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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790074/attentional-modulation-of-desensitization-to-odor
#1
Nicholas Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Andrej Stancak
Subjective and behavioral responsiveness to odor diminishes during prolonged exposure. The precise mechanisms underlying olfactory desensitization are not fully understood, but previous studies indicate that the phenomenon may be modulated by central-cognitive processes. The present study investigated the effect of attention on perceived intensity during exposure to a pleasant odor. A within-subjects design was utilized with 19 participants attending 2 sessions. During each session, participants continuously rated their perceived intensity of a 10-minute exposure to a pleasant fragrance administered using an olfactometer...
May 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777515/bottom-up-attention-capture-with-distractor-and-target-singletons-defined-in-the-same-color-dimension-is-not-a-matter-of-feature-uncertainty
#2
Hanna Weichselbaum, Ulrich Ansorge
In visual search, attention capture by an irrelevant color-singleton distractor in another feature dimension than the target is dependent on whether or not the distractor changes its feature: Capture is present if the irrelevant color distractor can take on different features across trials, but absent if the distractor takes on only one feature throughout all trials. This influence could be due to down-weighting of the entire color map. Here we tested whether a similar effect could also be brought about by down-weighting of specific color channels within the same maps...
May 18, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748784/algorithm-for-improving-psychophysical-threshold-estimates-by-detecting-sustained-inattention-in-experiments-using-pest
#3
Mike D Rinderknecht, Raffaele Ranzani, Werner L Popp, Olivier Lambercy, Roger Gassert
Psychophysical procedures are applied in various fields to assess sensory thresholds. During experiments, sampled psychometric functions are usually assumed to be stationary. However, perception can be altered, for example by loss of attention to the presentation of stimuli, leading to biased data, which results in poor threshold estimates. The few existing approaches attempting to identify non-stationarities either detect only whether there was a change in perception, or are not suitable for experiments with a relatively small number of trials (e...
May 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740795/coping-with-adversity-individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-noisy-and-accented-speech
#4
Drew J McLaughlin, Melissa M Baese-Berk, Tessa Bent, Stephanie A Borrie, Kristin J Van Engen
During speech communication, both environmental noise and nonnative accents can create adverse conditions for the listener. Individuals recruit additional cognitive, linguistic, and/or perceptual resources when faced with such challenges. Furthermore, listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in adverse conditions. In the present study, we compared individuals' receptive vocabulary, inhibition, rhythm perception, and working memory with transcription accuracy (i.e., intelligibility scores) for four adverse listening conditions: native speech in speech-shaped noise, native speech with a single-talker masker, nonnative-accented speech in quiet, and nonnative-accented speech in speech-shaped noise...
May 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736808/serial-dependence-promotes-the-stability-of-perceived-emotional-expression-depending-on-face-similarity
#5
Alina Liberman, Mauro Manassi, David Whitney
Individuals can quickly and effortlessly recognize facial expressions, which is critical for social perception and emotion regulation. This sensitivity to even slight facial changes could result in unstable percepts of an individual's expression over time. The visual system must therefore balance accuracy with maintaining perceptual stability. However, previous research has focused on our sensitivity to changing expressions, and the mechanism behind expression stability remains an open question. Recent results demonstrate that perception of facial identity is systematically biased toward recently seen visual input...
May 7, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729000/the-effect-of-sadness-on-global-local-processing
#6
Adrian von Mühlenen, Lauren Bellaera, Amrendra Singh, Narayanan Srinivasan
Gable and Harmon-Jones (Psychological Science, 21(2), 211-215, 2010) reported that sadness broadens attention in a global-local letter task. This finding provided the key test for their motivational intensity account, which states that the level of spatial processing is not determined by emotional valence, but by motivational intensity. However, their finding is at odds with several other studies, showing no effect, or even a narrowing effect of sadness on attention. This paper reports two attempts to replicate the broadening effect of sadness on attention...
