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Integrative Zoology

Michał Bogdziewicz, Raul Bonal, Josep M Espelta, Ewa M Kalemba, Michael A Steele, Rafał Zwolak
Species introduced to habitats outside their native range often escape control by their natural enemies. Besides competing with native species, an alien species might also affect the native herbivores by introducing a new source of different quality food. Here, we describe the case of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) invasion in Europe. We collected data on insect (moth Cydia spp. and weevil Curculio spp.) seed predation of northern red oak in its native (USA, North America) and invasive (Poland, Europe) range, as well as for sessile oaks (Q...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Lee F G Gutowsky, Steven J Cooke
The stress axis in teleost fish attempts to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of allostatic loading. However, stress axis induction has been associated with a higher predation rate in fish. To date, the physiological and behavioural factors associated with this outcome are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of experimental cortisol elevation on anti-predator behaviour and physiological responses to predator presence. We hypothesized that semi-chronic cortisol elevation would increase susceptibility to predation by increasing stress-induced risk taking behaviours...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Samuel D Hill, Achyut Aryal, Matthew D M Pawley, Weihong Ji
Song plays a fundamental role in intraspecific communication in songbirds. The temporal and structural components of songs can vary in different habitats. These include urban habitats where anthropogenic sounds and alteration of habitat structure can significantly affect songbird vocal behavior. Urban-rural variations in song complexity, song length and syllable rate are not fully understood. In this study, using the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) as a model, we investigated urban-rural variation in song complexity, song length, syllable rate, syllable length and inter-syllable interval...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Rachmat B Suba, Nils G P Beveridge, Wawan Kustiawan, Geert R de Snoo, Hans H de Iongh
The Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) was identified as a genetically distinct sub-species of the Asian elephant (E. maximus) (Fernando et al. 2003), possibly related to the Javan elephant, which became extinct following the disappearance of the Java-Borneo connection at the last glacial maximum (Cranbook et al. 2008). Nevertheless, Elephas maximus has been listed as an endangered species (EN) on the Global IUCN Red List since 1986 (IUCN 2016). Under Indonesian Law (Government Regulation No. 7/1999 for Preservation of Fauna and Flora), the Bornean elephant is also listed as an endangered species (Azmi & Gunaryadi 2011)...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Paul E Nachtigall, Alexander Ya Supin, Aude F Pacini, Ronald A Kastelein
Hearing sensitivity change was investigated when a warning sound preceded a loud sound in the alse killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) beluga whale (Delphinaperus leucas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Hearing sensitivity was easured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the est/warning stimuli preceded a loud sound, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased elative to the baseline by 13 to17 dB. Experiments with multiple frequencies of exposure and hift provided evidence of different amounts of hearing change depending on frequency, ndicating that the hearing sensation level changes were not likely due to a simple stapedial eflex...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Andrew W Bartlow, Salvatore J Agosta, Rachel Curtis, Xianfeng Yi, Michael A Steele
Fitness of parents and offspring is affected by offspring size. In oaks (Quercus spp.), acorns vary considerably in size across, and within, species. Seed size influences dispersal and establishment of oaks, but it is not known whether size imparts tolerance to seed predators. Here, we examine the relative extent to which cotyledon size serves as both a means for sustaining partial consumption and energy reserves for developing seedlings during early stages of establishment. Acorns of six oak species were damaged to simulate acorn predation by vertebrate and invertebrate seed predators...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Haifeng Gu, Qingjian Zhao, Zhibin Zhang
The scatter-hoarding behavior of granivorous rodents plays an important role in seed dispersal and seedling regeneration of trees, as well as the evolution of several well-known mutualisms between trees and rodents in forest ecosystems. Because it is difficult to identify seed hoarders and pilferers under field conditions by traditional methods, the full costs incurred and benefits accrued by scatter-hoarding have not been fully evaluated in most systems. By using infrared radiation camera tracking and seed tagging, we investigated the benefits and losses of scatter-hoarded seeds (Camellia oleifera) for 3 sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco, Niviventer confucianus and Leopoldamys edwardsi) in a subtropical forest of Southwest China during 2013 to 2015...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Qiong Chen, Kyle W Tomlinson, Lin Cao, Bo Wang
Fragmentation influences the population dynamics and community composition of vertebrate animals. Fragmentation effects on rodent species in forests may, in turn, affect seed predation and dispersal of many plant species. Previous studies have usually addressed this question by monitoring a single species, and their results are contradictory. Very few studies have discussed the fragmentation effect on rodent-seed interaction among tree species with different seed sizes, which can significantly influence rodent foraging preference and seed fate...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Ke Deng, Wei Liu, Dehua Wang
Animals often interact non-randomly with conspecifics, and association preferences can differ across life-history stages to maximize individuals' fitness. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are a social rodent that live in highly seasonal habitats and display seasonal fluctuations in population density, growth rate and the size of overlapped home ranges. Nevertheless, whether gerbils modify their social relationships at different life-history stages remains unknown. Here, we used social network analysis to examine whether social associations differ between the sexes and between life-history stages in a wild population of Mongolian gerbils...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kim Valenta, Dennis Twinomugisha, Kathleen Godfrey, Cynthia Liu, Valérie A M Schoof, Tony L Goldberg, Colin A Chapman
