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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Simon Kwon, Su Ren Gan, S Azrin Jamaluddin, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
There are thought to be two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) depending on whether the oculomotor system is activated or suppressed. When saccades are allowed, output-based IOR is generated, whereas input-based IOR arises when saccades are prohibited. In a series of 4 experiments, we mixed or blocked compatible and incompatible trials with saccadic or manual responses to investigate whether cueing effects would follow the same pattern as those observed with more traditional peripheral onsets and central arrows...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Katarzyna Pisanski, Sari G E Isenstein, Kelyn J Montano, Jillian J M O'Connor, David R Feinberg
The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Hannah L Filmer, Roxanne Wells-Peris, Paul E Dux
It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention...
February 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Luigi Tamè, Nicola Bumpus, Sally A Linkenauger, Matthew R Longo
Several recent reports have shown that even healthy adults maintain highly distorted representations of the size and shape of their body. These distortions have been shown to be highly consistent across different study designs and dependent measures. However, previous studies have found that visual judgments of size can be modulated by the experimental instructions used, for example, by asking for judgments of the participant's subjective experience of stimulus size (i.e., apparent instructions) versus judgments of actual stimulus properties (i...
February 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sophie Nolden, Iring Koch
The current study focuses on auditory task switching, more precisely on switching attention between different temporal patterns of the same auditory stimulus. Tone sequences consisting of nine different pitch tones were presented aurally. Three repetitive short 3-tone patterns (local focus) were combined to a long pattern (global focus), and each could be either rising or falling, resulting in congruent or incongruent combinations. Participants were informed by a cue if they had to attend to the short or to the long pattern, and they indicated if the target pattern was rising or falling by pressing one of two keys...
February 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
J Farley Norman, Olivia C Adkins, Catherine J Dowell, Lindsey M Shain, Stevie C Hoyng, Jonathan D Kinnard
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the ability of 32 younger and older adults to visually perceive distances in an outdoor setting. On any given trial, the observers viewed 2 environmental distances and were required to estimate the distance ratio-the length of the (usually) larger distance relative to that of the shorter. The stimulus distance ratios ranged from 1.0 (the stimulus distances were identical) to 8.0 (1 distance interval was 8.0 times longer than the other). The stimulus distances were presented within a 26 m × 60 m portion of a grassy field...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Richard Paris, Bobby Bodenheimer, Randolph Blake
When dissimilar monocular images are viewed simultaneously by the two eyes, stable binocular vision gives way to unstable vision characterized by alternations in dominance between the two images in a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. These alternations in perception reveal the existence of inhibitory interactions between neural representations associated with conflicting visual inputs. Binocular rivalry has been studied since the days of Wheatstone, but one recent strategy is to investigate its susceptibility to influences caused by one's own motor activity...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms)...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dora Matzke, Matthew Hughes, Johanna C Badcock, Patricia Michie, Andrew Heathcote
We used Bayesian cognitive modelling to identify the underlying causes of apparent inhibitory deficits in the stop-signal paradigm. The analysis was applied to stop-signal data reported by Badcock et al. (Psychological Medicine 32: 87-297, 2002) and Hughes et al. (Biological Psychology 89: 220-231, 2012), where schizophrenia patients and control participants made rapid choice responses, but on some trials were signalled to stop their ongoing response. Previous research has assumed an inhibitory deficit in schizophrenia, because estimates of the mean time taken to react to the stop signal are longer in patients than controls...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sujala Maharjan, Jason M Gold, Robert Sekuler
Vision is often characterized as a spatial sense, but what does that characterization imply about the relative ease of processing visual information distributed over time rather than over space? Three experiments addressed this question, using stimuli comprising random luminances. For some stimuli, individual items were presented sequentially, at 8 Hz; for other stimuli, individual items were presented simultaneously, as horizontal spatial arrays. For temporal sequences, subjects judged whether each of the last four luminances matched the corresponding luminance in the first four; for spatial arrays, they judged whether each of the right-hand four luminances matched the corresponding left-hand luminance...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Isabelle Boutet, Chantal L Lemieux, Marc-André Goulet, Charles A Collin
Eye movements were recorded while participants discriminated upright and inverted faces that differed with respect to either configural or featural information. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) whether featural and configural information processing elicit different scanning patterns; (2) whether fixations on a specific region of the face dominate scanning patterns. Results from two experiments were compared to examine whether participants' prior knowledge of the kind of information that would be relevant for the task (i...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Brian A Anderson, Madeline Halpern
Findings from an increasingly large number of studies have been used to argue that attentional capture can be dependent on the learned value of a stimulus, or value-driven. However, under certain circumstances attention can be biased to select stimuli that previously served as targets, independent of reward history. Value-driven attentional capture, as studied using the training phase-test phase design introduced by Anderson and colleagues, is widely presumed to reflect the combined influence of learned value and selection history...
