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Gut Microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409105/lactobacillus-plantarum-bacteriocin-is-associated-with-intestinal-and-systemic-improvements-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-maintains-epithelial-barrier-integrity-in-vitro
#1
Dustin D Heeney, Zhengyuan Zhai, Zach Bendiks, Javad Barouei, Alice Martinic, Carolyn Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated the Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin plantaricin EF (PlnEF) system for its contributions to L. plantarum mediated benefits in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were administered a rifampicin resistant mutant of L. plantarum NCMIB8826 (NICMB8826-R) or an isogenic ΔplnEFI mutant strain, LM0419, every 48 h for nine weeks. Mice fed wild-type L. plantarum, but not LM0419, reduced their consumption of the HFD starting three weeks into the study and exhibited an overall 10% reduction in weight gain...
November 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404568/initial-microbial-community-of-the-neonatal-stomach-immediately-after-birth
#2
Sarah Bajorek, Leslie Parker, Nan Li, Kathryn Winglee, Michael Weaver, James Johnson, Michael Sioda, Josee Gauthier, Dominick J Lemas, Christian Jobin, Graciela Lorca, Josef Neu, Anthony A Fodor
The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional cohort pilot study is to explore the initial microbial community of gastric aspirate fluid as collected immediately after birth and its relationships with mode of delivery and preterm birth. Twenty-nine gastric aspirate samples collected immediately after birth from infants born between 24-40 weeks gestation were analyzed for microbial composition. Total microbial content was low in many samples, with a substantial number sharing taxonomic composition with negative controls...
November 7, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395776/inulin-type-fructans-improve-active-ulcerative-colitis-associated-with-microbiota-changes-and-increased-short-chain-fatty-acids-levels
#3
Rosica Valcheva, Petya Koleva, Inés Martínez, Jens Walter, Michael G Gänzle, Levinus A Dieleman
The intestinal microbiota is involved in ulcerative colitis (UC) pathogenesis. Prebiotics are hypothesized to improve health through alterations to gut microbiota composition and/or activity. Our aim was therefore to determine if inulin-type fructans induce clinical benefits in UC, and identify if benefits are linked to compositional and/or functional shifts of the luminal (fecal) and mucosal (biopsy) bacterial communities. Patients (n = 25) with mild/moderately active UC received 7.5 g (n = 12) or 15 g (n = 13) daily oral oligofructose-enriched inulin (Orafti®Synergy1) for 9 weeks...
November 5, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376392/balance-of-saccharolysis-and-proteolysis-underpins-improvements-in-stool-quality-induced-by-adding-a-fiber-bundle-containing-bound-polyphenols-to-either-hydrolyzed-meat-or-grain-rich-foods
#4
Matthew I Jackson, Dennis E Jewell
Dietary fiber is a key component in gastrointestinal health maintenance partly due to its fermentation by the gut microbiome. The food-dependent effects of a novel fiber bundle added to hydrolyzed meat (HM) or grain-rich (GR) foods in healthy dogs (n = 16) or those with chronic enteritis/gastroenteritis (n = 16) were examined. Addition of fiber to either food improved stool quality in dogs regardless of health status; microbiome diversity of dogs with chronic enteritis/gastroenteritis became more similar to healthy dogs...
October 30, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373468/analysis-of-1135-gut-metagenomes-identifies-sex-specific-resistome-profiles
#5
Trishla Sinha, Arnau Vich Vila, Sanzhima Garmaeva, Soesma A Jankipersadsing, Floris Imhann, Valerie Collij, Marc Jan Bonder, Xiaofang Jiang, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Mauro D'Amato, Rinse K Weersma, Sicco Scherjon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jingyuan Fu, Alexander Kurilshikov, Alexandra Zhernakova
Several gastrointestinal diseases show a sex imbalance, although the underlying (patho)physiological mechanisms behind this are not well understood. The gut microbiome may be involved in this process, forming a complex interaction with host immune system, sex hormones, medication and other environmental factors. Here we performed sex-specific analyses of fecal microbiota composition in 1135 individuals from a population-based cohort. The overall gut microbiome composition of females and males was significantly different (p = 0...
October 29, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359553/modelling-the-role-of-microbial-p-cresol-in-colorectal-genotoxicity
#6
Eiman Abdulla Al Hinai, Piyarach Kullamethee, Ian R Rowland, Jonathan Swann, Gemma E Walton, Daniel M Commane
BACKGROUND: A greater understanding of mechanisms explaining the interactions between diet and the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer is desirable. Genotoxic microbial metabolites present in the colon may be implicated in carcinogenesis and potentially influenced by diet. AIMS: We hypothesised that microbial p-cresol is a colonic genotoxin and set out to model potential exposures in the colon and the effects of these exposures on colonic cells. METHODS: Batch culture fermentations with human faecal inoculate were used to determine the synthesis of p-cresol and other metabolites in response to various substrates...
