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Integrative Zoology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316349/adjusting-to-climate-acclimation-adaptation-and-developmental-plasticity-in-physiological-traits-of-a-tropical-rainforest-lizard
#1
John Llewelyn, Stewart L Macdonald, Craig Moritz, Felipe Martins, Amberlee Hatcher, Ben L Phillips
The impact of climate change may be felt most keenly by tropical ectotherms. In these taxa, it is argued, thermal specialisation means a given shift in temperature will have a larger effect on fitness. For species with limited dispersal ability, the impact of climate change depends on the capacity for their climate-relevant traits to shift. Such shifts can occur through genetic adaptation, various forms of plasticity, or a combination of these processes. Here we assess the extent and causes of shifts in seven physiological traits in a tropical lizard, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri)...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316314/an-integrated-tool-for-microsatellite-isolation-and-validation-from-the-reference-genome-and-their-application-in-the-study-of-breeding-turnover-in-an-endangered-avian-population
#2
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine d'URBAN-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316305/early-developmental-exposure-to-inorganic-mercury-does-not-alter-affiliative-behavior-of-adult-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster-walker-1842
#3
Yue Chen, Robert Lewis, J Thomas Curtis
Mercury chloride exposure via drinking water in adult male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster Walker 1842) has been shown to alter their social behavior. Here, we examined potential disruption of adult social behavior in prairie voles that were exposed to 60 ppm mercury during early development. We used a cross-fostering approach to test the effects of mercury exposure 1) from conception until birth; 2) from birth until weaning; and 3) from conception until weaning, on adult affiliative behavior. Untreated and mercury-treated voles were given the option of remaining in an empty cage or affiliating with a same-sex conspecific in a three hour choice test...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316302/oxygen-supply-did-not-affect-how-lizards-responded-to-thermal-stress
#4
Agustin Camacho Guerrero, John M VandenBrooks, Angela Riley, Rory S Telemeco, Michael J Angilletta
Zoologists rely on mechanistic niche models of behavioral thermoregulation to understand how animals respond to climate change. These models predict that species will need to disperse to higher altitudes to persist in a warmer world. However, thermal stress and thus thermoregulatory behavior may depend on atmospheric oxygen as well as environmental temperatures. Severe hypoxia causes animals to prefer lower body temperatures, which could be interpreted as evidence that oxygen supply limits heat tolerance. Such a constraint could prevent animals from successfully dispersing to high elevations during climate change...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316299/survival-in-spatially-variable-thermal-environments-consequences-of-induced-thermal-defense
#5
Mark Denny
As Earth's climate warms, plants and animals are likely to encounter an increased frequency and severity of extreme thermal events, and the ensuing destruction is likely to play an important role in structuring ecological communities. However, accurate prediction of the population-scale consequences of extreme thermal events requires detailed knowledge of the small-scale interaction between individual organisms and their thermal environment. In this study I propose a simple model that allows one to explore how individual-to-individual variation in body temperature and thermal physiology determines what fraction of a population will be killed by an extreme thermal event...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316294/the-effects-of-sun-compass-error-on-spatial-search-by-clark-s-nutcrackers
#6
Debbie M Kelly, Ken Cheng, Russell Balda, Alan C Kamil
Animals employ compasses during navigation, but little attention has been paid to how accuracy is maintained in the face of compass error, inevitable in biological systems. The use of multiple landmarks may minimize the effect of compass error. We allowed Clark's nutcrackers to cache seeds in an outdoor aviary with either one or four landmarks present, and subsequently subjected them to small clock-shifts mimicking the effects of compass error. As predicted, results showed a significant decrease in search accuracy following the clock-shift when one landmark was present but not when four landmarks were present...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#7
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316266/inference-by-exclusion-in-the-red-tailed-black-cockatoo-calyptorhynchus-banksii
#8
Lorraine Subias, Andrea S Griffin, David Guez
Inference by exclusion is the ability to select a given option by excluding the others. When designed appropriately, tests of this ability can reveal choices that cannot be explained by associative processes. Over the past decade, exclusion reasoning has been explored in several non-human taxonomic groups including birds, mainly in Corvids and Parrots. To increase our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of exclusion reasoning and therefore its evolution, we investigated exclusion performances in Red-tailed Black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii), an Australian relative of the Goffin cockatoo (Cacatua goffinia), using a food-finding task...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316260/genetic-origin-and-dispersal-of-the-invasive-soybean-aphid-inferred-from-population-genetic-analysis-and-approximate-bayesian-computation
#9
Fang Fang, Jing Chen, Li-Yun Jiang, Yan-Hua Qu, Ge-Xia Qiao
Biological invasion is considered one of the most important global environmental problems. Knowledge of the source and dispersal routes of invasion could facilitate the eradication and control of invasive species. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is one of the most destructive soybean pests. For effective management of this pest, we conducted genetic analyses and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to determine the origins and dispersal of the aphid species, as well as the source of its invasion in the USA, using eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316239/distribution-and-space-use-of-seed-dispersing-rodents-in-central-pyrenees-implications-for-genetic-diversity-conservation-and-plant-recruitment
#10
