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IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Konstantina Kourou, Vasileios C Pezoulas, Eleni I Georga, Themis Exarchos, Panayiotis Tsanakas, Manolis Tsiknakis, Theodora Varvarigou, Salvatore De Vita, Athanasios Tzioufas, Dimitrios I I Fotiadis
In this review the critical parts and milestones for data harmonization, from the biomedical engineering perspective, are outlined. The need for data sharing between heterogeneous sources pave the way for cohort harmonization; thus, fostering data integration and interdisciplinary research. Unmet needs in chronic as well as in other diseases, can be addressed based on the integration of patient health records and the sharing of information of the clinical picture and outcome. The stratification of patients, the determination of various clinical and outcome features and the identification of novel biomarkers for the different phenotypes of the disease characterize the impact of cohort harmonization in patient-centered clinical research and in precision medicine...
July 11, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Anu Shaju Areeckal, Michel Kocher, Sumam David S
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass, degradation of bone micro-architecture and susceptibility to fracture. It is a growing major health concern across the world, especially in the elderly population. Osteoporosis can cause hip or spinal fractures that may lead to high morbidity and socio-economic burden. Therefore, there is a need for early diagnosis of osteoporosis and prediction of fragility fracture risk. In this paper, state-of-the-art and recent advances in imaging techniques for diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment have been explored...
July 3, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Diane J Cook, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Linus Jonsson
The maturation and adoption of pervasive computing technologies have dramatically altered the face of healthcare. With the introduction of mobile devices, body area networks, and embedded computing systems, care providers can use continuous, ecologically valid information to overcome geographic and temporal barriers and thus provide more effective and timely health assessments. In this paper, we review recent technological developments that can be harnessed to replicate, enhance, or design new methods for assessment of functional performance...
June 28, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Assefa K Teshome, Behailu Kibret, Daniel Lai
Over the past six decades there has been tremendous progress made in the field of medical implant communications. A comprehensive review of the progress, current state-of-the-art and future direction is presented in this chapter. Implanted Medical Devices (IMDs) are designed mainly for the purpose of diagnostic, therapeutic and assitive applications in heathcare, active living and sports technology. The primary target of implanted medical devices (IMDs) design revolve around reliable communications, sustainable power sources, high degree of miniaturisation while maintaining bio-compatibility to surrounding tissues adhering to the human safety limits set by appropriate guidelines...
June 18, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Sumit Majumder, Leon Chen, Ognian Marinov, Chih-Hung Chen, Tapas Monday, M Jamal Deen
Electrocardiography (ECG) is the most common and extensively used vital sign monitoring method in the modern healthcare systems. Different designs of ambulatory ECG systems were developed as alternatives to the commonly used twelve-lead clinical ECG systems. These designs primarily focus on portability and user convenience, while maintaining signal integrity and lowering power consumption. Here, a wireless ECG monitoring system is developed using flexible and dry capacitive electrodes for long-term monitoring of cardiovascular health...
May 29, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Donato Impedovo, Giuseppe Pirlo
Neurodegenerative diseases, as for instance Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD), affect the peripheral nervous system, where nerve cells send the messages that control muscles in order to allow movements. Sick neurons cannot control muscles properly. Handwriting involves cognitive planning, coordination and execution abilities. Significant changes in the handwriting performance are a prominent feature of AD and PD. This work addresses the most relevant results obtained in the field of on-line (dynamic) analysis of handwritten trials by AD and PD patients...
May 25, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Wenhao Deng, Ioannis Papavasileiou, Zhi Qiao, Wenlong Zhang, Kam-Yiu Lam, Han Song
The world is experiencing an unprecedented, enduring, and pervasive aging process. With more people who need walking assistance, the demand for lower-extremity gait rehabilitation has increased rapidly over the years. The current clinical gait rehabilitative training requires heavy involvement of both medical doctors and physical therapists and thus are labor-intensive, subjective and expensive. To address these problems, advanced automation techniques, especially along with the proliferation of smart sensing and actuation devices and big data analytics platforms, have been introduced into this field to make the gait rehabilitation convenient, efficient, and personalized...
May 4, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Rongheng Lin, Zezhou Ye, Hao Wang, Budan Wu
With the technology development of the data science and the network technology, the world has stepped into a big data era. Medical area includes vast amount of data which is suitable for data analysis. Lots of research work in medical big data has been done in recent years, targeting on data collection, data analysis and visualization. However, very few research work provides a full survey of the medical big data on chronic diseases and health monitoring. To get a comprehensive understanding of big data in big medical data, especially in chronic diseases and health monitoring area...
April 24, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Zongjie Wang
Droplet microfluidics utilizes two immiscible flows to generate small droplets with the diameter of a few to a few hundred micrometers. These droplets are promising tools for biomedical engineering because of the high throughput and the ease to finely tune the microenvironments. In addition to the great success of droplet biomicrofluidics in proof-of-concept biosensing, regenerative medicine and drug delivery, few droplet biomicrofluidic device has a transformative impact on the industrial and clinical applications...
April 16, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Umair Ishaq Khan, Sergey Makarov, Yunxing Ye, Ruijun Fu, Pranay Swar, Kaveh Pahlavan
Location estimation within the human body by means of wireless signals is becoming popular for a variety of purposes, including wireless endoscopy using camera pills. The precision of wireless ranging in any medium is contingent upon the methodology employed. Two of the most popular wireless tracking methods are received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-arrival (TOA). The scope of this study is an assessment of the precision of TOA and RSS based ranging in the proximity of anthropomorphic tissue by means of simulation software designed to mimic signal transmission in the human body environment...