October 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359203/opportunistic-bacteria-confer-the-ability-to-ferment-prebiotic-starch-in-the-adult-cystic-fibrosis-gut
#7
Yanan Wang, Lex E X Leong, Rebecca L Keating, Tokuwa Kanno, Guy C J Abell, Fredrick M Mobegi, Jocelyn M Choo, Steve L Wesselingh, A James Mason, Lucy D Burr, Geraint B Rogers
Chronic disruption of the intestinal microbiota in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is associated with local and systemic inflammation, and has been linked to the risk of serious comorbidities. Supplementation with high amylose maize starch (HAMS) might provide clinical benefit by promoting commensal bacteria and the biosynthesis of immunomodulatory metabolites. However, whether the disrupted CF gut microbiota has the capacity to utilise these substrates is not known. We combined metagenomic sequencing, in vitro fermentation, amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics to define the characteristics of the faecal microbiota in adult CF patients and assess HAMS fermentation capacity...
October 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339501/the-intimate-relationship-between-gut-microbiota-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Arielle Elkrief, Lisa Derosa, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Bertrand Routy
Immunotherapy is widely used to treat a large variety of malignancies and has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to cancer. Major efforts are ongoing to identify biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy as well as new strategies to improve ICI efficacy and clinical outcomes. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome determines the extent to which ICIs may invigorate the anticancer immune response. Here, the authors review recent studies that have described the effects of the gut microbiota on the efficacy of CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors and outline potential future clinical directions of these findings...
October 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289345/the-authors-reply
#9
Erik C von Rosenvinge, Francis Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Virginia Rowthorn, Diane Hoffmann
This is a reply to the commentary of Ossorio and Zhou.
October 5, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289342/detection-of-mixed-strain-infections-by-facs-and-ultra-low-input-genome-sequencing
#10
Mária Džunková, Andrés Moya, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran Kelly, Giuseppe D'Auria
The epidemiological tracking of a bacterial outbreak may be jeopardized by the presence of multiple pathogenic strains in one patient. Nevertheless, this fact is not considered in most of the epidemiological studies and only one colony per patient is sequenced. On the other hand, the routine whole genome sequencing of many isolates from each patient would be costly and unnecessary, because the number of strains in a patient is never known a priori. In addition, the result would be biased by microbial culture conditions...
October 5, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252612/impact-of-early-life-events-on-the-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-colonisation-and-infection-in-the-offspring-of-the-pig
#11
Łukasz M Grześkowiak, Robert Pieper, Hong A Huynh, Simon M Cutting, Wilfried Vahjen, Jürgen Zentek
Clostridium difficile has been documented as a major cause of uncontrolled outbreaks of enteritis in neonatal pigs and antibiotic-associated infections in clinical settings. It belongs to the natural cohort of early colonisers of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs and can be detected in faeces up to two weeks post-partum. In older pigs, it often remains under the detection limit. Most neonatal pigs show no clinical signs of disease although C. difficile and its toxins can be detected at high levels in faeces...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252606/dietary-destabilisation-of-the-balance-between-the-microbiota-and-the-colonic-mucus-barrier
#12
George Birchenough, Bjoern O Schroeder, Fredrik Bäckhed, Gunnar C Hansson
It has long been acknowledged that dietary fibres are important to maintain a healthy gut. Over the past decade, several studies have shown that loss of complex polysaccharides from the Western diet has resulted in alterations to our colonic microbiota. The concurrent increase in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the Western world has driven us to explore the potential mechanistic link between diet, the microbiota and the host defence systems that normally prevent inflammation. Using mice fed a low fibre Western-style diet and robust live tissue analytical methods we have now provided evidence that this diet impairs the colonic inner mucus layer that normally separates bacteria from host cells...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252590/motility-and-biofilm-formation-of-the-emerging-gastrointestinal-pathogen-campylobacter-concisus-differs-under-microaerophilic-and-anaerobic-environments
#13
Sandra Ovesen, Juliana Durack, Karina Frahm Kirk, Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Susan V Lynch
Campylobacter concisus has been isolated from patients with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as healthy subjects. While strain differences may plausibly explain virulence differentials, an alternative hypothesis posits that the pathogenic potential of this species may depend on altered ecosystem conditions in the inflamed gut. One potential difference is oxygen availability, which is frequently increased under conditions of inflammation and is known to regulate bacterial virulence...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252588/akkermansia-muciniphila-strain-atcc-baa-835-does-not-promote-short-term-intestinal-inflammation-in-gnotobiotic-interleukin-10-deficient-mice
