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Integrative Zoology

Katherine N Wright, Amanda M Dossat, Caroline E Strong, Lindsay L Sailer, Samantha M Pavlock, Mohamed Kabbaj
DNA methylation has been identified as a powerful and activity-dependent regulator of changes in the brain that may underlie neuroadaptations in response to various types of stimuli, including exposure to drugs of abuse. Indeed, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are critically important for reinstated cocaine-seeking, a rodent model of cocaine relapse. This circuitry undergoes a number of epigenetic modifications following cocaine exposure, including changes in DNA methylation that are associated with drug-seeking behavior...
October 15, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Marie-Amélie Forin-Wiart, Manfred Enstipp, Yvon LE Maho, Yves Handrich
Bio-loggers are miniaturized autonomous devices that record quantitative data on the state of free-ranging animals (e.g. behavior, position, and physiology) and their natural environment. This is especially relevant for species where direct visual observation is difficult or impossible. Today, ongoing technical development allows the monitoring of numerous parameters in an increasing range of species over extended periods. However, the external attachment of devices might affect various aspects of animal performance (energetics, thermoregulation, foraging as well as social and reproductive behavior), which ultimately affect fitness...
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Zaida Ortega, Francisco Javier Martín-Vallejo
The thermal ecology of ectotherms has been studied for almost two centuries, but additional attention is currently being paid to the issue in order to understand how organisms deal with the environment in a climate change context. However, a consensus is still far away, due to the large number of factors involved and their complex interactions. In this context, three analyses in lacertid lizards were carried out: (1) a meta-analysis, to test for differences between body and air temperatures from 71 populations, (2) a meta-analysis concerning correlations between body and air temperatures from 60 populations, and (3) a multimodel inference using thermoregulation effectiveness indices from 45 populations...
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Susan D Healy
Animal cognition is currently one of the most exciting fields within animal behaviour as an increasing number of researchers investigate the cognitive abilities of an ever-wider range of animals. Tinbergen would be proud: all four of his approaches are being pursued and we are learning much about how animals collect information and how they use that information to make decisions for their current and future states as well as what animals do not perceive or choose to ignore. Here I provide an overview of this productivity, alighting only briefly on any single example, in order to showcase the diversity of species, of approaches and the sheer mass of research effort currently underway...
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lúcia Pereira, Ana Vasques, Paula Maia, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Carlos Fonseca, Milena Matos
The stone marten (Martes foina, Erxleben, 1777) is a carnivorous mammal that often consumes fleshy fruits, thus potentially promoting seed dispersion. This study was developed in Bussaco National Forest, central Portugal, and aimed to assess the potential role of the stone marten in dispersing native and exotic plants in different forest landscapes types. Seeds from stone marten scats and fleshy fruits were collected monthly and were thereafter identified and sowed in a nursery, following a randomized experimental setup...
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Mohamed Kabbaj, Zuoxin Wang
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jiqi Lu
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 24, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Tatyana V Moskvina, Michail Yu Schelkanov, Mariya A Begun
There have been few reports on the diversity and prevalence of parasitic fauna of the endangered Siberian tiger, which inhabits the territory of the Russian Far East. The present review attempts to summarize the information about the parasitic fauna of wild Siberian tigers, which includes 15 helminths and 3 protozoan species. The most prevalent parasitic species was found to be Toxocara cati, followed by Toxascaris leonina. Another commonly recorded Platyhelminth species is Paragonimus westermani, which causes a lethal infection of the lung parenchyma in Siberian tigers...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Katherine A Solari, Elizabeth A Hadly
The genus Ochotona (pikas) is a clade of cold-tolerant lagomorphs that includes many high-elevation species. Pikas offer a unique opportunity to study adaptations and potential limitations of an ecologically important mammal to high-elevation hypoxia. We analyzed the evolution of 3 mitochondrial genes encoding the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in 10 pika species occupying elevations from sea level to 5000 m. COX is an enzyme highly reliant on oxygen and essential for cell function. One amino acid property, the equilibrium constant (ionization of COOH), was found to be under selection in the overall protein complex...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Joacim Näslund, Niklas Wengström, Fredrik Wahlqvist, David Aldvén, Libor Závorka, Johan Höjesjö
Movement activity levels of wild animals often differ consistently among individuals, reflecting different behavioral types. Previous studies have shown that laboratory-scored activity can predict several ecologically relevant characteristics. In an experiment on wild brown trout Salmo trutta, spanning from June to October, we investigated how spring swimming activity, measured in a standardized laboratory test, related to relative recapture probability in autumn. Based on laboratory activity scores, individuals clustered into 2 groups, which showed contrasting patterns in the size-dependency of their recapture probability...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
