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IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816674/advances-in-monte-carlo-simulation-for-light-propagation-in-tissue
#1
Vijitha Periyasamy, Manojit Pramanik
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for light propagation in tissue is the gold standard for studying the light propagation in biological tissue and has been used for years. Interaction of photons with a medium is simulated based on its optical properties. New simulation geometries, tissue-light interaction methods, and recording techniques are designed recently. Applications, such as whole mouse body simulations for fluorescence imaging, eye model for blood vessel imaging, skin model for terahertz imaging, human head model for sinus imaging, have emerged...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809713/a-survey-on-biofeedback-and-actuation-in-wireless-body-area-networks-wban
#2
Rui Li, Daniel T H Lai, WeeSit Lee
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) has attained increasing popularity as the next generation framework of wearable technologies for human monitoring. Invasive or non-invasive wearable sensors designed in WBAN are worn to gather vital information. Biofeedback is a recent concept where collected data is used to generate actuation signals in WBANs. Applications can be seen in various areas such as sports (e.g. locomotor velocity) or medical (e.g. blood pressure measurement). However, since the body is closely regulated, the next generation WBAN technology must be smart enough to react to monitored data...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682265/virtual-humans-models-for-electromagnetic-studies-and-their-applications
#3
Sergey Makarov, Gregory Noetscher, Ara Nazarian, Alexander Prokop, Aapo Nummenma
Numerical simulation of the electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical responses of the human body to different stimuli in MRI safety, antenna research, electromagnetic tomography, and electromagnetic stimulation is currently limited by the availability of anatomically adequate and numerically efficient cross-platform computational models or "virtual humans". The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of modern human models and body region models available in the field and their important features...
June 30, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622675/state-of-the-art-methods-for-brain-tissue-segmentation-a-review
#4
Lingraj Dora, Sanjay Agrawal, Rutuparna Panda, Ajith Abraham
Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research area in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depends merely on the performance of segmentation method used. In this paper, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research...
June 14, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600260/diving-into-research-of-biomedical-engineering-in-scuba-diving
#5
Tobias Cibis, Alistair McEwan, Bjoern Eskofier, John Lippmann, Karl Friedl, Michael Bennett
The physiologic response of the human body to different environments is a complex phenomenon to ensure survival. Immersion and compressed gas diving, together trigger a set of responses. Monitoring those responses in real-time may increase our understanding of these and help to develop safety procedures and equipment. This review outlines diving physiology and diseases and identifies physiological parameters worthy of monitoring. Subsequently, we have investigated technological approaches matched to those in order to evaluated their capability for underwater application...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541226/haptic-feedback-in-needle-insertion-modeling-and-simulation-review
#6
Gourishetti Ravali, Muniyandi Manivannan
Needle insertion being the most basic skill in medical care, training has to be imparted not only for physicians but also for nurses and paramedics. In most needle insertion procedures haptic feedback from the needle is the main stimulus that novices are to be trained in. For better patient safety, the classical methods of training the haptic skills have to be replaced with simulators based on new robotic and graphics technologies. This paper reviews the current advances in needle insertion modeling. It is classified into three sections: needle insertion models, tissue deformation models, and needle-tissue interaction models...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541225/stability-of-enzymatic-biosensors-for-wearable-applications
#7
Apurva Sonawane, Pandiaraj Manickam, Shekhar Bhansali
Technological evolution in wearable sensors is accounting for major growth and transformation in multitude of industries ranging from healthcare to computing & informatics to communication and biomedical sciences. The major driver for this transformation is the new-found ability to continuously monitor and analyze the patients' physiology in patients' natural setting. Numerous wearable sensors are already on the market and are summarized. Most of the current technologies have focused on electro-physiological, electro-mechanical or acoustic measurements...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534786/evolutionary-computing-enriched-computer-aided-diagnosis-system-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-survey
#8
Romany Mansour
The alterations caused due to diabetes mellitus results into significant micro-vasculature that eventually causes diabetic retinopathy (DR) that keeps on increasing as per time and eventually causes complete vision loss. Identifying subtle variations in morphological changes in retinal blood vessels, optic disk, exudates, micro-aneurysms, hemorrhage etc is complicate and requires robust computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system so as to enable earlier and efficient DR diagnosis practices. In majority of the existing CAD systems, the need of functional enhancement has been realized time by time to ensure accurate and time efficient DR...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459696/wireless-capsule-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-direction-of-arrival-estimation-based-localization-survey
#9
Nilanjan Dey, Amira S Ashour, Fuquian Shi, Robert Simon Sherratt
One of the significant challenges in Capsule Endoscopy (CE) is to precisely determine the pathologies location. The localization process is primarily estimated using the received signal strength from sensors in the capsule system through its movement in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Consequently, the wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) system requires improvement to handle the lack of the capsule instantaneous localization information and to solve the relatively low transmission data rate challenges. Furthermore, the association between the capsule's transmitter position, capsule location, signal reduction and the capsule direction should be assessed...
