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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446964/gender-and-age-interact-to-predict-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-following-a-motor-vehicle-accident
#1
Ihori Kobayashi, Eve M Sledjeski, Douglas L Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: Women have a greater overall risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men after exposure to trauma. In addition to gender, other sociodemographic factors have been identified as risk factors for PTSD; however, research has typically examined these factors separately. Age has been found to contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders, and both linear and curvilinear relationships have been reported between age and risk of developing PTSD. Recent research has suggested that this relationship may vary depending on gender...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431455/the-efficacy-of-90-minute-versus-60-minute-sessions-of-prolonged-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-active-duty-military-personnel
#2
Edna B Foa, Laurie J Zandberg, Carmen P McLean, David Rosenfield, Hayley Fitzgerald, Peter W Tuerk, Bethany C Wangelin, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Alan L Peterson
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have devastating effects on multiple aspects of functioning. Thus, it is imperative to increase access to evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) has extensive empirical support and is one of the first-line PTSD treatments included in civilian, veteran, and military clinical practice guidelines. However, the standard 90-min PE session format can constitute a significant barrier to its adoption in routine clinical care settings, which typically schedule 60-min appointment sessions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199841/cumulative-effects-of-the-gulf-oil-spill-and-other-disasters-on-mental-health-among-reproductive-aged-women-the-gulf-resilience-on-women-s-health-study
#3
Emily W Harville, Arti Shankar, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Maureen Lichtveld
OBJECTIVE: To test whether effects of multiple (up to 5) disasters on mental health responses were cumulative (additive effects), or whether an earlier disaster produced sensitization (higher) or habituation (lower) responses to a later one. METHOD: The Gulf Resilience on Women's Health study interviewed 1,366 southern Louisiana women regarding their exposure to Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike and the Gulf oil spill (measured several ways), and administered validated measures of symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199840/an-examination-of-sex-differences-on-neurocognitive-functioning-and-behavior-problems-in-maltreated-youth
#4
Kate B Nooner, Stephen R Hooper, Michael D De Bellis
OBJECTIVE: In the developmental traumatology model, the biological construct of sex is considered a moderator that may negatively influence child maltreatment sequelae including those pertaining to neurocognitive function. METHOD: This study examined sex-differences in neurocognitive function and behavior problems in maltreated boys (n = 42), maltreated girls (n = 56) versus nonmaltreated boys (n = 45) and girls (n = 59). Maltreated boys were hypothesized to have poorer neurocognitive functioning than maltreated girls, and nonmaltreated boys and girls, in all neurocognitive domains, particularly pertaining to executive function and attention...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199839/a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-creative-arts-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-ptsd
#5
Felicity A Baker, Olivia Metcalf, Tracey Varker, Meaghan O'Donnell
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing body of literature supporting the use of creative arts therapies; however, the efficacy of creative arts therapies in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of creative arts therapy including music therapy, art therapy, dance/movement therapy, and drama therapy, in the treatment of PTSD. METHOD: Ten databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published from inception to December 2016...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172563/examining-the-impact-of-behavioral-health-encounter-dose-and-frequency-on-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-active-duty-service-members
#6
Tim Hoyt, Amanda Edwards-Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Several factors may influence the standardized delivery and frequency of behavioral health encounters for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military settings, potentially impacting the effectiveness of care. This retrospective analysis evaluated the course of treatment among 884 active duty Army service members in routine outpatient care. METHOD: Patients were included in the analysis based on a screening score of 50 or higher on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) at intake...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172562/association-between-perceptions-of-military-service-and-mental-health-problems-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-united-states-military-veterans
#7
Allison A Campbell, Blair E Wisco, Brian P Marx, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the prevalence of positive and negative perceptions of military service, associations between these perceptions and other demographic and military-related factors, and the extent to which endorsement of positive and negative perceptions of military service are associated with current mental health problems among United States veterans. METHOD: We analyzed data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a nationally representative survey of 1,484 United States military veterans, 564 of which reported combat exposure...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172561/service-usage-typologies-in-a-clinical-sample-of-trauma-exposed-adolescents-a-latent-class-analysis
#8
Kristen R Choi, Ernestine C Briggs, Julia S Seng, Sandra A Graham-Bermann, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Julian D Ford
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe typologies of service utilization among trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking adolescents and to examine associations between trauma history, trauma-related symptoms, demographics, and service utilization. METHOD: Latent class analysis was used to derive a service utilization typologies based on 10 service variables using a sample of 3,081 trauma-exposed adolescents ages 12 to 16 from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Dataset...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323526/psychological-and-neural-correlates-of-embitterment-in-old-age
#9
Simone Kühn, Sandra Düzel, Johanna Drewelies, Denis Gerstorf, Ulman Lindenberger, Jürgen Gallinat
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) comprises a stress-related response to a negative life event that violates the belief system of the individual. Characteristic symptoms involve repeated intrusive thoughts, emotional arousal when reminded of the event, and decreases in well-being. METHOD: Within the scope of the present study, embitterment was treated as a continuous rather than categorical concept, and we investigated its psychological and brain structural correlates in a sample of healthy older adults...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323525/embitterment-and-bereavement-the-sewol-ferry-accident-example
#10
Jeong-Ho Chae, Hyu Jung Huh, Won Joon Choi
OBJECTIVE: On Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 261 high school students on a field trip died in the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The bereaved family of the Sewol ferry accident experienced one of the most painful traumatic losses such as the sudden death of one's child through an accident. This article reviewed and discussed embitterment related to traumatic loss through the example of the Sewol ferry accident. METHOD: Embitterment-related issues and problems in coping with the accident that is caused by societal factors were described...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323524/work-disability-in-soldiers-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-posttraumatic-embitterment-disorder-and-not-event-related-common-mental-disorders
