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Gut Microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227180/removal-of-the-cecum-affects-intestinal-fermentation-enteric-bacterial-community-structure-and-acute-colitis-in-mice
#1
Kirsty Brown, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
The murine cecum is a major site of fermentation of dietary materials, and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). To examine the role that the cecum plays in acute bacterial infection in mice, the cecum was surgically removed, and changes in bacterial communities and production of SCFAs were analyzed relative to surgical sham animals. To incite bacterial colitis, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium. The impact of butyrate administered directly into the colon was also examined. Concentrations of SCFAs in feces were substantially lower in mice with an excised cecum...
December 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227175/effects-of-28-day-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-hn019-supplementation-on-colonic-transit-time-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-adults-with-functional-constipation-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-and-dose-ranging-trial
#2
Alvin Ibarra, Mathilde Latreille-Barbier, Yves Donazzolo, Xavier Pelletier, Arthur C Ouwehand
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 (HN019) ameliorates chronic idiopathic constipation. Our aim was to determine the efficacy and safety of 28-day supplementation with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU of HN019/day for constipation. A total of 228 adults who were diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomized in a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Colonic transit time (CTT), the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes that were measured using inventories-patient assessment of constipation symptoms (PAC-SYM) and quality of life (PAC-QoL), bowel function index (BFI), bowel movement frequency (BMF), stool consistency, degree of straining, bowel emptying, bloating, and pain severity-were assessed...
December 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182421/feeding-strategy-shapes-gut-metagenomic-enrichment-and-functional-specialization-in-captive-lemurs
#3
E A McKenney, Thomas M O'Connell, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Many studies have demonstrated the effects of host diet on gut microbial membership, metagenomics, and fermentation individually; but few have attempted to interpret the relationship among these biological phenomena with respect to host features (e.g. gut morphology). We quantitatively compare the fecal microbial communities, metabolic pathways, and fermentation products associated with the nutritional intake of frugivorous (fruit-eating) and folivorous (leaf-eating) lemurs. Our results provide a uniquely multidimensional and comparative perspective on the adaptive dynamics between host and microbiome...
November 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157127/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-metformin-improves-metabolic-profiles-in-aged-obese-mice
#4
Heetae Lee, Youngjoo Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Jinho An, Sungwon Lee, Hyunseok Kong, Youngcheon Song, Chong-Kil Lee, Kyungjae Kim
The gut microbiota is a contributing factor in obesity-related metabolic disorders. The effect of metformin on the gut microbiota has been reported; however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and the mechanism of action of metformin in elderly individuals is unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on the gut microbiota was investigated in aged obese mice. The abundance of the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Parabacteroides was significantly increased by metformin in mice fed a high-fat diet...
November 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#5
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135334/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-its-consequence-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-rat-model
#6
Phyllis E Mann, Kevin Huynh, Giovanni Widmer
The biological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal include shifts in hormonal regulation in preparation for parturition and lactation, and changes in energy metabolism. In women, studies have also shown that during pregnancy there is a reduction in bacterial species richness in the gut. In the current experiment rats were used to model the interaction of diet, reproductive status, and intestinal bacterial microbiota during pregnancy and lactation. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to either standard chow or high-fat chow (60%) and were divided into two groups: unmated (NULL) or mated (RE)...
November 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087765/enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-is-phagocytosed-by-macrophages-underlying-villus-like-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modeling-ex-vivo-innate-immune-defenses-of-the-human-gut
#7
Gaelle Noel, Michele Doucet, James P Nataro, James B Kaper, Nicholas C Zachos, Marcela F Pasetti
There is a paucity of information on diarrheagenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)'s interaction with innate immune cells, in part due to the lack of reliable models that recapitulate infection in human gut. In a recent publication, we described the development of an ex vivo enteroid-macrophage co-culture model using human primary cells. We reported that macrophages residing underneath the epithelial monolayer acquired "resident macrophage" phenotype characterized by lower production of inflammatory cytokines and strong phagocytic activity...
October 31, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053042/paper-incompletely-describes-evidence-based-usage-of-probiotics
#8
Mary Ellen Sanders, Jessica Younes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985140/inflammatory-bactericidal-lectin-regiii%C3%AE-friend-or-foe-for-the-host
#9
Tsuyoshi Miki, Nobuhiko Okada, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
In the inflamed gut, the bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is massively produced by intestinal mucosa. RegIIIβ binds peptidoglycan and lipid A respectively, and thus can kill certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the gut commensal microbiota and enteropathogenic bacteria. Considering the expression pattern and bactericidal activity, RegIIIβ is believed to be a host defense factor for protecting against the infection with enteropathogenic bacteria. However, it was poorly understood how RegIIIβ recognizes the target bacteria and kill them, and how RegIIIβ plays role(s) in infectious diarrhea...