#14
Christiane Ring, Robert Klopfleisch, Katja Dahlke, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Michael Blaut
Akkermansia muciniphila is a common member of the intestinal microbiota of healthy human individuals. Its abundance is negatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic disorders and the oral administration of A. muciniphila improves the symptoms of metabolic disease in mice. Therefore, A. muciniphila is a promising candidate for the treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity. However, some studies using animal models of intestinal inflammation reported that A. muciniphila may exacerbate gut inflammation...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252582/metagenomic-analysis-of-intestinal-mucosa-revealed-a-specific-eukaryotic-gut-virome-signature-in-early-diagnosed-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Federica Ungaro, Luca Massimino, Federica Furfaro, Valeria Rimoldi, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvia D'Alessio, Silvio Danese
Intestinal dysbiosis is one of the causes underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Besides bacteria, microbiota comprises both prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, that together compose the gut virome. Few works have defined the viral composition of stools, while the virome populating intestinal mucosae from early-diagnosed IBD patients has never been studied. Here we show that, by in-depth metagenomic analysis of RNA-Seq data obtained from gut mucosae of young treatment-naïve patients, early-diagnosed for CD and UC, and from healthy subjects (Ctrl), UC patients display significantly higher levels of eukaryotic Hepadnaviridae transcripts by comparison with both Ctrl and CD patients, whereas CD patients show increased abundance of Hepeviridae versus Ctrl...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252579/learning-from-the-research-on-amebiasis-and-gut-microbiome-is-stimulation-by-gut-flora-essential-for-effective-neutrophil-mediated-protection-from-external-pathogens
#16
Koji Watanabe, William A Petri
Amebiasis, caused by intestinal infection with Entamoeba histolytica, is one of the leading causes of parasite infection-related mortality and morbidity globally. Although its pathogenesis, including determinant factors of infection outcome, remains unclear, recent clinical data indicate that the gut microbiome plays a role in determining the severity of amebiasis. Recently, we investigated the effects of the gut microbiome on neutrophil mediated protection from E. histolytica infection using a mouse model...
September 25, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212271/regulating-stool-for-microbiota-transplantation
#17
Pilar N Ossorio, Yao Zhou
In 2017 Gut Microbes published "A proposed definition of microbiota transplantation for regulatory purposes," in which the authors suggest that regulators should draw a line between microbiota transplants and biologic drugs composed of microbial communities (or other products derived from the human microbiome). They develop a definition of microbiota transplantation (MT) to help regulators draw such a line, and suggest that MT need not be, and cannot be, regulated as a biologic drug (a live biotherapeutic product)...
September 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207838/the-rumen-microbiome-a-crucial-consideration-when-optimising-milk-and-meat-production-and-nitrogen-utilisation-efficiency
#18
Chloe Matthews, Fiona Crispie, Eva Lewis, Michael Reid, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter
Methane is generated in the foregut of all ruminant animals by the microorganisms present. Dietary manipulation is regarded as the most effective and most convenient way to reduce methane emissions (and in turn energy loss in the animal) and increase nitrogen utilization efficiency. This review examines the impact of diet on bovine rumen function and outlines what is known about the rumen microbiome. Our understanding of this area has increased significantly in recent years due to the application of omics technologies to determine microbial composition and functionality patterns in the rumen...
September 12, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183504/epithelial-maturity-influences-epec-induced-desmosomal-alterations
#19
Jennifer Lising Roxas, Gayatri Vedantam, V K Viswanathan
Desmosomes are junctional protein complexes that confer strong adhesive capacity to adjacent host cells. In a recent study, we showed that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) disrupts desmosomes, weakens cell-cell adhesion and perturbs barrier function of intestinal epithelial (C2BBe ) cells. Desmosomal damage was dependent on the EPEC effector protein EspH and its inhibitory effect on Rho GTPases. EspH-mediated Rho inactivation resulted in retraction of keratin intermediate filaments and degradation of desmosomal cadherins...
September 5, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183502/bugs-in-the-system-bringing-the-human-microbiome-to-bear-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Christopher Strouse, Ashutosh Mangalam, Jun Zhang
The influence of the composition of the human microbiome on the efficacy of cancer directed immunotherapies, such as antibodies directed against the programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1), has garnered increasing attention as the role of immunotherapies in the care of cancer has grown. Dysbiosis (altered microbiota) has recently been reported to adversely affect the efficacy of cancer directed immunotherapies, and correction of this dysbiosis has the potential to improve the efficacy of these treatments...
September 5, 2018: Gut Microbes
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