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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080076/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-risk-for-suicidal-behavior-in-male-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-seeking-ptsd-treatment
#1
Timothy D Carroll, Joseph M Currier, Wesley H McCormick, Kent D Drescher
OBJECTIVE: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for suicide and appear to occur in disproportionately high rates among men who served in the U.S. military. However, research has yet to examine a comprehensive range of ACEs among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or whether these premilitary stressors may contribute to suicidal behavior in this highly vulnerable population. METHOD: A sample of 217 men entering a residential program for combat-related PTSD completed measures for ACEs, combat exposure, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068142/distinguishing-war-related-ptsd-resulting-from-perpetration-and-betrayal-based-morally-injurious-events
#2
Alexander H Jordan, Ethan Eisen, Elisa Bolton, William P Nash, Brett T Litz
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during a combat deployment may lead to PTSD through distinct pathways from danger-based events. We also examined the prevalence of perpetration-based PMIEs, during which service members behaved in ways that violated their own moral values, and betrayal-based PMIEs, during which personal moral expectations were violated by trusted others. METHOD: Using a sample of 867 active duty Marines from a single infantry battalion that engaged in heavy ground combat while deployed to Afghanistan, a structural equation model was built to examine the relationships between perpetration- and betrayal-based PMIEs, combat experiences, and peritraumatic dissociation reported at 1 month postdeployment, and guilt/shame, anger, and PTSD symptoms reported at 8 months postdeployment...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068141/ethnoracial-differences-in-ptsd-symptoms-and-trauma-related-cognitions-in-treatment-seeking-active-duty-military-personnel-for-ptsd
#3
Brittany N Hall-Clark, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Anu Asnaani, Jody Zhong, Alan L Peterson, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Edna B Foa
OBJECTIVE: It is uncertain whether ethnoracial factors should be considered by clinicians assessing and treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among service members. The purpose of this study was to shed light on ethnoracial variation in the presentation of PTSD symptoms, trauma-related cognitions, and emotions among treatment-seeking active duty military personnel. METHOD: Participants were 303 male active duty military members with PTSD participating in a clinical trial (60% were self-identified as White, 19% as African American, and 21% as Hispanic/Latino)...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068140/mental-strategies-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-attachment-and-ptsd
#4
Paulo Correia Ferrajão, Deborah Badoud, Rui Aragão Oliveira
The authors analyzed the relationship between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms through the mediation of the mental strategies organization, that is, behavioral and intrapsychic strategies used to cope with traumatic events and symptoms, among a sample of war veterans. Sample was composed of Portuguese war veterans (N = 60): 30 veterans suffered from chronic PTSD (nonrecovered) and 30 veterans had remission from PTSD (recovered). Assessment of mental strategies was retrieved from 1 interview assessed by 3 judges, and attachment patterns and PTSD symptoms were assessed through self-report measures...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068139/do-acceptance-and-mindfulness-moderate-the-relationship-between-maladaptive-beliefs-and-posttraumatic-distress
#5
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault
OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive pre- and posttraumatic beliefs are reliable predictors of distress in the wake of trauma. Acceptance and mindfulness skills may be associated with less distress in the presence of these beliefs, but few studies have explored these relationships. This study examined whether individual differences in acceptance and mindfulness moderate the relationship between maladaptive thoughts and distress in postdeployment soldiers. METHOD: We explored the relationships between posttraumatic maladaptive beliefs, acceptance, mindfulness, and posttraumatic distress (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and general psychological symptoms) in a sample of recently postdeployed active duty U...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991814/examining-the-incremental-contribution-of-metacognitive-beliefs-beyond-content-specific-beliefs-in-relation-to-posttraumatic-stress-in-a-community-sample
#6
Thomas A Fergus, Joseph R Bardeen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioral models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that the content of one's thoughts, including negative beliefs about the self, others, and world, play a fundamental role in our understanding and treatment of PTSD. Metacognitive theory suggests that metacognitive beliefs (i.e., beliefs about thinking), rather than content-specific beliefs, underlie PTSD. The present study provided the first known examination of the incremental contribution of metacognitive beliefs and trauma-related cognitions in relation to posttraumatic stress...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977223/randomized-controlled-trial-to-dismantle-exposure-relaxation-and-rescripting-therapy-errt-for-trauma-related-nightmares
#7
Kristi E Pruiksma, Christopher C Cranston, Jamie L Rhudy, Rachel L Micol, Joanne L Davis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary dismantling study of exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy (ERRT) for nightmares. METHOD: Participants (N = 70) were randomized to 1 of 2 conditions: ERRT with nightmare exposure and rescripting (full protocol; EX) or ERRT without nightmare exposure and rescripting (NEX). Participants completed follow-ups at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months posttreatment. RESULTS: Both conditions yielded statistically significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes on primary outcomes related to nightmares (i...
