Read by QxMD icon Read

Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Jessica K Witt, Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Allison A M Bielak
The action-specific approach to perception claims that a person's ability to act directly influences perceptual processes related to spatial vision. For example, a person's ability to block a moving ball impacts perceptual judgments of the ball's speed. However, an alternative explanation is that action rather than perception influences judgments. Here, we explore this distinction directly. Our method produces two distinct effects, one that is clearly a judgment-based effect and is based on the outcome of the trial (trial-outcome effect) and one that is under debate as to whether or not it is perceptual and is based on the ease with which the ball can be blocked (paddle-size effect)...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Monica Perkins, Marien de Bruyne, Melita J Giummarra
There is growing evidence that enhanced sensitivity to painful clinical procedures and chronic pain are related to greater sensitivity to other sensory inputs, such as bitter taste. We examined cross-modal sensitivities in two studies. Study 1 assessed associations between bitter taste sensitivity, pain tolerance, and fear of pain in 48 healthy young adults. Participants were classified as non-tasters, tasters and super-tasters using a bitter taste test (6-n-propythiouracil; PROP). The latter group had significantly higher fear of pain (Fear of Pain Questionnaire) than tasters (p=...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Wendy S Francis, Colin M MacLeod, Randolph S Taylor
We conducted four Stroop color-word experiments to examine how multiple stimuli influence interference. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that interference was strong when the word and color were integrated, and that visual and auditory words made independent contributions to interference when these words had different meanings. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this pattern when the word information and color information were not integrated, and hence when overall interference was substantially less. Auditory and visual interference effects are comparable except when the visual distracter is integrated with the color, in which case interference is substantially enhanced...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mathew Hunter, Ben Godde, Bettina Olk
Recent research revealed considerable decline in visual perception under low luminance conditions. However, systematic studies on how visual performance is affected by absolute luminance and luminance contrast under low mesopic conditions (<0.5 cd/m(2)) is lacking. We examined performance in a simple visual discrimination task under low mesopic luminance conditions in three experiments in which we systematically varied base luminance and luminance contrast between stimulus and background. We further manipulated eccentricity of the stimuli because of known rods and cones gradients along the retina...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Greg Huffman, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Jay Pratt
In an exogenous cueing task repeating a non-spatial feature can benefit performance if the feature is task-relevant to a discrimination response. Previous studies reporting this effect have used complex displays. In the current study, we look at the generalizability of this effect, by extending it to a simple exogenous cueing paradigm in which the cue and target displays each consist of single-object onsets. We also investigate the influence of task-relevant and irrelevant features independently within the same experiment...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Michele Vicovaro, Luigi Burigana
Because the perceived weight of objects may be affected by various nonweight properties, such as their size and the density of their surface material, relative weight is sometimes misperceived (the size-weight illusion and the material-weight illusion, respectively). A widely accepted explanation for weight illusions is provided by the so-called expectation model, according to which the perceived weight stems from the contrast between the actual and expected weights. In the present study, we varied both the surface material and the size of stimuli, while keeping constant their physical weights...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Martijn J Schut, Jasper H Fabius, Nathan Van der Stoep, Stefan Van der Stigchel
One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dakota R B Lindsey, Claus Bundesen, Søren Kyllingsbæk, Anders Petersen, Gordon D Logan
In the partial-report task, subjects are asked to report only a portion of the items presented. Selective attention chooses which objects to represent in short-term memory (STM) on the basis of their relevance. Because STM is limited in capacity, one must sometimes choose which objects are removed from memory in light of new relevant information. We tested the hypothesis that the choices among newly presented information and old information in STM involve the same process-that both are acts of selective attention...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dan W Teng, Charles L Eddy, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Blindwalking to replicate an instructed distance requires various sensory signals. Recent evidence in movement science across many organisms suggests that multifractal organization of connective tissue supports the use of these signals. Multifractal structure is a multiplicity of power laws defining distribution of proportion across many time scales that helps predict judgments of the objects' length. Present work tests whether the multifractal structure in postural accelerometry during blindwalking predicts blindwalking distance replications...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Benjamin A Stettler, Laura E Thomas
Objects in peripersonal space are of great importance for interaction with the sensory world. A variety of research exploring sensory processing in peripersonal space has produced extensive evidence for altered vision near the hands. However, visual representations of the peripersonal space surrounding the feet remain unexplored. In a set of four experiments, we investigated whether observers experience biases in visual processing for objects near the feet that mirror the alterations associated with near-hand space...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nicolas A McNair, Patrick T Goodbourn, Lauren T Shone, Irina M Harris
We used the attentional blink (AB) paradigm to investigate the processing stage at which extraction of summary statistics from visual stimuli ("ensemble coding") occurs. Experiment 1 examined whether ensemble coding requires attentional engagement with the items in the ensemble. Participants performed two sequential tasks on each trial: gender discrimination of a single face (T1) and estimating the average emotional expression of an ensemble of four faces (or of a single face, as a control condition) as T2...
