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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Jihyang Jun, Sang Chul Chong
Visual statistical learning (VSL) has been proposed as a powerful mechanism underlying the striking ability of human observers to handle complex visual environments. Previous studies have shown that VSL can occur when statistical information is embedded at multiple levels of abstraction, such as at semantically different category levels. In the present study, we further examined whether statistical regularities at a basic category level (e.g., a regular sequence of a bird, then a car, and then a dog) could influence the ability to extract statistical regularities at the subordinate level (e...
July 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Emmanuelle Ménétrier, André Didierjean, Valérie Barbe
Boundary extension (BE) refers to the tendency to remember a previously perceived scene with a greater spatial expanse. This phenomenon is described as resulting from different sources of information: external (i.e., visual) and internally driven (i.e., amodal, conceptual, and contextual) information. Although the literature has emphasized the role of top-down expectations to account for layout extrapolation, their effect has rarely been tested experimentally. In this research, we attempted to determine how visual context affects BE, as a function of scene exposure duration (long, short)...
July 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mark A Atkinson, Abbie C Millett, Silviya P Doneva, Andrew Simpson, Geoff G Cole
A number of studies have shown that the motor actions of one individual can affect the attention of an observer. In one notable example, "social inhibition of return," observers are relatively slow to initiate a response to a location where another individual has just responded. In the present article we examine the degree to which this phenomenon can be considered a social effect. We find that unlike the related social, or "joint," Simon effect, social inhibition of return is not influenced by competitive versus cooperative interaction, nor by live versus recorded interaction...
July 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J A Solomon, M J Morgan
Visual sensitivity can be heightened in the vicinity of an appropriate precue. Experiments with multiple, noninformative precues suggest that this facilitation should not be attributed to focal attention. The number of simultaneously appearing precues seems to be irrelevant; contrast thresholds are lowest for targets that appear in a precued position. Here we report that precues become less effective when they and the target are delivered to different eyes. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for such heightened sensitivity has largely monocular input...
July 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Kelly Webster, Jason Clarke, Arien Mack, Tony Ro
Whether scene gist perception occurs automatically and unconsciously has been the subject of much debate. In addition to demonstrating a new method that adapts the Mack and Rock (1998) inattentional blindness cross procedure to allow for sustained inattentional blindness over a large number of trials, we report evidence from a series of experiments that shows that canonical scene features reduce inattentional blindness to scenes by facilitating the extraction of scene gist. When attentional demands are high, the combination of canonical color, canonical luminance, and canonical orientation reduces rates of inattentional blindness...
July 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Gavin Jun Peng Ng, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Stage 1 processing in visual search (e.g., efficient search) has long been thought to be unaffected by factors such as set size or lure-distractor similarity (or at least to be only minimally affected). Recent research from Buetti, Cronin, Madison, Wang, and Lleras (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 672-707, 2016) showed that in efficient visual search with a fixed target, reaction times increase logarithmically as a function of set size and, further, that the slope of these logarithmic functions is modulated by target-distractor similarity...
July 6, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tilo Strobach, Elisabeth Hendrich, Sebastian Kübler, Hermann Müller, Torsten Schubert
When two overlapping tasks are processed, they hit a bottleneck at a central processing stage that prevents simultaneous processing of the two tasks. Thus far, however, the factors determining the processing order of the tasks at the bottleneck are unknown. The present study was designed to (re)investigate whether the arrival times of the two tasks at the central bottleneck are a key determinant of the processing order (cf. Sigman & Dehaene, 2006). To this end, we implemented a visual-auditory dual task with a random stimulus order, in which we manipulated arrival time by prolonging the initial, perceptual processing stage (stimulus analysis) of the visual task and compared the effects of this manipulation with those of one impacting the central bottleneck stage of the visual task...
July 5, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Irem Yildirim, Oğuzhan Öğreden, Aysecan Boduroglu
People represent summary statistics of visual scenes, but it is not fully clear whether such summary statistics are extracted automatically. To determine whether different levels of summary representation (i.e., at the perceptual-group or the entire-display level) may be formed differently, in two experiments we investigated how people extracted summary statistics for displays consisting of spatially segregated groups. Participants were asked to report the mean sizes of either entire sets or perceptual groups in precue and postcue conditions...
July 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jeffrey J DiGiovanni, Erin E Lynch, Naveen K Nagaraj, Dennis T Ries
Persistence of excitation and neural adaptation are competing theories proposed to explain the mechanisms underlying psychophysical forward masking. Previous research has been directed towards finding models that accurately describe the phenomenon but cannot account for the underlying explanation. The current study was designed to determine which theory best accounts for results obtained from behavioral gap duration adjustment tasks. Thirteen adults adjusted the gap within asymmetrical noise markers to be subjectively equal to the gap within equal-intensity-noise markers...
July 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Kendra C Smith, Richard A Abrams
Several properties of visual stimuli have been shown to capture attention, one of which is the onset of motion. However, whether motion onset truly captures attention has been debated. It has been argued that motion onset only captured attention in previous studies because properties of the animated motion used in those experiments caused it to be "jerky" (i.e., there were gaps between successive images during animated motion). The present study sought to determine whether natural motion onset captures attention...
