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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Thomas H Nassif, Amanda R Start, Robin L Toblin, Amy B Adler
OBJECTIVE: Combat exposure has been linked to health-related challenges associated with postcombat adjustment, including mental health symptoms, behavior-related problems, physical pain, and functional impairment. Mindfulness, or acceptance of the present moment without reactivity or judgment, may be associated with better mental health following a combat deployment. This study examined whether self-reported mindfulness predicted soldier health outcomes over the course of the postdeployment period...
November 5, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Rachel M Maskin, Katherine M Iverson, Dawne Vogt, Brian N Smith
OBJECTIVE: Given high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among veterans, along with employment-related difficulties, a better understanding of IPV's implications for employment functioning is needed among post-9/11 veterans, especially male veterans. This study aimed to examine the gender-based associations between IPV victimization types (physical, psychological, and sexual) and employment outcomes (absenteeism, presenteeism, and job satisfaction). METHOD: A national sample of male and female post-9/11 veterans completed a survey administered approximately 5...
October 29, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jeffrey S Bergmann, Keith D Renshaw, Lauren Paige
OBJECTIVE: Much research on military veterans has focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative outcomes, with few studies of positive outcomes. This study focused on psychological well-being (PWB) in relation to PTSD symptoms and the additional risk factors of sleep problems and depression, as well as a protective factor, self-regulation. METHOD: Two hundred thirty-eight student veterans completed questionnaires online, with 115 completing follow-up questionnaires 2 months later...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Amelia van der Merwe, Xanthe Hunt
OBJECTIVE: There is a substantial body of research that indicates that professionals treating traumatized clients or patients may suffer from burnout, compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma, or secondary traumatic stress and that those who are most empathic are most vulnerable. However, there is limited research on the effects of participant trauma on trauma researchers. This is the focus of the current study. METHOD: Drawing on case illustrations from a large trauma-related study, we demonstrate the effects of participant trauma on trauma interviewers...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Scott R Vrana, Rose S Bono, Andrea Konig, Gabriella C Scalzo
OBJECTIVE: Memories of traumatic events are thought to be less coherent than memories for nontraumatic events, and expressive writing about traumatic events may help create more organized, coherent memories. Investigations of traumatic memories have been hampered by limitations in conceptualizing and measuring memory organization and coherence. The objective of this investigation was to compare the coherence of written narratives of trauma and neutral memories and examine changes in coherence of trauma narratives as a function of repeated expressive writing about the trauma using an atheoretical, computational method for assessing the coherence of text...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Hallie R Jordan, Michael B Madson, Bonnie C Nicholson, Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategy subtypes (alcohol PBS; serious harm reduction, manner of drinking, limiting/stopping drinking) and gender on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences. METHOD: Participants were 2,138 traditional college students (i.e., age between 18 and 25 years old) recruited from 10 universities in the United States who reported drinking in the past month...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Joyce Maas, Odilia Laceulle, Marrie Bekker
OBJECTIVE: Autonomy-connectedness (AC), the adult capacity for self-governance while being connected to others, reflects the healthy capacity of adults for self-steering. The present study's main aim was to investigate whether childhood stressful life events were associated with psychopathological symptoms in adulthood, but only in people with AC deficits. METHOD: We estimated path models based on data from several assessment waves, concerning childhood stressful life events, AC, and internalizing psychopathological symptoms (including posttraumatic symptoms) completed by panel members from the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel (community sample)...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Rachel Frost, Philip Hyland, Angela McCarthy, Rory Halpin, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the latent dimensional and categorical structure of ICD-11 complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) within a refugee sample. METHOD: A subsample that identified as refugee (n = 308) was selected from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Factor mixture modeling (FMM) was employed to establish the dimensional structure of CPTSD symptomology and the categorical distribution of these dimensions...
October 22, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Stephanie A Sundborg
OBJECTIVE: Organizations are identifying trauma-informed care (TIC) as a priority yet implementation is slow. Research suggests commitment to a change effort is an important predictor for change behavior; however, there is little theoretical or empirical evidence exploring commitment to TIC. This study examines the variables that predict affective commitment to TIC including foundational knowledge, principal support, self-efficacy, and beliefs about trauma. Does foundational knowledge independently predict affective commitment to TIC or is this relationship mediated by other variables? METHOD: Data were collected from 118 participants working in human services, using cross-sectional survey design...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Felicia J Andresen, Rebecca K Blais
OBJECTIVE: Recent prevalence estimates indicate 38% of female service members/veterans (SM/Vs) report military sexual trauma (MST). This estimate is higher than Veterans Affairs estimates, which suggest 28% report MST during screening. The discrepant estimate suggests possible barriers to disclosing MST, which are not well-identified in the literature. The current study examined whether being assaulted by a fellow unit member and stigma for seeking help to treat the sequelae of MST from self, unit leader/command, and romantic partners were correlates of MST nondisclosure among 209 female SM/Vs...