October 13, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Wolf Schwarz, Dennis Reike
We present two experiments in which participants classify stimuli having two potentially conflicting attributes, one of which is response-relevant whereas the other ("irrelevant") attribute is logically and statistically independent of the response. We introduce a novel design not used with filtering tasks before in which the main factor is the local (i.e., one-step) transition probability π (= 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) that the irrelevant attribute is repeated from one trial to the next. Experiment 1 involved a visual Simon task in which the color of the stimulus is relevant and its location is irrelevant...
October 13, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Aire Raidvee, Jüri Lember, Jüri Allik
Observers discriminated the numerical proportion of two sets of elements (N = 9, 13, 33, and 65) that differed either by color or orientation. According to the standard Thurstonian approach, the accuracy of proportion discrimination is determined by irreducible noise in the nervous system that stochastically transforms the number of presented visual elements onto a continuum of psychological states representing numerosity. As an alternative to this customary approach, we propose a Thurstonian-binomial model, which assumes discrete perceptual states, each of which is associated with a certain visual element...
September 26, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mieke Donk
In the preview paradigm observers are presented with one set of elements (the irrelevant set) followed by the addition of a second set among which the target is presented (the relevant set). Search efficiency in such a preview condition has been demonstrated to be higher than that in a full-baseline condition in which both sets are simultaneously presented, suggesting that a preview of the irrelevant set reduces its influence on the search process. However, numbers of irrelevant and relevant elements are typically not independently manipulated...
September 23, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mickael L D Deroche, John F Culling, Mathieu Lavandier, Vincent L Gracco
A difference in fundamental frequency (ΔF0) and a difference in spatial location (ΔSL) are two cues known to provide masking releases when multiple speakers talk at once in a room. We examined situations in which reverberation should have no effect on the mechanisms underlying the releases from energetic masking produced by these two cues. Speech reception thresholds using both unpredictable target sentences and the coordinate response measure followed a similar pattern. Both ΔF0s and ΔSLs provided masking releases in the presence of nonspeech maskers (matched in excitation pattern and temporal envelope to the speech maskers) that, as intended, were robust to reverberation...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tim H W Cornelissen, Melissa L-H Võ
People have an amazing ability to identify objects and scenes with only a glimpse. How automatic is this scene and object identification? Are scene and object semantics-let alone their semantic congruity-processed to a degree that modulates ongoing gaze behavior even if they are irrelevant to the task at hand? Objects that do not fit the semantics of the scene (e.g., a toothbrush in an office) are typically fixated longer and more often than objects that are congruent with the scene context. In this study, we overlaid a letter T onto photographs of indoor scenes and instructed participants to search for it...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nicholas Hon
When selected, attention is thought to spread across the whole of an object. Such spreading is thought to occur via the integration and mutual enhancement of the different mental representations of said object. Neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that such integration is not instantaneous with selection, but rather occurs after some delay. It is currently unclear whether the time needed for integration to be established has a behavioural consequence. Here, it was found that trials that required integration were responded to more slowly than those that did not, even though correct responses in both could be determined by the same information...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Hans Rutger Bosker
The perception of temporal contrasts in speech is known to be influenced by the speech rate in the surrounding context. This rate-dependent perception is suggested to involve general auditory processes because it is also elicited by nonspeech contexts, such as pure tone sequences. Two general auditory mechanisms have been proposed to underlie rate-dependent perception: durational contrast and neural entrainment. This study compares the predictions of these two accounts of rate-dependent speech perception by means of four experiments, in which participants heard tone sequences followed by Dutch target words ambiguous between/ɑs/"ash" and/a:s/"bait...
September 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Benjamin Balas
Peripheral visual perception is characterized by reduced information about appearance due to constraints on how image structure is represented. Visual crowding is a consequence of excessive integration in the visual periphery. Basic phenomenology of visual crowding and other tasks have been successfully accounted for by a summary-statistic model of pooling, suggesting that texture-like processing is useful for how information is reduced in peripheral vision. I attempt to extend the scope of this model by examining a property of peripheral vision: reduced perceived numerosity in the periphery...
September 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Lisa McCarthy, Kirk N Olsen
Continuous increases of acoustic intensity (up-ramps) can indicate a looming (approaching) sound source in the environment, whereas continuous decreases of intensity (down-ramps) can indicate a receding sound source. From psychoacoustic experiments, an "adaptive perceptual bias" for up-ramp looming tonal stimuli has been proposed (Neuhoff, 1998). This theory postulates that (1) up-ramps are perceptually salient because of their association with looming and potentially threatening stimuli in the environment; (2) tonal stimuli are perceptually salient because of an association with single and potentially threatening biological sound sources in the environment, relative to white noise, which is more likely to arise from dispersed signals and nonthreatening/nonbiological sources (wind/ocean)...
September 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"