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Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681564/shewanella-algae-in-a-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-patient-with-cholesteatoma
#1
Seyda Ignak, Ozlem Unay Demirel, Sevda Soydan, Erkan Esen
We present Shewanella algea infection in a chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patient with cholesteatoma in terms of clinical course and treatment. This is the first time S. algea is found as solely pathogen in a CSOM patient without history of contact with seawater in Turkey. The patient admitted to the hospital several times with complaints of otorrhoea, was diagnosed as otitis media and treated. He was hospitalized to the otorhinolaryngology department for further evaluation of recurrent infections...
April 23, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681563/prothrombin-complex-concentrate-and-fatal-thrombotic-adverse-events-a-complication-to-keep-in-mind
#2
Rabih Tabet, Youssef Shammaa, Boutros Karam, Harout Yacoub, James Lafferty
Thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-known complications that can occur after prothrombin complex concentrate therapy. However, acute myocardial infarction is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication that was exclusively described in patients with bleeding disorders who received chronic and recurrent concentrate infusions. We report the case of a 70 year-old male patient with cholangiocarcinoma who was admitted to our hospital with worsening fatigue and weakness...
April 23, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681562/successful-treatment-of-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-accompanied-by-diabetes-mellitus-treated-using-clarithromycin-followed-by-prednisolone
#3
Masashi Ohe, Haruki Shida, Tetsuya Horita, Ken Furuya, Satoshi Hashino
Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects including anti-inflammatory effects as well as antibacterial activity. In consideration of these immunomodulatory effects, we report a patient with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, followed by prednisolone (PSL). A 78-year-old man with thrombocytopenia was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Initial laboratory data showed reduced platelet counts (1.7 × 104 /μL). Finally, we diagnosed the patient as having primary ITP...
April 23, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681580/cancer-incidence-and-mortality-patterns-in-luwan-district-of-shanghai-during-2002-2011
#4
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
April 22, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669956/nosocomial-pneumonia-search-for-an-empiric-and-effective-antibiotic-regimen-in-high-burden-tertiary-care-centre
#5
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
April 17, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479049/atypical-presentation-of-pyogenic-iliopsoas-abscess-in-two-cases
#6
Sudeshna Ghosh, Himanshu Narang, Pawan Goel, Prabhat Kumar, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.
February 25, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479048/generic-selection-criteria-for-safety-and-patient-benefit-vii-comparing-the-physicochemical-and-pharmaceutical-properties-of-brand-name-and-generic-terbinafine-hydrochloride-cream
#7
Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Yuko Wada, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2 , and those of the generic products ranged from 42...
February 25, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479047/long-term-use-of-ipragliflozin-improved-cardiac-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-a-patient-with-heart-failure-a-case-report
#8
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takahiro Fujii, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Takanori Ikeda
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed...
February 25, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479046/anesthetic-activity-of-plant-essential-oils-on-cyprinus-carpio-koi-carp
#9
Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Surachai Pikulkaew, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Siriporn Okonogi
The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169...
February 25, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479045/welfare-analysis-of-a-zero-smoking-policy-a-case-study-in-japan
#10
Yuuki Nakamura, Kenzo Takahashi, Marika Nomura, Miwako Kamei
Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable...
February 25, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553084/construction-of-a-simple-evaluation-system-for-the-intestinal-absorption-of-an-orally-administered-medicine-using-bombyx-mori-larvae
#11
Fumika Ichino, Hidemasa Bono, Takeru Nakazato, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Ryoichi Sato, Hiroko Tabunoki
Human intestinal absorption is estimated using a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cells from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, intestinal perfusion, or a mammalian model. These current evaluation systems are limited in their ability to estimate human intestinal absorption. In addition, in vivo evaluation systems using laboratory animals such as mice and rats entail animal ethics problems, and it is difficult to screen compounds on a large scale at the drug discovery stage. Thus, we propose the use of Bombyx mori larvae for evaluation of intestinal absorption of compounds as an alternative system in this study...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553083/first-things-first-importance-of-eosinophil-count-in-diagnosing-occult-parasites
#12
Nitin Gupta, Animesh Ray, Sudeshna Ghosh, Sundeep Malla, Surabhi Vyas
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a rare allergic manifestation to the filarial nematode. A 38-year old male and a 15-year old female presented with cough and breathlessness. Their complete blood count showed eosinophilia. This finding was overshadowed by the radiological findings suggestive of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TPE was confirmed by filarial antigen detection test and both the patients were successfully treated with diethylcarbamazine. TPE presents with cough and breathlessness and can be often confused with tuberculosis, especially in endemic settings...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553082/assessment-of-rectal-feces-storage-condition-by-a-point-of-care-pocket-size-ultrasound-device-for-healthy-adult-subjects-a-preliminary-study
#13
Koichi Yabunaka, Masaru Matsumoto, Mikako Yoshida, Shiho Tanaka, Yuka Miura, Takuya Tsutaoka, Mayumi Handa, Gojiro Nakagami, Junko Sugama, Shingo Okada, Hiromi Sanada
