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Integrative Zoology

Saúl López-Alcaide, Miguel Nakamura, Eric N Smith, Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Sceloporus lizards depend on external heat to achieve their preferred temperature (Tse1 ) for performing physiological processes. Evidence both in the field and laboratory indicates that pregnant females of this genus select body temperatures (Tb ) lower than 34°C as higher temperatures may be lethal to embryos. Therefore, thermoregulation is crucial for successful embryo development. Given the increase in global air temperature, it is expected that the first compensatory response of species that inhabit tropical climates will be behavioral thermoregulation...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Qi Kou, Jun Chen, Xinzheng Li, Lisheng He, Yong Wang
Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m from Hainan Island, northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Marta Peláez, Alfonso San Miguel, Carlos Rodríguez-Vigal, Ramón Perea
Understanding the factors that lead to variation in the timing of breeding in widespread species such as red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) is crucial to predict possible responses of wild populations to different climate scenarios. Here, we sought to further understand the causes of inter-annual variation in the reproduction timing of female deer in Mediterranean environments. An integrative approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual, population and climate traits in the date of conception of free ranging deer, based on a dataset of 829 hinds culled during 12 years...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Xinzheng Li
This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of the deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, six new species were described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa Gong, Li & Qiu, 2014, Saccocalyx microhexactin Gong, Li & Qiu, 2015, and Semperella jiaolongae Gong, Li & Qiu, 2015 as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae Dong & Li, 2015, Uroptychus spinulosus Dong & Li, 2015 and Globospongicola jiaolongi Jiang, Kou & Li, 2015, and some newly recorded species from the South China Sea were reported...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
David T Booth
Since the 1980s it has been known that incubation temperature influences the sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings emerging from their nests, and there has been much speculation on how global climate change might threaten sea turtle populations by raising nest temperatures and causing highly female biased hatchling sex ratios. More recently, studies have indicated that incubation temperature can also influence the size and locomotor performance of sea turtle hatchlings. Here I review recent studies that have explored the influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality in terms of hatchling morphology and locomotor performance...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Sabine C Hansen, Caroline Stolter, Christian Imholt, Jens Jacob
Rodents, including common voles (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778) and house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) cause immense pre- and post-harvest losses. Therefore, developing methods that mitigate these losses while maintaining their role in ecosystems is a priority. Several plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) which significantly reduce food intake of both species under laboratory conditions have been identified. However before these can be used in rodent pest management, they must be tested under more natural conditions where other food sources are available...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Clare R Jones, Ma Renee P Lorica, James M Villegas, Angelee F Ramal, Finbarr G Horgan, Grant R Singleton, Alexander M Stuart
Rodents are globally important pre-harvest pests of rice. In South-east Asia, rodent damage to growing rice crops is commonly concentrated towards the center of rice fields, away from the field edge resulting in a clear pattern known as the 'stadium effect'. To further understand this behavior of rodent pests and develop recommendations for future research and management, we examined the relation between giving-up densities (GUDs) and damage patterns. In Tanay, Luzon, Philippines, GUD trays containing pieces of coconut in a matrix of sand were placed at four different distances from the field edge to quantify the perceived risk of predation in a rice field pest, Rattus tanezumi...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Fei Xu, Guanhua Liu, Yali Si
Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. This study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of nine waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013, using linear regression models...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Aleksandra A Panyutina, Alexander N Kuznetsov, Ilya A Volodin, Alexey V Abramov, Irina B Soldatova
The means of orientation is studied in the Vietnamese pygmy dormouse Typhlomys chapensis, a poorly known enigmatic semi-fossorial semi-arboreal rodent. Data on eye structure are presented, which prove that Typhlomys (translated as "the blind mouse") is incapable of object vision - the retina is folded and retains no more than 2 500 ganglion cells in the focal plane, and the optic nerve is subject to gliosis. Hence, Typhlomys has no other means for rapid long-range orientation among tree branches other than echolocation...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Wenyi Zhang, Cuijuan Niu, Hui Jia, Xutong Chen
Acute cold exposure may disturb physiological homeostasis of the body in ectotherms. By now, there is no information about the effects of cold exposure on homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or antioxidant defense response in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. In this study, P.sinensis juveniles were acclimated at 28 °C, transferred to 8 °C as cold exposure for 12 hours, moved back to 28 °C rewarming for 24 hours. We measured ROS level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain, liver, kidney and spleen at 2 hours, 12 hours cold exposure, and the end of rewarming...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Laia Planella, Sandra Heras, Manuel Vera, José Luís García-Marín, María Inés Roldán
