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Integrative Zoology

John S Buckeridge, William A Newman
Curious eroded depressions, most resembling an eye shedding an elongate tear, are found in gently sloping, intertidal, carbonate-rich arenite outcropping on the sea coast near Lakes Entrance, Victoria, SE Australia. The depressions, known locally as "Tears of the Virgin", are evidently formed by multiple generations of a barnacle, Chthamalus antennatus Darwin, 1854 in association with cyanobacteria.  While the round part of a depression offers the barnacle a modicum of protection from impacts during high tides, it is also partially inhabited by cyanobacteria, which extend into and tend to fill the elongate tear...
October 26, 2016: Integrative Zoology
A Leyte-Manrique, U Hernández-Salinas, A Ramírez-Bautista, V Mata-Silva, J C Marshall
Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior, and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from seven different localities (El Cerezo: CER, Pachuca: PAC, Huichapan: HUI, Emiliano Zapata: EZA, San Miguel Regla: SMR, La Mojonera: LMJ, and La Manzana: LMZ) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of México...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Sze-Wing Yiu, Francesca Parrini, Leszek Karczmarski, Mark Keith
Understanding of animal spatial behavior is essential for informed management decisions. In southern Africa, reintroduction of lions (Panthera leo) to small reserves (<1000 km(2) ) has increased in recent years but studies on their ranging behavior in these enclosed systems remain lacking. We applied Time Local Convex Hull (T-LoCoH) methods to study the home range establishment and utilization of 11 lions reintroduced to Dinokeng Game Reserve, South Africa, during 2011 through 2014. Lions established home ranges close to their release sites and during the following three years their home range sizes continued to increase, but in each individual case it remained smaller than half of the reserve area (< 70 km(2) )...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Kanchan Thapa, Marcella J Kelly
While there are numerous wildlife ecology studies in lowland areas of Nepal, there are no in-depth studies of the hilly Churia habitat even though it comprises 7,642 km(2) of potential wildlife habitat across the Terai Arc. We investigated tiger, leopard, and prey densities across this understudied habitat. Our camera trapping survey covered 536 km(2) of Churia and surrounding areas within Chitwan National Park (CNP). We used 161 trapping locations and accumulated 2,097 trap nights in a 60-day survey period during the winter season of 2010-2011...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Jan Šklíba, Tereza Vlasatá, Matěj Lövy, Ema Hrouzková, Yonas Meheretu, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Radim Šumbera
Rodents with prevailing subterranean activity usually play an important role in the ecosystems of which they are a part due to the combined effect of herbivory and soil perturbation. This is also the case of the giant root-rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus, Rüppell 1842, endemic to the Afroalpine ecosystem of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. We studied the impact of root-rats on various ecosystem features within a 3.5ha study locality dominated by Alchemilla pasture, which represents an optimal habitat for this species, in two periods of a year...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Hongmao Zhang, Wei Chu, Zhibin Zhang
It is not well investigated that cultivated trees affect seeding regeneration of their wild relatives that share similar seed dispersers of animals. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (J. mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Zimei Dong, Yanqing Yuwen, Yingxu Sima, Yanping Dong, Huina Zhan, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
Planarians are the ideal models for studying eye development with the simple eye structure and exceptionally rapid regeneration. Here, we observed the eye morphogenesis, photophobic behavior, spectral sensitivity, and expression pattern of Djopsin in planarian Dugesia japonica. The results showed that: (1) Djopsin encoding the putative protein belonged to rhabdomeric opsins group and displayed a high conservation during animal evolution; (2) planarians displayed diverse photophobic response to different visible wavelength and were more sensitive to the light blue (495 nm) and yellow (635 nm); (3) the morphogenesis and functional recovery of eyes were related to the expression pattern of Djopsin during head regeneration; (4) Djopsin gene plays a major role in functional recovery during eyes regeneration and visual system maintenance in adult planarians...
September 14, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Anna Bonardi, Luca Corlatti, Natalia Bragalanti, Luca Pedrotti
The dynamics of red deer Cervus elaphus populations has been investigated across different environmental conditions, with the notable exception of the European Alps. Although the population dynamics of mountain-dwelling ungulates is typically influenced by the interaction between winter severity and density, the increase of temperatures and the reduction of snowpack occurring on the Alps since the 1980s may be expected to alter this pattern, especially in populations dwelling at medium-low elevations. Taking advantage of a 29-year time series of spring count data, we explored the roles of weather stochasticity and density dependence on growth rate and vital rates (mortality, weaning success), and the density-dependent variation in body mass in a red deer population of the Italian Alps...