October 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976243/colonic-thioguanine-pro-drug-investigation-of-microbiome-and-novel-host-metabolism
#10
Timothy Florin, Ramya Movva, Jakob Begun, John Duley, Iulia Oancea, Páraic Ó Cuív
Thiopurines are analogues of endogenous purines. They are pro-drugs which require the purine salvage pathway to convert them to the active drug nucleotides (TGN). These drugs are used to maintain clinical remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. In our recent Gut paper, we showed that thioguanine worked quickly to improve colitis in the absence in the host animal of the key guanine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Current evidence favours the proposition that active drug delivery to the host lacking HPRT requires translocation of TGN-loaded bacteria across the inflamed mucosal barrier, and most likely delivery by phagocytosis...
October 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961041/mechanisms-of-gut-microbiota-mediated-bone-remodeling
#11
Jing Yan, Ayumi Takakura, Kambiz Zandi-Nejad, Julia F Charles
The mechanisms underlying the systemic effects mediated by gut microbiota are under active investigation. In addition to local, direct effects of gut microbiota on the host, metabolic products from microbiota may act peripherally, reaching distal organs through the circulation. In our recent publication we demonstrated that gut microbiota influence bone remodeling distally, promoting both bone resorption and formation. We proposed that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by the induction of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) by the microbiota metabolite short chain fatty acids (SCFA)...
September 29, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#12
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914579/a-polymicrobial-view-of-disease-potential-in-crohn-s-associated-adherent-invasive-e-coli
#13
Wael Elhenawy, Alexander Oberc, Brian K Coombes
The human gut is home to trillions of bacteria and provides the scaffold for one of the most complex microbial ecosystems in nature. Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, involve a compositional shift in the microbial constituents of this ecosystem with a marked expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Escherichia coli. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from the biopsies of Crohn's patients, where their ability to elicit inflammation suggests a possible role in Crohn's pathology...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#14
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891744/caloric-restriction-promotes-rapid-expansion-and-long-lasting-increase-of-lactobacillus-in-the-rat-fecal-microbiota
#15
Cristina Fraumene, Valeria Manghina, Erika Cadoni, Fabio Marongiu, Marcello Abbondio, Monica Serra, Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Ezio Laconi, Sergio Uzzau
Previous studies indicated that caloric restricted diet enables to lower significantly the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In experimental animal models, life-long lasting caloric restriction (CR) was demonstrated to induce changes of the intestinal microbiota composition, regardless of fat content and/or exercise. To explore the potential impact of short and long-term CR treatment on the gut microbiota, we conducted an analysis of fecal microbiota composition in young and adult Fisher 344 rats treated with a low fat feed under ad libitum (AL) or CR conditions (70%)...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678609/randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-multi-strain-probiotic-on-the-mucosal-microbiota-in-canine-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E Jergens
The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#17
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often performed within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-surgical complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated fecal stream diversion...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586297/fecal-microbiota-variation-across-the-lifespan-of-the-healthy-laboratory-rat
#18
Burkhardt Flemer, Nadia Gaci, Guillaume Borrel, Ian R Sanderson, Prem P Chaudhary, William Tottey, Paul W O'Toole, Jean-François Brugère
Laboratory rats are commonly used in life science research as a model for human biology and disease, but the composition and development of their gut microbiota during life is poorly understood. We determined the fecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 y of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. Additionally, we determined fecal short-chain fatty acid profiles, and we compared the rat fecal microbiota with that of mice and humans. Gut microbiota and to a lesser extent SCFAs profiles separated rats into 3 different clusters according to age: before weaning, first year of life (12- to 26-week-old animals) and second year of life (52- to 104-week-old)...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586253/characterization-of-recombinant-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-rtbgtctp-and-its-interaction-with-glossina-midgut-bacteria
#19
Géraldine Bossard, Manon Bartoli, Marie-Laure Fardeau, Philippe Holzmuller, Bernard Ollivier, Anne Geiger
In humans, sleeping sickness (i.e. Human African Trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) in West and Central Africa, and T. b. rhodesiense in East Africa. We previously showed in vitro that Tbg is able to excrete/secrete a large number of proteins, including Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP). Moreover, the tctp gene was described previously to be expressed in Tbg-infected flies. Aside from its involvement in diverse cellular processes, we have investigated a possible alternative role within the interactions occurring between the trypanosome parasite, its tsetse fly vector, and the associated midgut bacteria...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
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