February 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
JeeWon Ahn, Trisha N Patel, Simona Buetti, Alejandro Lleras
Priming of pop-out (PoP) refers to the facilitation of performance that occurs when a target-defining feature is repeated across consecutive trials in a pop-out oddball search task. The underlying mechanism of PoP has been poorly understood and raises important questions about how our visual system is guided by past experiences, even during bottom-up processing. Lee, Mozer, and Vecera (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1059-1071, 2009) demonstrated that PoP remained unaffected by a concurrent non-spatial visual working memory (VWM) load, and they concluded that PoP occurs through feature gain modulation, essentially eliminating the contribution of memory representations in VWM to PoP...
February 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nicholas E DiQuattro, Joy J Geng
Although it is well known that salient nontargets can capture attention despite being task irrelevant, several studies have reported short fixation dwell times, suggesting the presence of an attentional mechanism to "rapidly reject" dissimilar distractors. Rapid rejection has been hypothesized to depend on the strong mismatch between distractor features and the target template, but it is unknown whether the presence of strong feature mismatch is sufficient, or if the presence of a target at a competing location is also necessary...
February 3, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jinghua Ou, Sam-Po Law
This study investigated whether individual differences in cognitive functions, attentional abilities in particular, were associated with individual differences in the quality of phonological representations, resulting in variability in speech perception and production. To do so, we took advantage of a tone merging phenomenon in Cantonese, and identified three groups of typically developed speakers who could differentiate the two rising tones (high and low rising) in both perception and production [+Per+Pro], only in perception [+Per-Pro], or in neither modalities [-Per-Pro]...
January 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Maria M Robinson, David E Irwin
An erroneous response is not always accompanied by the conscious perception of the error being made. We examined whether increased response interference on a manual task improved the conscious perception of erroneous eye movements on a concurrent oculomotor task. In the first experiment, we examined whether a correlate of response interference, increased task difficulty alone, could improve perception of errors. We found no effect of task difficulty on self-monitoring. Results from a second experiment suggested that participants' ability to monitor their eye movements improved with increased response interference, but post hoc analyses indicated that this was due to a decrease in corrective behaviors...
January 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Timo Stein, Marius V Peelen
Humans are remarkably efficient in detecting highly familiar object categories in natural scenes, with evidence suggesting that such object detection can be performed in the (near) absence of attention. Here we systematically explored the influences of both spatial attention and category-based attention on the accuracy of object detection in natural scenes. Manipulating both types of attention additionally allowed for addressing how these factors interact: whether the requirement for spatial attention depends on the extent to which observers are prepared to detect a specific object category-that is, on category-based attention...
January 30, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Camila S Agostino, Marcelo S Caetano, Fuat Balci, Peter M E Claessens, Yossi Zana
On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dennis Reike, Wolf Schwarz
Physical size modulates the efficiency of digit comparison, depending on whether the relation of numerical magnitude and physical size is congruent or incongruent (Besner & Coltheart, Neuropsychologia, 17, 467-472, 1979), the number-size congruency effect (NSCE). In addition, Henik and Tzelgov (Memory & Cognition, 10, 389-395, 1982) first reported an NSCE for the reverse task of comparing the physical size of digits such that the numerical magnitude of digits modulated the time required to compare their physical sizes...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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