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Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics

Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Diabetes and obesity result from sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. Prevention of hyperglycemia contributes to inhibit the onset of these life-related diseases. Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. Among 24 samples obtained from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani, Cupriavidus sp...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Fuki Kurimoto, Satoko Hori, Yasufumi Sawada
Patients' experience of adverse reactions (ADR) and usability of drugs is important for proper use and post-marketing development of drugs, but it remains unclear whether and how patients are transmitting such information to others. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the ways in which bronchial asthma (BA) patients transmit experience of ADR to inhaled corticosteroids and usability of inhalers to others, including the reasons for these differences. A qualitative study involving focus-group interviews was conducted...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Seyda Ignak, Ozlem Unay Demirel, Sevda Soydan, Erkan Esen
We present Shewanella algea infection in a chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patient with cholesteatoma in terms of clinical course and treatment. This is the first time S. algea is found as solely pathogen in a CSOM patient without history of contact with seawater in Turkey. The patient admitted to the hospital several times with complaints of otorrhoea, was diagnosed as otitis media and treated. He was hospitalized to the otorhinolaryngology department for further evaluation of recurrent infections...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Rabih Tabet, Youssef Shammaa, Boutros Karam, Harout Yacoub, James Lafferty
Thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-known complications that can occur after prothrombin complex concentrate therapy. However, acute myocardial infarction is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication that was exclusively described in patients with bleeding disorders who received chronic and recurrent concentrate infusions. We report the case of a 70 year-old male patient with cholangiocarcinoma who was admitted to our hospital with worsening fatigue and weakness...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masashi Ohe, Haruki Shida, Tetsuya Horita, Ken Furuya, Satoshi Hashino
Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects including anti-inflammatory effects as well as antibacterial activity. In consideration of these immunomodulatory effects, we report a patient with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, followed by prednisolone (PSL). A 78-year-old man with thrombocytopenia was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Initial laboratory data showed reduced platelet counts (1.7 × 104 /μL). Finally, we diagnosed the patient as having primary ITP...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sudeshna Ghosh, Himanshu Narang, Pawan Goel, Prabhat Kumar, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Yuko Wada, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2 , and those of the generic products ranged from 42...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takahiro Fujii, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Takanori Ikeda
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Surachai Pikulkaew, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Siriporn Okonogi
The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yuuki Nakamura, Kenzo Takahashi, Marika Nomura, Miwako Kamei
Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sandeep Kunwar, Jai D Parekh, Ramya Sree Chilukuri, Venkata A Andukuri
Statins can cause a wide spectrum of muscular adverse effects ranging from asymptomatic elevation of Creatine Kinase (CK), myalgia and exercise intolerance to rhabdomyolysis. Most of these effects generally resolve on stopping the medication. However, statins can be associated with a unique autoimmune myopathy wherein symptoms persist or even progress after statin discontinuation and require immunosuppressive therapy. The case presented is a 60-year-old woman who was on statin treatment for a period of 2 years...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Zhaohui Bai, Xiaozhong Guo, Xiaodong Shao, Yingying Li, Qianqian Li, Xiangbo Xu, Zhendong Liang, Jiao Deng, Xia Zhang, Hongyu Li, Xingshun Qi
Esophageal variceal bleeding is a common lethal complication of cirrhosis. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) is one of the major endoscopic approaches for treating esophageal variceal bleeding. However, complications may occur after EIS, which mainly include retrosternal discomfort/pain, dysphagia, re-bleeding, esophageal ulcer, esophageal strictures, and esophageal perforation, etc. In this article, we reported a 36-year-old male who developed esophageal ulcer related bleeding after EIS. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for esophageal ulcer-related bleeding after EIS...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masaru Matsumoto, Shiho Tanaka, Koichi Yabunaka, Mikako Yoshida, Yuka Miura, Takuya Tsutaoka, Mayumi Handa, Gojiro Nakagami, Junko Sugama, Shingo Okada, Hiromi Sanada
We described fecal retention during the defecation cycles of adults with functional constipation via ultrasonography (US) of the large intestine. US was performed continuously after the last defecation until the next defecation. We defined the fecal finding level on US as follows: weak fecal retention, a marginally high echo in the colonic lumen; or strong fecal retention, a strongly echoic colon lumen with showing a crescent-shaped acoustic shadow on transverse images and haustrations on longitudinal images...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Farid A Badria, Sara N Suliman, Marwa Elsbaey, Mai H El-Naggar
Iron overload is implicated in many disorders in the body such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis and fibrosis, gallbladder disorders, diabetes, arthritis, depression, infertility, and cancer. Even though synthetic chelating agents are available, they have several limitations such as poor oral bioavailability, short plasma half-life, high cost and numerous side effects. Therefore, the aim of this study is using agricultural residues as sources for alternative efficient, benign, and economic iron chelators of natural origin...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nitin Gupta, Ankit Mittal, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Farhan Fazal, Wasim Khot, Sanjay Ranjan, Neeraj Nischal, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the backbone of effective anti-retroviral therapy in the developing world. Efavirenz is the current NNRTI of choice due to reports of higher incidence of serious adverse events with nevirapine. Majority of patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India are still on nevirapine based therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the need of shifting these patients to efavirenz based therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, who were on NNRTI based regimen for more than one year with good adherence...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Hiroto Nakajima, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Gnotobiotic animals are useful for investigation of the effects of specific lactic acid bacteria on individual animals. Here we report that lactic acid bacteria colonize and proliferate in the intestinal tract of germ-free silkworms. When silkworms hatching from formalin-treated eggs were reared to fifth-instar larvae with an artificial diet containing antibiotics, bacteria and fungi were not observed in their intestines. An antibiotic-free diet supplemented with viable lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis 0831-07, Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1, or Leuconostoc carnosum #7-2, was fed to the germ-free silkworms for 1 day...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Natsuki Kimura, Akiko Miki, Hiroki Satoh, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Yasufumi Sawada
The Japanese government actively urges pharmacists to support efforts to reduce surplus medicines. However, these activities currently serve only to dispose of surplus medicines; no measures are being taken to fundamentally prevent the accumulation of surplus medicines from the outset. A deep understanding of patients' views about storing medicines at home and how they might be accumulating surplus medicines would contribute to the prevention of surplus accumulation. This study aimed to characterize the process by which elderly chronic disease patients in Japan accumulate surplus medicines...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Adchareeya Kaewpinta, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Pisaisit Chaijareenont, Siriporn Okonogi
In the present study, the modified white rice of Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH) were used to prepare the rice gels. Carbamide peroxide (CP) containing rice gels (CP rice gels) of JM (CP-JM) and SH (CP-SH) were prepared. The rice gels and CP rice gels show homogenous texture. Rice variety influences the characteristics and properties of the rice gels. Amylose content of JM was lower than SH. Rheological behavior of JM and CP-JM was pseudoplastic without thixotropy whereas that of SH and CP-SH was pseudoplastic with thixotropy...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
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