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Integrative Zoology

Irina Vladimirovna Kirillova, Fedor Kasperovich Shidlovskiy, Andrei Valerievich Zinoviev
175 metapodials (MP) of Pleistocene and early Holocene bison (Bison priscus Boj.) from the vast area of NE Russia were studied. MP were attributed to males and females both visually and statistically. Data on the withers height of bison from NE Russia are provided. Stress markers were recorded, including so-called "buttresses". With rare exceptions stress markers were not of a pathological nature. The origin and development of the buttresses are age-related; their prevalence in bison females can be considered as the response to an increased load during pregnancy...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Huizhong Fan, Yibo Hu, Lei Shan, Lijun Yu, Bing Wang, Min Li, Qi Wu, Fuwen Wei
The explosively accumulated mammalian genomes have provided a valuable resource to characterize the evolution of the Y chromosome. Unexpectedly, the Y-chromosome sequence has been characterized in only a small handful of species, with a majority of them being model organisms. Thus, identification of Y-linked scaffolds from unordered genome sequences is becoming more important. Here, we used a syntenic-based approach to generate the scaffolds of male specific region in Y chromosome (MSY) from the genome sequence of 6 male carnivore species...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Kensaku Nomoto, Mayu Ikumi, Monami Otsuka, Akari Asaba, Masahiro Kato, Nobuyoshi Koshida, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Acoustic signals are widely used as courtship signals in the animal kingdom. It has long been known that male mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in the presence of female mice or in response to female secretions. This observation led to the hypothesis that male USVs play a role in courtship behavior. Although previous studies showed that female mice have a social partner preference for vocalizing males, it is not known if they exhibit a sexual partner preference when given a choice. To address this issue, we examined the copulatory behaviors of female mice with either devocalized males (with or without the playback of the USVs) or sham-operated males in two different behavioral paradigms: the no-choice paradigm in the home cage of a male mouse (without choice of mating partners) or the mate-choice paradigm in a three-chambered apparatus (with choice of mating partners)...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Stephen B Vander Wall, Lindsay A Dimitri, William S Longland, Joseph D M White
Some rodents gather and store seeds. How many seeds they gather and how they treat those seeds is largely determined by seed traits such as mass, nutrient content, hardness of the seed coat, presence of secondary compounds, and germination schedule. Through their consumption and dispersal of seeds, rodents act as agents of natural selection on seed traits, and those traits influence how rodents forage. Many seeds that are scatter hoarded by rodents are pilfered, or stolen, by other rodents, and seed traits also likely influence pilfering rates and seed fates of pilfered seeds...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Bo Wang, Li Laifu, He Zhixiong, Wang Limin, Zhang Siyi, Qiao Hui, Jia Rui, Fadao Tai
Maternal behaviors and brain change dramatically along with pregnancy, parturition and other mothering experience. However, whether paternal behavior, brain plasticity, levels of relevant hormones also change along with fathering experience and pups' age remains unclear. Using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), we found that experienced fathers exhibited more active paternal behaviors such as licking, retrievals and nest building, but less paternal care such as huddling than new fathers...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Chen Gu, Wenjia Wang, Xiaoqian Ding, Shengmei Yang, Aiqin Wang, Baofa Yin, Wanhong Wei
Maternal effects play a crucial role in regulating populations of small mammals and anti-predator behaviors of offspring. This study investigated the effects of maternal stress induced by exposure to predator odors during gestation on the behavioral and physiological responses of offspring in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Effects included changes in growth, behaviors, hormone levels in serum, and fosB/ΔfosB mRNA and FosB/ΔFosB protein expression in the hypothalamus. Our results showed that when pregnant voles were exposed to cat and rabbit urine odors for 18 days (1 h/day), the weight of the female offspring decreased; however, the thymus and ovary indices increased, compared with the control group...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Tobias Nicolas Rojas, David Lautaro Vergara-Tabares, Diego Javier Valdez, Marina Flavia Ponzio, Susana Inés Peluc
Birds tend to adjust their behavior and physiology to changes in food availability in their environment. Seasonal fluctuation of food resources may act as an energetic challenge, augmenting hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) activity, leading to an increase in corticosterone concentrations and promoting the metabolism of energy stores. Plant invasions may alter seasonal food fluctuations by providing a food supply during scarce seasons. This could attenuate the energetic challenge, reducing HPA axis activity and the metabolism of reserves...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Bo Zhang, Xiaoning Chen, Michael A Steele, Jingang Li, Gang Chang
Rodents influence plant establishment and regeneration by functioning as both seed predators and dispersers. However, these rodent-plant interactions can vary significantly due to various environmental conditions and the activity of other insect seed-predators. Here, we use a combination of both field and enclosure (i.e, individual cage and semi-natural enclosure) experiments, to determine whether rodents can distinguish sound seeds from those infested with insects. We also demonstrate how such responses to insects are influenced by food abundance and other environmental factors...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Álvaro Navarro-Castilla, Isabel Barja
Wild populations are continuously subjected to changes in environmental factors that pose different challenges. Body condition and hormones have been commonly used as health indicators due to their potential correlation with fitness. In the present study, we analyzed whether habitats of different quality, influenced body mass, food intake and physiological stress levels in wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Field work was seasonally carried out in Holm oak woods and pine forests in central Spain. 93 wood mice from 4 different populations (2 per habitat type) were live-trapped...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Mumeko C Tsuda, Kazuyo Nagata, Shoko Sagoshi, Sonoko Ogawa
Certain aspects of social behavior help animals make adaptive decisions during encounters with other animals. When mice choose to approach another conspecific, the motivation and preference behind the interaction is not well understood. Furthermore, estrogen and oxytocin are known to influence a wide array of social behaviors, including social motivation and social preference. The present study investigated the effects of estrogen and oxytocin on social preference using aromatase (ArKO), estrogen receptor (ER) α(αERKO), ERβ(βERKO), oxytocin (OTKO), oxytocin receptor (OTRKO) knockout and their respective wild-type (WT) male mice...
