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Islets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757700/adhesion-characteristics-of-porcine-pancreatic-islets-and-exocrine-tissue-to-coating-materials
#1
Yoshiki Nakashima, Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Hirofumi Noguchi
Since the report of the Edmonton protocol in 2000, islet transplantation has been implemented worldwide, and xenotransplantation using porcine islets has also been reported. In addition, many basic experiments using pancreatic islets and exocrine tissue after isolation have been reported. Recently, exocrine cells have been found to be essential for inducing the differentiation of pancreatic islets. Therefore, the importance of the culture conditions for pancreatic tissue when conducting experiments using pancreatic tissue is also increasing...
May 14, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723131/insulin-acts-as-a-repressive-factor-to-inhibit-the-ability-of-par2-to-induce-islet-cell-transdifferentiation
#2
Seung-Hee Lee, Ergeng Hao, David Scharp, Fred Levine
Recently, we showed that pancreatitis in the context of profound β-cell deficiency was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation. In some circumstances, this effect was sufficient to result in recovery from severe diabetes. More recently, we showed that the molecular mechanism by which pancreatitis induced β-cell neogenesis by transdifferentiation was activation of an atypical GPCR called Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2). However, the ability of PAR2 to induce transdifferentiation occurred only in the setting of profound β-cell deficiency, implying the existence of a repressive factor from those cells...
May 3, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723130/trefoil-factor-3-in-perinatal-pancreas-is-increased-by-gestational-low-protein-diet-and-associated-with-accelerated-%C3%AE-cell-maturation
#3
Louise Winkel, Annika Bagge, Louise Larsen, Tobias N Haase, Morten Rasmussen, Jeanette Lykke, Dennis B Holmgaard, Lars Thim, Jens H Nielsen, Louise T Dalgaard
The endocrine pancreas expands markedly in the first postnatal days and the insulin producing β-cells initiate a functional maturation preceded by a morphological change of the islets of Langerhans. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a secreted peptide expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it promotes migration, but its role in the pancreas is not characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of TFF3 in perinatal rat pancreas, ex vivo cultured fetal rat pancreas and in the rat β-cell line INS-1E...
May 3, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617192/optical-clearing-of-the-pancreas-for-visualization-of-mature-%C3%AE-cells-and-vessels-in-mice
#4
Wataru Nishimura, Asako Sakaue-Sawano, Satoru Takahashi, Atsushi Miyawaki, Kazuki Yasuda, Yasuko Noda
Glucose metabolism is regulated by insulin, which is produced from β-cells in the pancreas. Because insulin is secreted into vessels in response to blood glucose, vascular structures of the pancreas, especially the relationship between vessels and β-cells, are important for physiological and pathological glucose metabolism. Here, we developed a system to visualize vessels surrounding mature β-cells expressing transcription factor MafA in a three-dimensional manner. Optical clearing of the pancreas prevented light scattering of fluorescence driven by the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mafA promoter in β-cells...
April 4, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608395/an-engineered-cell-sheet-composed-of-human-islets-and-human-fibroblast-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-or-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-in-vitro-comparison-study
#5
Hajime Imamura, Tomohiko Adachi, Tatsuya Kin, Shinichiro Ono, Yusuke Sakai, Toshiyuki Adachi, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, A M James Shapiro, Susumu Eguchi
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of engineered cell sheets composed of human islets and supporting cells in vitro and in vivo. It is unclear which type of supporting cell is most suitable for constructing cell sheets with human islets. The present study aimed to compare human fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) as a supporting source for cell sheets. METHODS: Engineered cell sheets were fabricated with human islets using human fibroblasts, BM-MSCs, or ADSCs as supporting cells...
April 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521546/collagen-type-vi-interaction-improves-human-islet-survival-in-immunoisolating-microcapsules-for-treatment-of-diabetes
#6
L Alberto Llacua, Arjan Hoek, Bart J de Haan, Paul de Vos
Collagens are the most abundant fibrous protein in the human body and constitute the main structural element of the extracellular matrix. It provides mechanical and physiological support for cells. In the pancreas, collagen VI content is more than double that of collagen I or IV. It is a major component of the islet-exocrine interface and could be involved in islet-cell survival. To test the impact of collagen VI on human encapsulated pancreatic islets-cells, we tested the effects of exogenous collagen type VI on in vitro functional survival of alginate encapsulated human islet-cells...
March 4, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446696/expression-profiles-of-stress-related-genes-in-islets-from-donors-with-progressively-impaired-glucose-metabolism
#7
Marcus Lundberg, Anton Stenwall, Angie Tegehall, Olle Korsgren, Oskar Skog
It is currently unknown how the islet transcriptional pattern changes as glucose metabolism deteriorates and progresses to fulminant type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we hypothesized that islets from donors with elevated HbA1c levels, but not yet diagnosed with T2D, would show signs of cell stress on a transcriptional level. Laser capture microdissection and qPCR arrays including 330 genes related to mitochondria, oxidative stress, or the unfolded protein response were used to extract and analyze islets from organ donors with HbA1c <5...