July 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Casey L Roark, Lori L Holt
There is substantial evidence that two distinct learning systems are engaged in category learning. One is principally engaged when learning requires selective attention to a single dimension (rule-based), and the other is drawn online by categories requiring integration across two or more dimensions (information-integration). This distinction has largely been drawn from studies of visual categories learned via overt category decisions and explicit feedback. Recent research has extended this model to auditory categories, the nature of which introduces new questions for research...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Richard J Allen, Taiji Ueno
Emerging literature indicates that working memory and attention interact in determining what is retained over time, though the nature of this relationship and the impacts on performance across different task contexts remain to be mapped. In the present study, four experiments examined whether participants can prioritize one or more high-reward items within a four-item target array for the purposes of an immediate cued recall task, and the extent to which this mediates the disruptive impact of a postdisplay to-be-ignored suffix...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Roger W Remington, Jennifer S Burt, Stefanie I Becker
In completing daily activities, the eyes make a series of saccades by gazing at stimuli in succession. The duration of gaze on each stimulus has been used to infer how the initiation of a saccade is timed relative to the underlying mental processing. In reading, gaze dwells longer on a word that occurs infrequently in English text (low frequency) than on a more frequent word (high frequency), but also on the following word, which is referred to as spillover. Accounts of spillover attribute it to mechanisms of lexical access...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Aoife Mahon, Alasdair D F Clarke, Amelia R Hunt
People are unable to accurately report on their own eye movements most of the time. Can this be explained as a lack of attention to the objects we fixate? Here, we elicited eye-movement errors using the classic oculomotor capture paradigm, in which people tend to look at sudden onsets even when they are irrelevant. In the first experiment, participants were able to report their own errors on about a quarter of the trials on which they occurred. The aim of the second experiment was to assess what differentiates errors that are detected from those that are not...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sibel Akyuz, Jaap Munneke, Jennifer E Corbett
Based on the observation that sports teams rely on colored jerseys to define group membership, we examined how grouping by similarity affected observers' abilities to track a "ball" target passed between 20 colored circle "players" divided into two color "teams" of 10 players each, or five color teams of four players each. Observers were more accurate and exerted less effort (indexed by pupil diameter) when their task was to count the number of times any player gained possession of the ball versus when they had to count only the possessions by a given color team, especially when counting the possessions of one team when players were grouped into fewer teams of more individual members each...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Benchi Wang, Jan Theeuwes
An earlier study using the additional singleton task showed that statistical regularities regarding the distractor location can cause an attentional bias that affects the amount of attentional capture by distractors and the efficiency of selection of targets. The distractor singleton was systematically present more often in one location than in all other locations. The present study investigated whether this bias also occurs when observers adopt a feature search mode, i.e., when they search for a specific feature (circle) between elements with different shapes, while ignoring a colored distractor singleton...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jinfeng Tan, Shouhang Yin, Lijun Wang, Antao Chen, Tobias Egner
The perceptual load theory of attentional selection argues that the degree to which distractors interfere with target processing is determined by the "perceptual load" (or discrimination difficulty) of target processing: when perceptual load is low, distractors interfere to a greater extent than when it is high. A well-known exception is load-independent interference effects from face distractors during processing of name targets. This finding was reconciled with load theory by proposing distinct processing resources for faces versus names...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Erik Van der Burg, David Alais, John Cass
In natural scenes, audiovisual events deriving from the same source are synchronized at their origin. However, from the perspective of the observer, there are likely to be significant multisensory delays due to physical and neural latencies. Fortunately, our brain appears to compensate for the resulting latency differences by rapidly adapting to asynchronous audiovisual events by shifting the point of subjective synchrony (PSS) in the direction of the leading modality of the most recent event. Here we examined whether it is the perceived modality order of this prior lag or its physical order that determines the direction of the subsequent rapid recalibration...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J Farley Norman, Catherine J Dowell, Alexia J Higginbotham, Nicholas W Fedorka, Hideko F Norman
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of 28 younger and older adults to visually bisect distances in depth both indoors and outdoors; half of the observers were male and half were female. Observers viewed 15-m and 30-m distance extents in four different environmental settings (two outdoor grassy fields and an indoor hallway and atrium) and were required to adjust the position of a marker to place it at the midpoint of each stimulus distance interval. Overall, the observers' judgments were more accurate indoors than outdoors...
July 2, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sang A Cho, Yang Seok Cho
An attentional control setting (ACS), which is based on the task goal, induces involuntary attentional capture by a stimulus possessing a target-defining feature. It is unclear whether ACSs are maintained for multiple targets defined as conjunctions of a color and location. In the present study we examined the possibility of local ACSs for dual targets defined as combinations of color and location, using different paradigms: visual search in Experiment 1, and spatial cueing in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a distractor captured attention only when its features matched the ACSs...
June 29, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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