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Integrative Zoology

Haifeng Gu, Qingjian Zhao, Zhibin Zhang
Scatter-hoarding behavior of granivorous rodents plays an important role in seed dispersal and seedling regeneration of trees, as well as the evolution of several well-known mutualisms between trees and rodents in forest ecosystems. Because it is difficult to identify seed hoarders and pilferers under field conditions by traditional methods, the full costs incurred and benefits accrued by scatter-hoarding have not been fully evaluated in most systems. By using infrared radiation camera tracking and seed tagging, we investigated the comprehensive benefits and losses of scatter-hoarded seeds (Camellia oleifera) for three sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco, Niviventer confucianus and Leopoldamys edwardsi) in a subtropical forest of Southwest China during 2013 through 2015...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Qiong Chen, Kyle W Tomlinson, Lin Cao, Bo Wang
Fragmentation influences the population dynamics and community composition of vertebrate animals. Fragmentation effects on rodent species in forests may in turn affect seed predation and dispersal of many plant species. Previous studies have usually addressed this question by monitoring a single species, and their results are contradictory. Very few studies have discussed the fragmentation effect on rodent-seed interaction among tree species with different seed sizes, which can significantly influence rodent foraging preference and seed fate...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Maria Rita Palombo
Since the time of Darwin (1859) and Wallace (1869), islands have been regarded by scientists as a prime target for scrutinizing the forces that may influence evolution and diversification and important elements in biogeographic studies. This research aims to scrutinize whether and to what extent the composition and structure of past mammal insular faunas and their changes through time, may provide sound clues for inferring the paleogeographical evolution of a region. As a case study I have to critically analyzed the dynamics shown by the Plio-Pleistocene mammalian fauna of three Western Mediterranean insular districts, Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and Sicily, each characterized by its on peculiar paleobiogeographical evolutionary history...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Ke Deng, Wei Liu, De-Hua Wang
Animals often interact non-randomly with conspecifics, and association preferences can differ across life-history stages to maximize individuals' fitness. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are a social rodent that live in highly seasonal habitats and display seasonal fluctuations in population density, growth rate and the size of overlapped home ranges. Nevertheless, whether gerbils modify their social relationships at different life-history stages remains unknown. Here, we used social network analysis to examine whether social associations differ between the sexes and between life-history stages in a wild population of Mongolian gerbils...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kim Valenta, Dennis Twinomugisha, Kathleen Godfey, Cynthia Liu, Valérie A M Schoof, Tony L Goldberg, Colin A Chapman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kui Li, Xiaohui Sun, Meixiu Chen, Yingying Sun, Ran Tian, Zhengfei Wang, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
The diversity of body plan of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1, and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Qi Kou, Jun Chen, Xinzheng Li, Lisheng He, Yong Wang
Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m near Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from the Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by: the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Xinzheng Li
This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Fei Xu, Guanhua Liu, Yali Si
Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and the arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. Using linear regression models, this study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of 9 waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Yury Y Dgebuadze, Ivan V Bashinskiy
There are many locations in Russia where Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations have been restored. As a keystone species, beavers provide wide-ranging direct and indirect impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In particular, beaver-created ponds are sites for spawning and nursery places for tadpoles of the brown frogs (genus Rana). Because of such impacts, study techniques for assessing aquatic organism abundance are being developed. We compared two methods for estimating tadpole abundance: traditional catches by dipnet and electrofishing...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Sze-Wing Yiu, Francesca Parrini, Leszek Karczmarski, Mark Keith
Understanding of animal spatial behavior is essential for informed management decisions. In southern Africa, reintroduction of lions (Panthera leo) to small reserves (<1000 km(2) ) has increased since the early 2000s, however studies on their ranging behavior in these enclosed systems remain lacking. We applied Time Local Convex Hull (T-LoCoH) methods to study the home range establishment and utilization of 11 lions reintroduced to Dinokeng Game Reserve, South Africa, during 2011 through 2014. Lions established home ranges close to their release sites and during the following 3 years their home range sizes continued to increase, but in each individual case the size remained smaller than half of the reserve area (<70 km(2) )...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Jan Šklíba, Tereza Vlasatá, Matěj Lövy, Ema Hrouzková, Yonas Meheretu, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Radim Šumbera
Rodents with prevailing subterranean activity usually play an important role in the ecosystems of which they are a part due to the combined effect of herbivory and soil perturbation. This is the case for the giant root-rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus endemic to the Afroalpine ecosystem of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. We studied the impact of root-rats on various ecosystem features within a 3.5-ha study locality dominated by Alchemilla pasture, which represents an optimal habitat for this species, in 2 periods of a year...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Daemin Kim, M Vincent Hirt, Yong-Jin Won, Andrew M Simons
The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Wen-Qi Tang, Bo Zhao, Ye Chen, Wei-Guo Du
The response of embryos to unpredictable hypoxia is critical for successful embryonic development, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of such responses in reptiles with different types of eggshell. We experimentally generated external regional hypoxia by sealing either the upper- or bottom-half of the surface area of eggs in two species of reptiles [snake (Dinodon rufozonatum) with parchment eggshell and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) with rigid eggshell], then monitored growth pattern of the opaque white patch in turtle eggs, embryonic heart rate, developmental rate, and hatchling traits in turtle and snake eggs in response to external regional hypoxia...
