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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

James C Moreland, Geoffrey M Boynton
Observers show small but systematic deviations from equal weighting of all elements when asked to localize the center of an array of dots. Counter-intuitively, with small numbers of dots drawn from a Gaussian distribution, this bias results in subjects overweighting the influence of outlier dots - inconsistent with traditional statistical estimators of central tendency. Here we show that this apparent statistical anomaly can be explained by the observation that outlier dots also lie in regions of lower dot density...
December 1, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Holger Mitterer, Eva Reinisch
Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Berno Bucker, Jan Theeuwes
Recent evidence shows that distractors that signal high compared to low reward availability elicit stronger attentional capture, even when this is detrimental for task-performance. This suggests that simply correlating stimuli with reward administration, rather than their instrumental relationship with obtaining reward, produces value-driven attentional capture. However, in previous studies, reward delivery was never response independent, as only correct responses were rewarded, nor was it completely task-irrelevant, as the distractor signaled the magnitude of reward that could be earned on that trial...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Bochao Zou, Igor S Utochkin, Yue Liu, Jeremy M Wolfe
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual competition in which perception alternates between two monocular images. When two eye's images only differ in luminance, observers may perceive shininess, a form of rivalry called binocular luster. Does dichoptic information guide attention in visual search? Wolfe and Franzel (Perception & Psychophysics, 44(1), 81-93, 1988) reported that rivalry could guide attention only weakly, but that luster (shininess) "popped out," producing very shallow Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size functions...
November 29, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jason Rajsic, Harendri Perera, Jay Pratt
Learned value is known to bias visual search toward valued stimuli. However, some uncertainty exists regarding the stage of visual processing that is modulated by learned value. Here, we directly tested the effect of learned value on preattentive processing using temporal order judgments. Across four experiments, we imbued some stimuli with high value and some with low value, using a nonmonetary reward task. In Experiment 1, we replicated the value-driven distraction effect, validating our nonmonetary reward task...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Robin Baurès, Patricia R DeLucia, Megan Olson, Daniel Oberfeld
In a reaction time (RT) task requiring fast responses to two stimuli presented close in time, human observers show a delayed RT to the second stimulus. This phenomenon has been attributed to a psychological refractory period (PRP). A similar asymmetric interference is found when performing multiple concurrent visual time-to-contact (TTC) estimations for moving objects, despite important differences between the tasks. In the present study, we studied the properties of the asymmetric interference found in the TTC task and compared them to the classical PRP effect...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Josef G Schönhammer, Dirk Kerzel
Peripheral cues reduce reaction times (RTs) to targets at the cued location with short cue-target SOAs (cueing benefits) but increase RTs at long SOAs (cueing costs or inhibition of return). In detection tasks, cueing costs occur at shorter SOAs and are larger compared with identification tasks. To account for effects of task, detection cost theory claims that the integration of cue and target into an object file makes it more difficult to detect the target as a new event, which is the principal task-requirement in detection tasks...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Katherine Wood, Daniel J Simons
How can we reconcile remarkably precise long-term memory for thousands of images with failures to detect changes to similar images? We explored whether people can use detailed, long-term memory to improve change detection performance. Subjects studied a set of images of objects and then performed recognition and change detection tasks with those images. Recognition memory performance exceeded change detection performance, even when a single familiar object in the postchange display consistently indicated the change location...
November 23, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ana García-Gutiérrez, Luis Aguado, Verónica Romero-Ferreiro, Elisa Pérez-Moreno
In order to test whether expression and gender can be attended to simultaneously without a cost in accuracy four experiments were carried out using a dual gender-expression task with male and female faces showing different emotional expressions that were backward masked by emotionally neutral faces. In the dual-facial condition the participants had to report both the gender and the expression of the targets. In two control conditions the participant reported either the gender or the expression of the face and indicated whether a surrounding frame was continuous or discontinuous...
November 22, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Josef Schlittenlacher, Wolfgang Ellermeier, Gül Avci
Although many studies have explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and loudness, including effects of intensity, frequency, and binaural summation, comparable work on spectral summation is rare. However, most real-world sounds are not pure tones and typically have bandwidths covering several critical bands. Since comparing to a 1-kHz pure tone, the reference tone, is important for loudness measurement and standardization, the present work focuses on comparing RTs for broadband noise to those for 1-kHz pure tones in three experiments using different spectral and binaural configurations...