María José Tulli, Félix B Cruz
Ectothermic vertebrates are sensitive to thermal fluctuations in the environments where they occur. To buffer these fluctuations, ectotherms use different strategies, including the integument, which is a barrier that minimizes temperature exchange between the inner body and the surrounding air. In lizards, this barrier is constituted by keratinized scales of variable size, shape and texture, and its main function is protection, water loss avoidance and thermoregulation. The size of scales in lizards has been proposed to vary in relation to climatic gradients; however, it has also been observed that in some groups of Iguanian lizards it could be related to phylogeny...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population ranges across the southwest Primorskii Krai region in Russia and Hunchun region in China. Many individuals, with "dual nationality," cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both countries. While the diets of tigers ranging in Russia is clearly understood, little is known of the tigers' feeding habits in China.. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of 4 prey species to examine Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Ismael Galván, María Del Mar Delgado, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Rui Lourenço, Vincenzo Penteriani
Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and, thus, constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine D'Urban-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Fang Fang, Jing Chen, Liyun Jiang, Yanhua Qu, Gexia Qiao
Biological invasion is considered among the most important global environmental problems. Knowledge of the source and dispersal routes of invasion could facilitate the eradication and control of invasive species. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is among the most destructive soybean pests. For effective management of this pest, we conducted genetic analyses and approximate Bayesian computation analysis to determine the origins and dispersal of the aphid species, as well as the source of its invasion in the USA, using 8 microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Songhai Li, Mingming Liu, Lijun Dong, Jianchen Dong, Ding Wang
Shipping noise is a widespread and relatively loud sound source among human-induced underwater sounds. The impacts of shipping noise are of special concern for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), as they inhabit shallow and nearshore habitats and are highly dependent on sound for survival. This study synthesizes our current understanding of the potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins combined with knowledge on sound production and hearing of these animals and the impacts of noise on other whales and dolphins...
September 2018: Integrative Zoology
Irina Vladimirovna Kirillova, Fedor Kasperovich Shidlovskiy, Andrei Valerievich Zinoviev
175 metapodials (MP) of Pleistocene and early Holocene bison (Bison priscus Boj.) from the vast area of NE Russia were studied. MP were attributed to males and females both visually and statistically. Data on the withers height of bison from NE Russia are provided. Stress markers were recorded, including so-called "buttresses". With rare exceptions stress markers were not of a pathological nature. The origin and development of the buttresses are age-related; their prevalence in bison females can be considered as the response to an increased load during pregnancy...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Huizhong Fan, Yibo Hu, Lei Shan, Lijun Yu, Bing Wang, Min Li, Qi Wu, Fuwen Wei
The explosively accumulated mammalian genomes have provided a valuable resource to characterize the evolution of the Y chromosome. Unexpectedly, the Y-chromosome sequence has been characterized in only a small handful of species, with a majority of them being model organisms. Thus, identification of Y-linked scaffolds from unordered genome sequences is becoming more important. Here, we used a syntenic-based approach to generate the scaffolds of male specific region in Y chromosome (MSY) from the genome sequence of 6 male carnivore species...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Kensaku Nomoto, Mayu Ikumi, Monami Otsuka, Akari Asaba, Masahiro Kato, Nobuyoshi Koshida, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Acoustic signals are widely used as courtship signals in the animal kingdom. It has long been known that male mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in the presence of female mice or in response to female secretions. This observation led to the hypothesis that male USVs play a role in courtship behavior. Although previous studies showed that female mice have a social partner preference for vocalizing males, it is not known if they exhibit a sexual partner preference when given a choice. To address this issue, we examined the copulatory behaviors of female mice with either devocalized males (with or without the playback of the USVs) or sham-operated males in two different behavioral paradigms: the no-choice paradigm in the home cage of a male mouse (without choice of mating partners) or the mate-choice paradigm in a three-chambered apparatus (with choice of mating partners)...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Stephen B Vander Wall, Lindsay A Dimitri, William S Longland, Joseph D M White
Some rodents gather and store seeds. How many seeds they gather and how they treat those seeds is largely determined by seed traits such as mass, nutrient content, hardness of the seed coat, presence of secondary compounds, and germination schedule. Through their consumption and dispersal of seeds, rodents act as agents of natural selection on seed traits, and those traits influence how rodents forage. Many seeds that are scatter hoarded by rodents are pilfered, or stolen, by other rodents, and seed traits also likely influence pilfering rates and seed fates of pilfered seeds...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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