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Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics

Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Diabetes and obesity result from sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. Prevention of hyperglycemia contributes to inhibit the onset of these life-related diseases. Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. Among 24 samples obtained from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani, Cupriavidus sp...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Fuki Kurimoto, Satoko Hori, Yasufumi Sawada
Patients' experience of adverse reactions (ADR) and usability of drugs is important for proper use and post-marketing development of drugs, but it remains unclear whether and how patients are transmitting such information to others. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the ways in which bronchial asthma (BA) patients transmit experience of ADR to inhaled corticosteroids and usability of inhalers to others, including the reasons for these differences. A qualitative study involving focus-group interviews was conducted...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Seyda Ignak, Ozlem Unay Demirel, Sevda Soydan, Erkan Esen
We present Shewanella algea infection in a chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patient with cholesteatoma in terms of clinical course and treatment. This is the first time S. algea is found as solely pathogen in a CSOM patient without history of contact with seawater in Turkey. The patient admitted to the hospital several times with complaints of otorrhoea, was diagnosed as otitis media and treated. He was hospitalized to the otorhinolaryngology department for further evaluation of recurrent infections...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Rabih Tabet, Youssef Shammaa, Boutros Karam, Harout Yacoub, James Lafferty
Thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-known complications that can occur after prothrombin complex concentrate therapy. However, acute myocardial infarction is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication that was exclusively described in patients with bleeding disorders who received chronic and recurrent concentrate infusions. We report the case of a 70 year-old male patient with cholangiocarcinoma who was admitted to our hospital with worsening fatigue and weakness...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masashi Ohe, Haruki Shida, Tetsuya Horita, Ken Furuya, Satoshi Hashino
Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects including anti-inflammatory effects as well as antibacterial activity. In consideration of these immunomodulatory effects, we report a patient with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, followed by prednisolone (PSL). A 78-year-old man with thrombocytopenia was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Initial laboratory data showed reduced platelet counts (1.7 × 104 /μL). Finally, we diagnosed the patient as having primary ITP...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sudeshna Ghosh, Himanshu Narang, Pawan Goel, Prabhat Kumar, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Yuko Wada, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2 , and those of the generic products ranged from 42...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takahiro Fujii, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Takanori Ikeda
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Surachai Pikulkaew, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Siriporn Okonogi
The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yuuki Nakamura, Kenzo Takahashi, Marika Nomura, Miwako Kamei
Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
(no author information available yet)
It has come to the authors' attention that their article entitled "Anesthetic activity of plant essential oils on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp)" (Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. 2018; 12(1):21-30.) included an error in Table 2. The corrected Table 2 is printed below.
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Parul Kodan, Nitin Gupta, Ankita Baidya, Ayan Basu, Abdul Razik, Ankit Mittal, Nishant Verma, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Sandeep Mathur, Madhu Rajeshwari, Neeraj Nischal, Manish Soneja, Naveet Wig
Filariasis can present in many different ways and pose significant dilemma to the clinician. We report four atypical cases of filariasis which presented as abdominal mass, cervical lymph node enlargement, fever in pregnancy and nosocomial febrile illness respectively. All the four cases were treated successfully with oral antifilarial agents. It is essential to be aware of such atypical presentations of filariasis so that prompt therapy can be initiated.
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Motoari Takata, Yuko Wada, Yurika Iwasawa, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
The physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, a terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (a brand-name product), and 12 over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) were measured and compared to ascertain the characteristics of each product. The pH of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.1, and that of the OTC products ranged from 4.2 to 7.6; Lamisil Plus (7.6) had a significantly higher pH. Moreover, the yield value for Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 128 dyn/cm2 , and that for the OTC products ranged from 110 to 887 dyn/cm2 ...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Patrícia Lopes-Souza, Carla Fontoura Dionello, Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Eric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Renata Marques Marchon, Anke Bergmann, Trentham Furness, Mario Bernardo-Filho
The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in the management of cancer therapy-related morbidities. The PubMED and PEDro databases were used to access publications published in English about the use of whole body vibration (WBV) exercises in cancer patients until February 22nd 2017. The studies included were classified according to the level of evidence (LE) by the National Health and Medical Research Council Hierarchy of evidence and the methodological quality (MQ) by the PEDro scale...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Koichi Yabunaka, Gojiro Nakagami, Keiko Tabata, Junko Sugama, Masaru Matsumoto, Yoshifumi Kido, Terumi Iuchi, Hiromi Sanada
This study aims to assess the fecal retention in elderly patients using colonic ultrasonography (US) in Japanese long-term care facility and determine the correlation between nutrition management methods and the fecal retention by US. This cross-sectional, single-center study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Japan. Patients with chronic constipation fulfilled the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of functional constipation. US was performed on constipation patients with 4-day fecal retention before starting the standard management of constipation...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Siddhartha Kumar, Arvind Kumar, Manisha Kaushal, Prince Kumar, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay, Antresh Kumar
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen, responsible for superficial and invasive infections both in nosocomial and community-acquired settings. The incidences of infection have become more problematic attributable to emerging drug resistance and biofilm formation. These challenges suggest the need for new antimicrobial agents against S. aureus. In present work, we purified a fungal xenobiotic (FI3) which elicits a potent antimicrobial activity against a list of tested microbes including methicillin sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin resistance (MRSA) S...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Siriporn Okonogi, Adchareeya Kaewpinta, Taepin Junmahasathien, Songwut Yotsawimonwat
The effects of variety and modification of rice on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. White rice varieties; Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH), and pigmented rice varieties; Doisket (DS) and Homnil (HN) were used. The modified rice samples were obtained from chemical modification using etherification reaction. The activities of the modified rice samples were compared with the ethanol extracts of the raw rice at the same rice concentration. Antioxidant activity was measured by the free radical scavenging activity tests and ferric reducing power assay...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Rinrampai Puttipan, Sunee Chansakaow, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Siriporn Okonogi
From the previous findings, the ethanolic fractionated extract of Caesalpinia sappan (F-EtOH) has high activity against Streptococcus mutans, the most severe cariogenic bacteria. The present study was aimed to isolate and identify the active compound of F-EtOH and compare its inhibitory activity against the biofilm of S. mutans as well as the cytotoxicity to oral fibroblast cells with F-EtOH. Compound isolation was done by column chromatography. The active compound was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
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