April 25, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422665/human-factors-and-neurophysiological-metrics-in-air-traffic-control-a-critical-review
#10
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Stefano Bonelli, Alessia Golfetti, Ilenia Graziani, Simone Pozzi, Jean-Paul Imbert, Geraud Granger, Railane Benhacene, Dirk Schaefer, Fabio Babiloni
This article provides the reader a focused and organised review of the research progresses on neurophysiological indicators, also called "neurometrics", to show how neurometrics could effectively address some of the most important Human Factors (HFs) needs in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) field. The state of the art on the most involved HFs and related cognitive processes (e.g. mental workload, cognitive training) is presented together with examples of possible applications in the current and future ATM scenarios, in order to better understand and highlight the available opportunities of such neuroscientific applications...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333642/endomicroscopy-for-computer-and-robot-assisted-intervention
#11
Siyang Zuo, Guang-Zhong Yang
Endomicroscopy is a new technique that allows human tissue to be characterized in vivo, and in situ, circumventing the need for conventional biopsy and histology. Despite increased application and growing research interests in this area, the clinical application of endomicroscopy, however, is limited by difficulties in ergonomic control, consistent probe-tissue contact, large area surveillance and retargeting. Recently, advances in high-speed imaging, mosaicing and robotics have aimed to address these difficulties...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328511/wireless-power-transfer-strategies-for-implantable-bioelectronics-methodological-review
#12
Kush Agarwal, Rangarajan Jegadeesan, Yong-Xin Guo, Nitish V Thakor
Neural implants have emerged over the last decade as highly effective solutions for the treatment of dysfunctions and disorders of the nervous system. These implants establish a direct, often bidirectional, interface to the nervous system, both sensing neural signals and providing therapeutic treatments. As a result of the technological progress and successful clinical demonstrations, completely implantable solutions have become a reality and are now commercially available for the treatment of various functional disorders...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113349/active-electrodes-for-wearable-eeg-acquisition-review-and-electronics-design-methodology
#13
Jiawei Xu, Srinjoy Mitra, Chris Van Hoof, Refet Yazicioglu, Kofi A A Makinwa
Active Electrodes (AE), i.e. electrodes with built-in readout circuitry, are increasingly being implemented in wearable healthcare and lifestyle applications due to AE's robustness to environmental interference. An AE locally amplifies and buffers μV-level EEG signals before driving any cabling. The low output impedance of an AE mitigates cable motion artifacts thus enabling the use of high-impedance dry electrodes for greater user comfort. However, developing a wearable EEG system, with medical grade signal quality on noise, electrode offset tolerance, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), input impedance and power dissipation, remains a challenging task...
