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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337728/collinear-masking-effect-in-visual-search-is-independent-of-perceptual-salience
#1
Li Jingling, Yi-Hui Lu, Miao Cheng, Chia-Huei Tseng
Searching for a target in a salient region should be easier than looking for one in a nonsalient region. However, we previously discovered a contradictory phenomenon in which a local target in a salient structure was more difficult to find than one in the background. The salient structure was constructed of orientation singletons aligned to each other to form a collinear structure. In the present study, we undertake to determine whether such a masking effect was a result of salience competition between a global structure and the local target...
March 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321798/numerosity-estimates-for-attended-and-unattended-items-in-visual-search
#2
Troy D Kelley, Daniel N Cassenti, Laura R Marusich, Thomas G Ghirardelli
The goal of this research was to examine memories created for the number of items during a visual search task. Participants performed a visual search task for a target defined by a single feature (Experiment 1A), by a conjunction of features (Experiment 1B), or by a specific spatial configuration of features (Experiment 1C). On some trials following the search task, subjects were asked to recall the total number of items in the previous display. In all search types, participants underestimated the total number of items, but the severity of the underestimation varied depending on the efficiency of the search...
March 20, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321797/self-relevance-effects-and-label-choice-strong-variations-in-label-matching-performance-due-to-non-self-relevant-factors
#3
Gregory L Wade, Timothy J Vickery
Merely associating one's self with a stimulus may be enough to enhance performance in a label-matching paradigm (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012), implying prioritized processing of self-relevant stimuli. For instance, labeling a square as SELF and a circle as OTHER yields speeded performance when verifying square-SELF compared with circle-OTHER label matches. The precise causes of such effects are unclear. We propose that prioritized processing of label-matches can occur for reasons other than self-relevance. Here, we employ the label-matching paradigm to show similar benefits for non-self-relevant labels (SNAKE, FROG, and GREG) over a frequently employed, non-self-relevant control label (OTHER)...
March 20, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315204/connectedness-underlies-the-underestimation-of-the-horizontal-vertical-illusion-in-l-shaped-configurations
#4
Yongchun Cai, Ci Wang, Chao Song, Zhi Li
L-shaped configuration is a commonly used stimulus configuration in studying horizontal vertical illusion. Here, we report that the horizontal vertical illusion is substantially underestimated when the L-shaped configuration is used for evaluating the illusion. Experiment 1 found that, in a length perception task, the perceived length of a vertical bar was about 10% longer than that of a horizontal bar with the same physical size. Similar amount of HVI was found in a length comparison task, in which the length of a horizontal bar was compared to that of a vertical bar and the two bars were presented separately in space or in time...
March 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303479/testing-the-generality-of-the-zoom-lens-model-evidence-for-visual-pathway-specific-effects-of-attended-region-size-on-perception
#5
Stephanie C Goodhew, Rebecca K Lawrence, Mark Edwards
There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region...
March 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283916/distances-on-hills-look-farther-than-distances-on-flat-ground-evidence-from-converging-measures
#6
Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Jessica K Witt
Distances on hills are judged as farther than when the same distance is presented on the flat ground. The hypothesized reason for this difference is because perception is influenced by the increased effort required to walk up a hill than to walk the same distance on flat ground. Alternatively, distances presented up a hill might be judged as farther for other, nonperceptual reasons such as bias from demand characteristics. To test whether distances on hills are perceived as farther or are merely judged as farther, we used a variety of measures, including visual matching and blindwalking tasks, and found similar effects across all measures...
March 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281160/further-evidence-in-favor-of-prior-entry-from-endogenous-attention-to-a-location-in-space
#7
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366...
March 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271372/perceiving-crowd-attention-gaze-following-in-human-crowds-with-conflicting-cues
#8
Zhongqiang Sun, Wenjun Yu, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen
People automatically redirect their visual attention by following others' gaze orientation, a phenomenon called "gaze following." This is an evolutionarily generated socio-cognitive process that provides people with information about their environments. Often, however, people in crowds can have rather different gaze orientations. This study investigated how gaze following occurs in situations with many conflicting gazes. In two experiments, we modified the gaze cueing paradigm to use a crowd rather than a single individual...
March 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233280/a-test-of-the-diffusion-model-explanation-for-the-worst-performance-rule-using-preregistration-and-blinding
#9
Gilles Dutilh, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Alexander Ly, Dora Matzke, Andreas Pedroni, Renato Frey, Jörg Rieskamp, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
People with higher IQ scores also tend to perform better on elementary cognitive-perceptual tasks, such as deciding quickly whether an arrow points to the left or the right Jensen (2006). The worst performance rule (WPR) finesses this relation by stating that the association between IQ and elementary-task performance is most pronounced when this performance is summarized by people's slowest responses. Previous research has shown that the WPR can be accounted for in the Ratcliff diffusion model by assuming that the same ability parameter-drift rate-mediates performance in both elementary tasks and higher-level cognitive tasks...
