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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Lindsay M Rubinfeld, Tracy L Taylor, Jeff P Hamm
In an item-method directed forgetting task, attentional resources are withdrawn from forget item processing (e.g., Taylor & Fawcett in Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 1790-1814, 2011). Taylor and Hamm (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 168-186, 2016) demonstrated that there is no corresponding increase in the proclivity for exogenous attention to be captured following a forget instruction. This means either that the attentional resources withdrawn from the forget item are reallocated immediately (and therefore not especially vulnerable to capture) or that it is not exogenous attention that is withdrawn...
September 7, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Elisabeth Hein, Alexander C Schütz
The visual system needs to solve the correspondence problem (i.e., which elements belong together across space and time) to allow stable representations of objects. It has been shown that spatiotemporal and feature information can influence this correspondence process, but it is unclear how these factors interact with each other, especially when they are more or less prominent due to changes in contrast magnitude. We investigated this question using a variation of the Ternus display, an ambiguous apparent motion display, in which three elements can either be perceived as moving together (group motion) or as one element jumping across the others (element motion)...
September 6, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Claudia Damiano, John Wilder, Dirk B Walther
Our research has previously shown that scene categories can be predicted from observers' eye movements when they view photographs of real-world scenes. The time course of category predictions reveals the differential influences of bottom-up and top-down information. Here we used these known differences to determine to what extent image features at different representational levels contribute toward guiding gaze in a category-specific manner. Participants viewed grayscale photographs and line drawings of real-world scenes while their gaze was tracked...
September 6, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Jun Saiki
Although it is well accepted that the formation of visual working memory (VWM) representations from simple static features is a rapid and effortless process that completes within several hundred milliseconds, the storage of motion information in VWM within that time scale can be challenging due to the limited processing capacity of the visual system. Memory formation can also be demanding especially when motion stimuli are visually complex. Here, we investigated whether the formation of VWM representations of motion direction is more gradual than that of static orientation and examined the effects of stimulus complexity on that process...
September 6, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Christian Böffel, Jochen Müsseler
In modern digital applications, users often interact with virtual representations of themselves or others, called avatars. We examined how these avatars and their perspectives influence stimulus-response compatibility in a Simon task. Participants responded to light/dark blue stimuli with left/right key presses in the presence of a task-irrelevant avatar. Changes in stimulus-response compatibility were used to quantify changes in the mental representation of the task and perspective taking toward this avatar...
September 5, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
T M Vanessa Chan, Claude Alain
The ephemeral nature of spoken words creates a challenge for oral communications where incoming speech sounds must be processed in relation to representations of just-perceived sounds stored in short-term memory. This can be particularly taxing in noisy environments where perception of speech is often impaired or initially incorrect. Usage of prior contextual information (e.g., a semantically related word) has been shown to improve speech in noise identification. In three experiments, we demonstrate a comparable effect of a semantically related cue word placed after an energetically masked target word in improving accuracy of target-word identification...
September 5, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jason Ivanoff, Nicole E Webb, Harjot Chahal, Virginia P Palango, Raymond M Klein, Steven R Carroll
This article has been retracted at the request of all authors. In Experiments 3 and 4 an honest error in the experimental script pointed to the wrong stimulus file on 6.25% of trials, resulting in inaccurate output for each participant.
August 28, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J Yamashita, T Kumada
Search asymmetry is a phenomenon in which search efficiency in a visual-search task differs for searching for an X target among Y distractors from search for a Y target among X distractors. Previous research shows that search asymmetry is mainly produced by a difference in the whole signal strength of items or a difference in item familiarity. This study reports that a difference in the local fluency within items also affects search efficiency and generates search asymmetry. Fluency is a value that correlates with the processing efficiency of an item...
August 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
David F Little, Henry H Cheng, Beverly A Wright
A key component of musical proficiency is the ability to discriminate between and identify musical intervals, or fixed ratios between pitches. Acquiring these skills requires training, but little is known about how to best arrange the trials within a training session. To address this issue, learning on a musical-interval comparison task was evaluated for two four-day training regimens that employed equal numbers of stimulus presentations per day. A regimen of continuous practice yielded no learning, but a regimen that combined practice and stimulus exposure alone generated clear improvement...
August 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Susanne Mayr, Malte Möller, Axel Buchner
Contextual similarity between learning and test phase has been shown to be beneficial for memory retrieval. Negative priming is known to be caused by multiple processes; one of which is episodic retrieval. Therefore, the contextual similarity of prime and probe presentations should influence the size of the negative priming effect. This has been shown for the visual modality. In Experiment 1, an auditory four-alternative forced choice reaction time task was used to test the influence of prime-probe contextual similarity on negative priming and the processes underlying the modulation by context...
August 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anna Xiao Luo, Jiaying Zhao
The visual system is remarkably efficient at extracting summary statistics from the environment. Yet at any given time, the environment consists of many groups of objects distributed over space. Thus, the challenge for the visual system is to summarize over multiple groups. The current study investigates the capacity and computational efficiency of ensemble perception, in the context of perceiving mean sizes of multiple spatially intermixed groups of circles. In a series of experiments, participants viewed an array of one to eight sets of circles...
