priming (NP) phenomenon has been observed in numerous studies with traditional NP tasks presenting the target and distractor simultaneously in both the prime and probe trial couplets...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
John M Franchak
Recalibration of affordance perception allows observers to adapt to changes in the body's size or abilities that alter possibilities for action. Of key interest is understanding how exploratory behaviors lead to successful recalibration. The present study was designed to test a novel hypothesis-that the same processes of exploration and recalibration should generalize between affordances that share a similar function. Most affordances for fitting the body through openings are recalibrated without feedback from practicing the action; locomotion exploration is sufficient...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Nick Chater
People often have to make decisions based on many pieces of information. Previous work has found that people are able to integrate values presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream to make informed judgements on the overall stream value (Tsetsos et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012). It is also well known that attentional mechanisms influence how people process information. However, it is unknown how attentional factors impact value judgements of integrated material...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Across two experiments we examined individual differences in the use of precues and retrocues to guide the selective encoding and maintenance of information in visual working memory (WM). In Experiment 1, we used spatial cues to indicate which item would be tested either before or after the presentation of a memory array. Regression analyses allowed us to separate variance due to visual WM capacity and attention control differences. In Experiment 2, we used categorical cues to indicate from which subset of items the tested item would be drawn, and we measured attention control with two independent tasks...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jason Rajsic, Natasha E Ouslis, Daryl E Wilson, Jay Pratt
Visual working memory (VWM) plays a central role in visual cognition, and current work suggests that there is a special state in VWM for items that are the goal of visual searches. However, whether the quality of memory for target templates differs from memory for other items in VWM is currently unknown. In this study, we measured the precision and stability of memory for search templates and accessory items to determine whether search templates receive representational priority in VWM. Memory for search templates exhibited increased precision and probability of recall, whereas accessory items were remembered less often...
May 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alexander Krüger, Jan Tünnermann, Ingrid Scharlau
For almost three decades, the theory of visual attention (TVA) has been successful in mathematically describing and explaining a wide variety of phenomena in visual selection and recognition with high quantitative precision. Interestingly, the influence of feature contrast on attention has been included in TVA only recently, although it has been extensively studied outside the TVA framework. The present approach further develops this extension of TVA's scope by measuring and modeling salience. An empirical measure of salience is achieved by linking different (orientation and luminance) contrasts to a TVA parameter...
May 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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