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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Christopher C Heffner, Rochelle S Newman, William J Idsardi
Listeners must adapt to differences in speech rate across talkers and situations. Speech rate adaptation effects are strong for adjacent syllables (i.e., proximal syllables). For studies that have assessed adaptation effects on speech rate information more than one syllable removed from a point of ambiguity in speech (i.e., distal syllables), the difference in strength between different types of ambiguity is stark. Studies of word segmentation have shown large shifts in perception as a result of distal rate manipulations, while studies of segmental perception have shown only weak, or even nonexistent, effects...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Behrang Keshavarz, Jennifer L Campos, Patricia R DeLucia, Daniel Oberfeld
Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background)...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Duong Huynh, Srimant P Tripathy, Harold E Bedell, Haluk Öğmen
The goal of this study was to investigate the reference frames used in perceptual encoding and storage of visual motion information. In our experiments, observers viewed multiple moving objects and reported the direction of motion of a randomly selected item. Using a vector-decomposition technique, we computed performance during smooth pursuit with respect to a spatiotopic (nonretinotopic) and to a retinotopic component and compared them with performance during fixation, which served as the baseline. For the stimulus encoding stage, which precedes memory, we found that the reference frame depends on the stimulus set size...
January 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was used to track covert shifts of attention to items maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In three experiments, participants performed a change detection task in which rectangles appeared on either side of fixation and at test participants indicated if the cued rectangle changed its orientation. Prior to presentation or during the delay, participants were cued to the light or dark side of the screen. When cued to the light side, the pupil constricted, and when cued to the dark side, the pupil dilated, suggesting that the PLR tracked covert shifts of attention...
January 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yongchun Wang, Yonghui Wang, Peng Liu, Meilin Di, Yanyan Gong, Li Zhao, Qi Chen
The current study investigated the role of the automatization of stimulus and response (S-R) associations and response readiness in triggering the motor activation for masked primes in two experiments. The automatization of associations was manipulated by employing different types of stimuli, and response readiness was manipulated by varying the relative frequency of Go trials in a modified Go/No-Go task. Compatibility (compatible and incompatible), stimulus type (arrows and parallel lines), and test session (Sessions 1, 2, and 3) were manipulated in a high response-readiness condition (Experiment 1) and in a low response-readiness condition (Experiment 2)...
January 11, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Andrew B S Willett, Richard S Marken, Maximilian G Parker, Warren Mansell
There is limited evidence regarding the accuracy of inferences about intention. The research described in this article shows how perceptual control theory (PCT) can provide a "ground truth" for these judgments. In a series of 3 studies, participants were asked to identify a person's intention in a tracking task where the person's true intention was to control the position of a knot connecting a pair of rubber bands. Most participants failed to correctly infer the person's intention, instead inferring complex but nonexistent goals (such as "tracing out two kangaroos boxing") based on the actions taken to keep the knot under control...
January 11, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Timothy W Boiteau, Cameron Smith, Amit Almor
A number of studies have shown a relationship between comprehending transitive sentences and spatial processing (e.g., Chatterjee, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(2), 55-61, 2001), in which there is an advantage for responding to images that depict the agent of an action to the left of the patient. Boiteau and Almor (Cognitive Science, 2016) demonstrated that a similar effect is found for pure linguistic information, such that after reading a sentence, identifying a word that had appeared earlier as the agent is faster on the left than on the right, but only for left-hand responses...
January 11, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anna Shafer-Skelton, Colin N Kupitz, Julie D Golomb
Despite frequent eye movements that rapidly shift the locations of objects on our retinas, our visual system creates a stable perception of the world. To do this, it must convert eye-centered (retinotopic) input to world-centered (spatiotopic) percepts. Moreover, for successful behavior we must also incorporate information about object features/identities during this updating - a fundamental challenge that remains to be understood. Here we adapted a recent behavioral paradigm, the "spatial congruency bias," to investigate object-location binding across an eye movement...
January 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Matthew D Hilchey, Jason Rajsic, Greg Huffman, Jay Pratt
When there is a relatively long interval between two successive stimuli that must be detected or localized, there are robust processing costs when the stimuli appear at the same location. However, when two successive visual stimuli that must be identified appear at the same location, there are robust same location costs only when the two stimuli differ in their responses; otherwise same location benefits are observed. Two separate frameworks that inhibited attentional orienting and episodic integration, respectively, have been proposed to account for these patterns...
January 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Thomas S A Wallis, Saskia Tobias, Matthias Bethge, Felix A Wichmann
When visual features in the periphery are close together they become difficult to recognize: something is present but it is unclear what. This is called "crowding". Here we investigated sensitivity to features in highly familiar shapes (letters) by applying spatial distortions. In Experiment 6, observers detected which of four peripherally presented (8 deg of retinal eccentricity) target letters was distorted (spatial 4AFC). The letters were presented either isolated or surrounded by four undistorted flanking letters, and distorted with one of two types of distortion at a range of distortion frequencies and amplitudes...
