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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527003/the-effects-of-kanizsa-contours-on-temporal-integration-and-attention-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#1
Aytaç Karabay, Elkan G Akyürek
Performance in rapid serial visual presentation tasks has been shown to depend on the temporal integration of target stimuli when they are presented in direct succession. Temporal target integration produces a single, combined representation of visually compatible stimuli, which is comparatively easy to identify. It is currently unknown to what extent target compatibility affects this perceptual behavior, because it has not been studied systematically to date. In the present study, the effects of compatibility on temporal integration and attention were investigated by manipulating the Gestalt properties of target features...
May 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523448/erratum-to-voluntary-action-alters-the-perception-of-visual-illusions
#2
Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516295/judgments-of-differences-and-ratios-of-subjective-heaviness
#3
Sergio Cesare Masin, Andrea Brancaccio
Experimental instructions to judge differences or ratios of subjective heaviness numerically are generally assumed to produce judgments linearly proportional to the respective heaviness differences or heaviness ratios. In this study, participants were instructed to numerically judge the difference or ratio of heaviness between two weights being lifted separately, either unimanually or bimanually. Weight values were combined factorially. Patterns of factorial curves revealed that unimanual lifting triggered linear judgments of heaviness differences, whereas bimanual lifting triggered nonlinear judgments of heaviness ratios...
May 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516294/does-seeing-an-asian-face-make-speech-sound-more-accented
#4
Yi Zheng, Arthur G Samuel
Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared...
May 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508116/comparing-visual-search-and-eye-movements-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#5
Ileana Ratiu, Michael C Hout, Stephen C Walenchok, Tamiko Azuma, Stephen D Goldinger
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search experiments. These spatially and temporally fine-grained measures allowed us to carefully investigate any nuanced attentional differences between bilinguals and monolinguals...
May 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508115/when-kinesthetic-information-is-neglected-in-learning-a-novel-bimanual-rhythmic-coordination
#6
Qin Zhu, Todd Mirich, Shaochen Huang, Winona Snapp-Childs, Geoffrey P Bingham
Many studies have shown that rhythmic interlimb coordination involves perception of the coupled limb movements, and different sensory modalities can be used. Using visual displays to inform the coupled bimanual movement, novel bimanual coordination patterns can be learned with practice. A recent study showed that similar learning occurred without vision when a coach provided manual guidance during practice. The information provided via the two different modalities may be same (amodal) or different (modality specific)...
May 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500508/the-whereabouts-of-visual-attention-involuntary-attentional-bias-toward-the-default-gaze-direction
#7
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
This study proposed and verified a new hypothesis on the relationship between gaze direction and visual attention: attentional bias by default gaze direction based on eye-head coordination. We conducted a target identification task in which visual stimuli appeared briefly to the left and right of a fixation cross. In Experiment 1, the direction of the participant's head (aligned with the body) was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to a central fixation point. In Experiment 2, head direction was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to the body direction...
May 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493106/human-classifier-observers-can-deduce-task-solely-from-eye-movements
#8
Brett Bahle, Mark Mills, Michael D Dodd
Computer classifiers have been successful at classifying various tasks using eye movement statistics. However, the question of human classification of task from eye movements has rarely been studied. Across two experiments, we examined whether humans could classify task based solely on the eye movements of other individuals. In Experiment 1, human classifiers were shown one of three sets of eye movements: Fixations, which were displayed as blue circles, with larger circles meaning longer fixation durations; Scanpaths, which were displayed as yellow arrows; and Videos, in which a neon green dot moved around the screen...
May 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477312/visual-selective-attention-with-virtual-barriers
#9
Darryl W Schneider
Previous studies have shown that interference effects in the flanker task are reduced when physical barriers (e.g., hands) are placed around rather than below a target flanked by distractors. One explanation of this finding is the referential coding hypothesis, whereby the barriers serve as reference objects for allocating attention. In five experiments, the generality of the referential coding hypothesis was tested by investigating whether interference effects are modulated by the placement of virtual barriers (e...
May 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474268/binding-time-evidence-for-integration-of-temporal-stimulus-features
#10
Johanna Bogon, Roland Thomaschke, Gesine Dreisbach
Several lines of evidence suggest that during processing of events, the features of these events become connected via episodic bindings. Such bindings have been demonstrated for a large number of visual and auditory stimulus features, like color and orientation, or pitch and loudness. Importantly, most visual and auditory events typically also involve temporal features, like onset time or duration. So far, however, whether temporal stimulus features are also bound into event representations has never been tested directly...
