Read by QxMD icon Read

Integrative Zoology

Matthew Biddick, K C Burns
Conceptualizing species interactions as networks has broadened our understanding of ecological communities. However, the factors shaping interaction patterns among species, and therefore network structure, remain unclear. One potentially important factor is the matching of phenotypic traits. Here, we tested for trait matching in a bird-flower visitation network from New Zealand. We first quantified overall network structure and tested whether flower size could account for differences in the visitation rates of flowering plants...
March 14, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Aaryn Mustoe, Jack H Taylor, Jeffrey A French
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that mediates a host of physiological and behavioral processes including reproductive physiology and social attachments. While the OT sequence structure is highly conserved among mammals, New World monkeys (NWMs) represent an unusual 'hot spot' in OT structure variability among mammals. At least six distinct OT ligand variants among NWMs exist, yet it is currently unclear whether these evolved structural changes result in meaningful functional consequences. NWMs offer a new area to explore how these modifications to OT and its canonical G-protein coupled OT receptor (OTR) may mediate specific cellular, physiological, and behavioral outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Barry Sinervo, Donald B Miles, Yayong Wu, Fausto R Méndez de la Cruz, Sebastian Kirchoff, Yin Qi
Determining the susceptibility of species to changing thermal niches is a major goal for biologists. In this paper we develop an eco-physiological model of extinction risk under climate change premised on behavioral thermoregulation. Our method downscales operative environmental temperatures, which restrict hours of activity of lizards, h r , for present-day climate (1975) and future climate scenarios (2070). We apply our model using occurrence records of 20 Phrynocephalus lizards (or taxa in species complexes) drawn from literature and museum records...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
David F Sherry, Mélanie F Guigueno
Cowbirds are brood parasites. Females lay their eggs in the nests of other species which then incubate the cowbird eggs and raise the young cowbirds. Finding and returning to heterospecific nests presents cowbirds with a number of cognitive challenges. In some species, such as brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), females but not males, search for and remember the locations of potential host nests. We describe recent research on sex differences in cognition and the hippocampus associated with this sex difference in search for host nests...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Gina M Sawaya, Adam S Goldberg, Michael A Steele, Harmony J Dalgleish
The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time, space, and among species. We examined four tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Q. alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata x C. mollissima) across five sites and three years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders in order to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lauren M Guillette, Susan D Healy
Determining the role that social learning plays in construction behaviours, such as nest building or tool manufacture, could be improved if more experimental control could be gained over the exact public information that is provided by the demonstrator, to the observing individual. Using video playback allows the experimenter to choose what information is provided, but will only be useful in determining the role of social learning if observers attend to, and learn from, videos in a manner that is similar to live demonstration...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Michael R Kearney, John Deutscher, Jacinta D Kong, Ary A Hoffmann
The phenological response is among the most important traits affecting a species' sensitivity to climate. In insects, strongly seasonal environments often select for a univoltine life-cycle such that one seasonal extreme is avoided as an inactive stage. Through understanding the underlying mechanisms for univoltinism, and the consequences of its failure, we can better predict insect responses to climate change. Here we combine empirical data and simulation studies to investigate the consequences of an unusual diapause mechanism in a parthenogenetic matchstick grasshopper, Warramaba virgo, from arid southern Australia...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Ismael Galván, María Del Mar Delgado, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Rui Lourenço, Vincenzo Penteriani
Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
John Llewelyn, Stewart L Macdonald, Craig Moritz, Felipe Martins, Amberlee Hatcher, Ben L Phillips
The impact of climate change may be felt most keenly by tropical ectotherms. In these taxa, it is argued, thermal specialisation means a given shift in temperature will have a larger effect on fitness. For species with limited dispersal ability, the impact of climate change depends on the capacity for their climate-relevant traits to shift. Such shifts can occur through genetic adaptation, various forms of plasticity, or a combination of these processes. Here we assess the extent and causes of shifts in seven physiological traits in a tropical lizard, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri)...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine d'URBAN-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Yue Chen, Robert Lewis, J Thomas Curtis
