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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Sihang Han, Jeff P Hamm
Illusory line motion (ILM) refers to perception of motion in a bar that onsets or offsets all at once. When the bar onsets or offsets between two boxes after one of the boxes flashes, the bar appears to shoot out of the flashed box (flashILM). If the bar offsets during the flash, it appears to contract into the flashed box (reverse ILM; rILM). Onset bars do not show rILM. Moreover, rILM and flashILM are not correlated, indicating they are two different illusions. To date, rILM has only been studied using a 50-ms flash where the bar offsets 16...
January 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch, Stephen M Emrich
Other-race faces are discriminated and recognized less accurately than own-race faces. Despite a wealth of research characterizing this other-race effect (ORE), little is known about the nature of the representations of own-race versus other-race faces. This is because traditional measures of this ORE provide a binary measure of discrimination or recognition (correct/incorrect), failing to capture potential variation in the quality of face representations. We applied a novel continuous-response paradigm to independently measure the number of own-race and other-race face representations stored in visual working memory (VWM) and the precision with which they are stored...
January 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
The action-specific account of perception claims that what we see is perceptually scaled according to our action capacity. However, it has been argued that this account relies on an overly confirmatory research strategy-predicting the presence of, and then finding, an effect (Firestone & Scholl, 2014). A comprehensive approach should also test disconfirmatory predictions, in which no effect is expected. In two experiments, we tested one such prediction based on the action-specific account, namely that scaling effects should occur only when participants intend to act (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005)...
January 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nicolas Davidenko, Nathan H Heller
Although sequences of uncorrelated random dots can yield a wide range of illusorily coherent motion percepts (including translation, rotation, contraction, expansion, shear, and rebounding motion), past priming studies have relied on two-alternative forced choice tasks that only measure unidirectional (positive or negative) priming effects. In Experiment 1 we showed that when participants are primed with unidirectional motion and given an additional option to report bidirectional (rebounding) motion, they do so frequently, suggesting that unidirectional motion can "default" to a rebounding percept...
January 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Céline Paeye, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh, Arvid Herwig
The cortical representations of a visual object differ radically across saccades. Several studies claim that the visual system adapts the peripheral percept to better match the subsequent foveal view. Recently, Herwig, Weiß, and Schneider (2015, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 97-105) found that the perception of shape demonstrates a saccade-dependent learning effect. Here, we ask whether this learning actually requires saccades. We replicated Herwig et al.'s (2015) study and introduced a fixation condition...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
William Saban, Raymond M Klein, Shai Gabay
Human volitional orienting is typically assessed using Posner's endogenous cuing task. As a volitional process, the literature has long emphasized the role of neocortical structures in this higher cognitive function. Based on recent data, we explored the possibility that subcortical channels may have a functional role in volitional orienting as measured by a Posner cuing task in which a nonspatial feature of a centrally presented cue is predictively related to the location of the target. In addition, we have compared this typical cuing task to a "purer" version, which does not involve the probability manipulation...
January 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
When an action produces an effect, the effect is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus without preceding action. This temporal bias is called intentional binding (IB) and serves as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by presenting a rotating clock hand while participants execute an action and perceive a resulting tone. Participants are asked to estimate the time point of tone onset by referring to the clock hand position. This time point estimate is compared to a time point estimate of a tone in a condition in which the tone occurs without preceding action...
January 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Marian Sauter, Heinrich René Liesefeld, Michael Zehetleitner, Hermann J Müller
Shielding visual search against interference from salient distractors becomes more efficient over time for display regions where distractors appear more frequently, rather than only rarely Goschy, Bakos, Müller, & Zehetleitner (Frontiers in Psychology 5: 1195, 2014). We hypothesized that the locus of this learned distractor probability-cueing effect depends on the dimensional relationship of the to-be-inhibited distractor relative to the to-be-attended target. If the distractor and target are defined in different visual dimensions (e...
January 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
François Maquestiaux, Eric Ruthruff, Alexis Defer, Stéphane Ibrahime
How do people automatize their dual-task performance through bottleneck bypassing (i.e., accomplish parallel processing of the central stages of two tasks)? In the present work we addressed this question, evaluating the impact of sensory-motor modality compatibility-the similarity in modality between the stimulus and the consequences of the response. We hypothesized that incompatible sensory-motor modalities (e.g., visual-vocal) create conflicts within modality-specific working memory subsystems, and therefore predicted that tasks producing such conflicts would be performed less automatically after practice...