May 15, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Giovanni Amori, Alessandra Maria Bissattini, Spartaco Gippoliti, Leonardo Vignoli, Luigi Maiorano, Luca Luiselli
Mono-and bispecific genera are of special concern as they represent unique phylogenetic/evolutionary trajectories within larger clades. In addition, as phylogenetically older taxa are supposed to be exposed to higher rarity and extinction risk, mono- and bispecific genera may be intrinsically more prone to extinction risks than multispecies genera, although extinction risks also depend on the ecological and biological strategy of the species. Here, the distribution across biogeographical zones and the threatening levels of two speciose orders of mammals (mono- and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha) are investigated in order to highlight major patterns at the worldwide scale...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Annamaria Nocita, Elena Tricarico, Sandro Bertolino
Inland waters are highly vulnerable to the introduction and spread of non-native species, due to heavy human use of aquatic ecosystems and the natural linkages among streams and lakes. This is particularly noticeable in freshwater fish communities. To better evaluate how these communities are affected by non-native species introductions, we conducted a fine scale analysis of the changes in Italian freshwater fish assemblages after species introduction. For this analysis, we collected information on fish species present in 44 basins...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
L Santini, A Benítez-López, G F Ficetola, M A J Huijbregts
Body mass is rarely recorded in amphibians, and other body measurements (e.g. Snout to vent length, SVL) are generally collected instead. However length measurements, when used as proxies of body mass in comparative analyses, are problematic if different taxa and morphotypes are included. We developed allometric relationships to derive body mass from SVL measurements. We fitted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Square models for frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata) and for several families separately. We tested whether allometric relationships differed between species with different habitat preferences and between morphs in salamanders...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Aleksandra Wróbel, Rafał Zwolak
The sizes of both seed dispersers and seeds are traits that are likely to interact to influence seed fate in many synzoochoric plant species. Here, we examined whether members of a granivorous rodent community consisting of species of different body size vary in their effectiveness as seed dispersers, and how this relationship may be altered by seed size. We marked Northern red oak (Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753) acorns with plastic tags and placed them in size-selective rodent exclosures. The exclosures allowed differential access of rodent groups based on different body size: (1) small (e...
May 10, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kanchan Thapa, Marcella J Kelly
While there are numerous wildlife ecology studies in lowland areas of Nepal, there are no in-depth studies of the hilly Churia habitat even though it comprises 7642 km(2) of potential wildlife habitat across the Terai Arc. We investigated tiger, leopard and prey densities across this understudied habitat. Our camera trapping survey covered 536 km(2) of Churia and surrounding areas within Chitwan National Park (CNP). We used 161 trapping locations and accumulated 2097 trap-nights in a 60-day survey period during the winter season of 2010-2011...
May 2017: Integrative Zoology
Zuobing Zhang, Ruxin Song, Xiao Xing, Lan Wang, Cuijuan Niu
Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is a commercially important species in Asian countries. Knowledge of its nutritional requirements and physiology is essential to its feed production. However, the lack of functional characterization of the intestine prevents well understanding of its absorption and utilization of nutritional materials. To solve this problem, this work utilized anatomical and histological method to characterize 9 segments sampled along the anterior-posterior axis of the intestine...
March 8, 2017: Integrative Zoology
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