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Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Anna Madison, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Recent results from our laboratory showed that, in fixed-target parallel search tasks, reaction times increase in a logarithmic fashion with set size, and the slope of this logarithmic function is modulated by lure-target similarity. These results were interpreted as being consistent with a processing architecture where early vision (stage one) processes elements in the display in exhaustive fashion with unlimited capacity and with a limitation in resolution. Here, we evaluate the contribution of crowding to our recent logarithmic search slope findings, considering the possibility that peripheral pooling of features (as observed in crowding) may be responsible for logarithmic efficiency...
November 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chris N H Street, Walter F Bischof, Alan Kingstone
Does theory of mind play a significant role in where people choose to hide an item or where they search for an item that has been hidden? Adapting Anderson's "Hide-Find Paradigm" Anderson et al. (Action, Perception and Performance, 76, 907-913, 2014) participants viewed homogenous or popout visual arrays on a touchscreen table. Their task was to indicate where in the array they would hide an item, or to search for an item that had been hidden, by either a friend or a foe. Critically, participants believed that their sitting location at the touchtable was the same as-or opposite to-their partner's location...
November 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Navin Viswanathan, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Context effects are ubiquitous in speech perception and reflect the ability of human listeners to successfully perceive highly variable speech signals. In the study of how listeners compensate for coarticulatory variability, past studies have used similar effects speech and tone analogues of speech as strong support for speech-neutral, general auditory mechanisms for compensation for coarticulation. In this manuscript, we revisit compensation for coarticulation by replacing standard button-press responses with mouse-tracking responses and examining both standard geometric measures of uncertainty as well as newer information-theoretic measures that separate fast from slow mouse movements...
November 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nan Lin, Bernhard Angele, Huimin Hua, Wei Shen, Junyi Zhou, Xingshan Li
Previous eye-movement studies have indicated that people tend to skip extremely high-frequency words in sentence reading, such as "the" in English and "/de" in Chinese. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain how this frequent skipping happens in Chinese reading: one assumes that skipping happens when the preview has been fully identified at the word level (word-based skipping); the other assumes that skipping happens whenever the preview character is easy to identify regardless of whether lexical processing has been completed or not (character-based skipping)...
November 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Bo Youn Park, Sujin Kim, Yang Seok Cho
The congruency effect of a task-irrelevant distractor has been found to be modulated by task-relevant set size and display set size. The present study used a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to examine the cognitive loci of the display set size effect (dilution effect) and the task-relevant set size effect (perceptual load effect) on distractor interference. A tone discrimination task (Task 1), in which a response was made to the pitch of the target tone, was followed by a letter discrimination task (Task 2) in which different types of visual target display were used...
November 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Eric Ruthruff, Nicholas Gaspelin
Certain stimuli have the power to rapidly and involuntarily capture spatial attention against our will. The present study investigated whether such stimuli capture spatial attention even when they appear in ignored regions of visual space. In other words, which force is more powerful: attentional capture or spatial filtering? Participants performed a spatial cuing task, searching for a letter target defined by color (e.g., green) and then reporting that letter's identity. Two of the four search locations were always irrelevant...
November 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Riccardo Brunetti, Allegra Indraccolo, Claudia Del Gatto, Charles Spence, Valerio Santangelo
Crossmodal correspondences have often been demonstrated using congruency effects between pairs of stimuli in different sensory modalities that vary along separate dimensions. To date, however, it is still unclear the extent to which these correspondences are relative versus absolute in nature: that is, whether they result from pre-defined values that rigidly link the two dimensions or rather result from flexible values related to the previous occurrence of the crossmodal stimuli. Here, we investigated this issue in a speeded classification task featuring the correspondence between auditory pitch and visual size (e...
November 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Cory Adam Potts, Stefan Pastel, David A Rosenbaum
Tasks that require less physical effort are generally preferred over more physically demanding alternatives. Similarly, tasks that require less mental effort are generally preferred over more mentally demanding alternatives. But what happens when one must choose between tasks that entail different kinds of effort, one mainly physical (e.g., carrying buckets) and the other mainly mental (e.g., counting)? We asked participants to choose between a bucket-carrying task and a counting task. Our participants were less likely to choose the bucket task when it required a long reach rather than a short reach, and our participants were also less likely to choose the bucket task the smaller the final count value...
November 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Aviad Ozana, Tzvi Ganel
Grasping movements directed toward real objects are typically unaffected by irrelevant aspects of the object and its surroundings, indicating that such interactions are based on analytic processing of object shape and size. However, recent findings show that grasping directed toward two-dimensional (2D) objects is subjected to perceptually mediated effects of relative shape and size. It is unclear however, whether context-dependent processing-a hallmark of visual perception-affects 2D grasping in the same fashion...
