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Health Systems in Transition

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929376/pharmaceutical-regulation-in-15-european-countries-review
#1
Dimitra Panteli, Francis Arickx, Irina Cleemput, Guillaume Dedet, Helen Eckhardt, Emer Fogarty, Sophie Gerkens, Cornelia Henschke, Jennifer Hislop, Claudio Jommi, Daphne Kaitelidou, Pawel Kawalec, Ilmo Keskimaki, Madelon Kroneman, Julio Lopez Bastida, Pedro Pita Barros, Joakim Ramsberg, Peter Schneider, Susan Spillane, Sabine Vogler, Lauri Vuorenkoski, Helle Wallach Kildemoes, Olivier Wouters, Reinhard Busse
In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden)...
October 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603897/romania-health-system-review
#2
Cristian Vladescu, Silvia Gabriela Scintee, Victor Olsavszky, Cristina Hernandez-Quevedo, Anna Sagan
This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits...
August 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467813/slovenia-health-system-review
#3
Tit Albreht, Radivoje Pribakovic Brinovec, Dusan Josar, Mircha Poldrugovac, Tatja Kostnapfel, Metka Zaletel, Dimitra Panteli, Anna Maresso
This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased...
June 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467715/netherlands-health-system-review
#4
Madelon Kroneman, Wienke Boerma, Michael van den Berg, Peter Groenewegen, Judith de Jong, Ewout van Ginneken
This analysis of the Dutch health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, two major reforms implemented since the mid-2000s are among the main issues today. The newly implemented long-term care reform will have to realize a transition from publicly provided care to more self-reliance on the part of the citizens and a larger role for municipalities in its organization. A particular point of attention is how the new governance arrangements and responsibilities in long-term care will work together...
March 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172509/tajikistan-health-system-review
#5
Ghafur Khodjamurodov, Dilorom Sodiqova, Baktygul Akkazieva, Bernd Rechel
The pace of health reforms in Tajikistan has been slow and in many aspects the health system is still shaped by the countrys Soviet legacy. The country has the lowest total health expenditure per capita in the WHO European Region, much of it financed privately through out-of-pocket payments. Public financing depends principally on regional and local authorities, thus compounding regional inequalities across the country. The high share of private out-of-pocket payments undermines a range of health system goals, including financial protection, equity, efficiency and quality...
January 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106880/ukraine-health-system-review
#6
Valery Lekhan, Volodymyr Rudiy, Maryna Shevchenko, Dorit Nitzan Kaluski, Erica Richardson
This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42...
March 2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050102/israel-health-system-review
#7
Bruce Rosen, Ruth Waitzberg, Sherry Merkur
Israel is a small country, with just over 8 million citizens and a modern market-based economy with a comparable level of gross domestic product per capita to the average in the European Union. It has had universal health coverage since the introduction of a progressively financed statutory health insurance system in 1995. All citizens can choose from among four competing, non-profit-making health plans, which are charged with providing a broad package of benefits stipulated by the government. Overall, the Israeli health care system is quite efficient...
2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049966/united-kingdom-health-system-review
#8
Jonathan Cylus, Erica Richardson, Lisa Findley, Marcus Longley, Ciaran O'Neill, David Steel
This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but all have maintained national health services which provide universal access to a comprehensive package of services that are mostly free at the point of use...
2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766626/switzerland-health-system-review
#9
Carlo De Pietro, Paul Camenzind, Isabelle Sturny, Luca Crivelli, Suzanne Edwards-Garavoglia, Anne Spranger, Friedrich Wittenbecher, Wilm Quentin
This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators...
2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766545/france-health-system-review
#10
Karine Chevreul, Karen Berg Brigham, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Cristina Hernandez-Quevedo
This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality...
2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106825/czech-republic-health-system-review
#11
Jan Alexa, Lukas Recka, Jana Votapkova, Ewout van Ginneken, Anne Spranger, Friedrich Wittenbecher
This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example)...
January 2015: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25720021/iceland-health-system-review
#12
Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir, Jónína Waagfjörð, Anna Maresso
This analysis of the Icelandic health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Life expectancy at birth is high and Icelandic men and women enjoy longer life in good health than the average European. However, Icelanders are putting on weight, more than half of adult Icelanders were overweight or obese in 2004, and total consumption of alcohol has increased considerably since 1970. The health care system is a small, state centred, publicly funded system with universal coverage, and an integrated purchaser provider relationship in which the state as payer is also the owner of most organizations providing health care services...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25689490/uzbekistan-health-system-review
#13
Mohir Ahmedov, Ravshan Azimov, Zulkhumor Mutalova, Shahin Huseynov, Elena Tsoyi, Bernd Rechel
Uzbekistan is a central Asian country that became independent in 1991 with the break-up of the Soviet Union. Since then, it has embarked on several major health reforms covering health care provision, governance and financing, with the aim of improving efficiency while ensuring equitable access. Primary care in rural areas has been changed to a two-tiered system, while specialized polyclinics in urban areas are being transformed into general polyclinics covering all groups of the urban population. Secondary care is financed on the basis of past expenditure and inputs (and increasingly self-financing through user fees), while financing of primary care is increasingly based on capitation...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25471543/italy-health-system-review
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Ferre, Antonio Giulio de Belvis, Luca Valerio, Silvia Longhi, Agnese Lazzari, Giovanni Fattore, Walter Ricciardi, Anna Maresso
Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy's health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25115139/croatia-health-system-review
#15
Aleksandar Džakula, Anna Sagan, Nika Pavić, Karmen Lonćčarek, Katarina Sekelj-Kauzlarić
Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25115137/germany-health-system-review
#16
Reinhard Busse, Miriam Blümel
This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24550043/malta-health-system-review
#17
REVIEW
Natasha Azzopardi Muscat, Neville Calleja, Antoinette Calleja, Jonathan Cylus
This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe...
2014: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24434287/norway-health-system-review
#18
REVIEW
Ånen Ringard, Anna Sagan, Ingrid Sperre Saunes, Anne Karin Lindahl
Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average...
2013: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24334772/austria-health-system-review
#19
REVIEW
Maria M Hofmarcher, Wilm Quentin
This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average...
2013: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24334730/estonia-health-system-review
#20
REVIEW
Taavi Lai, Triin Habicht, Kristiina Kahur, Marge Reinap, Raul Kiivet, Ewout van Ginneken
This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care...
2013: Health Systems in Transition
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