#11
Beate Muschalla, Heinrich Rau, Gerd Dieter Willmund, Christine Knaevelsrud
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD)...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323523/trauma-across-generations-and-paths-to-adaptation-and-resilience
#12
Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing literature on the intergenerational transmission of trauma, representing approaches across psychodynamic, family systems, epidemiological, sociological, and biological levels of analysis. Embitterment has been proposed as a response to severe, but normative, stressful events, different from the life-threatening trauma that precedes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This article reviews the potential applicability of the construct of embitterment to trauma and intergenerational effects through (a) a historical review of the intergenerational transmission of trauma literature, (b) a discussion of embitterment versus PTSD, (c) a brief review of theories of mechanisms of transmission, and (d) a discussion of biological findings and their interpretation...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323522/demoralization-and-embitterment
#13
Maria Giulia Nanni, Rosangela Caruso, Silvana Sabato, Luigi Grassi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals may experience a wide range of psychological reactions in response to negative life events. Even if events that threaten life have been always played a central role in research, recent studies have outlined that experiences, considered exceptional but part of the human existence (e.g., divorce, unemployment, or chronic illness) may also lead individuals to experience enduring emotional states of suffering. Demoralization has been substantially described as an important condition occurring in response to stressful events, while a recent interest is growing on embitterment as a common reaction...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323521/psychological-processes-in-chronic-embitterment-the-potential-contribution-of-rumination
#14
Joanne M Dunn, Tom Sensky
OBJECTIVE: Chronic embitterment has received considerable attention in terms of its presentation and epidemiology, but there has been relatively little focus on its psychology. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that embitterment is positively correlated with rumination, and that this effect is influenced by positive beliefs about rumination. METHOD: A convenience sample (N = 79) of staff of a health care facility attending its occupational health service completed questionnaires assessing chronic embitterment, work-related rumination (distinguishing affective rumination and problem solving pondering), positive beliefs about rumination, and depression...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323520/spectrum-of-embitterment-manifestations
#15
Michael Linden, Max Rotter
OBJECTIVE: Embitterment is seen in reaction to injustice, vilification, or humiliation. Similar to anxiety, it is known to everybody, but it can also occur in the context of mental disorders and even become an illness in itself. The goal of the present study is to describe the spectrum of the types, rate, intensity, and clinical context of embitterment manifestations. METHOD: The posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) self-rating scale was used to screen for reactive embitterment in 1,479 psychosomatic inpatients...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154599/negative-outcomes-after-morally-injurious-experiences-a-replication-and-extension
#16
Steven Lloyd Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: The current study replicates and extends a model of the relationship between morally injurious experiences, moral emotions, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Jordan, Eisen, Bolton, Nash, & Litz, 2017). The current study builds on this earlier work by including broader measures of moral emotions and by including an assessment of symptoms of depression. METHOD: An online survey, distributed using crowdsourcing software, was completed by 161 military veterans...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154598/-i-feel-like-i-do-not-exist-a-study-of-dissociative-experiences-among-war-traumatized-refugee-youth
#17
Sabina Gušić, Andrea Malešević, Etzel Cardeña, Hans Bengtsson, Hans Peter Søndergaard
OBJECTIVE: War-traumatized refugee children and adolescents have been overlooked in research on trauma-related dissociation, and whatever research has been conducted has relied almost exclusively on questionnaires. The present study was an exploration of dissociative experiences in multitraumatized war-refugee youth. METHOD: In this study, we used a mixed-method approach by grouping participants according to a Western-based dissociation measure (the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale; Armstrong, Putnam, Carlson, Libero, & Smith, 1997), and conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses of their verbal descriptions of mental experiences related to dissociation in the aftermath of war and resettlement...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154597/interactive-effects-of-insomnia-symptoms-and-trauma-exposure-on-ptsd-examination-of-symptom-specificity
#18
Rebecca C Cox, W Alex McIntyre, Bunmi O Olatunji
OBJECTIVE: Although symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common following exposure to a traumatic event, most people who experience trauma do not develop PTSD. Thus, the identification of risk factors that may interact with trauma exposure to confer vulnerability for the development of PTSD may highlight important targets for prevention and treatment. Recent research suggests that sleep disturbance amplifies the effect of maladaptive emotional processes on PTSD symptom severity...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154596/the-moderating-role-of-trauma-type-on-the-relationship-between-event-centrality-of-the-traumatic-experience-and-mental-health-outcomes
#19
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn H Howell, Laura E Schwartz, Amanda J Hasselle
OBJECTIVE: Event centrality, or the extent to which traumatic events are perceived to be integral to one's life, has been found to be predictive of trauma-related symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Less research has been devoted to whether event centrality is related to adaptive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and resiliency, and psychological well-being (PWB) has not been investigated. Given the unique circumstances of different types of traumas, the relationship between event centrality and posttrauma functioning may differ by the type of trauma experienced...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154595/predictors-of-somatic-symptom-severity-the-role-of-cumulative-history-of-trauma-and-adversity-in-a-diverse-community-sample
#20
Tamra Burns Loeb, Nataria T Joseph, Gail E Wyatt, Muyu Zhang, Dorothy Chin, April Thames, Yvorn Aswad
OBJECTIVE: Somatic symptoms are often reported among victims of trauma, and place a significant burden on primary care health providers. We examined the relationship between lifetime histories of trauma and adversity, including aspects not previously studied (i.e., perceived discrimination), and somatic symptoms, as well as the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms. METHOD: A multiethnic community sample of 500 male and female participants (230 African American and 270 Latino) completed measures of demographic characteristics, the University of California, Los Angeles Lifetime Adversities Screener (LADS), depressive symptoms, PTSS, and somatic symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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