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Integrative Zoology

Mumeko C Tsuda, Kazuyo Nagata, Shoko Sagoshi, Sonoko Ogawa
Certain aspects of social behavior help animals make adaptive decisions during encounters with other animals. When mice choose to approach another conspecific, the motivation and preference behind the interaction is not well understood. Furthermore, estrogen and oxytocin are known to influence a wide array of social behaviors, including social motivation and social preference. The present study investigated the effects of estrogen and oxytocin on social preference using aromatase (ArKO), estrogen receptor (ER) α(αERKO), ERβ(βERKO), oxytocin (OTKO), oxytocin receptor (OTRKO) knockout and their respective wild-type (WT) male mice...
June 6, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Yan Chen, Dawei Wang, Ning Li, Xiangfa Hu, Fei Ren, Weili Hao, Ying Song, Xiaohui Liu
Age structure and seasonality influence the population fluctuations of small rodents. Age determines body weight and social experience, while seasonality regulates the duration of the breeding season and onset of sexual maturity in newborn offspring. Therefore, reproductive success and skew usually occur in different age groups. Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) is a social, short lived, and seasonal breeding small rodent with a dramatic seasonal population fluctuation, but reproductive skew is not fully understood in this species...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Tatyana V Moskvina, Michail Yu Shchelkanov, Mariya A Begun
There have been few reports on the diversity and prevalence of parasitic fauna of the endangered Siberian tiger, which inhabits the territory of the Russian Far East. The present review attempts to summarize the information about the parasitic fauna of wild Siberian tigers, which includes 15 helminths and 3 protozoan species. The most prevalent parasitic species was found to be Toxocara cati, followed by Toxascaris leonina. Another commonly recorded Platyhelminth species is Paragonimus westermani, which causes a lethal infection of the lung parenchyma in Siberian tigers...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Enith Espinosa, Kathleen S Curtis
Estrogens are well-known to increase locomotor activity by laboratory rodents; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We utilized voluntary wheel-running by female rats as an index of locomotor behavior to investigate this issue. We first determined whether the estrogen-induced increase in locomotion was susceptible to inhibition by a physiological challenge, and next whether it was associated with dopaminergic activation in the central reward area, Nucleus Accumbens. Ovariectomized rats were given estradiol or the oil vehicle and housed in cages with or without running wheels...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Emma-Louise Cole, James J Waggitt, Anders Hedenstrom, Marco Piano, Mark D Holton, Luca Börger, Emily L C Shepard
Animal-attached technologies can be powerful means to quantify space-use and behaviour, however, there are also ethical implications associated with capturing and instrumenting animals. Furthermore, tagging approaches are not necessarily well-suited for examining the movements of multiple individuals within specific, local areas of interest. Here, we assess a method of quantifying animal space use based on a modified theodolite with an inbuilt laser rangefinder. Using a database of > 4,200 tracks of migrating birds, we show that detection distance increases with bird body mass (range 5 g - >10 kg)...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jiarui Chen, Gonghua Lin, Wen Qin, Jingyan Yan, Tongzuo Zhang, Jianping Su
Geographical barriers and distance can reduce gene exchange among animals, resulting in genetic divergence of geographically isolated populations. The habitats of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has a geographical range of approximately 1,600 km across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) with a series tall mountains and big rivers. However, previously studies indicated that there was little genetic differentiation among their geographically delineated populations. To better understand the genetic structure of P...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Fanglei Shi, Hui Wang, Atsuko Yamaguchi, Baowei Zhang, Jie Zhang
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Nan Wu, Yanjie Su
Humans are the most prosocial primate species and they often exhibit high levels of prosocial behavior toward genetically unrelated individuals. Traditional evolutionary theories are not sufficient to explain the individual differences and mechanisms related to prosociality. In this study, we focused on the gene-situation interaction in prosocial behaviors, and the patterns of genotype variance related to cooperation and comforting in different situations. We explored the interaction between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and situations, and the genotype variance under low and high prosociality situations between outgroup and ingroup recipients in a sample of 422 Chinese males...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Rory P Wilson, Mark Holton, Vianney L Wilson, Richard Gunner, Brenda Tysse, Gwendoline I Wilson, Flavio Quintana, Carlos Duarte, D Michael Scantlebury
Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Michael J Butler, Lisa A Eckel
Eating is a basic motivated behavior that provides fuel for the body and supports brain function. To ensure survival, the brain's feeding circuits are tuned to monitor peripheral energy balance and promote food-seeking behavior when energy stores are low. The brain's bias toward a positive energy state, which is necessary to ensure adequate nutrition during times of food scarcity, is evolutionarily conserved across mammalian species and is likely to drive overeating in the presence of a palatable, energy-dense diet...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Robyn S Hetem, Duncan Mitchell, Brenda A de Witt, Linda G Fick, Shane K Maloney, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller
As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus Von Schreber, 1775) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity never have been reported for cheetahs, or indeed for any free-living felid. We report here body temperature and locomotor activity measured with implanted data loggers over seven months in five free-living cheetahs in Namibia...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jing Wen, Song Tan, Dhua Wang, Zhijun Zhao
In the present study, we examined metabolic, morphological, and neurochemical changes in male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) in response to variations in food availability. Males with low and high levels of metabolic rate, MR (L-MR and H-MR), defined by their activity metabolic rates, were compared. In Experiment 1, 36-hrs food deprivation was found to significantly decrease MR levels, body fat content, mass of small and large intestines, and leptin gene expression in the white adipose tissues in male hamsters...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Katherine A Solari, Elizabeth A Hadly
The genus Ochotona (pikas) is a clade of cold-tolerant lagomorphs that includes many high-elevation species. Pikas offer a unique opportunity to study adaptations and potential limitations of an ecologically important mammal to high-elevation hypoxia. We analyzed the evolution of three mitochondrial genes encoding the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in 10 pika species occupying elevations from sea level to 5,000 meters. COX is an enzyme highly reliant on oxygen and essential for cell function. One amino acid property, the equilibrium constant (ionization of COOH), was found to be under selection in the overall protein complex...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Claudia Jorgensen
Adult neurogenesis continues to captivate the curiosity of the scientific community; and researchers seem to have a particular interest in identifying the functional implications of such plasticity. While the majority of research focuses on the association between adult neurogenesis and learning and memory (including spatial learning associated with hippocampal neurogenesis and olfactory discrimination associated with neurogenesis in the olfactory system), the following review will explore the link to motivated behaviors...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Natalia Ramirez-Otarola, Janyra Espinoza, Alexis M Kalergis, Pablo Sabat
During vertebrate development, the immune function is inefficient and is mainly controlled by innate defense. While there have been detailed studies of various aspects of innate immune function, the effects of this function in growth of vertebrates is still not well known. Similarly, there is little information regarding how early endotoxin exposure would affect juvenile phenotypes, specifically in a non-model mammal like a precocial rodent. We evaluated the response to an antigen and its cost in offspring of the rodent Octodon degus...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Zachary V Johnson, Larry J Young
The tremendous diversity of animal behaviors has inspired generations of scientists from an array of biological disciplines. To complement investigations of ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to behavioral evolution, modern computational, genetics, genomics, and neuroscience tools now provide a means to discover the proximate mechanisms upon which natural selection acts to generate behavioral diversity. Social behaviors are motivated behaviors that can differ tremendously between closely related species, suggesting phylogenetic plasticity in their underlying biological mechanisms...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Joacim Näslund, Niklas Wengström, Fredrik Wahlqvist, David Aldvén, Libor Závorka, Johan Höjesjö
Movement activity levels of wild animals often differ consistently among individuals, reflecting different behavioural types. Previous studies have shown that lab-scored activity can predict several ecologically relevant characteristics. In an experiment on wild brown trout S. trutta, spanning from June to October, we investigated how spring swimming activity, measured in a standardized laboratory test, related to relative recapture probability in autumn. Based on lab activity scores, individuals clustered into two groups, which showed contrasting patterns in the size-dependency of their recapture probability...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Caroline M Williams, James R Rocca, Arthur S Edison, David B Allison, Theodore J Morgan, Daniel A Hahn
In insects and other ectotherms, cold temperatures cause a coma resulting from loss of neuromuscular function, during which ionic and metabolic homeostasis are progressively lost. Cold adaptation improves homeostasis during cold exposure, but the ultimate targets of selection are still an open question. Cold acclimation and adaptation remodels mitochondrial metabolism in insects, suggesting that aerobic energy production during cold exposure could be a target of selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that cold adaptation improves the ability to maintain rates of aerobic energy production during cold exposure by using 31 P NMR on live flies...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Raymond B Huey, Lauren B Buckley, Weiguo Du
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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