April 13, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Wissam Farhat, Anwarul Hasan, Lucian Lucia, Frederic Becquart, Ali Ayoub, Firas Kobeissy
Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a myriad of diseases and injuries. However, the low rate of cell survival and the uncontrolled differentiation of the injected stem cells currently remain as the key challenges in advancing stem cell therapeutics. Hydrogels are biomaterials that are potentially highly effective candidates for scaffold systems for stem cells and other molecular encapsulation approaches to target in vivo delivery. Hydrogel-based strategies can potentially address several current challenges in stem cell therapy...
April 12, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Fabrizio Celesti, Antonio Celesti, Jiafu Wan, Massimo Villari
Nowadays, big data analytics in genomics is an emerging topic. In fact, the big amount of genomics data originated by emerging Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques require more and more fast and sophisticated algorithms. In this context, deep learning is re-emerging as a possible approach capable to speed up the DNA sequencing process. In this paper, we specifically discuss such a trend. In particular, starting from an analysis of the interest of the Internet community in both NGS and deep learning, we present a taxonomic analysis highlighting the major software solutions based on deep learning algorithms available for each specific NGS application field...
April 12, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Sarah Ali Siddiqui, Yuan Zhang, Jaime Lloret, Houbing Song, Zoran Obradovic
Keeping track of blood glucose levels non-invasively is now possible due to diverse breakthroughs in wearable sensors technology coupled with advanced biomedical signal processing. However, each user might have different requirements and priorities when it comes to selecting a self-monitoring solution. After extensive research and careful selection, we have presented a comprehensive survey on non-invasive/pain-free blood glucose monitoring methods from the recent five years (2012-2016). Techniques from bioinformatics, computer science, chemical engineering and microwave etc...
April 2, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Sirinthip Roomkham, David Lovell, Joseph Cheung, Dimitri Perrin
The market for smartphones, smartwatches and wearable devices is booming. In recent years, individuals and researchers have used these devices as additional tools to monitor and track sleep, physical activity and behaviour. Their use in sleep research and clinical applications could address the difficulties scaling up studies that rely on the gold-standard, polysomnography. However, the use of commercial devices for large-scale sleep studies is not without challenges. With this in mind, this paper presents an extensive review of sleep monitoring systems and the techniques used in their development...
March 8, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Udit Satija, Barathram Ramkumar, M Sabarimalai Manikandan
Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal quality assessment (SQA) plays a vital role in significantly improving the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of unsupervised ECG analysis systems. In practice, the ECG signal is often corrupted with different kinds of noises and artifacts. Therefore, numerous SQA methods were presented based on the ECG signal and/or noise features and the machine learning classifiers and/or heuristic decision rules. This paper presents an overview of current state-of-the-art SQA methods and highlights the practical limitations of the existing SQA methods...
February 28, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Bassem Dahroug, Brahim Tamadazte, Laurent Tavernier, Stefan Weber, Nicolas Andreff
Otologic surgical procedures tend over time to become minimally invasive due to the development of medicine, micro-techniques and robotics. This trend is expected to reduce the patient's recovery time and to improve the accuracy in diagnosis and treatment. One of the most challenging difficulties that face such techniques are precise control of the instrument and supply of an ergonomic system to the surgeon. The objective of this literature review is to present requirements and guidelines for a surgical robotic system dedicated to the middle ear surgery...
February 28, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Delaram Jarchi, James Pope, Tracey K M Lee, Larisa Tamjidi, Amirhosein Mirzaei, Saeid Sanei
Gait analysis continues to be an important technique for many clinical applications to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. Many mental and physical abnormalities cause measurable differences in a person's gait. Gait analysis has applications in sport, computer games, physical rehabilitation, clinical assessment, surveillance, human recognition, modelling, and many other fields. There are established methods using various sensors for gait analysis, of which, accelerometers are one of the most often employed...
February 16, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Cornelia Wenger, Pedro Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Axel Thielscher, Zeev Bomzon, Moshe Giladi, Maciej M Mrugala, Anders R Korshoej
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are a cancer treatment modality that uses alternating electric fields of intermediate frequency (~100-500 kHz) and low intensity (1-3 V/cm) to disrupt cell division. TTFields are delivered by transducer arrays placed on the skin close to the tumor and act regionally and non-invasively to inhibit tumor growth. TTFields therapy is FDA approved for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive primary human brain cancer. Clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of TTFields for other solid tumor types are underway...
February 13, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Arnab Chanda, Tysum Ruchti, Vinu Unnikrishnan
Suturing is an acquired skill and is based on a surgeon's experience. To date, no two sutures are the same with respect to the type of knot, tension or suture material. With advancement in medical technologies, robotic suturing is becoming more and more important to operate on complex and difficult to reach internal surgical sites. While it is very difficult to translate a surgeon's suturing expertise to an automated environment, computational models could be employed to estimate baseline suture force requirements for a given wound shape, size, and suture material, which could be subsequently processed by a robot...
February 8, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Jawad M Khalifeh, Zohny Zohny, Paul Gamble, Matthew MacEwan, Wilson Z Ray
Pseudarthrosis is an exceedingly common, costly, and morbid complication in the treatment of long bone fractures and after spinal fusion surgery. Electrical bone growth stimulation (EBGS) presents a unique approach to accelerate healing and promote fusion success rates. Over the past three decades, increased experience and widespread use of EBGS devices has led to significant improvements in stimulation paradigms and clinical outcomes. In this article, we comprehensively review the literature and examine the history, scientific evidence, available technology, and clinical applications for EBGS...
January 30, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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