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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
OBJECTIVE: Specification of the etiological mechanisms underlying psychopathy is a key step in developing more effective methods for preventing and remediating the callous and impulsive behavior that characterizes the disorder. Theoretical conceptualizations of psychopathic subtypes propose that a primary variant largely stems from impoverished affect, whereas a secondary variant is hypothesized to develop subsequent to adverse environmental experiences (e.g., childhood maltreatment)...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Matthew Boland, Jennifer Klosterman Rielage, Tim Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a high risk of developing substance use disorders (SUD). Many studies have shown that PTSD often precedes SUD, and some studies have been able to identify factors that might predict which individuals might develop subsequent SUD. Attempts to treat PTSD and SUD comorbidity have proven difficult, but new methods for simultaneous treatment have shown promise for treating PTSD. The ability to identify factors that predict PTSD/SUD comorbidity and the advent of new combined treatment methods warrant investigation of how differences in specific types of PTSD symptoms individuals experience might predict who will go on to develop SUD symptoms and thus benefit from new combined treatments...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Gal Noyman-Veksler, Hadar Shalev, Silviu Brill, Zvia Rudich, Golan Shahar
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of exposure to missile attacks on patients' pain and depressive symptoms, moderated by pain-related catastrophizing. METHOD: One-hundred Israeli chronic pain patients were assessed both prior and subsequent to military operation "Protective Edge," during which thousands of missiles landed on populated areas across the country. Baseline assessment included pain, depression, and catastrophizing, and postwar assessment tapped exposure to missiles, pain, and depression...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Danielle C Zanotti, Emily Kaier, Renee Vanasse, Joanne L Davis, Kathleen C Strunk, Lisa DeMarni Cromer
OBJECTIVE: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study is one of the largest studies ever conducted that has examined the relationship of childhood abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction to subsequent health and well-being later in life. Questions from the ACE study evolved into the ACE Study Questionnaire, a measure used for assessing individuals' self-reported experiences of childhood adversity. The ACE measure is widely available and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends it as a tool for assessing one's lifetime risk of mental and physical health problems and other negative social problems...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Rui Zhen, Lijuan Quan, Xiao Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prerequisites of sleep problems among a traumatized population, and assess the underlying mechanisms of sleep problems following trauma. METHOD: The current study investigated 187 flood victims from 5 makeshift shelters in the Wuhu city of Anhui province after a major flood disaster that occurred in July 2016. A traumatic exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a posttraumatic cognition inventory, a depression inventory, and a sleep problems questionnaire were used...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Rebecca K Blais, Emily Brignone, Jamison D Fargo, Nathan W Galbreath, Adi V Gundlapalli
OBJECTIVE: Department of Veterans Affairs estimates of military sexual trauma (MST) suggest 27% of female veterans have experienced MST. However, Department of Defense data (Department of Defense, 2014) show that a subgroup of active-duty women do not report sexual assaults to a military authority, suggesting barriers to disclosure exist among military samples. No study of female veterans has examined rates of nondisclosure among those with previous screens for MST; these data could inform screening efforts and establishment of safe havens for candid disclosures...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Chiara Sacchi, Alessio Vieno, Alessandra Simonelli
The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) is the most widely used measure of childhood traumatic experiences for the retrospective assessment of adolescents and adults. It facilitates the detection of co-occurrence of traumas during childhood, in effect overcoming the lack of standardized tools for adult assessment. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to validate the Italian Childhood Trauma Questionnaire on college students. On this scope, we compared several factor structures proposed in the literature by the original authors (Bernstein et al...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Thérèse de Dassel, Lutz Wittmann, Sonja Protic, Helge Höllmer, Robert J Gorzka
Nightmares are among the most frequent and disturbing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, basic research questions regarding key associations between certain nightmare characteristics, especially replicativeness, and posttraumatic psychopathology need further empirical elaboration. Sixty-two German soldiers (mean age 33.8 years, 17.7% females) admitted to a hospital-based treatment program for veterans completed extensive assessments consisting of clinical interviews and self-rating measures with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathology as well as dream-related variables...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Eytan Halevi, Yael Idisis
OBJECTIVE: This study comprises a first attempt to explain and predict vicarious traumatization among therapists by means of Bowen's Family Systems Theory (Bowen, 1978), especially with reference to the phenomenon "differentiation of self," a central feature of his theory. METHOD: A sample of 134 individual and group therapists who work in public and private clinics completed a series of questionnaires that provided data regarding demographic information, differentiation of self, and a belief scale that measures the existence of vicarious trauma...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Courtney N Baker, Steven M Brown, Patricia Wilcox, Jorge M Verlenden, Corey L Black, Billie-Jo E Grant
