Read by QxMD icon Read

Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Bethany L Brand, Aliya R Webermann, Briana L Snyder, Parisa R Kaliush
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have assessed malingering in individuals with complex trauma and dissociation. This is concerning because these individuals' severe and ranging symptoms are associated with elevations on some, but not all, validity scales that detect symptom exaggeration. Dissociative individuals may experience dissociative amnesia, yet no study to date has examined how to distinguish clinical from malingered amnesia with dissociative samples. The current study examined whether the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) can accurately distinguish patients with clinically diagnosed dissociative identity disorder (DID) and simulators coached to imitate DID...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Natacha Godbout, Marie-Ève Daspe, Marsha Runtz, Gaëlle Cyr, John Briere
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of early interpersonal trauma may experience relational problems, anger, impulsive and self-destructive behaviors, identity disturbance, and other difficulties that are associated with borderline personality disorder. Insecure attachment also has been documented in survivors and may be related to borderline personality-related symptoms (BPRS). The goal of the current study was to examine an integrative model of maternal and paternal childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment as they predict BPRS...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Shane W Adams, Rosemarie M Bowler, Katherine Russell, Robert M Brackbill, Jiehui Li, James E Cone
OBJECTIVE: Following the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack in New York City, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression remain elevated. Although social support and self-efficacy have been associated with PTSD, little is known about their differential effect on PTSD and depressive comorbidity. METHOD: WTC tower survivors ( n = 1,304) were assessed at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), Wave 3 (2011-2012), and Wave 4 (2015-2016)...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Peter J Colvonen, Sean P A Drummond, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 35-61% of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report insomnia. Further, upward of 70% report clinically significant insomnia following PTSD treatment. There are converging lines of evidence suggesting that insomnia not only independently affects daytime functioning and worsens PTSD symptoms but also may compromise response to PTSD treatment, such as prolonged exposure (PE). Taken together, integrated insomnia and PTSD treatment may increase client-centered care and treatment outcomes...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Eric C Meyer, Heidi La Bash, Bryann B DeBeer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Numerous risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been identified; however, many do not inform treatment. Psychological inflexibility is a modifiable factor that can be targeted in psychological treatment. This study examined whether higher levels of psychological inflexibility predicted unique variance in PTSD symptom severity at 1-year follow-up in 236 U.S. veterans of the wars in Iraq in Afghanistan after accounting for the strongest known risk factors for PTSD...
August 27, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Isabelle Blanchette, Eugène Rutembesa, Emmanuel Habimana, Serge Caparos
Research increasingly shows links between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and cognitive functioning. We know relatively little about the long-term cognitive correlates of exposure to trauma, especially in civilian populations exposed to war and political violence. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to examined short-term memory (STM) and executive function 20 years after the 1994 genocide of the Tutsis in Rwanda. We hypothesized that performance on these tasks would be negatively related to trauma exposure and to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
August 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Samantha Schneider, Rehana Rasul, Bian Liu, Daniel Corry, Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Alexis Watson, Samantha M Kerath, Emanuela Taioli, Rebecca M Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Hurricane Sandy continues to affect the mental health of New York residents. This study examined associations between Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) and mental health difficulties (MHD) including symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Participants (N = 1,356) recruited from the New York metropolitan area completed questionnaires regarding their PTG, demographics, MHD, and hurricane experiences. A weighted least squares regression assessed the association between MHD and PTG...
August 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Andrew S Rosenblatt, Ruosha Li, Catherine Fortier, Xiangyu Liu, Jennifer R Fonda, Audri Villalon, Regina E McGlinchey, Ricardo E Jorge
OBJECTIVE: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has previously been employed to examine the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with mixed results. A limited number of studies examined PTSD factor structure among veterans of recent military conflicts. This study examined the relationship between PTSD factor structure and the hallmark conditions of these conflicts, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and close-range blast exposure (CBE). METHOD: The fit of previously proposed PTSD factor models was compared in a cohort of 387 combat-exposed veterans, with stratified analyses comparing factor structure models between those with a history of military-related mTBI and CBE (n = 106) and those without either of these antecedents (n = 151)...
August 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Joseph R Bardeen, Natasha Benfer
OBJECTIVE: One must first experience a traumatic event (Criterion A in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ; 5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) to be diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Standard procedures for assessing Criterion A (i.e., the "worst-event" method) may result in misidentification of trauma exposure status. The purpose of this Internet-based study was to obtain an estimate of the percent of an adult sample that is misidentified as non-Criterion A through use of this method...
August 9, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kevin M Swartout, William F Flack, Sarah L Cook, Loreen N Olson, Paige Hall Smith, Jacquelyn W White
OBJECTIVE: In response to The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault's recommendations, the Administrator-Researcher Campus Climate Collaborative (ARC3) has curated an empirically sound, no-cost campus climate survey for U.S. institutions of higher education. The ARC3 survey contains 19 modules that assess a range of Title IX violations, including sexual harassment, dating violence, and sexual misconduct victimization and perpetration; sexual misconduct prevention efforts, resources, and responses; and key predictors and possible outcomes of sexual misconduct...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Elizabeth A Penix, Paul Y Kim, Joshua E Wilk, Amy B Adler
OBJECTIVE: Using a novel measure that integrated a range of symptoms, the present study established the degree to which deployed health care staff reported secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present study also examined whether STS symptoms were associated with staff functioning, risk factors, and the delivery of psychotherapy techniques. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 236 U.S. military health care staff deployed to Afghanistan. Linear and multiple regression analyses evaluated the relationship between STS, staff functioning, and risk factors in the combined sample of deployed staff, and the delivery of psychotherapy techniques in behavioral health staff...
