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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen
Objective: Posttraumatic distress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) may coexist in trauma survivors, but there are mixed relationships between PTSD and PTG. To elucidate their relationship and constructs, it is necessary to examine simultaneously predictive factors, and to compare their determining factors. The aim of this study was to increasing our understanding the relationship between PTSD and PTG by examining simultaneously the role of social support and emotion regulation in PTSD and PTG among adolescents after the earthquake...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Nicole H Weiss, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Courtney Peasant, Véronique Jaquier, Clinesha Johnson, Tami P Sullivan
Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with heightened psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors. However, extant investigations are limited by their focus on IPV victimization, despite evidence to suggest that victimization and aggression frequently co-occur. Further, research on these correlates often has not accounted for the heterogeneity of women who experience victimization. Method: The present study utilized latent profile analysis to identify patterns of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and aggression in a convenience sample of 212 community women experiencing victimization (Mage = 36...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Emily R Dworkin, Natalie P Mota, Julie A Schumacher, Christine Vinci, Scott F Coffey
Objective: There is a high occurrence of sexual assault (SA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) among people with substance use disorders and an established association between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no research has examined associations between combinations of these traumas and PTSD symptom profiles among people who abuse substances. Thus, this study aimed to examine how combinations of SA and IPV histories contribute to the severity of symptoms within PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond the impact of exposure to other traumas in a substance abusing population...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kristin W Samuelson, Alisa Bartel, Racquel Valadez, Joshua T Jordan
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with mild neurocognitive deficits, yet clients often complain of cognitive problems that exceed what their objective performance demonstrates. In addition, PTSD is associated with negative appraisals about the self, traumatic event, and one's ability to cope. This study examined posttraumatic cognitions as a moderator, and trauma coping self-efficacy as a mediator, of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and self-report of cognitive problems. Method: A sample of 268 trauma-exposed adults completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, the Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, the Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire, and the Quality of Life Scale...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland, Richard G Tedeschi
Objective: A growing body of theoretical and empirical work suggests that mindfulness may support more positive posttraumatic outcomes by reducing posttraumatic stress (PTS) and encouraging posttraumatic growth (PTG). Positive reappraisal (PR), a cognitive coping correlate of dispositional mindfulness (DM) has also been linked with greater PTG. However, neither DM nor PR have been modeled in relation to core posttraumatic constructs such as core belief disruption, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, PTS and PTG...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jason C DeViva, Gwendolyn A Bassett, Gia M Santoro, Lisa Fenton
Objective: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presenting for care with Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VA) tend not to engage in evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) despite widespread availability of these treatments. Though there is little evidence that "readiness for treatment" affects treatment choice, many VA providers believe that interventions to increase readiness would be helpful. This naturalistic study examined the effects of a 4-session education/treatment-planning group on treatment choice among veterans in a VA outpatient PTSD treatment program...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ebru Salcioglu, Sevim Urhan, Tugba Pirinccioglu, Sule Aydin
Objective: Embracing the conceptual framework of contemporary learning theory, this study tested the hypothesis that anticipatory fear due to a sense of ongoing threat to safety and sense of helplessness in life would be the strongest determinants of PTSD and depression in domestic violence survivors. Method: Participants were 220 domestic violence survivors recruited consecutively from 12 shelters for women in Turkey (response rate 70%). They were assessed with the Semi-Structured Interview for Survivors of Domestic Violence, Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist, Depression Rating Scale, and Fear and Sense of Control Scale...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Gadi Zerach, Yafit Levin, Roy Aloni, Zahava Solomon
Objectives: The aversive, long-term toll of war captivity and fathers' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) on adult offspring's mental health has been recently exemplified. However, studies that have examined the implication of PTSS of both fathers and mothers in the intergenerational transmission of trauma to offspring are still lacking. This prospective study assessed the unique and combined effects of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) fathers' and mothers' PTSS in adult offspring's PTSS...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ellen R DeVoe, Ruth Paris, Ben Emmert-Aronson, Abigail Ross, Michelle Acker
Objective: Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Method: Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Martha K Berg, Andréa L Hobkirk, John A Joska, Christina S Meade
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical global health issue associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Individuals with CSA histories are at risk for drug use, which is a growing problem in the Western Cape of South Africa. The present study of methamphetamine users in this region examined whether substance use coping, a contextually relevant type of avoidance-based coping, mediates the relation between CSA and depressive symptoms. Method: Participants included 161 men and 108 women seeking treatment for methamphetamine use...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lynne McCormack, Sherilyn Thomson
Objective: No known research explores the double-edged phenomenon of childhood trauma/adult mental health consumer. Therefore, whether receiving a psychiatric diagnosis in light of childhood trauma supports or impedes psychological wellbeing in adult life, is unknown. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) provided the methodological framework. Data were collected through the use of semistructured interviews. Analysis sought thematic representation from subjective interpretations of the experienced phenomenon: childhood trauma survivor/mental health consumer...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kyle Killian, Pilar Hernandez-Wolfe, David Engstrom, David Gangsei
Objective: Attending to the potential impacts, both positive and negative, of clinical work with trauma survivors on professionals themselves is a crucial aspect of clinical training and supervision. Vicarious resilience refers to unique, positive effects that transform therapists in response to witnessing trauma survivors' resilience and recovery process. This study describes the development and exploratory factor analysis of the first instrument to assess vicarious resilience. Method: The Vicarious Resilience Scale (VRS) was developed and administered via electronic survey to 190 helping professionals from around the globe working with survivors of severe traumas, such as torture...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Adam D LaMotte, Christopher M Murphy
Objective: Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kaia Laidra, Kaja Rahu, Katri-Evelin Kalaus, Mare Tekkel, Mall Leinsalu
Objective: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. Method: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
William B Elder, Jessica L Domino, Timothy O Rentz, Emma L Mata-Galán
Objective: Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Method: Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Reginald D V Nixon, Jisca Sterk, Amanda Pearce, Nathan Weber
Objective: The 1-year outcome and moderators of adjustment for children and youth receiving treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following single-incident trauma was examined. Method: Children and youth who had experienced single-incident trauma (N = 33; 7-17 years old) were randomly assigned to receive 9 weeks of either trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or trauma-focused cognitive therapy (without exposure; CT) that was administered to them and their parents individually. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated that both groups maintained posttreatment gains in PTSD, depression and general anxiety symptoms reductions at 1-year follow-up, with no children meeting criteria for PTSD...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Barbara Krahé, Anja Berger
Objective: This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Method: Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Natalie R Stevens, Lucie Holmgreen, Lisa Walt, Richard Gengler, Stevan E Hobfoll
Objective: PTSD and depression are related to perceived physical health impairment in veterans, but little is known about the effects of psychological treatment on impairment. We examined the impact of an interactive online treatment for veterans with trauma-related distress, including (a) whether treatment effects include reduced perceived physical impairment, and (b) how these treatment effects are related to symptoms of PTSD and depression. Method: A randomized controlled trial assessed the impact on perceived physical health impairment of interactive online treatment for veterans with symptoms of PTSD and depression...
September 22, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Ines Blix, Øivind Solberg, Trond Heir
Objective: Cross-sectional studies have revealed that high levels of optimism can protect against high levels of posttraumatic stress after exposure to trauma. However, this is the first study to explore (a) the protective role of optimism in a longitudinal perspective and (b) optimism's protective effects on specific symptom clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Method: This study used prospective survey data from ministerial employees (n = 256) collected approximately 1, 2, and 3 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing...
September 19, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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