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and associated risks of trauma have led youth-serving institutions to adopt trauma-informed care (TIC). A limited research base has linked TIC with improved outcomes. Associations between TIC and vicarious traumatization (VT) are even less commonly studied. The purpose of this case study is to evaluate the implementation and effect of TIC within 1 residential youth services division in rural Canada using the curriculum-based Risking Connection (RC; Saakvitne et al...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Candice Presseau, Ateka A Contractor, Madhavi K Reddy, M Tracie Shea
Childhood maltreatment is an increasingly established predictor of psychological problems. However, limited research addresses pathways though which childhood maltreatment influences the mental health of military personnel following deployment. The current study investigated the direct, and indirect through emotional numbing, relations between childhood maltreatment and psychological distress of recently deployed veterans. For a sample of 131 predominantly White, male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom members of U...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Martine Hébert, Marie-Ève Daspe, Mireille Cyr
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have documented the potential role of nonoffending parent support in promoting recovery of adult survivors following sexual abuse (SA). However, few studies have distinguished the maternal and paternal role and the mechanisms by which quality of the parent-child relationship might foster more positive outcomes in child victims. The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies as mediators of the link between mother-child and father-child relationship and outcomes following child SA...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Yiqun Gan, Lei Zheng, Yu Wang, Wenju Li
OBJECTIVE: Meaning making refers to the process of integrating the appraised meaning of a traumatic event into one's global belief system to reduce cognitive discrepancy. Park and Folkman (1997) proposed the renowned "meaning-making model," which was a major contribution to trauma research from a positive psychology viewpoint. This concept is important for understanding the trauma of cancer patients, as searching for meaning is fairly common after a cancer diagnosis. However, the original model did not incorporate individual differences in resilience, which might account for the fact that research on this model has produced contradictory results...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Else-Marie Augusti, Gunn Astrid Baugerud, Unni Sulutvedt, Annika Melinder
OBJECTIVE: Children frequently report a heightened experience of psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in response to maltreatment. However, in recent years, scholars have suggested that different types of maltreatment may be associated with different symptomatology in children. METHOD: In the present study, we employ the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) to investigate whether children who have experienced different types of maltreatment reveal different profiles of symptomatology...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jonathan DePierro, Wendy D'Andrea, Paul Frewen, McWelling Todman
OBJECTIVE: Intrusive negative affect and concurrent deficits in positive affect are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to further extend the extant literature by exploring the experience of negative affect intrusion upon potentially positive situations (here termed, "negative affect interference," NAI). METHOD: Two studies with adults endorsing at least 1 traumatic event (Study 1, N = 294; Study 2, N = 286) examined how NAI and more general hedonic deficits (HD) relate to psychopathology, trauma exposure characteristics, and ratings of normed visual stimuli...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Elizabeth Brondolo, Pegah Eftekharzadeh, Christine Clifton, Joseph E Schwartz, Douglas Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: First-responder employees, including firefighters, police, and medical examiners, are at risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of exposure to workplace trauma. However, pathways linking workplace trauma exposure to mental health symptoms are not well understood. In the context of social-cognitive models of depression/PTSD, we examined the role of negative cognitions as mediators of the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of workplace trauma exposure to symptoms of depression/PTSD in medical examiner (ME) employees...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Danielle C Hill, L A R Stein, Joseph S Rossi, Molly Magill, Jennifer G Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
David R Strasshofer, Zoë D Peterson, Marin C Beagley, Tara E Galovski
OBJECTIVE: Past research has revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by disturbances in emotional reactivity, including anger reactions. In turn, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and anger reactions have been shown to be independently associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG). As such, anger reactions may serve as a pathway of influence through which PTSS lead to PTG in trauma-exposed adults. METHOD: The current study examined cross-sectional relationships among PTSS, anger reactions, and PTG in 318 participants who were exposed to the violent political protests in Ferguson, Missouri after the officer-involved shooting of Michael Brown...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Joshua C Hunt, Samantha A Chesney, Terrence D Jorgensen, Nicholas R Schumann, Terri A deRoon-Cassini
OBJECTIVE: The latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a source of considerable variability. The current study compared several a priori factor structures, as well as a novel 2-factor structure of posttraumatic psychological distress as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD scale for the DSM-5 (CAPS-5). In addition, variability in diagnostic rates according to the divergent DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria were explored. METHOD: The setting for this study was a Level 1 trauma center in a U...
August 10, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kaitlin E Bountress, Christal Badour, Julianne Flanagan, Amanda K Gilmore, Sudie E Back
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) represent major public health concerns, particularly among veterans. They are associated with significant distress and impairment, and are highly comorbid. Little is known, however, about what role the temporal order of diagnostic onset may play in severity of presenting symptomatology and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine treatment outcomes by order of onset. METHOD: Participants were 46 U...
August 3, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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