January 20, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092576/multiple-instance-learning-for-medical-image-and-video-analysis
#14
Gwenole Quellec, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Mathieu Lamard
Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) is a recent machine learning paradigm that is particularly well suited to Medical Image and Video Analysis (MIVA) tasks. Based solely on class labels assigned globally to images or videos, MIL algorithms learn to detect relevant patterns locally in images or videos. These patterns are then used for classification at a global level. Because supervision relies on global labels, manual segmentations are not needed to train MIL algorithms, unlike traditional Single-Instance Learning (SIL) algorithms...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113783/the-role-of-a-dynamic-craniospinal-compliance-in-nph-a-review-and-future-challenges
#15
Christine Goffin, Steffen Leonhardt, Klaus Radermacher
Despite the normal mean intracranial pressure (ICP) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) the cerebral ventricles enlarge. Many hypotheses exist, which have lately been investigated in simulation. These can be grouped into one of the two categories.
October 24, 2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113915/therapeutic-modulation-of-calcium-dynamics-using-ultrasound-and-other-energy-based-techniques
#16
Ivan Castellanos, Bogdan Balteanu, Tania Singh, Vesna Zderic
Ultrasound, along with other types of energy-based methods, has been widely investigated for use in various therapeutic applications because of its ability to stimulate specific biological processes. Many of these processes are mediated by calcium (Ca2+) signaling, thus making modulation of Ca2+ dynamics an evident therapeutic target for energy-based techniques. Various diseases have been associated with abnormal Ca2+ signaling and could therefore benefit from therapeutic approaches trying to regulate the transport of Ca2+ across cell membranes...
April 21, 2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411228/state-of-the-art-for-deep-brain-stimulation-therapy-in-movement-disorders-a-clinical-and-technological-perspective
#17
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is a widely used brain surgery that can be applied for many neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS is American Food and Drug Administration approved for medication refractory Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia. Although DBS has shown consistent success in many clinical trials, the therapy has limitations and there are well-recognized complications. Thus, only carefully selected patients are ideal candidates for this surgery. Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in clinical knowledge on DBS...
2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337725/mathematical-models-of-contrast-transport-kinetics-for-cancer-diagnostic-imaging-a-review
#18
Simona Turco, Hessel Wijkstra, Massimo Mischi
Angiogenesis plays a fundamental role in cancer growth and the formation of metastasis. Novel cancer therapies aimed at inhibiting angiogenic processes and/or disrupting angiogenic tumor vasculature are currently being developed and clinically tested. The need for earlier and improved cancer diagnosis, and for early evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic response to angiogenic treatment, have led to the development of several imaging methods for in vivo noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis. The combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging with mathematical modeling of the contrast agent kinetics enables quantitative assessment of the structural and functional changes in the microvasculature that are associated with tumor angiogenesis...
2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337724/review-of-the-experimental-background-and-implementation-of-computational-models-of-the-ocular-lens-microcirculation
#19
Ho-Ting D Wu, Paul J Donaldson, Ehsan Vaghefi
Our sense of vision is critically dependent on the clarity of the crystalline lens. The most common cause of transparency loss in the lens is age-related nuclear cataract, which is due to accumulative oxidative damage to this tissue. Since the ocular lens is an avascular tissue, it has to maintain its physiological homeostasis and antioxidant levels using a system of water microcirculation. This system has been experimentally imaged in animal lenses using different modalities. Based on these data, computational models have been developed to predict the properties of this system in human lenses and its changes due to aging...
2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333610/a-review-of-engineering-approaches-for-lymphedema-detection
#20
Karina Rincon, Pratikkumar Shah, Jessica Ramella-Roman, Shekhar Bhansali
Edema is a condition characterized by excessive swelling of a tissue due to an abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue. More specifically, disruption of the lymphatic system causes what is known as lymphedema. This condition is commonly seen in breast cancer survivors postradiotherapy treatment, chemotherapy, and surgeries; this population has shown high risk of developing lymphedema in the limbs. Throughout the years, several techniques have been developed and implemented for the detection and measurement of lymphedema, including techniques to measure the diseased limb volume, electrical techniques to measure the water content in tissues, and optical techniques to measure either tissue absorbance or limb volume...
2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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