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Gut Microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727498/new-perspectives-regarding-the-antiviral-effect-of-vitamin-a-on-norovirus-using-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#1
Heetae Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Gut microbiota has been revealed to play an important role in various health conditions, and recent studies have suggested the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. There is no effective treatment for norovirus infection, though vitamin A has been suggested to have an antiviral effect in an epidemiological study. We demonstrated that vitamin A significantly inhibited murine norovirus replication. Vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus sp. during norovirus infection, which played a crucial role in antiviral efficacy, inhibiting murine norovirus...
July 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723262/the-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-flares-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Taha Qazi, Thelina Amaratunga, Edward L Barnes, Monika Fischer, Zain Kassam, Jessica R Allegretti
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested worsening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) Aim: We aimed to assess the risk of worsening in IBD activity following FMT. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946-June 2016), EMBASE (1954-June 2016) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016). Studies in which FMT was provided to IBD patients for IBD management or CDI treatment were included...
July 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696139/gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-players-involved-and-the-roles-they-play
#4
Shailesh K Shahi, Samantha N Freedman, Ashutosh K Mangalam
The human gut contains trillions of bacteria (microbiome) that play a major role in maintaining a healthy state for the host. Perturbation of this healthy gut microbiome might be an important environmental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Others and we have recently reported that MS patients have gut microbial dysbiosis (altered microbiota) with the depletion of some and enrichment of other bacteria. However, the significance of gut bacteria that show lower or higher abundance in MS is unclear...
July 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686482/outer-membrane-vesicles-blebbing-contributes-to-b-vulgatus-mpk-mediated-immune-response-silencing
#5
Jan Kevin Maerz, Alex Steimle, Anna Lange, Annika Bender, Birgit Fehrenbacher, Julia-Stefanie Frick
The Gram negative intestinal symbiont Bacteroides vulgatus mpk is able to prevent from induction of colonic inflammation in Rag1(-/-) mice and promotes immune balance in Il2(-/-) mice. These inflammation-silencing effects are associated with B. vulgatus mpk-mediated induction of semi-mature dendritic cells, especially in the colonic lamina propria (cLP). However the beneficial interaction of bacteria with host immune cells is limited due to the existence of a large mucus layer covering the intestinal epithelium...
July 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678609/randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-multi-strain-probiotic-on-the-mucosal-microbiota-in-canine-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E Jergens
The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic...
July 5, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640714/an-unexplored-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-in-stroke
#7
Shu Wen Wen, Connie H Y Wong
Microbiota research, in particular that of the gut, has recently gained much attention in medical research owing to technological advances in metagenomics and metabolomics. Despite this, much of the research direction has focused on long-term or chronic effects of microbiota manipulation on health and disease. In this addendum, we reflect on our recent publication that reported findings addressing a rather unconventional hypothesis. Bacterial pneumonia is highly prevalent and is one of the leading contributors to stroke morbidity and mortality worldwide...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640662/using-probiotics-in-clinical-practice-where-are-we-now-a-review-of-existing-meta-analyses
#8
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gabriella Peroni, Anna Maria Castellazzi
The scientific literature has demonstrated that probiotics have a broad spectrum of activity, although often the results are contradictory. This study provides a critical overview of the current meta-analyses that have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in physiologic and pathological conditions, such as metabolic disease, antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, IBS, constipation, IBD, chemotherapy-associated diarrhea, respiratory tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, NAFLD, liver encephalopathy, periodontitis, depression, vaginosis, urinary tract infections, pancreatitis, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital infection and stay in ICU, mortality of post-trauma patients, necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#9
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often performed within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-surgical complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated fecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598765/shigella-depends-on-sepa-to-destabilize-the-intestinal-epithelial-integrity-via-cofilin-activation
#10
Ana Maldonado-Contreras, James R Birtley, Erik Boll, Yun Zhao, Karen L Mumy, Juan Toscano, Seyoum Ayehunie, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Lawrence J Stern, Beth A McCormick
Shigella is unique among enteric pathogens, as it invades colonic epithelia through the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier to deploy an arsenal of effector proteins, which permits bacterial invasion and leads to a severe inflammatory response. However, the mechanisms used by Shigella to regulate epithelial barrier permeability remain unknown. To address this question, we used both an intestinal polarized model and a human ex-vivo model to further characterize the early events of host-bacteria interactions...
June 9, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586297/fecal-microbiota-variation-across-the-lifespan-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-healthy%C3%A2-laboratory-rat
#11
Burkhardt Flemer, Nadia Gaci, Guillaume Borrel, Ian R Sanderson, Prem P Chaudhary, William Tottey, Paul W O'Toole, Jean-François Brugere
Laboratory rats are commonly used in life science research as a model for human biology and disease, but the composition and development of their gut microbiota during life is poorly understood. We determined the faecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 years of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. Additionally, we determined faecal short-chain fatty acid profiles, and we compared the rat faecal microbiota with that of mice and humans...
June 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586253/characterization-of-recombinant-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-rtbgtctp-and-its-interaction-with-glossina-midgut-bacteria
#12
Géraldine Bossard, Manon Bartoli, Marie-Laure Fardeau, Philippe Hozmuller, Bernard Ollivier, Anne Geiger
In humans, sleeping sickness (i.e. Human African Trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) in West and Central Africa, and T. b. rhodesiense in East Africa. We previously showed in vitro that Tbg is able to excrete/secrete a large number of proteins, including Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP). Moreover, the tctp gene was previously described to be expressed in Tbg-infected flies. Aside from its involvement in diverse cellular processes, we have investigated a possible alternative role within the interactions occurring between the trypanosome parasite, its tsetse fly vector, and the associated midgut bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541767/gas-filled-microbubbles-novel-mucosal-antigen-delivery-system-for-induction-of-anti-pathogen-s-immune-responses-in-the-gut
#14
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Despite important success in protecting individuals against many pathogenic infections, parenteral vaccination is not optimal to induce immunity at the site of pathogen entry, i.e. mucosal surfaces. Moreover, designing adequate delivery systems and safe adjuvants to overcome the inherent tolerogenic environment of the mucosal tissue is challenging, in particular in the gastrointestinal tract prone to antigen degradation. We recently demonstrated that intranasal administration of a Salmonella-derived antigen associated with gas-filled microbubbles induced specific Ab and T cell responses in the gut and was associated with a reduction in local and systemic bacterial load after oral Salmonella infection...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#15
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#16
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394706/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-early-steps-on-a-long-journey-ahead
#18
Alexander Khoruts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318396/a-proposed-definition-of-microbiota-transplantation-for-regulatory-purposes
#19
Diane E Hoffmann, Francis B Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Virginia Rowthorn, Erik von Rosenvinge
The advent of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the prospect of other types of microbiota transplants (MT), e.g. vaginal, skin, oral and nasal, are challenging regulatory agencies. Although FDA is regulating FMT (as a biologic), there is currently no widely accepted or agreed upon scientific or legal definition of FMT or MT. The authors report on discussions regarding a definition of MT that took place among a working group of stakeholders convened under a National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases grant to address the regulation of MT...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282270/community-dynamics-drive-punctuated-engraftment-of-the-fecal-microbiome-following-transplantation-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota
#20
Christopher Staley, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew J Hamilton, Dan Yao, Chi Chen, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
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