May 4, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717472/feature-integration-in-basic-detection-and-localization-tasks-insights-from-the-attentional-orienting-literature
#7
Greg Huffman, Matthew D Hilchey, Jay Pratt
Once presumed to be intimately related, feature integration and the consequences of attentional orienting are now often studied separately. Yet the paradigms used to study each can be highly similar; participants respond to a stimulus, which is then followed by a second stimulus, matching or mismatching the first on some feature(s). Given the similarities between the methods, it seems likely that these fields each could gain insights regarding their own work by looking at the other. Here we note a peculiarity of feature integration research: It relies on paradigms that require or encourage participants to identify the nonspatial features of a stimulus in order to make the correct response...
May 1, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717471/a-common-source-of-attention-for-auditory-and-visual-tracking
#8
Daryl Fougnie, Jurnell Cockhren, René Marois
Tasks that require tracking visual information reveal the severe limitations of our capacity to attend to multiple objects that vary in time and space. Although these limitations have been extensively characterized in the visual domain, very little is known about tracking information in other sensory domains. Does tracking auditory information exhibit characteristics similar to those of tracking visual information, and to what extent do these two tracking tasks draw on the same attention resources? We addressed these questions by asking participants to perform either single or dual tracking tasks from the same (visual-visual) or different (visual-auditory) perceptual modalities, with the difficulty of the tracking tasks being manipulated across trials...
May 1, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696570/cueing-listeners-to-attend-to-a-target-talker-progressively-improves-word-report-as-the-duration-of-the-cue-target-interval-lengthens-to-2-000-ms
#9
Emma Holmes, Padraig T Kitterick, A Quentin Summerfield
Endogenous attention is typically studied by presenting instructive cues in advance of a target stimulus array. For endogenous visual attention, task performance improves as the duration of the cue-target interval increases up to 800 ms. Less is known about how endogenous auditory attention unfolds over time or the mechanisms by which an instructive cue presented in advance of an auditory array improves performance. The current experiment used five cue-target intervals (0, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms) to compare four hypotheses for how preparatory attention develops over time in a multi-talker listening task...
April 25, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691765/increased-exposure-and-phonetic-context-help-listeners-recognize-allophonic-variants
#10
Malte C Viebahn, Paul A Luce
This study examines the influence of increased exposure and phonetic context on the recognition of words that are produced with nasal flaps in American English (e.g., the word center produced as cenner). Previous work has shown that despite their high frequency of occurrence, words produced with nasal flaps are recognized more slowly and less accurately compared with canonical pronunciation variants produced with /nt/, which occur less frequently. We conducted two experiments in order to investigate how exposure and phonetic context influence this reported processing disadvantage for flapped variants...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691764/remember-to-blink-reduced-attentional-blink-following-instructions-to-forget
#11
Tracy L Taylor
This study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to determine whether, in an item-method directed forgetting task, study word processing ends earlier for forget words than for remember words. The critical manipulation required participants to monitor an RSVP stream of black nonsense strings in which a single blue word was embedded. The next item to follow the word was a string of red fs that instructed the participant to forget the word or green rs that instructed the participant to remember the word...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691763/are-two-spaces-better-than-one-the-effect-of-spacing-following-periods-and-commas-during-reading
#12
Rebecca L Johnson, Becky Bui, Lindsay L Schmitt
The most recent edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual states that two spaces should follow the punctuation at the end of a sentence. This is in contrast to the one-space requirement from previous editions. However, to date, there has been no empirical support for either convention. In the current study, participants performed (1) a typing task to assess spacing usage and (2) an eye-tracking experiment to assess the effect that punctuation spacing has on reading performance. Although comprehension was not affected by punctuation spacing, the eye movement record suggested that initial processing of the text was facilitated when periods were followed by two spaces, supporting the change made to the APA Manual...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691762/object-width-modulates-object-based-attentional-selection
#13
Joseph C Nah, Marco Neppi-Modona, Lars Strother, Marlene Behrmann, Sarah Shomstein
Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687358/dissecting-stimulus-response-binding-effects-grouping-by-color-separately-impacts-integration-and-retrieval-processes
#14
Ruth Laub, Christian Frings, Birte Moeller
In selection tasks, target and distractor features can be encoded together with the response into the same short-lived memory trace, or event file (see Hommel, 2004), leading to bindings between stimulus and response features. The repetition of a stored target or distractor feature can lead to the retrieval of the entire episode, including the response-so-called "binding effects." Binding effects due to distractor repetition are stronger for grouped than for nongrouped target and distractor stimulus configurations...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687357/visual-memory-the-long-and-the-short-of-it-a-review-of-visual-working-memory-and-long-term-memory
#15
REVIEW
Mark W Schurgin
The majority of research on visual memory has taken a compartmentalized approach, focusing exclusively on memory over shorter or longer durations, that is, visual working memory (VWM) or visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM), respectively. This tutorial provides a review spanning the two areas, with readers in mind who may only be familiar with one or the other. The review is divided into six sections. It starts by distinguishing VWM and VLTM from one another, in terms of how they are generally defined and their relative functions...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687356/developmental-trends-in-susceptibility-to-perceptual-illusions-not-all-illusions-are-created-equal
#16
Bat Sheva Hadad
This study examined the development of the utilization of contextual information in visuospatial integration during childhood. We examined four contextual size illusions in children and adults asking whether young children's sensitivity to context is reduced or varies with the perceptual mechanisms or the levels of integration involved. We tested susceptibility to contextual illusions in four-year-olds, seven-year-olds, and adults, employing two psychophysical paradigms, perceptual estimation and a 2AFC discrimination task...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687355/the-detrimental-influence-of-attention-on-time-to-contact-perception
#17
Robin Baurès, Marianne Balestra, Maxime Rosito, Rufin VanRullen
To which extent is attention necessary to estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) of a moving object, that is, determining when the object will reach a specific point? While numerous studies have aimed at determining the visual cues and gaze strategy that allow this estimation, little is known about if and how attention is involved or required in this process. To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which the participants estimated the TTC of a moving ball, either alone (single-task condition) or concurrently with a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation task embedded within the ball (dual-task condition)...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675555/reward-history-but-not-search-history-explains-value-driven-attentional-capture
#18
Janina R Marchner, Claudia Preuschhof
In past years, an extensive amount of research has focused on how past experiences guide future attention. Humans automatically attend to stimuli previously associated with reward and stimuli that have been experienced during visual search, even when it is disadvantageous in present situations. Recently, the relationship between "reward history" and "search history" has been discussed critically. We review results from research on value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) with a focus on these two experience-based attentional selection processes and their distinction...
April 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667039/perception-of-time-to-contact-of-slow-and-fast-moving-objects-using-monocular-and-binocular-motion-information
#19
Aaron J Fath, Mats Lind, Geoffrey P Bingham
The role of the monocular-flow-based optical variable τ in the perception of the time to contact of approaching objects has been well-studied. There are additional contributions from binocular sources of information, such as changes in disparity over time (CDOT), but these are less understood. We conducted an experiment to determine whether an object's velocity affects which source is most effective for perceiving time to contact. We presented participants with stimuli that simulated two approaching squares...
April 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663286/how-holistic-processing-of-faces-relates-to-cognitive-control-and-intelligence
#20
Isabel Gauthier, Kao-Wei Chua, Jennifer J Richler
The Vanderbilt Holistic Processing Test for faces (VHPT-F) is the first standard test designed to measure individual differences in holistic processing. The test measures failures of selective attention to face parts through congruency effects, an operational definition of holistic processing. However, this conception of holistic processing has been challenged by the suggestion that it may tap into the same selective attention or cognitive control mechanisms that yield congruency effects in Stroop and Flanker paradigms...
April 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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