December 15, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936852/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-the-risk-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-mothers-of-children-diagnosed-with-cancer-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Leilani Greening, Laura Stoppelbein, Kara Cheek
OBJECTIVE: Research findings have indicated that mothers of children diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses can be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), with African American mothers being especially vulnerable because of evidence suggesting higher rates of PTSD among both African Americans and women. Race/ethnicity, past trauma exposure and the interaction of these variables were evaluated as risk factors for PTSS, depression, and state and trait anxiety among African American and Caucasian mothers of chronically ill children...
December 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936851/relationship-between-negative-social-reactions-to-sexual-assault-disclosure-and-mental-health-outcomes-of-black-and-white-female-survivors
#9
Dehnad Hakimi, Thema Bryant-Davis, Sarah E Ullman, Robyn L Gobin
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. METHOD: Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking...
December 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936850/spiritual-struggles-and-suicide-in-veterans-seeking-ptsd-treatment
#10
Amanda M Raines, Joseph Currier, Eliza S McManus, Jessica L Walton, Madeline Uddo, C Laurel Franklin
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that trauma can precipitate a loss of faith and struggles in the spiritual domain, leading to increased suicide risk. However, little is known about the specific types of spiritual struggles that may confer risk. This brief report examines the utility of a newly developed measure, the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale in gauging suicide risk in veterans. METHOD: As part of their initial assessment, 52 veterans presenting to an outpatient posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use clinic were administered self-report symptom measures...
December 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936849/occupational-functioning-and-employment-services-use-among-va-primary-care-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Rebecca K Sripada, Jennifer Henry, Matheos Yosef, Debra S Levine, Kipling M Bohnert, Erin Miller, Kara Zivin
OBJECTIVE: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit high levels of unemployment. The Department of Veterans Affairs' Veterans Health Administration (VHA) offers a variety of employment services; however, few veterans with PTSD use these services. Because many veterans with mental health conditions are seen in primary care clinics, employment service needs may be best addressed in this setting. The current study was designed to assess employment status and support needs in VHA primary care patients who screen positive for PTSD...
