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Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics

Fuki Kurimoto, Satoko Hori, Yasufumi Sawada
Patients' experience of adverse reactions (ADR) and usability of drugs is important for proper use and post-marketing development of drugs, but it remains unclear whether and how patients are transmitting such information to others. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the ways in which bronchial asthma (BA) patients transmit experience of ADR to inhaled corticosteroids and usability of inhalers to others, including the reasons for these differences. A qualitative study involving focus-group interviews was conducted...
August 1, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Seyda Ignak, Ozlem Unay Demirel, Sevda Soydan, Erkan Esen
We present Shewanella algea infection in a chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patient with cholesteatoma in terms of clinical course and treatment. This is the first time S. algea is found as solely pathogen in a CSOM patient without history of contact with seawater in Turkey. The patient admitted to the hospital several times with complaints of otorrhoea, was diagnosed as otitis media and treated. He was hospitalized to the otorhinolaryngology department for further evaluation of recurrent infections...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Rabih Tabet, Youssef Shammaa, Boutros Karam, Harout Yacoub, James Lafferty
Thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-known complications that can occur after prothrombin complex concentrate therapy. However, acute myocardial infarction is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication that was exclusively described in patients with bleeding disorders who received chronic and recurrent concentrate infusions. We report the case of a 70 year-old male patient with cholangiocarcinoma who was admitted to our hospital with worsening fatigue and weakness...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masashi Ohe, Haruki Shida, Tetsuya Horita, Ken Furuya, Satoshi Hashino
Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects including anti-inflammatory effects as well as antibacterial activity. In consideration of these immunomodulatory effects, we report a patient with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, followed by prednisolone (PSL). A 78-year-old man with thrombocytopenia was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Initial laboratory data showed reduced platelet counts (1.7 × 104 /μL). Finally, we diagnosed the patient as having primary ITP...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sudeshna Ghosh, Himanshu Narang, Pawan Goel, Prabhat Kumar, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Yuko Wada, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2 , and those of the generic products ranged from 42...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takahiro Fujii, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Takanori Ikeda
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Surachai Pikulkaew, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Siriporn Okonogi
The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yuuki Nakamura, Kenzo Takahashi, Marika Nomura, Miwako Kamei
Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yasushi Ohkusa, Tamie Sugawara, Hirokazu Kawanohara, Miwako Kamei
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has garnered the most attention among public health concerns worldwide. Japan formulated a national action plan for AMR in April 2016. The plan seeks to reduce the amount of antimicrobials used in 2020 to two-thirds of the use recorded in 2013. Prescription surveillance (PS) is being used to monitor trends in the amount of antimicrobials used. PS estimates the number of patients prescribed an antimicrobial each day. The number of patients who were prescribed an antimicrobial under the action plan was analyzed by including dummy variables with other control variables...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Kohei Mitsunami, Miwa Nakai
This paper proposes a new product development of yogurt project based on industry academia collaboration between Teikyo University and Tohoku Kyodo Milk Industry and discusses the possible economic impact of this project on the Tohoku region as well as the Tama area in Tokyo. We also introduce a preliminary survey to partially clarify the consumption patterns for yogurt among students at Teikyo University. The survey reveals that most of our respondents consume yogurt regularly. The stated reason for yogurt consumption is to enjoy yogurt as a dessert rather than as a health food...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Ryoko Murayama, Toshiaki Takahashi, Hidenori Tanabe, Koichi Yabunaka, Makoto Oe, Chieko Komiyama, Hiromi Sanada
The risk of peripheral intravenous catheter failure varies according to the insertion site. This study examined catheter shape just after removal to evaluate the causes of catheter failure according to site. This study was a secondary analysis of previous study data. Our observational study was conducted during a 6-month period at The University of Tokyo Hospital. Participants were hospitalized adults who received infusion therapy via a short peripheral catheter. We acquired ultrasound images of blood vessels and surrounding tissues at the catheter insertion site before catheter removal and clinical images of the removed catheters...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yongcheng Ni, Chunlong Mu, Xiangyu He, Kaiming Zheng, Hongmin Guo, Weiyun Zhu
Alterations in gut microbiota have been known to play a critical role in metabolic syndrome. However, the microbial features in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. A traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Yangyin Tiluo Decoction (YTD), can alleviate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. To characterize gut microbiota in elder patients and effects of YTD on gut microbiota during treatment of metabolic syndrome, 11 healthy elderly persons and 12 elderly persons (aged 60-90 years) with metabolic syndrome were enrolled...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yohei Ono, Hiroto Takamatsu, Masahiro Inoue, Yukio Mabuchi, Tetsuya Ueda, Tadashi Suzuki, Masahiko Kurabayashi
The effectiveness of long-term administration of tolvaptan in heart failure (HF) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been fully studied. Hence, in this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of tolvaptan on patients with HF and CKD. We consecutively enrolled 31 patients with acute HF syndrome (AHFS) who were administrated tolvaptan as a long-term medication (TLV group). All patients had a history of prior HF admission and CKD. We also consecutively enrolled 27 patients with AHFS, a prior history of HF and CKD (conventional group)...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yeonoh Shin, Rutika Kokate, Vilas Desai, Alok Bhushan, Gagan Kaushal
D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is used as an enhancer of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of using polymeric gels to increase the viscosity of the formulation and thereby increase the nasal residence time and sustained release of DCS in vitro. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and methyl cellulose (MC) were prepared at concentrations of 0.5 to 5% w/v...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Phenphichar Wanachantararak, Siriporn Okonogi
The overgrowth of certain strains of normal flora in oral cavity can cause many kinds of oral infections or diseases such as carries, periodontitis, and gingivitis. Prevention and treatment of these diseases are usually achieved by chemical antiseptics. However, these chemicals are found as negative impacts of human health hazards and accession of microbial resistance. The present study explores the potential of Piper betle extracts on inhibition of two oral pathogenic bacteria; Streptococcus mutans DMST 41283 and Streptococcus intermedius DMST 42700...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Adchareeya Kaewpinta, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Pisaisit Chaijareenont, Siriporn Okonogi
Carbamide peroxide (CP) is commonly used as a tooth whitening agent. However, efficacy of CP can be enhanced if it is in the suitable delivery system. In the present study, CP loaded in pigmented rice gels were developed and investigated for their physicochemical properties and tooth whitening efficacy. The modified pigmented rice of two varieties, Homnil (HN) and Doisket (DS) were prepared and used as a gelling agent. The outer appearance of the obtained rice gels containing 10% CP (CP-HN and CP-DS, respectively) were transparent and homogeneous texture...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides consisting of six to eight glucose residues. Administration of α-CyD (six glucose residues) inhibits sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in humans. Here we show that oral administration of α-CyD and dimethyl α-CyD suppresses sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms. On the other hand, β-CyD (seven glucose residues), γ-CyD (eight glucose residues), and their derivatives did not show the suppressive effect. These findings suggest that dimethyl α-CyD is a new inhibitor against sucrose-induced hyperglycemia and the silkworm system is useful for evaluation of suppressive activities of α-CyD derivatives against postprandial hyperglycemia...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
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