October 4, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Michelle L Kelley, Abby L Braitman, Tyler D White, Sarah J Ehlke
OBJECTIVE: This study examines potential sex differences in 3 types of experiences (i.e., atrocities of war, cognitive and emotional changes from combat, and leadership failure or betrayal) that may result in moral injury (i.e., guilt, shame, inability to forgive one's self, inability to forgive others, and withdrawn behavior associated with these three types of experiences). In addition, we examine whether moral injury results in different associations with mental health and substance use outcomes for female versus male veterans...
September 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Bethany L Brand, Aliya R Webermann, Briana L Snyder, Parisa R Kaliush
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have assessed malingering in individuals with complex trauma and dissociation. This is concerning because these individuals' severe and ranging symptoms are associated with elevations on some, but not all, validity scales that detect symptom exaggeration. Dissociative individuals may experience dissociative amnesia, yet no study to date has examined how to distinguish clinical from malingered amnesia with dissociative samples. The current study examined whether the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) can accurately distinguish patients with clinically diagnosed dissociative identity disorder (DID) and simulators coached to imitate DID...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Natacha Godbout, Marie-Ève Daspe, Marsha Runtz, Gaëlle Cyr, John Briere
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of early interpersonal trauma may experience relational problems, anger, impulsive and self-destructive behaviors, identity disturbance, and other difficulties that are associated with borderline personality disorder. Insecure attachment also has been documented in survivors and may be related to borderline personality-related symptoms (BPRS). The goal of the current study was to examine an integrative model of maternal and paternal childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment as they predict BPRS...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Shane W Adams, Rosemarie M Bowler, Katherine Russell, Robert M Brackbill, Jiehui Li, James E Cone
OBJECTIVE: Following the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack in New York City, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression remain elevated. Although social support and self-efficacy have been associated with PTSD, little is known about their differential effect on PTSD and depressive comorbidity. METHOD: WTC tower survivors ( n = 1,304) were assessed at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), Wave 3 (2011-2012), and Wave 4 (2015-2016)...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Peter J Colvonen, Sean P A Drummond, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 35-61% of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report insomnia. Further, upward of 70% report clinically significant insomnia following PTSD treatment. There are converging lines of evidence suggesting that insomnia not only independently affects daytime functioning and worsens PTSD symptoms but also may compromise response to PTSD treatment, such as prolonged exposure (PE). Taken together, integrated insomnia and PTSD treatment may increase client-centered care and treatment outcomes...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Eric C Meyer, Heidi La Bash, Bryann B DeBeer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Numerous risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been identified; however, many do not inform treatment. Psychological inflexibility is a modifiable factor that can be targeted in psychological treatment. This study examined whether higher levels of psychological inflexibility predicted unique variance in PTSD symptom severity at 1-year follow-up in 236 U.S. veterans of the wars in Iraq in Afghanistan after accounting for the strongest known risk factors for PTSD...
August 27, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kristen R Choi, Ernestine C Briggs, Julia S Seng, Sandra A Graham-Bermann, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Julian D Ford
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe typologies of service utilization among trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking adolescents and to examine associations between trauma history, trauma-related symptoms, demographics, and service utilization. METHOD: Latent class analysis was used to derive a service utilization typologies based on 10 service variables using a sample of 3,081 trauma-exposed adolescents ages 12 to 16 from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Dataset...
November 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Katherine M Fedele, Nicole L Johnson, Jennifer C Caldwell, Yuliya Shteynberg, Sarah E Sanders, Samantha C Holmes, Dawn M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to explore the impact of the comorbidities of substance use disorder (SUD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the trajectory of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a 6-month follow-up period in IPV survivors who seek shelter. Research has found significant comorbidity of SUD, MDD, and BPD with PTSD (see Green et al., 2006; Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995; Pagura et al...
November 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Danielle C Hill, L A R Stein, Joseph S Rossi, Molly Magill, Jennifer G Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship...
November 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kaitlin E Bountress, Christal Badour, Julianne Flanagan, Amanda K Gilmore, Sudie E Back
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) represent major public health concerns, particularly among veterans. They are associated with significant distress and impairment, and are highly comorbid. Little is known, however, about what role the temporal order of diagnostic onset may play in severity of presenting symptomatology and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine treatment outcomes by order of onset. METHOD: Participants were 46 U...
November 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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