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Gut Microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723105/probiotics-drive-gut-microbiome-triggering-emotional-brain-signatures
#1
Deepika Bagga, Johanna Louise Reichert, Karl Koschutnig, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Peter Holzer, Kaisa Koskinen, Christine Moissl Eichinger, Veronika Schöpf
Experimental manipulation of the gut microbiome was found to modify emotional and cognitive behavior, neurotransmitter expression and brain function in rodents, but corresponding human data remain scarce. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study aimed at investigating the effects of 4 weeks' probiotic administration on behavior, brain function and gut microbial composition in healthy volunteers. Forty-five healthy participants divided equally into three groups (probiotic, placebo and no intervention) underwent functional MRI (emotional decision-making and emotional recognition memory tasks)...
May 3, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708822/rifaximin-is-associated-with-modest-transient-decreases-in-multiple-taxa-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-patients-with-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Anthony A Fodor, Mark Pimentel, William D Chey, Anthony Lembo, Pamela L Golden, Robert J Israel, Ian M Carroll
Rifaximin, a non-systemic antibiotic, is efficacious for the treatment of diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Given the emerging association between the gut microbiota and IBS, this study examined potential effects of rifaximin on the gastrointestinal microbial community in patients with IBS-D. TARGET 3 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Patients with IBS-D initially received open-label rifaximin 550 mg 3 times daily (TID) for 2 weeks. Patients who responded to the initial treatment and then relapsed were randomised to receive 2 repeat courses of rifaximin 550 mg TID or placebo for 2 weeks, with each course separated by 10 weeks...
April 30, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672211/increased-prevalence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-infants-at-risk-of-developing-celiac-disease-the-proficel-study
#3
Marta Olivares, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Giada de Palma, Amalia Capilla, Esther Nova, Gemma Castillejo, Vicente Varea, Ascensión Marcos, José Antonio Garrote, Isabel Polanco, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen Calvo, Luis Ortigosa, Francesc Palau, Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of developing CD. We included 127 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breastfeeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (low, intermediate or high genetic risk)...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672197/inflammasomes-make-the-case-for-littermate-controlled-experimental-design-in-studying-host-microbiota-interactions
#4
Michail Mamantopoulos, Francesca Ronchi, Kathy D McCoy, Andy Wullaert
Several human diseases are thought to evolve due to a combination of host genetic mutations and environmental factors that include alterations in intestinal microbiota composition termed dysbiosis. Although in some cases, host genetics may shape the gut microbiota and enable it to provoke disease, experimentally disentangling cause and consequence in such host-microbe interactions requires strict control over non-genetic confounding factors. Mouse genetic studies previously proposed Nlrp6/ASC inflammasomes as innate immunity regulators of the intestinal ecosystem...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#6
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617190/bile-acid-oxidation-by-eggerthella-lenta-strains-c592-and-dsm-2243-t
#7
Spencer C Harris, Saravanan Devendran, Celia Méndez-García, Sean M Mythen, Chris L Wright, Christopher J Fields, Alvaro G Hernandez, Isaac Cann, Phillip B Hylemon, Jason M Ridlon
Strains of Eggerthella lenta are capable of oxidation-reduction reactions capable of oxidizing and epimerizing bile acid hydroxyl groups. Several genes encoding these enzymes, known as hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) have yet to be identified. It is also uncertain whether the products of E. lenta bile acid metabolism are further metabolized by other members of the gut microbiota. We characterized a novel human fecal isolate identified as E. lenta strain C592. The complete genome of E. lenta strain C592 was sequenced and comparative genomics with the type strain (DSM 2243) revealed high conservation, but some notable differences...
April 4, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617178/recruitment-of-feces-donors-among-blood-donors-results-from-an-observational-cohort-study
#8
Simon Mark Dahl Jørgensen, Christian Erikstrup, Khoa Manh Dinh, Lars Erik Lemming, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Christian Lodberg Hvas
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire to rule out predisposing risk factors...
April 4, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584555/gut-microbiota-as-a-source-of-novel-antimicrobials
#9
Enriqueta Garcia-Gutierrez, Melinda J Mayer, Paul D Cotter, Arjan Narbad
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya and viruses coexist in the human gut, and this coexistence is functionally balanced by symbiotic or antagonistic relationships. Antagonism is often characterized by the production of antimicrobials against other organisms occupying the same environmental niche. Indeed, close co-evolution in the gut has led to the development of specialized antimicrobials, which is attracting increased attention as these may serve as novel alternatives to antibiotics and thereby help to address the global problem of antimicrobial resistance...
