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Gut Microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#1
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418756/cultured-microbes-represent-a-substantial-fraction-of-the-human-and-mouse-gut-microbiota
#2
Ilias Lagkouvardos, Jörg Overmann, Thomas Clavel
During the last 15 years, molecular techniques have been preferred over culture-based approaches for the study of mammalian gut microbiota, i.e. the communities of microorganisms dwelling in the intestine of mammals. The main reason is the belief that the majority of gut bacteria, especially strict anaerobes, escape cultivation. Despite numerous such statements in publications, the literature does not provide a clear overview on the subject. In the present manuscript, we highlight recent work on the cultivation of bacteria from the intestine of mammals, review the literature and provide novel data pertaining to cultured fractions of mammalian gut microbiota...
April 18, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394706/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-early-steps-on-a-long-journey-ahead
#3
Alexander Khoruts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384049/intestinal-iga-as-a-modulator-of-the-gut-microbiota
#4
Shinsaku Okai, Fumihito Usui, Misa Ohta, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Satoshi Matsumoto, Tamotsu Kato, Eiji Miyauchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Reiko Shinkura
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as extra-intestinal disorders. As a modulator of the intestinal microbiota, we isolated a mouse monoclonal IgA antibody (clone W27) with high affinities for multiple commensal bacteria, but not for beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei). Via specific recognition of an epitope in serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a bacterial metabolic enzyme, W27 IgA selectively inhibited the in vitro growth of bound bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E...
April 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318396/a-proposed-definition-of-microbiota-transplantation-for-regulatory-purposes
#5
Diane E Hoffmann, Francis B Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Virginia Rowthorn, Erik von Rosenvinge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#6
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296565/maternal-microbiota-and-antibodies-as-advocates-of-neonatal-health
#7
Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Tobias Fuhrer, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero
Mammalian body surfaces are inhabited by vast numbers of microbes, the commensal microbiota, which help the host to digest food, provide nutrients, and mature its immune system. For a long time, postnatal colonization was believed to be the main stimulus for microbial-induced immune development. Using a model of reversible colonization of germ-free mice during gestation, we recently showed that the microbial shaping of the neonatal immune system begins even before birth through molecular signals derived from the microbiota of the mother...
March 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332901/regulation-of-humoral-immunity-by-gut-microbial-products
#8
Myunghoo Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal tract provides ideal niches for several different microbial species, which are collectively called the gut microbiota. A key host immune effector that controls the microbiota and prevents mucosal infection is IgA. Gut microbiota-derived factors are largely classified into molecular pattern recognition receptor ligands and nutrient-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and adenosine triphosphate. Along with host-derived factors such as retinoic acid, various cytokines and cytokine-like molecules, gut microbial products profoundly shape B cell responses...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282270/community-dynamics-drive-punctuated-engraftment-of-the-fecal-microbiome-following-transplantation-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota
#9
Christopher Staley, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew J Hamilton, Dan Yao, Chi Chen, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#10
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165863/dietary-fiber-and-prebiotics-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#11
Hannah D Holscher
The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the microbial communities that colonize the gastrointestinal tract to improve health, and prevent or treat disease. One dietary strategy for modulating the microbiota is consumption of dietary fiber and prebiotics that can be metabolized by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Human alimentary enzymes are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates and plant polysaccharides...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068209/the-role-of-early-life-nutrition-in-the-establishment-of-gastrointestinal-microbial-composition-and-function
#12
Erin C Davis, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan
The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#13
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960648/linking-dietary-patterns-with-gut-microbial-composition-and-function
#14
Amy M Sheflin, Christopher L Melby, Franck Carbonero, Tiffany L Weir
Emerging insights have implicated the gut microbiota as an important factor in the maintenance of human health. Although nutrition research has focused on how direct interactions between dietary components and host systems influence human health, it is becoming increasingly important to consider nutrient effects on the gut microbiome for a more complete picture. Understanding nutrient-host-microbiome interactions promises to reveal novel mechanisms of disease etiology and progression, offers new disease prevention strategies and therapeutic possibilities, and may mandate alternative criteria to evaluate the safety of food ingredients...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918230/mechanisms-of-cross-talk-between-the-diet-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-the-undernourished-host
#15
Helene Velly, Robert A Britton, Geoffrey A Preidis
Undernutrition remains one of the most pressing global health challenges today, contributing to nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age. Although insufficient dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction are often inciting factors, evidence now suggests that unhealthy gut microbial populations perpetuate the vicious cycle of pathophysiology that results in persistent growth impairment in children. The metagenomics era has facilitated new research identifying an altered microbiome in undernourished hosts and has provided insight into a number of mechanisms by which these alterations may affect growth...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808595/nutrition-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-elderly
#16
Nuria Salazar, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
The gut microbiota is the assembly of microorganisms living in our intestine and their genomes are known as the microbiome. The correct composition and functionality of this microbiome is essential for maintaining a "healthy status." Aging is related to changes in the gut microbiota which are frequently associated with physiological modifications of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as, to changes in dietary patterns, together with a concomitant decline in cognitive and immune function, all together contributing to frailty...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#17
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156183/listeriolysin-s-a-bacteriocin-from-epidemic-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-that-targets-the-microbiota
#18
Juan-José Quereda, Jazmín Meza-Torres, Pascale Cossart, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive food-borne pathogen that in humans may traverse the intestinal, placental and blood/brain barriers, causing gastroenteritis, abortions and meningitis. Crossing of these barriers is dependent on the bacterial ability to enter host cells, and several L. monocytogenes surface and secreted virulence factors are known to facilitate entry and the intracellular lifecycle. The study of L. monocytogenes strains associated to human listeriosis epidemics has revealed the presence of novel virulence factors...
February 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129018/challenges-in-fecal-donor-selection-and-screening-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-review
#19
Michael H Woodworth, Cynthia Carpentieri, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Colleen S Kraft
Fecal microbiota transplantation is best understood as an effective and inexpensive therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection but fecal donor selection and screening should be periodically revised. Here, we review current recommendations for selection and screening of fecal donors for fecal microbiota transplantation. We recommend considering diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular events, and clinical healthcare exposure as fecal donor exclusion criteria until more is known about the association of these conditions with the human gut microbiome...
January 27, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129014/biochemical-basis-for-activation-of-virulence-genes-by-bile-salts-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#20
Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Bile salts act as a stressor to bacteria that transit the intestinal tract. Enteric pathogens have hijacked bile as an intestinal signal to regulate virulence factors. We recently demonstrated that Vibrio parahemolyticus senses bile salts via a heterodimeric receptor formed by the periplasmic domains of inner-membrane proteins VtrA and VtrC. Crystal structures of the periplasmic complex reveal that VtrA and VtrC form a β-barrel that binds bile salts in its hydrophobic interior to activate the VtrA cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain...
January 27, 2017: Gut Microbes
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