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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Kate Nussenbaum, Dima Amso, Julie Markant
Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory...
August 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Adriana Hanulíková, Andrea Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Emma E M Stewart, Anna Ma-Wyatt
People make movements in a variety of directions when interacting with the world around them. It has been well documented that attention shifts to the goal of an upcoming movement, whether the movement is a saccade or a reach. However, recent evidence suggests that the direction of a movement may influence the spatial spread of attention (Stewart & Ma-Wyatt, 2015, Journal of Vision, 15(5), 10). We investigated whether the spatiotemporal profile of attention differs depending on where that location is situated relative to the direction of movement, and if this pattern is consistent across different movement effectors...
August 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Fariba Sharifian, Oliver Contier, Claudia Preuschhof, Stefan Pollmann
Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays...
August 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ben Bauer
The present experiment investigated performance in perceptual averaging of line ensembles during maintenance of minimal and near-span memory loads of digits. Observers memorized a four-to-seven digit number (high load) or a zero (low load) prior to a brief exposure (500 ms) of an ensemble of nine horizontal lines of various lengths. A subsequent probe line was then classified by observers as greater than or less than the ensemble average length followed by serial recall of the memory load. Slope analysis of the psychometric functions relating p("greater than") and the probe to ensemble-mean-size-ratio showed an advantage (steeper slope and therefore smaller threshold) for averaging under high-load compared with low-load conditions...
August 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Lawrence P Behmer, Matthew J C Crump
Typists can type 4 to 5 keystrokes per second at around 95% accuracy, yet they appear to have poor declarative knowledge of key locations. Logan and Crump (2011, Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 54, pp. 1-27) accounted for this paradox by proposing that typing is hierarchically organized into two loops, with an outer loop that transforms sentences into words and passes each word, one at a time, to an inner loop that transforms each word into its constituent keystrokes; however, the nature of the inner loop's spatial knowledge is not well understood...
July 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Andre Almeida, Emery Schubert, John Smith, Joe Wolfe
Brightness is an attribute often used by musicians when describing timbral characteristics. It is related to the spectral distribution of energy, as is sharpness, studied by Zwicker (Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, 1990). In the current work, subjects adjusted the spectral slope and thus the spectral centroid (SC) of one of a pair of sounds to make it twice as bright as the other, so as to build a perceptual scale. The ratio of SC required to double brightness is a little less than 2 and decreases as the SC of the tones increases...
July 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Birte Moeller, Christian Frings
A single encounter of a stimulus together with a response can result in a short-lived association between the stimulus and the response [sometimes called an event file, see Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, (2001) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 910-926]. The repetition of stimulus-response pairings typically results in longer lasting learning effects indicating stimulus-response associations (e.g., Logan & Etherton, (1994) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1022-1050]...
July 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Geneviève Desmarais, Melissa Meade, Taylor Wells, Mélanie Nadeau
Although some studies have shown that haptic and visual identification seem to rely on similar processes, few studies have directly compared the two. We investigated haptic and visual object identification by asking participants to learn to recognize (Experiments 1, and 3), or to match (Experiment 2) novel objects that varied only in shape. Participants explored objects haptically, visually, or bimodally, and were then asked to identify objects haptically and/or visually. We demonstrated that patterns of identification errors were similar across identification modality, independently of learning and testing condition, suggesting that the haptic and visual representations in memory were similar...
July 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J Farley Norman, Olivia C Adkins, Catherine J Dowell, Stevie C Hoyng, Lindsey M Shain, Lauren E Pedersen, Jonathan D Kinnard, Alexia J Higginbotham, Ashley N Gilliam
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of younger and older adults to recognize 3-D object shape from patterns of optical motion. In Experiment 1, participants were required to identify dotted surfaces that rotated in depth (i.e., surface structure portrayed using the kinetic depth effect). The task difficulty was manipulated by limiting the surface point lifetimes within the stimulus apparent motion sequences. In Experiment 2, the participants identified solid, naturally shaped objects (replicas of bell peppers, Capsicum annuum) that were defined by occlusion boundary contours, patterns of specular highlights, or combined optical patterns containing both boundary contours and specular highlights...