August 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Shira Pagorek-Eshel, Michal Finklestein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine discrepancies in family resilience between parents and their adolescent offspring and the differences in the predicting variables of family resilience between these two groups in the context of political violence. Toward that aim, we explored the interplay among exposure to security threats, gender, anxiety, individual resilience, self-differentiation, and family resilience. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study, which included 89 dyads of parents and adolescents who had been exposed to missile fire for 13 years, employing the following questionnaires: demographic parameters, exposure to security threats, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Family Resilience Assessment Scale, and the Differentiation of Self-Inventory...
July 26, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ursula S Myers, Moira Haller, Abigail C Angkaw, Juliette M Harik, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVE: Despite the availability of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Veterans Health Administration, treatment completion rates are low and not all veterans benefit from these treatments. Understanding factors associated with PTSD EBP completion and symptom improvement is critical to improving completion rates and effectiveness. METHOD: This chart review study used the Andersen Behavioral Model to examine whether predisposing characteristics (nonmodifiable characteristics such as demographics), enabling factors (modifiable logistic variables that can facilitate or impede treatment use), and need factors (clinical characteristics such as symptom severity or comorbidities) predicted treatment completion or symptom improvement following PTSD EBP treatment among 82 Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans...
July 23, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Christopher R DeCou, Colin T Mahoney, Stephanie P Kaplan, Shannon M Lynch
Previous research has identified trauma-related shame as a mediator of the association between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, few studies have considered protective factors that may mitigate the effects of trauma-related shame. This study evaluated trauma-coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame as mediators of the association between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and PTSD symptoms...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Valerie Forman-Hoffman, Kathryn Batts, Jonaki Bose, Cristie Glasheen, Erica Hirsch, Feng Yu, Sarra Hedden
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have indicated that exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) may increase the risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes. This study's main goal is to examine the association between PTE exposures and having any past year mental disorder, substance use disorder (SUD), or functional impairment and to explore the moderating effects of age and gender on these associations in a nationally representative sample of civilian adults living in U.S. households...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Katherine E Miller, Rachel L Micol, Joanne L Davis, Christopher C Cranston, Kristi E Pruiksma
OBJECTIVE: This report aims to extend previous findings on predictors of treatment dropout and response within nightmare treatment. METHOD: Factors predicting treatment noninitiation, dropout, and response were examined in 70 trauma-exposed individuals treated in a randomized controlled trial of 2 conditions (exposure [EX] and nonexposure) of a therapy for trauma nightmares. RESULTS: Together, treatment noninitiation and dropout was predicted by younger age for the EX condition only and by fewer nights with nightmares at baseline for both conditions...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Seung Suk Kang, Christopher R Erbes, Greg J Lamberty, Paul Thuras, Scott R Sponheim, Melissa A Polusny, Amy C Moran, Abraham C Van Voorhis, Kelvin O Lim
OBJECTIVE: Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a mental technique using a mantra to facilitate meditation. TM has a potential for treating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its clinical efficacy remains to be clarified. This pilot study evaluated the acceptability, preliminary effectiveness, and neurophysiology of TM for veterans with PTSD. METHOD: Twenty-nine veterans (20.7% female) were recruited from a major medical center and enrolled in the study...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Cori A Palermo, Bethany L Brand
OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to understand how individuals with complex dissociative disorders (CDD) score on the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2). These individuals have high elevations on many psychological measures' validity and clinical scales because of the severe traumatic reactions they experience; thus, creating a challenge for clinicians who seek to determine whether these individuals are exaggerating reported symptoms. The second objective was to compare coached CDD simulators to CDD profiles on the TSI-2s clinical and validity scales...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Adriel Boals, Keke Schuler
OBJECTIVE: Existing measures of posttraumatic growth (PTG), such as the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), have been criticized on their ability to assess genuine PTG. Specifically, individuals tend to report illusory growth after a traumatic experience, when no true growth has taken place, as a coping mechanism. Recent evidence suggests a new measure, the Stress Related Growth Scale-Revised (SRGS-R), is less prone to reports of illusory PTG. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the extent to which participants report PTG on the PTGI and SRGS-R to an event that may be distressing, but incapable of resulting in genuine PTG-a cracked cell phone screen...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jennifer DiMauro, Keith D Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: Intimate relationships are critical to posttrauma functioning and recovery. The vast majority of research focusing on PTSD and relationship functioning has focused exclusively on male combat veterans, from whom female sexual assault survivors may differ in critical ways. This study investigates the strength of the association between PTSD symptoms and relationship satisfaction, as well as the role of three interpersonal processes (sexuality, communication, and hostility) in female sexual assault survivors...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"