January 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jeff P Hamm
When a bar suddenly appears between two boxes, the bar will appear to shoot away from the box that matches it in colour or in shape-a phenomenon referred to as attribute priming of illusory line motion (ILM; colourILM and shapeILM, respectively). If the two boxes are identical, ILM will still occur away from a box if it changes luminance shortly before the presentation of the bar (flashILM). This flash condition has been suggested to produce the illusory motion due to the formation of an attentional gradient surrounding the flashed location...
January 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Leif Trampenau, Thilo van Eimeren, Johann Kuhtz-Buschbeck
We studied the effects of probabilistic cues, i.e., of information of limited certainty, in the context of an action task (GL: grip-lift) and of a perceptual task (WP: weight perception). Normal subjects (n = 22) saw four different probabilistic visual cues, each of which announced the likely weight of an object. In the GL task, the object was grasped and lifted with a pinch grip, and the peak force rates indicated that the grip and load forces were scaled predictively according to the probabilistic information...
December 29, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ian Donovan, Jay Pratt, Sarah Shomstein
Attentional selection is a dynamic process that relies on multiple types of representations. That object representations contribute to attentional selection has been known for decades; however, most evidence for this contribution has been gleaned from studies that have relied on various forms of spatial cueing (some endogenous and some exogenous). It has thus remained unclear whether object-based attentional selection is a direct result of spatial cuing, or whether it still emerges without any spatial marker...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Participants often exaggerate the perceived angular separation between two simultaneously presented motion stimuli, which is referred to as motion repulsion. The overestimation helps participants differentiate between the two superimposed motion directions, yet it causes the impairment of direction perception. Since direction perception can be refined through perceptual training, we here attempted to investigate whether the training of a direction discrimination task changes the amount of motion repulsion. Our results showed a direction-specific learning effect, which was accompanied by a reduced amount of motion repulsion both for the trained and the untrained directions...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Markus Janczyk, Lynn Huestegge
When two tasks are combined in a dual-task experiment, characteristics of Task 2 can influence Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). Besides instances depending on the (spatial) compatibility of both responses, a particularly interesting example was introduced by Miller (2006): If Task 2 was a no-go task (i.e., one not requiring any action at all), responses were slowed in Task 1. Subsequent work, however, also reported the opposite result-that is, faster Task 1 responses in cases of no-go Task 2 trials...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Brandon C W Ralph, Daniel Smilek
A number of studies have recently examined the link between individual differences in media multitasking (using the MMI) and performance on working memory paradigms. However, these studies have yielded mixed results. Here we examine the relation between media multitasking and one particular working memory paradigm-the n-back (2- and 3-back)-improving upon previous research by (a) treating media multitasking as a continuous variable and adopting a correlational approach as well as (b) using a large sample of participants...
December 21, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jason Rajsic, J Eric T Taylor, Jay Pratt
Confirmation bias has recently been reported in visual search, where observers who were given a perceptual rule to test (e.g. "Is the p on a red circle?") search stimuli that could confirm the rule stimuli preferentially (Rajsic, Wilson, & Pratt, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(5), 1353-1364, 2015). In this study, we compared the ability of concrete and abstract visual templates to guide attention using the visual confirmation bias. Experiment 1 showed that confirmatory search tendencies do not result from simple low-level priming, as they occurred when color templates were verbally communicated...
December 20, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Kerstin Dittrich, Christoph Stahl
In between-attribute Stroop matching tasks, participants compare the meaning (or the color) of a Stroop stimulus with a probe color (or meaning) while attempting to ignore the Stroop stimulus's task-irrelevant attribute. Interference in this task has been explained by two competing theories: A semantic competition account and a response competition account. Recent results favor the response competition account, which assumes that interference is caused by a task-irrelevant comparison. However, the comparison of studies is complicated by the lack of a consensus on how trial types should be classified and analyzed...
December 15, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Rachel Wu, Zoe Pruitt, Benjamin D Zinszer, Olivia S Cheung
Prior research has demonstrated the benefits (i.e., task-relevant attentional selection) and costs (i.e., task-irrelevant attentional capture) of prior knowledge on search for an individual target or multiple targets from a category. This study investigated whether the level of experience with particular categories predicts the degree of task-relevant and task-irrelevant activation of item and category representations. Adults with varying levels of dieting experience (measured via 3 subscales of Disinhibition, Restraint, Hunger; Stunkard & Messick, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29(1), 71-83, 1985) searched for targets defined as either a specific food item (e...
December 15, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Elham Azizi, Larry A Abel, Matthew J Stainer
Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours...
December 15, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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