November 3, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Rhimmon Simchy-Gross, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing...
October 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
G Christopher Stecker
Simultaneity judgments were used to measure temporal binding windows (TBW) for brief binaural events (changes in interaural time and/or level differences [ITD and ILD]) and test the hypothesis that ITD and ILD contribute to perception via separate sensory dimensions subject to binding via slow (100+ ms)-presumably cortical-mechanisms as in multisensory TBW. Stimuli were continuous low-frequency noises that included two brief shifts of either type (ITD or ILD), both of which are heard as lateral position changes...
October 30, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Nida Latif, Agnès Alsius, K G Munhall
When engaging in conversation, we efficiently go back and forth with our partner, organizing our contributions in reciprocal turn-taking behavior. Using multiple auditory and visual cues, we make online decisions about when it is the appropriate time to take our turn. In two experiments, we demonstrated, for the first time, that auditory and visual information serve complementary roles when making such turn-taking decisions. We presented clips of single utterances spoken by individuals engaged in conversations in audiovisual, auditory-only or visual-only modalities...
October 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tatiana Malevich, Liubov Ardasheva, Hannah M Krüger, W Joseph MacInnes
Cueing effects, i.e., early facilitation of reaction time and inhibition of return (IOR), are well-established and robust phenomena characterizing exogenous orienting and are widely observed in experiments with a traditional Posner cueing paradigm. Krüger, MacInnes, and Hunt (2014) proposed that facilitatory effects of peripheral cues are the result of a cue-target perceptual merging due to re-entrant visual processing. To test the role and timing of these feedback mechanisms in peripheral cueing effects, we modified the traditional cueing task in Experiments 1-3 by interleaving pre- and post-cue trials at the valid and invalid location and random cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA) ranging from -300 to +1,000 ms...
October 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Miya K Rand, Herbert Heuer
In a cursor-control task, the sensed positions of cursor and hand are biased toward each other. We previously found different characteristics of implicit and explicit measures of the bias of sensed hand position toward the position of the cursor, suggesting the existence of distinct neural representations. Here we further explored differences between the two types of measure by varying the proportions of trials with explicit hand-position (H) and cursor-position (C) judgments (C20:H80, C50:H50, and C80:H20)...
October 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
Many previous studies have found that there is a close relationship between attention and temporal precision. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, alertness has beneficial influences on perceptual processing. However, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alertness affects temporal precision. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 used visual and auditory warning cues in a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task to investigate the phasic alerting effect on temporal precision...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Timothy L Hubbard, Susan E Ruppel
The possibility of anisotropies in visual space in and near the final location of a moving target was examined. Experiments 1 and 2 presented a moving target, and after the target vanished, participants indicated the final location of the leading or trailing edge of the target. Memory for both edges was displaced forward from the actual final locations, and the magnitude of displacement was smaller for the leading edge. Experiments 3 and 4 also presented stationary objects in front of and behind the final location of the target, and participants indicated the location of the nearest or farthest edge of one of the stationary objects...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Manuel Rausch, Sebastian Hellmann, Michael Zehetleitner
How do human observers determine their degree of belief that they are correct in a decision about a visual stimulus-that is, their confidence? According to prominent theories of confidence, the quality of stimulation should be positively related to confidence in correct decisions, and negatively to confidence in incorrect decisions. However, in a backward-masked orientation task with a varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), we observed that confidence in incorrect decisions also increased with stimulus quality...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Wei Xing Toh, Lidia Suárez
This study investigated if exposure to spatial language could affect spatial cognition in English-Mandarin bilinguals by focusing on contact/noncontact distinctions, an area that has been a source of contention in the language-and-thought literature. Sixty-three participants were first primed with sentences containing spatial terms (e.g., above, on) before performing a spatial decision task. Approximately half of the participants (n = 33) were primed in English; for the remaining participants (n = 30), primes comprising Mandarin spatial terms-which mark spatial distinctions differently than in English (e...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Adam D Gorman, Bruce Abernethy, Damian Farrow
The anticipatory memory encodings of expert and novice basketball players were examined under conditions of both full (attended condition) and reduced (unattended condition) attention (see also Gorman, Abernethy, & Farrow in Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 835-844, 2013a). Participants completed a typical pattern recall task using dynamic playing sequences from basketball, and their responses were compared to both the original target pattern as well as to the series of patterns that occurred immediately after and immediately before the target image...
October 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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