June 6, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Yan Chen, Dawei Wang, Ning Li, Xiangfa Hu, Fei Ren, Weili Hao, Ying Song, Xiaohui Liu
Age structure and seasonality influence the population fluctuations of small rodents. Age determines body weight and social experience, while seasonality regulates the duration of the breeding season and onset of sexual maturity in newborn offspring. Therefore, reproductive success and skew usually occur in different age groups. Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) is a social, short lived, and seasonal breeding small rodent with a dramatic seasonal population fluctuation, but reproductive skew is not fully understood in this species...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Tatyana V Moskvina, Michail Yu Shchelkanov, Mariya A Begun
There have been few reports on the diversity and prevalence of parasitic fauna of the endangered Siberian tiger, which inhabits the territory of the Russian Far East. The present review attempts to summarize the information about the parasitic fauna of wild Siberian tigers, which includes 15 helminths and 3 protozoan species. The most prevalent parasitic species was found to be Toxocara cati, followed by Toxascaris leonina. Another commonly recorded Platyhelminth species is Paragonimus westermani, which causes a lethal infection of the lung parenchyma in Siberian tigers...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Enith Espinosa, Kathleen S Curtis
Estrogens are well-known to increase locomotor activity by laboratory rodents; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We utilized voluntary wheel-running by female rats as an index of locomotor behavior to investigate this issue. We first determined whether the estrogen-induced increase in locomotion was susceptible to inhibition by a physiological challenge, and next whether it was associated with dopaminergic activation in the central reward area, Nucleus Accumbens. Ovariectomized rats were given estradiol or the oil vehicle and housed in cages with or without running wheels...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Emma-Louise Cole, James J Waggitt, Anders Hedenstrom, Marco Piano, Mark D Holton, Luca Börger, Emily L C Shepard
Animal-attached technologies can be powerful means to quantify space-use and behaviour, however, there are also ethical implications associated with capturing and instrumenting animals. Furthermore, tagging approaches are not necessarily well-suited for examining the movements of multiple individuals within specific, local areas of interest. Here, we assess a method of quantifying animal space use based on a modified theodolite with an inbuilt laser rangefinder. Using a database of > 4,200 tracks of migrating birds, we show that detection distance increases with bird body mass (range 5 g - >10 kg)...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jiarui Chen, Gonghua Lin, Wen Qin, Jingyan Yan, Tongzuo Zhang, Jianping Su
Geographical barriers and distance can reduce gene exchange among animals, resulting in genetic divergence of geographically isolated populations. The habitats of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has a geographical range of approximately 1,600 km across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) with a series tall mountains and big rivers. However, previously studies indicated that there was little genetic differentiation among their geographically delineated populations. To better understand the genetic structure of P...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Fanglei Shi, Hui Wang, Atsuko Yamaguchi, Baowei Zhang, Jie Zhang
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Nan Wu, Yanjie Su
Humans are the most prosocial primate species and they often exhibit high levels of prosocial behavior toward genetically unrelated individuals. Traditional evolutionary theories are not sufficient to explain the individual differences and mechanisms related to prosociality. In this study, we focused on the gene-situation interaction in prosocial behaviors, and the patterns of genotype variance related to cooperation and comforting in different situations. We explored the interaction between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and situations, and the genotype variance under low and high prosociality situations between outgroup and ingroup recipients in a sample of 422 Chinese males...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Rory P Wilson, Mark Holton, Vianney L Wilson, Richard Gunner, Brenda Tysse, Gwendoline I Wilson, Flavio Quintana, Carlos Duarte, D Michael Scantlebury
Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Michael J Butler, Lisa A Eckel
Eating is a basic motivated behavior that provides fuel for the body and supports brain function. To ensure survival, the brain's feeding circuits are tuned to monitor peripheral energy balance and promote food-seeking behavior when energy stores are low. The brain's bias toward a positive energy state, which is necessary to ensure adequate nutrition during times of food scarcity, is evolutionarily conserved across mammalian species and is likely to drive overeating in the presence of a palatable, energy-dense diet...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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