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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Jennifer DiMauro, Keith D Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: Intimate relationships are critical to posttrauma functioning and recovery. The vast majority of research focusing on PTSD and relationship functioning has focused exclusively on male combat veterans, from whom female sexual assault survivors may differ in critical ways. This study investigates the strength of the association between PTSD symptoms and relationship satisfaction, as well as the role of three interpersonal processes (sexuality, communication, and hostility) in female sexual assault survivors...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Christian L Williams, Howard Berenbaum
OBJECTIVE: The present study explored acts of omission (i.e., inactions) among military service members. We also investigated whether the meanings and interpretations that service members assign to their actions and inactions, particularly alterations to their conceptualization of themselves, others, and the world (i.e., altered worldviews) would be associated with psychological problems (specifically, depression, suicidality, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and alcohol use). METHOD: A sample of 50 Iraq/Afghanistan military veterans (8% female) completed questionnaires measuring their (in)actions and the meanings and interpretations attached to those (in)actions...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jenny A Bannister, Peter J Colvonen, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVE: Despite important conceptual differences between shame and guilt, literature distinguishing these emotions in relation to posttrauma functioning for veterans has been largely theoretical. This is the first study to concurrently examine trauma-related guilt and internalized shame in relation to PTSD severity as the dependent variable. Our primary aim was to examine guilt and shame on PTSD symptom severity within the same model. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether trauma-related guilt can occur independent of shame...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Hadar Keshet, Edna B Foa, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events tend to play a major role in the way we perceive ourselves. Whereas the links between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-perceptions are well examined, less is known regarding other factors that may be involved in the erosion of self-perceptions. We sought to examine the contribution of trauma-centrality and trauma-type to the erosion of self-perceptions following trauma. Our hypotheses were (a) trauma-centrality is significantly related to impairments in self-perceptions, (b) sexual assault (SA) is related to greater erosion in self-perceptions compared with motor vehicle accident (MVA) and to unexpected death (bereavement), and (c) the effects of trauma-centrality and trauma-type on self-perceptions remain significant when statistically controlling for levels of PTSD symptoms...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
John Briere, Marsha Runtz, Erin M Eadie, Noémie Bigras, Natacha Godbout
OBJECTIVE: Based on the paucity of self-report measures of disorganized attachment (DA), we developed and tested a scale examining adults' self-reported disorganized verbalizations, cognitions, and behaviors when discussing their childhoods. METHOD: The Disorganized Response Scale (DRS) was created and administered to 640 university students, and its associations with variables known to covary with DA, such as childhood maltreatment, insecure attachment, and psychological symptoms, were examined...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lauren E Gibson, Shanna Cooper, Lauren E Reeves, Thomas M Olino, Lauren M Ellman
OBJECTIVE: In a large undergraduate sample, we explored whether attentional biases were similar between individuals reporting positive psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) with a history of traumatic life events (TLEs) compared with individuals with a TLE history alone. METHOD: Participants completed the Emotional Stroop Task, and self-report questionnaires of TLEs and PLEs. RESULTS: Although reaction time (RT) to physical, sexual, emotional, and overall trauma words was associated with TLEs, only RT to physical abuse and overall trauma words remained significantly associated with TLE status after controlling for age, race, and neutral word RT...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Carmit-Noa Shpigelman, Marc Gelkopf
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war or to a terror event is associated with mental health problems among the general population; however, less is known about its impact on people with lifelong disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of war and terror on people with lifelong physical and sensory disabilities. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires assessing exposure to war or terror, history of traumatic life events, presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and depression symptoms were used to compare PTSS and depression symptoms among individuals with lifelong disabilities, who had been exposed to war or to terror events, individuals without disabilities exposed to war or to terror events, and individuals with disabilities without such exposure ( N = 438)...
July 12, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Sadie E Larsen, C J Eubanks Fleming, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVE: Although there are several evidence-based treatments that are effective in mitigating the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), rates of nonresponse to treatment as well as treatment dropout remain high. In order to determine which symptoms remain most problematic at the end of treatment for PTSD, the present study examined residual symptoms in a treatment study that evaluated the effects of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE). METHOD: The sample consisted of 108 female rape survivors who initially met criteria for PTSD and who were then randomized into and completed either CPT or PE...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Michelle L Kelley, Adrian J Bravo, Hannah C Hamrick, Abby L Braitman, Matt R Judah
OBJECTIVE: Although killing in combat is associated with negative mental health outcomes and hazardous alcohol use, mechanisms that underlie this risk are not well understood. To our knowledge, this present brief report is the first to use mediation analysis to examine associations between killing in combat, distinct facets of rumination (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts), and negative mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality) and hazardous alcohol use...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kelly A Knowles, Rebecca K Sripada, Mahrie Defever, Sheila A M Rauch
OBJECTIVE: Comorbidity is the rule and not the exception among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Examining comorbidities in a veteran population allows us to better understand veterans' symptoms and recognize when mental health treatment may need to be tailored to other co-occurring issues. This article evaluates comorbid mood and anxiety disorders and PTSD symptom severity in a large sample of veterans from multiple eras of service, including the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marie E Secrist, Constance J Dalenberg, Richard Gevirtz
OBJECTIVE: There is little research in the current literature regarding contributing factors to nightmares in children. This study aimed to test potentially overlapping predictors of nightmare distress and severity, including anxiety, dissociation, trauma history, vagal tone, and parental processing of emotions. METHOD: Sixty parent-child dyads (children ages 6-11) filled out a variety of child-report and parent-observation inventories on nightmare frequency and distress, dissociation, anxiety, and trauma history of the child...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Eu Gene Chin, Samantha Bernecker, Erin M Buchanan, Sarah Cunningham, Julie A Schumacher, Scott F Coffey
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the effectiveness of a novel dissemination and implementation curriculum for prolonged exposure (PE). Predoctoral clinical psychology interns completed a sequential, four-part curriculum that culminated in a community-based practicum during which interns conducted a PE workshop. We hypothesized that workshop participants would report more favorable attitudes regarding PE after completing the intern-led workshop than endorsed at the outset of the workshop...