Mercury chloride exposure via drinking water in adult male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster Walker 1842) has been shown to alter their social behavior. Here, we examined potential disruption of adult social behavior in prairie voles that were exposed to 60 ppm mercury during early development. We used a cross-fostering approach to test the effects of mercury exposure 1) from conception until birth; 2) from birth until weaning; and 3) from conception until weaning, on adult affiliative behavior. Untreated and mercury-treated voles were given the option of remaining in an empty cage or affiliating with a same-sex conspecific in a three hour choice test...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Agustin Camacho Guerrero, John M VandenBrooks, Angela Riley, Rory S Telemeco, Michael J Angilletta
Zoologists rely on mechanistic niche models of behavioral thermoregulation to understand how animals respond to climate change. These models predict that species will need to disperse to higher altitudes to persist in a warmer world. However, thermal stress and thus thermoregulatory behavior may depend on atmospheric oxygen as well as environmental temperatures. Severe hypoxia causes animals to prefer lower body temperatures, which could be interpreted as evidence that oxygen supply limits heat tolerance. Such a constraint could prevent animals from successfully dispersing to high elevations during climate change...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Mark Denny
As Earth's climate warms, plants and animals are likely to encounter an increased frequency and severity of extreme thermal events, and the ensuing destruction is likely to play an important role in structuring ecological communities. However, accurate prediction of the population-scale consequences of extreme thermal events requires detailed knowledge of the small-scale interaction between individual organisms and their thermal environment. In this study I propose a simple model that allows one to explore how individual-to-individual variation in body temperature and thermal physiology determines what fraction of a population will be killed by an extreme thermal event...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Debbie M Kelly, Ken Cheng, Russell Balda, Alan C Kamil
Animals employ compasses during navigation, but little attention has been paid to how accuracy is maintained in the face of compass error, inevitable in biological systems. The use of multiple landmarks may minimize the effect of compass error. We allowed Clark's nutcrackers to cache seeds in an outdoor aviary with either one or four landmarks present, and subsequently subjected them to small clock-shifts mimicking the effects of compass error. As predicted, results showed a significant decrease in search accuracy following the clock-shift when one landmark was present but not when four landmarks were present...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lorraine Subias, Andrea S Griffin, David Guez
Inference by exclusion is the ability to select a given option by excluding the others. When designed appropriately, tests of this ability can reveal choices that cannot be explained by associative processes. Over the past decade, exclusion reasoning has been explored in several non-human taxonomic groups including birds, mainly in Corvids and Parrots. To increase our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of exclusion reasoning and therefore its evolution, we investigated exclusion performances in Red-tailed Black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii), an Australian relative of the Goffin cockatoo (Cacatua goffinia), using a food-finding task...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Fang Fang, Jing Chen, Li-Yun Jiang, Yan-Hua Qu, Ge-Xia Qiao
Biological invasion is considered one of the most important global environmental problems. Knowledge of the source and dispersal routes of invasion could facilitate the eradication and control of invasive species. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is one of the most destructive soybean pests. For effective management of this pest, we conducted genetic analyses and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to determine the origins and dispersal of the aphid species, as well as the source of its invasion in the USA, using eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jon Urgoiti, Alberto Muñoz, Josep Maria Espelta, Raúl Bonal
The function and conservation of many forest ecosystems depend on the distribution and diversity of the community of rodents that consume and disperse seeds. The habitat preferences and interactions are especially relevant in alpine systems where such granivorous rodents reach the southernmost limit of their distribution and are especially sensitive to global warming. We analysed the community of granivorous rodents in the Pyrenees, one of the southernmost mountain ranges of Europe. Rodent species were identified by DNA with particular attention to the Apodemus species, which are prominent seed-dispersing rodents in Europe...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Anna Frohnwieser, Thomas W Pike, John C Murray, Anna Wilkinson
Artificial animals are increasingly used as conspecific stimuli in animal behavior research. However, researchers often have an incomplete understanding of how the species under study perceives conspecifics, and hence which features needed for a stimulus to be perceived appropriately. To investigate the features to which bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) attend, we measured their lateralized eye use when assessing a successive range of stimuli. These ranged through several stages of realism in artificial conspecifics, to see how features such as color, the presence of eyes, body shape and motion influence behavior...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"