May 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474267/the-open-object-illusion-size-perception-is-greatly-influenced-by-object-boundaries
#11
Tal Makovski
This study presents a new powerful visual illusion, in which simple "open" objects-ones with missing boundaries-are perceived as bigger than the same size, fully "closed" objects. In a series of experiments that employed a continuous-response adjustment procedure, it was found that the lack of vertical boundaries inflated the perceived width of an object, whereas the lack of horizontal boundaries inflated its perceived length. The effect was highly robust and it was replicated across different stimulus types and experimental parameters, with almost all observers exhibiting a strong effect...
May 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470554/confident-failures-lapses-of-working-memory-reveal-a-metacognitive-blind-spot
#12
Kirsten C S Adam, Edward K Vogel
Working memory performance fluctuates dramatically from trial to trial. On many trials, performance is no better than chance. Here, we assessed participants' awareness of working memory failures. We used a whole-report visual working memory task to quantify both trial-by-trial performance and trial-by-trial subjective ratings of inattention to the task. In Experiment 1 (N = 41), participants were probed for task-unrelated thoughts immediately following 20% of trials. In Experiment 2 (N = 30), participants gave a rating of their attentional state following 25% of trials...
May 3, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462484/media-multitasking-and-implicit-learning
#13
Kathleen S Edwards, Myoungju Shin
Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information...
May 1, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451999/faces-are-special-but-facial-expressions-aren-t-insights-from-an-oculomotor-capture-paradigm
#14
Christel Devue, Gina M Grimshaw
We compared the ability of angry and neutral faces to drive oculomotor behaviour as a test of the widespread claim that emotional information is automatically prioritized when competing for attention. Participants were required to make a saccade to a colour singleton; photos of angry or neutral faces appeared amongst other objects within the array, and were completely irrelevant for the task. Eye-tracking measures indicate that faces drive oculomotor behaviour in a bottom-up fashion; however, angry faces are no more likely to capture the eyes than neutral faces are...
April 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451998/voluntary-action-alters-the-perception-of-visual-illusions
#15
Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe
"Intentional binding" refers to the finding that people judge voluntary actions and their effects as having occurred closer together in time than two passively observed events. If this effect reflects subjectively compressed time, then time-dependent visual illusions should be altered by voluntary initiation. To test this hypothesis, we showed participants displays that result in particular motion illusions when presented at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). In Experiment 1 we used apparent motion, which is perceived only at very short ISIs; Experiments 2a and 2b used the Ternus display, which results in different motion illusions depending on the ISI...
April 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439793/mixed-signals-the-effect-of-conflicting-reward-and-goal-driven-biases-on-selective-attention
#16
Daniel Preciado, Jaap Munneke, Jan Theeuwes
Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d') and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured cues, followed by sinusoidal gratings...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439792/short-term-and-long-term-attentional-biases-to-frequently-encountered-target-features
#17
Li Z Sha, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
It has long been known that frequently occurring targets are attended better than infrequent ones in visual search. But does this frequency-based attentional prioritization reflect momentary or durable changes in attention? Here we observed both short-term and long-term attentional biases for visual features as a function of different types of statistical associations between the targets, distractors, and features. Participants searched for a target, a line oriented horizontally or vertically among diagonal distractors, and reported its length...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439791/task-irrelevant-distractors-in-the-delay-period-interfere-selectively-with-visual-short-term-memory-for-spatial-locations
#18
Francesco Marini, Jerry Scott, Adam R Aron, Edward F Ester
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386882/working-memory-representations-persist-in-the-face-of-unexpected-task-alterations
#19
Garrett Swan, Brad Wyble, Hui Chen
It is well known that information can be held in memory while performing other tasks concurrently, such as remembering a color or number during a separate visual search task. However, it is not clear what happens to stored information in the face of unexpected tasks, such as the surprise questions that are often used in experiments related to inattentional and change blindness. Does the unpredicted shift in task context cause memory representations to be cleared in anticipation of new information? To answer this question, we ran two experiments where the task unexpectedly switched partway through the experiment with a surprise question...
April 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386881/object-substitution-masking-and-its-relationship-with-visual-crowding
#20
Sarah Jayne Camp, Michael Pilling, Angus Gellatly
Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when the perceptibility of a brief target is reduced by a trailing surround mask typically composed of four dots. Camp et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41, 940-957, 2015) found that crowding a target by adding adjacent flankers, in addition to OSM, had a more deleterious effect on performance than expected based on the combined individual effects of crowding and masking alone. The current experiments test why OSM and crowding interact in this way...
April 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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