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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Alexander Pastukhov, Johanna Prasch, Claus-Christian Carbon
Our brain constantly tries to anticipate the future by using a variety of memory mechanisms. Interestingly, studies using the intermittent presentation of multistable displays have shown little perceptual persistence for interruptions longer than a few hundred milliseconds. Here we examined whether we can facilitate the perceptual stability of bistable displays following a period of invisibility by employing a physically plausible and ecologically valid occlusion event sequence, as opposed to the typical intermittent presentation, with sudden onsets and offsets...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jun Yin, Man Chen, Xiaoting Wang, Xiaowei Ding
The chasing action, in which an actor chases a target, is a fundamental activity for the evolutionary shaping of social abilities. Where previous research has emphasized the chaser's role, the current study explored whether the fleeing responsivity of a chased target influences the cognitive representation of the chasing action. We investigated this with a change-detection task, in which a set of chasing actions, either exhibiting or not exhibiting fleeing behavior, were memorized in sequence, and it was tested whether a memorized action reappeared after altering an object's appearance...
March 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Cecilie Møller, Andreas Højlund, Klaus B Bærentsen, Niels Chr Hansen, Joshua C Skewes, Peter Vuust
During copy-editing, the y-axes of Fig. 2 (top) and Fig. 3 (top) were erroneously labelled mean BCG (d') in the version of the paper published as Online First. The correct label is meanCE (d').
March 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Eva Riechelmann, Lynn Huestegge
In the original article the authors' names were mistakenly included in the article title. The original article was corrected.
March 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yue Tian, Lihan Chen
Debate remains about whether the same attentional mechanism subserves subitizing (with number of items less than or equal to 4) and numerosity estimation (with number of items equal to or larger than 5), and evidence is scarce from the tactile modality. Here, we examined tactile numerosity perception. Using tactile Braille displays, participants completed the following three main tasks: (1) Unisensory task with focused attention: Participants reported the number (1~12) of the tactile pins. (2) Unisensory task with divided attention: Participants compared the numbers of pins across the upper and lower area of their left index fingers, in addition to reporting the number of tactile pins on their right index fingers...
March 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Stefano Cecchetto, Rebecca Lawson
Regularities like symmetry (mirror reflection) and repetition (translation) play an important role in both visual and haptic (active touch) shape perception. Altering figure-ground factors to change what is perceived as an object influences regularity detection. For vision, symmetry is usually easier to detect within one object, whereas repetition is easier to detect across two objects. For haptics, we have not found this interaction between regularity type and objectness (Cecchetto & Lawson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 103-125, 2017; Lawson, Ajvani, & Cecchetto, Experimental Psychology, 63, 197-214, 2016)...
March 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Adam S Lowet, Chaz Firestone, Brian J Scholl
An intrinsic part of seeing objects is seeing how similar or different they are relative to one another. This experience requires that objects be mentally represented in a common format over which such comparisons can be carried out. What is that representational format? Objects could be compared in terms of their superficial features (e.g., degree of pixel-by-pixel overlap), but a more intriguing possibility is that they are compared on the basis of a deeper structure. One especially promising candidate that has enjoyed success in the computer vision literature is the shape skeleton-a geometric transformation that represents objects according to their inferred underlying organization...
March 15, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chisato Mine, Jun Saiki
Feature-reward association elicits value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) regardless of the task relevance of associated features. What are the necessary conditions for feature-reward associations in VDAC? Recent studies claim that VDAC is based on Pavlovian conditioning. In this study, we manipulated the temporal relationships among feature, response, and reward in reward learning to elucidate the necessary components of VDAC. We presented reward-associated features in a variety of locations in a flanker task to form a color-reward association (training phase) and then tested VDAC in a subsequent visual search task (test phase)...
March 14, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Patti Adank, Helen Nuttall, Harold Bekkering, Gwijde Maegherman
When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter...
