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Integrative Zoology

Joacim Näslund, Niklas Wengström, Fredrik Wahlqvist, David Aldvén, Libor Závorka, Johan Höjesjö
Movement activity levels of wild animals often differ consistently among individuals, reflecting different behavioural types. Previous studies have shown that lab-scored activity can predict several ecologically relevant characteristics. In an experiment on wild brown trout S. trutta, spanning from June to October, we investigated how spring swimming activity, measured in a standardized laboratory test, related to relative recapture probability in autumn. Based on lab activity scores, individuals clustered into two groups, which showed contrasting patterns in the size-dependency of their recapture probability...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Caroline M Williams, James R Rocca, Arthur S Edison, David B Allison, Theodore J Morgan, Daniel A Hahn
In insects and other ectotherms, cold temperatures cause a coma resulting from loss of neuromuscular function, during which ionic and metabolic homeostasis are progressively lost. Cold adaptation improves homeostasis during cold exposure, but the ultimate targets of selection are still an open question. Cold acclimation and adaptation remodels mitochondrial metabolism in insects, suggesting that aerobic energy production during cold exposure could be a target of selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that cold adaptation improves the ability to maintain rates of aerobic energy production during cold exposure by using 31 P NMR on live flies...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Raymond B Huey, Lauren B Buckley, Weiguo Du
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
María José Tulli, Félix B Cruz
Ectothermic vertebrates are sensitive to thermal fluctuations in the environments where they occur. To buffer these fluctuations, ectotherms use different strategies, including the integument, which is a barrier that minimizes temperature exchange between the inner body and the surrounding air. In lizards, this barrier is constituted by keratinized scales of variable size, shape and texture, and its main function is protection, water loss avoidance and thermoregulation. The size of scales in lizards has been proposed to vary in relation to climatic gradients; however, it has also been observed that in some groups of Iguanian lizards could be related to phylogeny...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jenna van Berkel, Susana Clusella-Trullas
The precision and the extent of behavioral thermoregulation are likely to provide fitness benefits to ectotherms. Yet the factors driving variation in selected or preferred body temperature (Tset ) and its usefulness as a proxy for optimal physiological temperature (Topt ) are still debated. Although Tset is often conserved among closely related species, substantial variation at the individual, population, and species level has also been reported but repeatability (sensu the intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC) of Tset is generally low...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Michael A Steele, XianFeng Yi, Hongmao Zhang
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 23, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Matthew Biddick, K C Burns
Conceptualizing species interactions as networks has broadened our understanding of ecological communities. However, the factors shaping interaction patterns among species, and therefore network structure, remain unclear. One potentially important factor is the matching of phenotypic traits. Here, we tested for trait matching in a bird-flower visitation network from New Zealand. We first quantified overall network structure and tested whether flower size could account for differences in the visitation rates of flowering plants...
March 14, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Aaryn Mustoe, Jack H Taylor, Jeffrey A French
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that mediates a host of physiological and behavioral processes including reproductive physiology and social attachments. While the OT sequence structure is highly conserved among mammals, New World monkeys (NWMs) represent an unusual 'hot spot' in OT structure variability among mammals. At least six distinct OT ligand variants among NWMs exist, yet it is currently unclear whether these evolved structural changes result in meaningful functional consequences. NWMs offer a new area to explore how these modifications to OT and its canonical G-protein coupled OT receptor (OTR) may mediate specific cellular, physiological, and behavioral outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Barry Sinervo, Donald B Miles, Yayong Wu, Fausto R Méndez de la Cruz, Sebastian Kirchoff, Yin Qi
Determining the susceptibility of species to changing thermal niches is a major goal for biologists. In this paper we develop an eco-physiological model of extinction risk under climate change premised on behavioral thermoregulation. Our method downscales operative environmental temperatures, which restrict hours of activity of lizards, hr , for present-day climate (1975) and future climate scenarios (2070). We apply our model using occurrence records of 20 Phrynocephalus lizards (or taxa in species complexes) drawn from literature and museum records...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
David F Sherry, Mélanie F Guigueno
Cowbirds are brood parasites. Females lay their eggs in the nests of other species which then incubate the cowbird eggs and raise the young cowbirds. Finding and returning to heterospecific nests presents cowbirds with a number of cognitive challenges. In some species, such as brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), females but not males, search for and remember the locations of potential host nests. We describe recent research on sex differences in cognition and the hippocampus associated with this sex difference in search for host nests...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Gina M Sawaya, Adam S Goldberg, Michael A Steele, Harmony J Dalgleish
The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time, space, and among species. We examined four tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Q. alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata x C. mollissima) across five sites and three years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders in order to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Lauren M Guillette, Susan D Healy
Determining the role that social learning plays in construction behaviours, such as nest building or tool manufacture, could be improved if more experimental control could be gained over the exact public information that is provided by the demonstrator, to the observing individual. Using video playback allows the experimenter to choose what information is provided, but will only be useful in determining the role of social learning if observers attend to, and learn from, videos in a manner that is similar to live demonstration...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Michael R Kearney, John Deutscher, Jacinta D Kong, Ary A Hoffmann
The phenological response is among the most important traits affecting a species' sensitivity to climate. In insects, strongly seasonal environments often select for a univoltine life-cycle such that one seasonal extreme is avoided as an inactive stage. Through understanding the underlying mechanisms for univoltinism, and the consequences of its failure, we can better predict insect responses to climate change. Here we combine empirical data and simulation studies to investigate the consequences of an unusual diapause mechanism in a parthenogenetic matchstick grasshopper, Warramaba virgo, from arid southern Australia...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Ismael Galván, María Del Mar Delgado, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Rui Lourenço, Vincenzo Penteriani
Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
John Llewelyn, Stewart L Macdonald, Craig Moritz, Felipe Martins, Amberlee Hatcher, Ben L Phillips
The impact of climate change may be felt most keenly by tropical ectotherms. In these taxa, it is argued, thermal specialisation means a given shift in temperature will have a larger effect on fitness. For species with limited dispersal ability, the impact of climate change depends on the capacity for their climate-relevant traits to shift. Such shifts can occur through genetic adaptation, various forms of plasticity, or a combination of these processes. Here we assess the extent and causes of shifts in seven physiological traits in a tropical lizard, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri)...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine d'URBAN-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Yue Chen, Robert Lewis, J Thomas Curtis
Mercury chloride exposure via drinking water in adult male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster Walker 1842) has been shown to alter their social behavior. Here, we examined potential disruption of adult social behavior in prairie voles that were exposed to 60 ppm mercury during early development. We used a cross-fostering approach to test the effects of mercury exposure 1) from conception until birth; 2) from birth until weaning; and 3) from conception until weaning, on adult affiliative behavior. Untreated and mercury-treated voles were given the option of remaining in an empty cage or affiliating with a same-sex conspecific in a three hour choice test...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Agustin Camacho Guerrero, John M VandenBrooks, Angela Riley, Rory S Telemeco, Michael J Angilletta
Zoologists rely on mechanistic niche models of behavioral thermoregulation to understand how animals respond to climate change. These models predict that species will need to disperse to higher altitudes to persist in a warmer world. However, thermal stress and thus thermoregulatory behavior may depend on atmospheric oxygen as well as environmental temperatures. Severe hypoxia causes animals to prefer lower body temperatures, which could be interpreted as evidence that oxygen supply limits heat tolerance. Such a constraint could prevent animals from successfully dispersing to high elevations during climate change...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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