March 4, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394145/the-journey-of-islet-cell-transplantation-and-future-development
#8
Anissa Gamble, Andrew R Pepper, Antonio Bruni, A M James Shapiro
Intraportal islet transplantation has proven to be efficacious in preventing severe hypoglycemia and restoring insulin independence in selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Multiple islet infusions are often required to achieve and maintain insulin independence. Many challenges remain in clinical islet transplantation, including substantial islet cell loss early and late after islet infusion. Contributions to graft loss include the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, potent host auto- and alloimmune responses, and beta cell toxicity from immunosuppressive agents...
March 4, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381419/evaluation-of-collagenase-gold-plus-bp-protease-in-isolating-islets-from-human-pancreata
#9
Bashar Khiatah, Amber Tucker, Kuan-Tsen Chen, Rachel Perez, Shiela Bilbao, Luis Valiente, Leonard Medrano, Jeffrey Rawson, Elena Forouhar, Keiko Omori, Fouad Kandeel, Meirigeng Qi, Ismail H Al-Abdullah
Selection of enzymes for optimal pancreas digestion is essential for successful human islet isolations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of using Collagenase Gold plus BP protease (VitaCyte) (n = 8) by comparing it to two commercially available enzymes, Liberase MTF C/T (Roche) (n = 48) and Collagenase NB1/NP (Serva) (n = 15). The isolation outcomes were assessed by islet counting, viability, glucose-stimulated oxygen consumption rate (OCR), and successful graft-rate following transplantation in diabetic NOD scid mice...
March 4, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333922/effect-of-resveratrol-treatment-on-graft-revascularization-after-islet-transplantation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#10
Eun-Mi Lee, Inwon Park, Ye-Jee Lee, Young-Hye You, Ji-Won Kim, Myung-Jun Kim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Pilhan Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko
We evaluated the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on graft survival after islet transplantation (ITx) in diabetic mice. Isolated islets from Balb/c mice (200 IEQ) were transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic Balb/c mice. Vehicle or RSV (200 mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 14 days after ITx. Two more control groups [STZ-treated (No-ITx-Control) and STZ+RSV-treated (No-ITx-RSV) mice without ITx] were added. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) was performed at 14 days after ITx. In vitro, isolated islets pretreated with vehicle or RSV (1 μM) were incubated in a hypoxic chamber (O2 1%, 1hr)...
January 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315020/systematic-review-of-islet-cryopreservation
#11
Greg G Kojayan, Michael Alexander, David K Imagawa, Jonathan R T Lakey
Pancreatic islet transplantation is being extensively researched as an alternative treatment for type 1 diabetic patients. This treatment is currently limited by temporal mismatch, between the availability of pancreas and isolated islets from deceased organ donor, and the recipient's need for freshly isolated islets. To solve this issue, cryopreservation of islets may offer the potential to bank islets for transplant on demand. Cryopreservation, however, introduces an overwhelmingly harsh environment to the ever-so-fragile islets...
January 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215945/the-adverse-effects-of-chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-nonylphenol-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-high-sucrose-high-fat-diet-treated-rats
#12
Jie Yu, Jin Yang, Ya Luo, Yang Mengxue, Wenmei Li, Yu Yang, Liting He, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVES: Although it has been shown that exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) has been implicated as a potential risk factor for metabolic disease, information on adverse effect of chronic low-dose exposure to nonylphenol (NP), on the development and progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is scarce. NP, as an EDC, is a ubiquitous degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPE) that is primarily used in cleaning and industrial processes. METHOD: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 8 groups (n = 10 per group): rats fed a normal-diet (ND) as the control (C-ND); rats fed a normal diet and were gavaged with NP at a dose level of 0...
January 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157116/perinatal-exposure-to-high-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-transgenic-nod8-3-mice-leads-to-pancreatic-beta-cell-dysfunction
#13
Danielle J Borg, Felicia Y T Yap, Sahar Keshvari, David G Simmons, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Aowen Zhuang, Robyn M Slattery, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Melinda T Coughlan, Phillip Kantharidis, Josephine M Forbes
The contribution of environmental factors to pancreatic islet damage in type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. In this study, we crossed mice susceptible to type 1 diabetes, where parental male (CD8+ T cells specific for IGRP206-214 ; NOD8.3) and female (NOD/ShiLt) mice were randomized to a diet either low or high in AGE content and maintained on this diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, NOD8.3+ female offspring were identified and maintained on the same parental feeding regimen for until day 28 of life...