March 13, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jason Ivanoff, Nicole E Webb, Harjot Chahal, Virginia P Palango, Raymond M Klein, Steven R Carroll
Identifying the color (e.g., red) of a color word that is incongruent (e.g., "BLUE") can be remarkably difficult. The Stroop effect is a measure of the interference between activity from word and color pathways. The efficacy of these pathways is thought to be highly contingent on the frequency of incongruent trials within a block. A block of trials with mostly incongruent (MI) trials typically results in a smaller Stroop effect than a block with mostly congruent (MC) trials. This reduction of the Stroop effect has been largely attributed to the strategic list-wide control of the word pathway...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tarini Singh, Birte Moeller, Iring Koch, Christian Frings
The feature codes of stimuli and responses can be integrated, and if a stimulus is repeated it can retrieve the previously integrated response. Furthermore, even irrelevant features can be integrated and, upon repetition, retrieve the response. Yet the role of attention in feature integration and retrieval is not clearly understood. Some theories assume a central role of attention (e.g., Logan, 1988; Treisman & Gelade, 1980), but other studies have shown no influence of attention on feature binding (e.g...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
David Souto, Sabine Born, Dirk Kerzel
Inhibition of return is the name typically given to the prolonged latency of motor responses directed to a previously cued target location. There is intense debate about the origins of this effect and its function, but most take for granted (despite lack of evidence) that it depends little on forward masking. Therefore, we re-examined the role of forward masking in inhibition of return. Forward masking was indexed by slower saccadic reaction times (SRTs) when the target orientation repeated the cue orientation at the same location...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anthony S Barnhart, Mandy J Ehlert, Stephen D Goldinger, Alison D Mackey
Recently, performance magic has become a source of insight into the processes underlying awareness. Magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats." One of these variables is akin to the phenomenon psychologists know as attentional entrainment. The current experiments, inspired by performance magic, explore the extent to which entrainment can occur across sensory modalities. Across two experiments using a difficult dot probe detection task, we find that the mere presence of an auditory rhythm can bias when visual attention is deployed, speeding responses to stimuli appearing in phase with the rhythm...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Christian E Stilp, Ashley A Assgari
Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization...
February 28, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Zaira Cattaneo, Carlotta Lega, Luca Rinaldi, Micaela Fantino, Chiara Ferrari, Lotfi B Merabet, Tomaso Vecchi
Converging evidence suggests that the perception of auditory pitch exhibits a characteristic spatial organization. This pitch-space association can be demonstrated experimentally by the Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) effect. This is characterized by faster response times when a low-positioned key is pressed in response to a low-pitched tone, and a high-positioned key is pressed in response to a high-pitched tone. To investigate whether the development of this pitch-space association is mediated by normal visual experience, we tested a group of early blind individuals on a task that required them to discriminate the timbre of different instrument sounds with varying pitch...
February 26, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Harry H Haladjian, Matteo Lisi, Patrick Cavanagh
The double-drift stimulus produces a strong shift in apparent motion direction that generates large errors of perceived position. In this study, we tested the effect of attentional load on the perceptual estimates of motion direction and position for double-drift stimuli. In each trial, four objects appeared, one in each quadrant of a large screen, and they moved upward or downward on an angled trajectory. The target object whose direction or position was to be judged was either cued with a small arrow prior to object motion (low attentional load condition) or cued after the objects stopped moving and disappeared (high attentional load condition)...
February 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Benchi Wang, Jan Theeuwes
Recently, Wang and Theeuwes (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44(1), 13-17, 2018a) demonstrated the role of lingering selection biases in an additional singleton search task in which the distractor singleton appeared much more often in one location than in all other locations. For this location, there was less capture and selection efficiency was reduced. It was argued that statistical learning induces plasticity within the spatial priority map such that particular locations that are high likely to contain a distractor are suppressed relative to all other locations...
February 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sahil Luthra, Neal P Fox, Sheila E Blumstein
Recognition of and memory for a spoken word can be facilitated by a prior presentation of that word spoken by the same talker. However, it is less clear whether this speaker congruency advantage generalizes to facilitate recognition of unheard related words. The present investigation employed a false memory paradigm to examine whether information about a speaker's identity in items heard by listeners could influence the recognition of novel items (critical intruders) phonologically or semantically related to the studied items...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Lingxi Lu, Xiaohan Bao, Jing Chen, Tianshu Qu, Xihong Wu, Liang Li
Under a noisy "cocktail-party" listening condition with multiple people talking, listeners can use various perceptual/cognitive unmasking cues to improve recognition of the target speech against informational speech-on-speech masking. One potential unmasking cue is the emotion expressed in a speech voice, by means of certain acoustical features. However, it was unclear whether emotionally conditioning a target-speech voice that has none of the typical acoustical features of emotions (i.e., an emotionally neutral voice) can be used by listeners for enhancing target-speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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