February 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233279/human-visual-perceptual-organization-beats-thinking-on-speed
#10
Peter A van der Helm
What is the degree to which knowledge influences visual perceptual processes? This question, which is central to the seeing-versus-thinking debate in cognitive science, is often discussed using examples claimed to be proof of one stance or another. It has, however, also been muddled by the usage of different and unclear definitions of perception. Here, for the well-defined process of perceptual organization, I argue that including speed (or efficiency) into the equation opens a new perspective on the limits of top-down influences of thinking on seeing...
February 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229429/stimulus-response-incompatibility-eliminates-inhibitory-cueing-effects-with-saccadic-but-not-manual-responses
#11
Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Simon Kwon, Su Ren Gan, S Azrin Jamaluddin, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
There are thought to be two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) depending on whether the oculomotor system is activated or suppressed. When saccades are allowed, output-based IOR is generated, whereas input-based IOR arises when saccades are prohibited. In a series of 4 experiments, we mixed or blocked compatible and incompatible trials with saccadic or manual responses to investigate whether cueing effects would follow the same pattern as those observed with more traditional peripheral onsets and central arrows...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229428/low-is-large-spatial-location-and-pitch-interact-in-voice-based-body-size-estimation
#12
Katarzyna Pisanski, Sari G E Isenstein, Kelyn J Montano, Jillian J M O'Connor, David R Feinberg
The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213649/the-role-of-executive-attention-in-object-substitution-masking
#13
Hannah L Filmer, Roxanne Wells-Peris, Paul E Dux
It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention...
February 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205054/distorted-body-representations-are-robust-to-differences-in-experimental-instructions
#14
Luigi Tamè, Nicola Bumpus, Sally A Linkenauger, Matthew R Longo
Several recent reports have shown that even healthy adults maintain highly distorted representations of the size and shape of their body. These distortions have been shown to be highly consistent across different study designs and dependent measures. However, previous studies have found that visual judgments of size can be modulated by the experimental instructions used, for example, by asking for judgments of the participant's subjective experience of stimulus size (i.e., apparent instructions) versus judgments of actual stimulus properties (i...
February 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205053/intentional-switching-of-auditory-attention-between-long-and-short-sequential-tone-patterns
#15
Sophie Nolden, Iring Koch
The current study focuses on auditory task switching, more precisely on switching attention between different temporal patterns of the same auditory stimulus. Tone sequences consisting of nine different pitch tones were presented aurally. Three repetitive short 3-tone patterns (local focus) were combined to a long pattern (global focus), and each could be either rising or falling, resulting in congruent or incongruent combinations. Participants were informed by a cue if they had to attend to the short or to the long pattern, and they indicated if the target pattern was rising or falling by pressing one of two keys...
February 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197837/the-visual-perception-of-distance-ratios-outdoors
#16
J Farley Norman, Olivia C Adkins, Catherine J Dowell, Lindsey M Shain, Stevie C Hoyng, Jonathan D Kinnard
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the ability of 32 younger and older adults to visually perceive distances in an outdoor setting. On any given trial, the observers viewed 2 environmental distances and were required to estimate the distance ratio-the length of the (usually) larger distance relative to that of the shorter. The stimulus distance ratios ranged from 1.0 (the stimulus distances were identical) to 8.0 (1 distance interval was 8.0 times longer than the other). The stimulus distances were presented within a 26 m × 60 m portion of a grassy field...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197836/does-direction-of-walking-impact-binocular-rivalry-between-competing-patterns-of-optic-flow
#17
Richard Paris, Bobby Bodenheimer, Randolph Blake
When dissimilar monocular images are viewed simultaneously by the two eyes, stable binocular vision gives way to unstable vision characterized by alternations in dominance between the two images in a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. These alternations in perception reveal the existence of inhibitory interactions between neural representations associated with conflicting visual inputs. Binocular rivalry has been studied since the days of Wheatstone, but one recent strategy is to investigate its susceptibility to influences caused by one's own motor activity...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185229/the-time-course-of-intentional-binding
#18
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms)...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185228/failures-of-cognitive-control-or-attention-the-case-of-stop-signal-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#19
Dora Matzke, Matthew Hughes, Johanna C Badcock, Patricia Michie, Andrew Heathcote
We used Bayesian cognitive modelling to identify the underlying causes of apparent inhibitory deficits in the stop-signal paradigm. The analysis was applied to stop-signal data reported by Badcock et al. (Psychological Medicine 32: 87-297, 2002) and Hughes et al. (Biological Psychology 89: 220-231, 2012), where schizophrenia patients and control participants made rapid choice responses, but on some trials were signalled to stop their ongoing response. Previous research has assumed an inhibitory deficit in schizophrenia, because estimates of the mean time taken to react to the stop signal are longer in patients than controls...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185227/target-present-guessing-as-a-function-of-target-prevalence-and-accumulated-information-in-visual-search
#20
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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