November 22, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jiaying Zhao, Yu Luo
Visual scenes contain information on both a local scale (e.g., a tree) and a global scale (e.g., a forest). The question of whether the visual system prioritizes local or global elements has been debated for over a century. Given that visual scenes often contain distinct individual objects, here we examine how regularities between individual objects prioritize local or global processing. Participants viewed Navon-like figures consisting of small local objects making up a global object, and were asked to identify either the shape of the local objects or the shape of the global object, as fast and accurately as possible...
November 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Fahrettin F Gonen, Haluk Ogmen
Under natural viewing conditions, a large amount of information reaches our senses, and the visual system uses attention and perceptual grouping to reduce the complexity of stimuli in order to make real-time perception possible. Prior studies have shown that attention and perceptual grouping operate in synergy; exogenous attention is deployed not only to the cued item, but also to the entire group. Here, we investigated how attention and perceptual grouping operate during the formation and dissolution of groups...
November 10, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Brenda Ocampo
Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and influence their behaviour. A striking example is a phenomenon known as "free-choice priming," where masked "prime" stimuli-of which participants are unaware-modulate which of two response alternatives they are likely to choose. Recent efforts to uncover the mechanisms underlying this intriguing effect have revealed that free-choice priming can emerge even in the absence of automatized stimulus-response (S-R) associations between masked primes and specific motor responses, indicating that free choices can be influenced by a masked prime's meaning (Ocampo, 2015)...
November 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Rafal M Skiba, Jacqueline C Snow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Grayden J F Solman, Alan Kingstone
Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jennifer S Pardo, Adelya Urmanche, Sherilyn Wilman, Jaclyn Wiener
This study consolidates findings on phonetic convergence in a large-scale examination of the impacts of talker sex, word frequency, and model talkers on multiple measures of convergence. A survey of nearly three dozen published reports revealed that most shadowing studies used very few model talkers and did not assess whether phonetic convergence varied across same- and mixed-sex pairings. Furthermore, some studies have reported effects of talker sex or word frequency on phonetic convergence, but others have failed to replicate these effects or have reported opposing patterns...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Robert M G Reinhart, Josh D Cosman, Keisuke Fukuda, Geoffrey F Woodman
Noninvasive brain stimulation methods are becoming increasingly common tools in the kit of the cognitive scientist. In particular, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is showing great promise as a tool to causally manipulate the brain and understand how information is processed. The popularity of this method of brain stimulation is based on the fact that it is safe, inexpensive, its effects are long lasting, and you can increase the likelihood that neurons will fire near one electrode and decrease the likelihood that neurons will fire near another...
November 1, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nicholas Gaspelin, Carly J Leonard, Steven J Luck
For more than 2 decades, researchers have debated the nature of cognitive control in the guidance of visual attention. Stimulus-driven theories claim that salient stimuli automatically capture attention, whereas goal-driven theories propose that an individual's attentional control settings determine whether salient stimuli capture attention. In the current study, we tested a hybrid account called the signal suppression hypothesis, which claims that all stimuli automatically generate a salience signal but that this signal can be actively suppressed by top-down attentional mechanisms...
November 1, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ralph S Redden, Jennifer Klages, Raymond M Klein
Inhibition of return (IOR) is thought to be a phenomenon that biases orienting toward novel stimuli and/or facilitates foraging search. Although IOR has been explored using both the spatial cueing paradigm and the search paradigm, there is significant disagreement among scholars over whether these paradigms are reflecting the same underlying mechanism. We sought to address this disagreement by exploring whether a manipulation known to impact IOR in search - maintenance versus removal of the scene - might have a similar impact in the spatial cuing paradigm...
November 1, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Melisa Menceloglu, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
People can use temporally structured sensory information to anticipate future events. Temporal information can be presented implicitly through probability manipulation without participants' awareness of the manipulation, or explicitly conveyed through instructions. We examined how implicit and explicit temporal information established temporal expectations that influenced choice response times and response conflict (measured as flanker effects). We implicitly manipulated temporal structure by block-wise varying the likely timing of a target...
October 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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