September 12, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Ming Liu, Rongcan Luo, Hao Wang, Guangming Cao, Yan-Ling Wang
Fertility control is an alternative strategy to traditional culling for the management of rodent pests. Previous studies have demonstrated that quinestrol is a potential contraceptive for male rodents, but the recovery of fertility in quinestrol-treated rodents has not been evaluated. This study used C57BL/6J mice to evaluate the recovery rate of male fertility after the administration of quinestrol. DES (diethylstilbestrol), a non-steroid estrogenic compound, was used for comparison. Different groups of mice were treated with 1 mg/kg quinestrol, 1 mg/kg DES, or castor oil separately for 7 days...
September 9, 2016: Integrative Zoology
M Petelo, L Swierk
Whether or not sexually selected traits consistently exhibit positive allometry, i.e., are disproportionately large in larger individuals, is an ongoing debate. Multiple models and exceptions to this rule suggest that the underlying drivers of sexual trait allometry are nuanced. Here, we compare allometries of sexual and non-sexual traits of a species (Anolis aquaticus Taylor, 1956) within a well-studied lizard genus to test the competing hypotheses that sexual traits are, or are not, defined by positive allometry...
September 8, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Megan A Owen, Ronald R Swaisgood, Daniel T Blumstein
Survival and successful reproduction require animals to make critical decisions amidst a naturally dynamic environmental and social background (i.e., 'context'). However, human activities have pervasively, and rapidly, extended contextual variation into evolutionarily novel territory, potentially rendering evolved animal decision making mechanisms and strategies maladaptive. We suggest that explicitly focusing on animal decision making (ADM), by integrating and applying findings from studies of sensory ecology, cognitive psychology, behavioral economics and eco-evolutionary strategies, may enhance our understanding of, and our ability to predict how, human driven changes in the environment and population demography will influence animal populations...
September 8, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Guodong Han, Shu Zhang, Yunwei Dong
Organisms on the rocky shore frequently suffer from high temperature, which consequently causes disability of cardiac function and retards the cellular oxygen delivery. However, some gastropods can survive in several Celsius degrees higher than their Arrhenius break temperature of cardiac function (ABT), indicating the importance of anaerobic metabolism for their thermal tolerance. We measured the global molecular responses to heat stress in limpet Cellana toreuma using 454 GS-FLX to investigate the variations of genes involving in anaerobic metabolism at high temperature...
September 5, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Tina Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
John S Buckeridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Yiyu Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Zhibin Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Alexey A Kotov, Maria A Gololobova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Martin Bláha, Jiří Patoka, Pavel Kozák, Antonín Kouba
The phylogenetic relationships among imported ornamental crayfish belonging to the genus Cherax were inferred from a combined dataset of 3 mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S and 12S) and by comparison with available GenBank sequences of 14 Cherax species. Furthermore, the concordance of previously described species obtained from a wholesaler (Cherax boesemani, C. holthuisi and C. peknyi) with available GenBank sequences was verified based on COI with special respect to comparison with sequences assigned as Cherax species...
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
George O Batzli
Increased habitat fragmentation leads to smaller size of habitat patches and to greater distance between patches. The ROMPA hypothesis (ratio of optimal to marginal patch area) uniquely links vole population fluctuations to the composition of the landscape. It states that as ROMPA decreases (fragmentation increases), vole population fluctuations will increase (including the tendency to display multi-annual cycles in abundance) because decreased proportions of optimal habitat result in greater population declines and longer recovery time after a harsh season...
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Han Han, Wei Wei, Yonggang Nie, Wenliang Zhou, Yibo Hu, Qi Wu, Fuwen Wei
Stable isotope analysis is very useful in animal ecology, especially in diet reconstruction and trophic studies. Differences in isotope ratios between consumers and their diet, termed discrimination factors, are essential for studies of stable isotope ecology and are species-specific and tissue-specific. Given the specialized bamboo diet and clear foraging behavior, here, we calculated discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopes from diet to tissues (tooth enamel, hair keratin and bone collagen) for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), a species derived from meat-eating ancestors...
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
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