Jon Urgoiti, Alberto Muñoz, Josep Maria Espelta, Raúl Bonal
The function and conservation of many forest ecosystems depend on the distribution and diversity of the community of rodents that consume and disperse seeds. The habitat preferences and interactions are especially relevant in alpine systems where such granivorous rodents reach the southernmost limit of their distribution and are especially sensitive to global warming. We analysed the community of granivorous rodents in the Pyrenees, one of the southernmost mountain ranges of Europe. Rodent species were identified by DNA with particular attention to the Apodemus species, which are prominent seed-dispersing rodents in Europe...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316228/perception-of-artificial-conspecifics-by-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps
#11
Anna Frohnwieser, Thomas W Pike, John C Murray, Anna Wilkinson
Artificial animals are increasingly used as conspecific stimuli in animal behavior research. However, researchers often have an incomplete understanding of how the species under study perceives conspecifics, and hence which features needed for a stimulus to be perceived appropriately. To investigate the features to which bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) attend, we measured their lateralized eye use when assessing a successive range of stimuli. These ranged through several stages of realism in artificial conspecifics, to see how features such as color, the presence of eyes, body shape and motion influence behavior...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316222/potential-impacts-of-shipping-noise-on-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-and-implications-for-regulation-and-mitigation-a-review
#12
Songhai Li, Mingming Liu, Lijun Dong, Jianchen Dong, Ding Wang
Shipping noise is a widespread and relatively loud sound source among human-induced underwater sounds. The impacts of shipping noise are of special concern for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), as they inhabit shallow and nearshore habitats and are highly dependent on sound for survival. This study synthesizes our current understanding of the potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins combined with knowledge on sound production and hearing of these animals and the impacts of noise on other whales and dolphins...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168625/genetic-adaptation-as-a-biological-buffer-against-climate-change-potential-and-limitations
#13
Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks, Kristien I Brans
Climate change profoundly impacts ecosystems and their biota, resulting in range shifts, novel interactions, food web alterations, changed intensities of host-parasite interactions, and extinctions. An increasing number of studies documented evolutionary changes in, amongst others, phenology and thermal tolerance. In this opinion paper, we argue that, while evolutionary responses have the potential to provide a buffer against extinctions or range shifts, a number of constraints and complexities blur this simple prediction...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168624/comparative-studies-of-critical-physiological-limits-and-vulnerability-to-environmental-extremes-in-small-ectotherms-how-much-environmental-control-is-needed
#14
Ary A Hoffmann, Carla M Sgrò
Researchers and practitioners are increasingly using comparative assessments of critical thermal and physiological limits to assess the relative vulnerability of ectothermic species to extreme thermal and aridity conditions occurring under climate change. In most assessments of vulnerability, critical limits are compared across taxa exposed to different environmental and developmental conditions. However, many aspects of vulnerability should ideally be compared when species are exposed to the same environmental conditions, allowing a partitioning of sources of variation such as used in quantitative genetics...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168623/factors-shaping-life-history-traits-of-two-proovigenic-parasitoids
#15
Michal Segoli, Shucun Sun, Dori E Nava, Jay A Rosenheim
What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#16
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168617/carnivore-stable-carbon-isotope-niches-reflect-predator-prey-size-relationships-in-african-savannas
#17
Jacqueline Codron, Nico L Avenant, Corli Wigley-Coetsee, Daryl Codron
Predator-prey size relationships are among the most important patterns underlying the structure and function of ecological communities. Indeed, these relationships have already been shown to be important for understanding patterns of macroevolution and differential extinction in the terrestrial vertebrate fossil record. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is a powerful remote approach to examining animal diets and palaeodiets. The approach is based on the principle that isotope compositions of consumer tissues reflect those of their prey...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168616/lineage-specific-evolution-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-in-the-giant-and-red-pandas-implies-dietary-adaptation
#18
Lei Shan, Qi Wu, Le Wang, Lei Zhang, Fuwen Wei
Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) mediate bitterness perception in mammals. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution have occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168615/the-impact-of-rewilding-species-introductions-and-climate-change-on-the-structure-and-function-of-the-yukon-boreal-forest-ecosystem
#19
Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin, Thomas S Jung, Charles J Krebs, Shawn Taylor
Community and ecosystem changes are happening in the pristine boreal forest ecosystem of the Yukon for two reasons. First, climate change is affecting the abiotic environment (temperature, rainfall, growing season) and driving changes in plant productivity and predator-prey interactions. Secondly, simultaneously change is occurring because of mammal species reintroductions and rewilding. The key ecological question is the impact these faunal changes will have on trophic dynamics. Primary productivity in the boreal forest is increasing because of climatic warming, but plant species composition is unlikely to change significantly during the next 50-100 years...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168614/eastern-gray-squirrels-are-consistent-shoppers-of-seed-traits-insights-from-discrete-choice-experiments
#20
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
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