December 28, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Patrick Bruns
It has been suggested that judgments about the temporal-spatial order of successive tactile stimuli depend on the perceived direction of apparent motion between them. Here we manipulated tactile apparent-motion percepts by presenting a brief, task-irrelevant auditory stimulus temporally in-between pairs of tactile stimuli. The tactile stimuli were applied one to each hand, with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported the location of the first stimulus (temporal order judgments: TOJs) while adopting both crossed and uncrossed hand postures, so we could scrutinize skin-based, anatomical, and external reference frames...
December 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Shih-Yu Lo
Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness...
December 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Qian Qian, Feng Wang, Miao Song, Yong Feng, Keizo Shinomori
The orienting of attention has been found to be influenced by the previous cueing status in a spatial-cueing paradigm. The explanation for this sequence effect remains uncertain. This study separated the involuntary and the voluntary components of arrow cueing by manipulating the predicted target locations. For example, a left arrow cue may have indicated that the target was more likely to appear at the up location. Therefore, three trial types were repeated or switched between trials: cued (targets appeared along the direction of the arrows), predicted (targets appeared at the locations predicted by the arrows), and unrelated (targets appeared at the other two locations, neither cued nor predicted)...
December 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jeremy M Wolfe, Matthew S Cain, Abla Alaoui-Soce
In hybrid foraging, observers search visual displays for multiple instances of multiple target types. In previous hybrid foraging experiments, although there were multiple types of target, all instances of all targets had the same value. Under such conditions, behavior was well described by the marginal value theorem (MVT). Foragers left the current "patch" for the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection dropped below their average rate of collection. An observer's specific target selections were shaped by previous target selections...
December 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nora Turoman, Carlos Velasco, Yi-Chuan Chen, Pi-Chun Huang, Charles Spence
Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused on shape contour (roundness/angularity). Meanwhile, other important features, such as symmetry, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the shape-taste correspondence, have rarely been studied. Over two experiments, we systematically manipulated the symmetry and contours of shapes and measured the influences of these variables on shape-taste correspondences...
December 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Xinyu D Song, Kiron A Sukesan, Dennis L Barbour
Psychometric functions are typically estimated by fitting a parametric model to categorical subject responses. Procedures to estimate unidimensional psychometric functions (i.e., psychometric curves) have been subjected to the most research, with modern adaptive methods capable of quickly obtaining accurate estimates. These capabilities have been extended to some multidimensional psychometric functions (i.e., psychometric fields) that are easily parameterizable, but flexible procedures for general psychometric field estimation are lacking...
December 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Katherine Sledge Moore, Elizabeth A Wiemers
Contingent attentional capture costs are doubled or tripled under certain conditions when multiple attentional sets guide visual search (e.g., "search for green letters" and "search for orange letters"). Such "set-specific" capture occurs when a potential target that matches one attentional set (e.g., a green stimulus) impairs the ability to identify a temporally proximal target that matches another attentional set (e.g., an orange stimulus). In the present study, we examined whether these severe set-specific capture effects could be attenuated through training...
December 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Manuel Petrucci, Anna Pecchinenda
The performance impairment (attentional blink, AB) on a second target (T2) when it is presented within 200-500 ms after a first target (T1) during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is typically attributed to resource depletion. The AB does not occur when targets appear in immediate sequence (sparing). Recently, this account has been challenged by findings that the lag 1 sparing can spread to later lags when using a 3-target RSVP. Two experiments using the 3-targets RSVP investigated the relative contribution of resource depletion and attentional enhancement and/or inhibition on the AB and the sparing when T1 (Exp...
December 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mengdan Sun, Xuemin Zhang, Lingxia Fan, Luming Hu
The visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors can significantly facilitate performance in multiple object tracking (MOT), in which color is a feature that has been commonly used. However, the processing of color can be more than "visual." Color is continuous in chromaticity, while it is commonly grouped into discrete categories (e.g., red, green). Evidence from color perception suggested that color categories may have a unique role in visual tasks independent of its chromatic appearance. Previous MOT studies have not examined the effect of chromatic and categorical distinctiveness on tracking separately...
December 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Wisnu Wiradhany, Mark R Nieuwenstein
In the original article, the number of HMMs and LMMs who took part in the first study was reported to have been 13and 10, respectively (p. 2624).
December 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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