March 27, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561196/modulation-of-colonic-hydrogen-sulfide-production-by-diet-and-mesalazine-utilizing-a-novel-gas-profiling-technology
#10
Chu K Yao, Asaf Rotbart, Jian Z Ou, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from gut microbial metabolism may have clinically important relevance in the pathogenesis of gut disorders, including ulcerative colitis. However, little is known regarding factors that alter its production. Using a newly-designed in vitro gas-profiling technology, the study aimed to verify real-time H2 S measurement reproducibility and thereafter, assess its production following exposure to dietary factors and 5-aminosalicylate acid (5-ASA). Measurements of H2 S, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measurements were compared between gas-profiling systems...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431583/gut-microbiota-modify-risk-for-dietary-glycemia-induced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Sheldon Rowan, Allen Taylor
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness world-wide. Although the etiology of AMD is multifactorial, diet and nutrition have strong epidemiologic associations with disease onset and progression. Recent studies indicate a role for gut microbiota in development of AMD in mouse models and in some forms of human AMD. We previously found that consuming lower glycemia diets is associated with protection against AMD in humans and switching from higher to lower glycemia diets arrests AMD phenotypes in mice...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543557/the-role-of-inflammation-in-temporal-shifts-in-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-mucosal-microbiome
#12
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543554/commensal-regulation-of-t-cell-survival-through-erdr1
#13
Allison M Weis, Raymond Soto, June L Round
The commensal microbiota influences many aspects of immune system regulation, including T cells, but molecular details of how this occurs are largely unknown. Here we review our findings that the microbiota regulates Erdr1, a secreted apoptotic factor, to control T cell survival. Erdr1 is highly upregulated in CD4+ T cells from germfree mice and antibiotic treated animals, and our study shows that Erdr1 is suppressed by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor signaling and MyD88 dependent pathways. Erdr1 functions in an autocrine fashion and promotes apoptosis through the FAS/FASL pathway...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543545/systematic-review-gut-microbiota-in-fecal-samples-and-detection-of-colorectal-neoplasms
#14
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543544/abundant-production-of-exopolysaccharide-by-eaec-strains-enhances-the-formation-of-bacterial-biofilms-in-contaminated-sprouts
#15
Quintin Borgersen, David T Bolick, Glynis L Kolling, Matthew Aijuka, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Richard L Guerrant, James P Nataro, Araceli E Santiago
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) is associated with food-borne outbreaks of diarrhea and growth faltering among children in developing countries. A Shiga toxin-producing EAEC strain of serotype O104:H4 strain caused one of the largest outbreaks of a food-borne infection in Europe in 2011. The outbreak was traced to contaminated fenugreek sprouts, yet the mechanisms whereby such persistent contamination of sprouts could have occurred are not clear. We found that under ambient conditions of temperature and in minimal media, pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing EAEC O104:H4 227-11 and non-Shiga toxin-producing 042 strains both produce high levels of exopolysaccharide structures (EPS) that are released to the external milieu...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533703/fut2-genotype-and-secretory-status-are-not-associated-with-fecal-microbial-composition-and-inferred-function-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Williams Turpin, Larbi Bedrani, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Wei Xu, Mark S Silverberg, Michelle I Smith, David S Guttman, Anne Griffiths, Paul Moayyedi, Remo Panaccione, Hien Huynh, Hillary Steinhart, Guy Aumais, Konstantin Shestopaloff, Levinus A Dieleman, Dan Turner, Andrew D Paterson, Kenneth Croitoru
Heritability analysis of the microbiota has demonstrated the importance of host genotype in defining the human microbiota. The alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase 2 encoded by FUT2 is involved in the formation of the H antigen and the SNP, rs601338 is associated with ABO histo-blood group antigen secretion in the intestinal mucosa. Previous studies have provided non replicated results for the association of this polymorphism with the composition and inferred function of intestinal microbiota. We aimed to assess this relationship in a large cohort of 1,190 healthy individuals...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533126/the-role-of-zinc-and-nutritional-immunity-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Joseph P Zackular, Eric P Skaar
Clostridium difficile in one of the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Beyond antibiotic use, little is known about the host, microbiota, and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility to and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). We recently observed that in a mouse model of CDI, excess dietary zinc (Zn) alters the gut microbiota and decreases resistance to CDI. Moreover, we determined that high levels of Zn exacerbate C. difficile-associated disease and calprotectin-mediated Zn limitation is an essential host response to infection...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533125/bacterial-growth-flow-and-mixing-shape-human-gut-microbiota-density-and-composition
#18
Markus Arnoldini, Jonas Cremer, Terence Hwa
The human gut microbiota is highly dynamic, and host physiology and diet exert major influences on its composition. In our recent study, we integrated new quantitative measurements on bacterial growth physiology with a reanalysis of published data on human physiology to build a comprehensive modeling framework. This can generate predictions of how changes in different host factors influence microbiota composition. For instance, hydrodynamic forces in the colon, along with colonic water absorption that manifests as transit time, exert a major impact on microbiota density and composition...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517960/a-bacteriophage-cocktail-targeting-escherichia-coli-reduces-e-coli-in-simulated-gut-conditions-while-preserving-a-non-targeted-representative-commensal-normal-microbiota
#19
Tomasz Cieplak, Nitzan Soffer, Alexander Sulakvelidze, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Antibiotics offer an efficient means for managing diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. However, antibiotics are typically broad spectrum and they can indiscriminately kill beneficial microbes in body habitats such as the gut, deleteriously affecting the commensal gut microbiota. In addition, many bacteria have developed or are developing resistance to antibiotics, which complicates treatment and creates significant challenges in clinical medicine. Therefore, there is a real and urgent medical need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches that will kill specific problem-causing bacteria without disturbing a normal, and often beneficial, gut microbiota...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517944/concurrent-gut-transcriptome-and-microbiota-profiling-following-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-nonhuman-primates
#20
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
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