December 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929311/different-types-of-combat-experiences-and-associated-symptoms-in-oef-and-oif-national-guard-and-reserve-veterans
#12
M Tracie Shea, Candice Presseau, Shauna L Finley, Madhavi K Reddy, Christopher Spofford
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that exposure to combat is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The experiences of military personnel serving in combat zones vary widely however, leading to increased attention to the impact of different types of combat trauma. The present study examined the relationships among 3 conceptually based categories of combat exposure with 4 PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) and symptoms of guilt, depression, and anxiety...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929310/network-analysis-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-mass-violence
#13
Connor P Sullivan, Andrew J Smith, Michael Lewis, Russell T Jones
OBJECTIVE: Network analysis is a useful tool for understanding how symptoms interact with one another to influence psychopathology. However, this analytic strategy has not been fully utilized in the PTSD field. The current study utilized network analysis to examine connectedness and strength among PTSD symptoms (employing both partial correlation and regression network analyses) among a community sample of students exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. METHOD: Respondents (N = 4,639) completed online surveys 3-4 months postshootings, with PTSD symptom severity measured via the Trauma Symptom Questionnaire...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929309/is-posttraumatic-growth-trauma-specific-invariance-across-trauma-and-stressor-exposed-groups
#14
Madison W Silverstein, Daniel J Lee, Tracy K Witte, Frank W Weathers
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), or multidimensional positive change following a traumatic event (TE), is conceptualized as qualitatively distinct from growth following a nontraumatic stressful event (NTSE; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004; Zoellner & Maercker, 2006). However, the degree to which PTG is a trauma-specific phenomenon has yet to be established. Although research indicates that individuals who experience TEs endorse greater PTG than those who experience NTSEs (Kastenmüller et al...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929308/sex-differences-in-the-appraisal-of-traumatic-events-and-psychopathology
#15
Justyna Kucharska
OBJECTIVE: The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929307/when-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-matter-impact-of-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-on-posttraumatic-and-dissociative-symptoms
#16
Abdel H Boudoukha, Ornella Ouagazzal, Nelly Goutaudier
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events can lead to posttraumatic (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] specific symptoms) and dissociative symptoms (PTSD nonspecific symptoms). However, the trauma exposure characteristics (type of exposure, categorical form, number of exposures and the age of the exposure) are rarely studied. We hypothesized that the characteristics of a traumatic event are the only predictors of specific posttraumatic symptoms (intrusion, avoidance, negative cognitive impairment) and nonspecific symptoms (dissociation)...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929306/posttraumatic-growth-in-pediatric-intensive-care-personnel-dependence-on-resilience-and-coping-strategies
#17
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Alba Palacios, Jesús Alonso-Tapia, Elena Pérez, Elena Álvarez, Ana Coca, Santiago Mencía, Ana Maria Marcos, Juan Mayordomo-Colunga, Francisco Fernández, Fernando Gómez, Jaime Cruz, Luisa Barón, Rosa María Calderón, Sylvia Belda
OBJECTIVE: Staff in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) are inherently exposed to potentially traumatic events. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is the occurrence of positive changes after experiencing a traumatic event. This study aims (a) to evaluate the prevalence of PTG in PICU staff, and whether their scores are different from those reported by professionals working in other pediatric units, (b) to explore the role of resilience and coping strategies in predicting PTG, and (c) to explore the relation of demographic and work-related variables with PTG...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893267/identity-adjustment-among-afghanistan-and-iraq-war-veterans-with-reintegration-difficulty
#18
Robert J Orazem, Patricia A Frazier, Paula P Schnurr, Heather E Oleson, Kathleen F Carlson, Brett T Litz, Nina A Sayer
Objective: To examine perceptions of identity adjustment in a diverse, national sample of U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Method: The authors conducted a planned thematic analysis of text written by Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans when they were asked to describe their reintegration difficulties as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of online expressive writing (Sayer et al., 2015). Participants were 100 randomly selected veterans from the larger study (42 women and 58 men, 60 active duty and 38 reserves or National Guard)...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893266/assessing-civilian-perceptions-of-combat-veterans-an-iat-study
#19
Cade Schreger, Matthew Kimble
Objective: Evidence suggests that civilians may have considerable ambivalence to returning veterans. While civilians are frequently grateful for the service of military personnel, they can often be wary of the mental health and stability of returning veterans. If civilians do hold such negative biases toward veterans, whether implicit or explicit, this may have a significant impact on the ability of military personnel to integrate back into society. The goal of the study was to test whether participants held an implicit bias of mental instability toward veterans...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893265/va-residential-treatment-providers-use-of-two-evidence-based-psychotherapies-for-ptsd-global-endorsement-versus-specific-components
#20
Richard Thompson, Vanessa Simiola, Paula P Schnurr, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Joan M Cook
Objective: Despite a growing body of knowledge about the dissemination of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs), their actual use in clinical settings is not well understood. The purpose of the current study was to compare self-reported component use with global use for 2 EBPs for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), prolonged exposure (PE), and cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Method: Around 174 providers from 38 VA PTSD residential treatment programs were asked about both global use and component use of PE and CPT...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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