January 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111856/vascular-derived-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-is-critical-for-pregnancy-induced-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-in-adult-mice
#14
Raymond C Pasek, Jennifer C Dunn, Joseph M Elsakr, Mounika Aramandla, Anveetha R Matta, Maureen Gannon
During pregnancy, maternal β cells undergo compensatory changes including hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Failure of these adaptations to occur can result in gestational diabetes mellitus. The secreted protein, Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), is critical for normal β cell development and promotes regeneration after partial β cell ablation. During embryogenesis, Ctgf is expressed in pancreatic ducts, vasculature, and β cells. In the adult pancreas, Ctgf is expressed only in the vasculature...
November 2, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099648/a-proteome-analysis-of-pig-pancreatic-islets-and-exocrine-tissue-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Yoshiki Nakashima, Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Hirofumi Noguchi
Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a proteome analysis method, and the shotgun analysis by LC-MS/MS comprehensively identifies proteins from tissues and cells with high resolving power. In this study, we analyzed the protein expression in pancreatic tissue by LC-MS/MS. Islets isolated from porcine pancreata (purity ≥95%) and exocrine tissue (purity ≥99%) were used in this study. LC-MS/MS showed that 13 proteins were expressed in pancreatic islets only (Group I), 43 proteins were expressed in both islets and exocrine tissue (Group I&E), and 102 proteins were expressed in exocrine tissue only (Group E)...
November 2, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933628/effectiveness-of-different-molecular-forms-of-c-histolyticum-class-i-collagenase-to-recover-islets
#16
Michael L Green, Andrew G Breite, Caleb A Beechler, Francis E Dwulet, Robert C McCarthy
One factor that may contribute to variability between different lots of purified collagenase to recover islets is the molecular form of C. histolyticum class I (C1) collagenase used in the isolation procedure. Two different enzyme mixtures containing C1, class II (C2) collagenase and BP Protease were compared for their effectiveness to recover islets from split adult porcine pancreas. The same enzyme activities per g trimmed tissue were used for all isolations with the only difference being the mass of C1 required to achieve 25,000 collagen degradation activity U/g tissue...
November 2, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902579/effect-of-liver-histopathology-on-islet-cell-engraftment-in-the-model-mimicking-autologous-islet-cell-transplantation
#17
Chirag S Desai, Khalid M Khan, Xiaobo Ma, Henghong Li, Juan Wang, Lijuan Fan, Guoling Chen, Jill P Smith, Wanxing Cui
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory milieu in the liver as determined by histopathology is different in individual patients undergoing autologous islet cell transplantation. We hypothesized that inflammation related to fatty-liver adversely impacts islet survival. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of fatty-liver to determine the outcome of syngeneic islet transplantation after chemical pancreatectomy. METHODS: Mice (C57BL/6) were fed a high-fat-diet from 6 weeks of age until attaining a weight of ≥28 grams (6-8 weeks) to produce a fatty liver (histologically > 30% fat);steatosis was confirmed with lipidomic profile of liver tissue...
November 2, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662366/the-triggering-pathway-to-insulin-secretion-functional-similarities-and-differences-between-the-human-and-the-mouse-%C3%AE-cells-and-their-translational-relevance
#18
Maša Skelin Klemen, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Andraž Stožer
In β cells, stimulation by metabolic, hormonal, neuronal, and pharmacological factors is coupled to secretion of insulin through different intracellular signaling pathways. Our knowledge about the molecular machinery supporting these pathways and the patterns of signals it generates comes mostly from rodent models, especially the laboratory mouse. The increased availability of human islets for research during the last few decades has yielded new insights into the specifics in signaling pathways leading to insulin secretion in humans...
November 2, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686518/connexins-and-micrornas-interlinked-players-in-regulating-islet-function
#19
Malati R Umrani, Mugdha V Joglekar, Ella Somerville Glover, Wilson Wong, Anandwardhan A Hardikar
Pancreatic β-cells are connected to neighboring endocrine cells through the adherin proteins and gap junctions. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is one of the most well-studied and abundantly expressed gap-junction proteins within rodent islets, which is important in coordinated insulin secretion. The expression of connexins is regulated at various levels and by several mechanisms; one of which is via microRNAs. In past 2 decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key molecules in developmental, physiologic and pathological processes...
September 3, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678625/use-of-additives-scaffolds-and-extracellular-matrix-components-for-improvement-of-human-pancreatic-islet-outcomes-in-vitro-a-systematic-review
#20
Natália Emerim Lemos, Letícia de Almeida Brondani, Cristine Dieter, Jakeline Rheinheimer, Ana Paula Bouças, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão, Daisy Crispim, Andrea Carla Bauer
Pancreatic islet transplantation is an established treatment to restore insulin independence in type 1 diabetic patients. Its success rates have increased lately based on improvements in immunosuppressive therapies and on islet isolation and culture. It is known that the quality and quantity of viable transplanted islets are crucial for the achievement of insulin independence and some studies have shown that a significant number of islets are lost during culture time. Thus, in an effort to improve islet yield during culture period, researchers have tested a variety of additives in culture media as well as alternative culture devices, such as scaffolds...
September 3, 2017: Islets
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