The crucial step of most of the current genetic studies is the extraction of DNA with sufficient quantity and quality. Several genomic DNA isolation methods have been described to successfully obtain male DNA from shrimp species. However, all current protocols require invasive handling methods on males for DNA isolation. Using Aristeus antennatus as a model we tested a reliable non-invasive differential DNA extraction method to male DNA isolation from spermatophores attached to female thelycum. The present protocol provides high quality and quantity DNA for PCR amplification and male genotyping...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Yury Y Dgebuadze, Ivan V Bashinskiy
There are many locations in Russia where Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations have been restored. As a keystone species, beavers provide wide-ranging direct and indirect impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In particular, beaver-created ponds are sites for spawning and nursery places for tadpoles of the brown frog (genus Rana). Because of such impacts, study techniques for assessing aquatic organisms abundance are being developed. We compared two methods for estimating tadpole abundance: traditional catches by dipnet and electrofishing...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Hongmao Zhang, Wei Chu, Zhibin Zhang
Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Anna Bonardi, Luca Corlatti, Natalia Bragalanti, Luca Pedrotti
The dynamics of red deer Cervus elaphus populations has been investigated across different environmental conditions, with the notable exception of the European Alps. Although the population dynamics of mountain-dwelling ungulates is typically influenced by the interaction between winter severity and density, the increase of temperatures and the reduction of snowpack occurring on the Alps since the 1980s may be expected to alter this pattern, especially in populations dwelling at medium - low elevations. Taking advantage of a 29-year time series of spring count data, we explored the role of weather stochasticity and density dependence on growth rate and vital rates (mortality and weaning success), and the density-dependent variation in body mass in a red deer population of the Italian Alps...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Megan A Owen, Ronald R Swaisgood, Daniel T Blumstein
Survival and successful reproduction require animals to make critical decisions amidst a naturally dynamic environmental and social background (i.e. "context"). However, human activities have pervasively, and rapidly, extended contextual variation into evolutionarily novel territory, potentially rendering evolved animal decision-making mechanisms and strategies maladaptive. We suggest that explicitly focusing on animal decision-making (ADM), by integrating and applying findings from studies of sensory ecology, cognitive psychology, behavioral economics and eco-evolutionary strategies, may enhance our understanding of, and our ability to predict how, human-driven changes in the environment and population demography will influence animal populations...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Ning Li, Wen Yang, Shubo Fang, Xinhai Li, Zhanchen Liu, Xin Leng, Shuqing An
Although seed dispersal is a key process determining the regeneration and spread of invasive plant populations, few studies have explicitly addressed the link between dispersal vector behavior and seedling recruitment to gain insight into the invasion process within an urban garden context. We evaluated the role of bird vectors in the dispersal of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), a North American herb that is invasive in urban gardens in China. Fruiting P. americana attracted both generalist and specialist bird species that fed on and dispersed its seeds...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Lin Cao, Cong Guo, Jin Chen
The seed predator satiation hypothesis states that high seed abundance can satiate seed predators or seed dispersers, thus promoting seed survival. However, for rapidly germinating seeds in tropical forests, high seed abundance may limit dispersal as the seeds usually remain under parent trees for long periods, which may lead to high mortality due to rodent predation or fungal infestations. By tracking 2 species of rapidly germinating seeds (Pittosporopsis kerrii, family Icacinaceae; Camellia kissi, family Theaceae), which depend on dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, we investigated the effects of seed abundance at the community level on predation and seed dispersal in the tropical forest of Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Southwest China...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
Francisco Carro, Ramón C Soriguer
The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012)...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
María Victoria Vadell, Francisco García Erize, Isabel Elisa Gómez Villafañe
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe cardio pulmonary disease transmitted to humans by sylvan rodents found in natural and rural environments. Disease transmission is closely linked to the ecology of animal reservoirs and abiotic factors such as habitat characteristics, season or climatic conditions. The main goals of this research were: to determine the biotic and abiotic factors affecting richness and abundance of rodent species at different spatial scales, to evaluate different methodologies for studying population of small rodents, and to describe and analyze an ecologically-based rodent management experience in a highly touristic area...
January 2017: Integrative Zoology
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