July 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
James T Enns, Paul Kealong, Jennifer G Tichon, Troy A W Visser
The attentional blink (AB) is a widely studied deficit in reporting the second of two sequentially presented targets when they occur within 500 milliseconds. The AB often is interpreted to index a structural limit in sequential visual processing. However, this interpretation is challenged by reports that the deficit can be reduced with several hundred trials of specific training (Braun in Nature, 393(6684), 424-425, 1998; Choi et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(30), 12242-12247, 2012; Taatgen et al...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dimitris Voudouris, Katja Fiehler
Tactile signals on a hand that serves as movement goal are enhanced during movement planning and execution. Here, we examined how spatially specific tactile enhancement is when humans reach to their own static hand. Participants discriminated two brief and simultaneously presented tactile stimuli: a comparison stimulus on the left thumb or little finger from a reference stimulus on the sternum. Tactile stimuli were presented either during right-hand reaching towards the left thumb or little finger or while holding both hands still (baseline)...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Taosheng Liu, Michael Jigo
Attention to a feature enhances the sensory representation of that feature. Although much has been learned about the properties of attentional modulation when attending to a single feature, the effectiveness of attending to multiple features is not well understood. We investigated this question in a series of experiments using a color-detection task while varying the number of attended colors in a cueing paradigm. Observers were shown either a single cue, two cues, or no cue (baseline) before detecting a coherent color target...
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Michel Failing, Jan Theeuwes
Previous research has shown that attentional selection is affected by reward contingencies: previously selected and rewarded stimuli continue to capture attention even if the reward contingencies are no longer in place. In the current study, we investigated whether attentional selection also is affected by stimuli that merely signal the magnitude of reward available on a given trial but, crucially, have never had instrumental value. In a series of experiments, we show that a stimulus signaling high reward availability captures attention even when that stimulus is and was never physically salient or part of the task set, and selecting it is harmful for obtaining reward...
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Garry Kong, David Alais, Erik Van der Burg
We investigated orientation categories in the guidance of attention in visual search. In the first two experiments, participants had a limited amount of time to find a target line among distractors lines. We systematically varied the orientation of the target and the angular difference between the target and distractors. We find vertical, horizontal, and 45° targets require the least target/distractor angular difference to be found reliably and that the rate at which increases in target/distractor difference decrease search difficulty to be independent of target identity...
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Bernt C Skottun, John R Skoyles
Goodhew et al. (Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 79, 1147-1164, 2017) claim we (Skottun & Skoyles) hold: (1) that it is not possible to separate contributions from the magno- and parvocellular systems to psychophysical tasks, and (2) that there are no differences between magno- and parvocellular cells. Neither of these claims is correct.
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna Marie Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller, Dragan Rangelov
Sudden changes in the environment reliably summon attention. This rapid change detection appears to operate in a similar fashion as pop-out in visual search, the phenomenon that very salient stimuli are directly attended, independently of the number of distracting objects. Pop-out is usually explained by the workings of saliency maps, i.e., map-like representations that code for the conspicuity at each location of the visual field. While past research emphasized similarities between pop-out search and change detection, our study highlights differences between the saliency computations in the two tasks: in contrast to pop-out search, saliency computation in change detection (i) operates independently across different stimulus properties (e...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Regan Lookadoo, Yingying Yang, Edward C Merrill
Four experiments are reported in which 60 younger children (7-8 years old), 60 older children (10-11 years old), and 60 young adults (18-25 years old) performed a conjunctive visual search task (15 per group in each experiment). The number of distractors of each feature type was unbalanced across displays to evaluate participants' ability to restrict search to the smaller subset of features. The use of top-down attention processes to restrict search was encouraged by providing external aids for identifying and maintaining attention on the smaller set...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Lisa N Jefferies, Vincent Di Lollo
The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Timothy D Sweeny, Larissa C D'Abreu, Elric Elias, Lauren Padama
At any moment, some objects in the environment are seen clearly, whereas others go unnoticed. Whether or not these gaps in awareness are actually problematic may depend on the extent that information about unseen objects is lost. Determining when and how visual awareness and visual processing become linked is thus of great importance. Previous research using object-substitution masking (OSM) demonstrated that relatively simple visual features, such as size or orientation, are still processed even when they are not visible...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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