August 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Eduard Ort, Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort, Christian N L Olivers
Having to look for multiple targets typically results in switch costs. However, using a gaze-contingent eyetracking paradigm with multiple color-defined targets, we have recently shown that the emergence of switch costs depends on whether observers can choose a target or a target is being imposed upon them. Here, using a similar paradigm, we tested whether these findings generalize to the situation in which targets are specified across different feature dimensions. We instructed participants to simultaneously search for, and then fixate, either of two possible targets presented among distractors...
August 7, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Arran T Reader, Vaisnavi M Rao, Anastasia Christakou, Nicholas P Holmes
The dual-route model of imitation suggests that meaningful and meaningless actions are processed through either an indirect or a direct route, respectively. Evidence indicates that the direct route is more cognitively demanding since it relies on mapping visuospatial properties of the observed action on to a performed one. These cognitive demands might negatively influence reaction time and accuracy for actions performed following a meaningless action under time constraints. However, how meaningful and meaningless action imitation processing is reflected in movement kinematics is not yet clear...
August 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
C R McCormick, R S Redden, M A Lawrence, R M Klein
Temporal attention is the focusing of perceptual resources at a particular point in time. Valid temporal cue information has the capability to improve performance by reducing reaction times, while invalid information has the possibility of impairing performance. The performance difference between valid and invalid conditions is called a temporal cueing effect (TCE). We explored how different alerting mechanisms interact with a participant's ability to utilize temporal information cues, using the Kingstone (The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44(1), 69-104, 1992) temporal cueing paradigm...
July 31, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Megan A K Peters
Peters and Lau (eLife, 4, e09651, 2015) found that when criterion bias is controlled for, there is no evidence for unconscious visual perception in normal observers, in the sense that they cannot directly discriminate a target above chance without knowing it. One criticism of that study is that the visual suppression method used, forward and backward masking (FBM), may be too blunt in the way it interferes with visual processing to allow for unconscious forced-choice discrimination. To investigate this question, we compared FBM directly to continuous flash suppression (CFS) in a two-interval forced-choice task...
July 30, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nonie J Finlayson, Kelda Manser-Smith, Annika Balraj, Benjamin de Haas, D Samuel Schwarzkopf
Perceptual bias is inherent to all our senses, particularly in the form of visual illusions and aftereffects. However, many experiments measuring perceptual biases may be susceptible to nonperceptual factors, such as response bias and decision criteria. Here, we quantify how robust multiple alternative perceptual search (MAPS) is for disentangling estimates of perceptual biases from these confounding factors. First, our results show that while there are considerable response biases in our four-alternative forced-choice design, these are unrelated to perceptual biases estimates, and these response biases are not produced by the response modality (keyboard vs...
July 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dennis M Shaffer, Erica Bishop, Mara Hernandez, Cage Cramer, Echoe Smith
In the present work we investigated people's perceptions of orientation for surfaces that are conceived of as being sloped downward from vertical against a vertical reference frame. In the three conditions of Experiment 1, participants either (1) placed a ladder against a wall at what they thought was the most stable position, and then estimated its orientation; (2) gave a verbal (conceptual) estimate of what the most stable position of a ladder leaned against a wall would be; or (3) drew a line representing the most stable position of a ladder to be placed against a wall, and then gave a verbal estimate of the ladder's orientation...
July 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Thorsten Plewan, Gerhard Rinkenauer
Previous research reported ambiguous findings regarding the relationship of visuospatial attention and (stereoscopic) depth information. Some studies indicate that attention can be focused on a distinct depth plane, while other investigations revealed attentional capture from irrelevant items located in other, unattended depth planes. To evaluate whether task relevance of depth information modulates the deployment of attentional resources across depth planes, the additional singleton paradigm was adapted: Singletons defined by depth (i...
July 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yasuhiro Seya, Hiroyuki Shinoda
This study examined the effects of cues to motion in depth - namely, stereoscopic (i.e., changing-disparity cues and interocular velocity differences) and changing-size cues on forward and backward vection. We conducted four experiments in which participants viewed expanding or contracting optical flows with the addition of either or both cues. In Experiment 1, participants reported vection by pressing a button whenever they felt it. After each trial, they also rated the magnitude of the vection (from 0 to 100)...
July 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jihyang Jun, Sang Chul Chong
Visual statistical learning (VSL) has been proposed as a powerful mechanism underlying the striking ability of human observers to handle complex visual environments. Previous studies have shown that VSL can occur when statistical information is embedded at multiple levels of abstraction, such as at semantically different category levels. In the present study, we further examined whether statistical regularities at a basic category level (e.g., a regular sequence of a bird, then a car, and then a dog) could influence the ability to extract statistical regularities at the subordinate level (e...
July 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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