The aim of this study was to assess rectal feces storage condition by a pocket-size ultrasonography (PUS) in healthy adults so as to define normal rectal defecation desire. Participants were first assessed rectum by PUS imaging immediately after defecation desire (pre-defecation). Nurses checked the amount and quality of the participants' feces using King's Stool Chart and Bristol stool scale. Finally, PUS was performed for defecation with no defecation desire (post-defecation). Pre-defecation PUS detected high echo area in all patients...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553081/efficacy-of-anesthetic-rice-nanogel-on-pain-reduction-in-human-oral-cavity
#14
Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Thanapat Sastraruji, Srikanjana Klayraung, Siriporn Okonogi
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of two local anesthetic rice nanogels (RNG) on pain reduction from needle insertion in oral cavity. Nanogel base was prepared using modified rice as gelling agent. The average particle size of RNG determined by photon correlation spectrophotometer was 485 ± 70 nm. Lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and prilocaine hydrochloride (PH) were incorporated into RNG to obtain anesthetic RNG containing 5% and 20% LH or PH. Clinical efficacy test of each gel was performed in oral cavity of 100 healthy volunteers (25-60 years old)...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553080/china-s-achievements-and-challenges-in-improving-health-insurance-coverage
#15
Cuirong Zhao, Chao Wang, Chengwu Shen, Qian Wang
China has undertaken waves of healthcare reforms to keep pace with its rapid economic growth. By 2011, universal health insurance coverage was successfully achieved through the creation of a basic social medical insurance system. Growing economic power, extensive government subsidies, and strategies for program implementation are critical to that achievement. However, the breadth and depth of coverage varies considerably across insurance schemes and localities. The disjointed insurance scheme led to inequality in coverage, accessibility, and affordability of medical services, lopsided allocation of health resources, and increasing medical expenditures, and these remain crucial challenges for healthcare insurance coverage...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081455/evaluation-of-the-innate-immune-stimulating-activity-of-amazake-using-a-silkworm-muscle-contraction-assay
#16
Hiroko Maruki-Uchida, Masahiko Sai, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
We evaluated the innate immune-stimulating activity of amazake using a silkworm muscle contraction assay. Sake cake, a raw material used to make amazake, had high innate immunity-stimulating activity, whereas rice malt, another raw material used to make amazake, did not, even after fermentation. These results suggest that the silkworm muscle contraction assay is a useful tool to screen foods with high innate immune-stimulating activity and that amazake made from sake cake has immunomodulatory potential.
October 30, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081439/isolation-of-antibiotic-producing-pseudomonas-species-with-low-temperature-cultivation-of-temperate-soil
#17
Shuhei Mitsutomi, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Chikara Kaito
We performed low-temperature cultivation of soil samples in Tokyo, Japan, and isolated 30 bacterial strains that formed colonies at 4°C. All the culture supernatants of these bacteria exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The 16S rDNA sequences of 29 strains showed similarity to that of the Pseudomonas genus, whereas the 16S rDNA sequence of one strain showed similarity to that of the Janthinobacterium genus. We classified the 29 strains into 10 groups according to the 16S rDNA sequence similarities, and performed two phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene sequences...
October 29, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081438/two-spotted-cricket-as-an-animal-infection-model-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#18
Yuto Kochi, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Chikara Kaito
Invertebrate infection models that can be evaluated at human body temperature are limited. In this study, we utilized the two-spotted cricket, a heat-tolerant insect, as an animal infection model of human pathogenic fungi. Injection of human pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans killed crickets within 48 h at both 27˚C and 37˚C. The median lethal dose values (LD50 values) of C. albicans and C. glabrata against crickets were decreased at 37˚C compared to that at 27˚C, whereas the LD50 value of C...
October 29, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070744/glycyrrhizin-inhibits-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-replication-by-the-inhibition-of-genome-rna-mrna-and-protein-syntheses
#19
Kae Sakai-Sugino, Jun Uematsu, Miyuki Kamada, Hiroe Taniguchi, Saori Suzuki, Yumiko Yoshimi, Sahoko Kihira, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Mitsuo Kawano, Masato Tsurudome, Myles O'Brien, Makoto Itoh, Hiroshi Komada
The effect of glycyrrhizin on the replication of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) was examined. Cell fusion induced by hPIV-2 was inhibited by glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhizin reduced the number of viruses released from the cells. Glycyrrhizin did not change cell morphology at 1 day of culture, but caused some damage at 4 days, as determined by the effect on actin microfilaments. However, it affected the cell viability at 1 day: about 20% of the cells were not alive by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 1 day of culture...
October 24, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021505/skin-permeability-of-tulobuterol-in-two-transdermal-formulations-and-their-followability
#20
Yuichi Takizawa, Takeshi Goto, Shuji Sato, Naoya Ohmori, Kenji Mori, Yayoi Shimada, Kuei Chen, Takamitsu Miyagi, Fumio Fukai
Various generic transdermal formulations of tulobuterol containing rubber and acrylate base polymers are commercially available in Japan. However, none of the formulations have been compared directly with respect to the skin permeability of tulobuterol and to their follow ability. Tulobuterol Tape Sawai of rubber base and Tulobuterol Tape NP of acrylate base were used to conduct the in vitro 24-hour skin permeability test of tulobuterol at receiver solution temperatures of 32°C, 37°C, and 40°C. Furthermore, the followability of these tapes were examined by measuring the depth of the pores that were formed in their adhesive layer...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
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