June 25, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Matthew T Luciano, Meghan E McDevitt-Murphy, Samuel F Acuff, Benjamin W Bellet, Jessica C Tripp, James G Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Although brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) that incorporate personalized feedback demonstrate efficacy for reducing the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption in veteran samples, little research has explored the influence of BAIs in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of this investigation was to understand whether PTSD symptom severity and diagnostic status changed after exposure to an intervention that targeted alcohol misuse and integrated feedback on PTSD...
June 25, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Adriana Espinosa, Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Tracy Chu
OBJECTIVE: Trait emotional intelligence has recently emerged as a negative predictor of work-related distress. However, research that considers the mechanisms underlying the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and distress is lacking, in particular among workers with emotionally intensive occupations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating pathway of coping behaviors in the relations between trait emotional intelligence, and work-related distress outcomes, namely secondary traumatic stress and job burnout in a sample of refugee resettlement workers...
June 25, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Tiffany M Artime, Katherine R Buchholz, Matthew Jakupcak
OBJECTIVE: Universities have demonstrated growing awareness of students impacted by interpersonal violence (e.g., sexual and physical assault) and veterans/service-members with combat-related trauma because of their sizable presence on campuses and unique vulnerabilities. This study sought to describe impacts of these two forms of trauma exposure on students' mental health and academic functioning and to compare mental health service utilization among students based on their experiences of trauma exposure...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kristen E Lamp, Kimberly M Avallone, Kelly P Maieritsch, Katherine R Buchholz, Sheila A M Rauch
OBJECTIVE: In accordance with Veterans Affairs (VA) policy, VA posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clinics offer evidence-based treatments including cognitive processing therapy (CPT). To facilitate access to care, CPT is offered in both group and individual formats in many VA PTSD clinics. Group and individual delivery of CPT have been directly compared in active duty samples, but these findings have not been extended to VA populations. The present article directly compares the effectiveness of group and individual CPT with a written trauma account (CPT+A) across two VA PTSD clinics...
May 14, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Helene Flood Aakvaag, Siri Thoresen, Ida Frugård Strøm, Mia Myhre, Ole Kristian Hjemdal
OBJECTIVE: Victims of childhood violence often experience new victimization in adult life. However, risk factors for such revictimization are poorly understood. In this longitudinal study, we investigated whether violence-related shame and guilt were associated with revictimization. METHOD: Young adults (age = 17-35) exposed to childhood violence (n = 505) were selected from a (Country) population study of 6,589 persons (Wave 1), and reinterviewed by telephone 12-18 months later (Wave 2)...
May 10, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marylene Cloitre, Christina Khan, Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Donn W Garvert, Clare M Henn-Haase, Erin C Falvey, Jean Saito
OBJECTIVE: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have consistently been associated with a range of negative psychological and physical outcomes in adulthood. Despite the strength of this association, no studies to date have investigated psychological processes that might underlie this relationship. The current study evaluated emotion regulation as a potential mediator between ACEs and three outcomes: PTSD symptoms, depression and poor physical health, all of which are frequently co-occurring among women with ACEs...
May 10, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Belinda L Dow, Justin A Kenardy, Deborah A Long, Robyne M Le Brocque
This study aimed to explore children's experiences and memories of the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and identify the relative importance of premorbid, trauma, and cognitive/affective variables associated with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Participants were 95 children aged 6-16 years admitted to the PICU and their parents. Children completed questionnaires and an interview assessing PTSS, peritrauma affect, and their memory of the admission 3 weeks following discharge. Medical data were extracted from patient charts...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kelly L Zuromski, Heidi Resnick, Matthew Price, Sandro Galea, Dean G Kilpatrick, Kenneth Ruggiero
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined variables, including prior traumatic events, disaster exposure, and current mental health symptomatology, associated with suicidal ideation following experience of a natural disaster. METHOD: Utilizing a sample of 2,000 adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornadoes in the areas surrounding Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, we hypothesized that prior interpersonal violence (IPV), more so than other prior traumatic events or other symptoms, would be associated with suicidal ideation after the disaster...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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