Globally, habitat degradation is accelerating, especially in the tropics. Changes to interface habitats can increase environmental overlap among nonhuman primates, people, and domestic animals and change stress levels in wildlife, leading to changes in their risk of parasite infections. However, the direction and consequences of these changes are unclear, since animals may benefit by exploiting human resources (e.g., improving nutritional health by eating nutritious crops) and decreasing susceptibility to infection, or interactions with humans may lead to chronic stress and increased susceptibility to infection...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Giovanni Amori, Alessandra Maria Bissattini, Spartaco Gippoliti, Leonardo Vignoli, Luigi Maiorano, Luca Luiselli
Monospecific and bispecific genera are of special concern as they represent unique phylogenetic/evolutionary trajectories within larger clades. In addition, as phylogenetically older taxa are supposed to be exposed to higher rarity and extinction risk, monospecific and bispecific genera may be intrinsically more prone to extinction risks than multispecies genera, although extinction risks also depend on the ecological and biological strategy of the species. Here, the distribution across biogeographical zones and the levels of threat to 2 speciose orders of mammals (monospecific and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha) are investigated in order to highlight major patterns at the worldwide scale...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Annamaria Nocita, Elena Tricarico, Sandro Bertolino
Inland waters are highly vulnerable to the introduction and spread of non-native species, due to heavy human use of aquatic ecosystems and the natural linkages among streams and lakes. This is particularly noticeable in freshwater fish communities. To better evaluate how these communities are affected by non-native species introductions, we conducted a fine-scale analysis of the changes in Italian freshwater fish assemblages after species introduction. For this analysis, we collected information on fish species present in 44 basins...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Aleksandra Wróbel, Rafał Zwolak
The sizes of both seed dispersers and seeds are traits that are likely to interact to influence seed fate in many synzoochoric plant species. Here, we examined whether members of a granivorous rodent community consisting of species of different body size vary in their effectiveness as seed dispersers, and how this relationship may be altered by seed size. We marked northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorns with plastic tags and placed them in size-selective rodent exclosures. The exclosures allowed differential access of rodent groups based on different body size: (i) small (e...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Clare R Jones, Renee P Lorica, James M Villegas, Angelee F Ramal, Finbarr G Horgan, Grant R Singleton, Alexander M Stuart
Rodents are globally important pre-harvest pests of rice. In Southeast Asia, rodent damage to growing rice crops is commonly concentrated towards the center of rice fields, away from the field edge, resulting in a clear pattern known as the "stadium effect." To further understand this behavior of rodent pests and to develop recommendations for future research and management, we examined the relation between giving-up densities (GUDs) and damage patterns. In Tanay, Luzon, Philippines, GUD trays containing pieces of coconut in a matrix of sand were placed at 4 different distances from the field edge to quantify the perceived risk of predation in a rice field pest, Rattus tanezumi...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Maria Rita Palombo
Since the time of Darwin (1859) and Wallace (1869), islands have been regarded by scientists as a prime target for scrutinizing the forces that may influence evolution and diversification and important elements in biogeographic studies. This research aims to scrutinize whether and to what extent the composition and structure of past mammal insular faunas and their changes through time, may provide sound clues for inferring the paleogeographical evolution of a region. As a case study I have to critically analyzed the dynamics shown by the Plio-Pleistocene mammalian fauna of three Western Mediterranean insular districts, Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and Sicily, each characterized by its on peculiar paleobiogeographical evolutionary history...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kui Li, Xiaohui Sun, Meixiu Chen, Yingying Sun, Ran Tian, Zhengfei Wang, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
The diversity of body plan of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1, and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Qi Kou, Jun Chen, Xinzheng Li, Lisheng He, Yong Wang
Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m near Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from the Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by: the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Xinzheng Li
This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Fei Xu, Guanhua Liu, Yali Si
Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and the arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. Using linear regression models, this study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of 9 waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Yury Y Dgebuadze, Ivan V Bashinskiy
There are many locations in Russia where Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations have been restored. As a keystone species, beavers provide wide-ranging direct and indirect impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In particular, beaver-created ponds are sites for spawning and nursery places for tadpoles of the brown frogs (genus Rana). Because of such impacts, study techniques for assessing aquatic organism abundance are being developed. We compared two methods for estimating tadpole abundance: traditional catches by dipnet and electrofishing...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
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