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Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982921/what-stops-practitioners-discussing-medication-breaks-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-identifying-barriers-through-theory-driven-qualitative-research
#1
Kinda Ibrahim, Parastou Donyai
National and international guidelines on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents call for annual reviews to assess continuing need for medication by considering brief periods without medication, referred to as 'Drug holidays'. However, drug holidays are reactively initiated by families, or recommended by practitioners if growth has been suppressed by medication rather than proactively to check the need. There is little evidence of planned, practitioner-initiated drug holidays from methylphenidate...
July 7, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299870/adhd-in-acute-care-psychiatric-inpatients
#2
Katherine L Lines, Joseph Sadek
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and motor hyperactivity. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD, in the general adult population, has been estimated to be 2.8%. Patients with ADHD have a high incidence of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Those with a psychiatric disorder as well as ADHD have more psychosocial difficulties than those without ADHD. Despite knowing that ADHD is often comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses, there are currently no studies elucidating the prevalence of ADHD in the inpatient psychiatric population, nor is there significant information about its impact...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270893/correction-to-is-emotion-recognition-the-only-problem-in-adhd-effects-of-pharmacotherapy-on-face-and-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-adhd
#3
Esra Demirci, Ayten Erdogan
The author would like to correct the error in the publication of the original article. The corrected details are given below for your reading.
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103196/stimulant-rapid-metabolizers-wrong-label-real-phenomena
#4
Margaret D Weiss, Craig B H Surman, Dean Elbe
This is a review of the empirical literature regarding what has been described anecdotally as patients who are 'rapid metabolizers' of stimulant medication. The authors propose that this is a misnomer used to describe two types of atypical pharmacokinetic patterns of response: high-dose responders, short-duration responders and two types of atypical pharmacodynamics patterns of response: patients who develop either acute or chronic tolerance. The authors propose that use of more precise terminology should facilitate both patient education and research to better understand the physiology and clinical management of atypical response patterns to stimulant treatment...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081022/adhd-symptoms-in-healthy-adults-are-associated-with-stressful-life-events-and-negative-memory-bias
#5
Janna N Vrijsen, Indira Tendolkar, Marten Onnink, Martine Hoogman, Aart H Schene, Guillén Fernández, Iris van Oostrom, Barbara Franke
Stressful life events, especially Childhood Trauma, predict ADHD symptoms. Childhood Trauma and negatively biased memory are risk factors for affective disorders. The association of life events and bias with ADHD symptoms may inform about the etiology of ADHD. Memory bias was tested using a computer task in N = 675 healthy adults. Life events and ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. The mediation of the association between life events and ADHD symptoms by memory bias was examined. We explored the roles of different types of life events and of ADHD symptom clusters...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975530/a-case-series-on-the-potential-effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-24-h-heart-rate-variability-and-its-circadian-variation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Reiner Buchhorn, Julian Koenig, Marc N Jarczok, Hanna Eichholz, Christian Willaschek, Julian F Thayer, Michael Kaess
Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity (ADHD) in children is associated with decreased 24-h heart rate variability (HRV). Previous research has shown that supplementation of omega-3-fatty acid increases HRV. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the supplementation of omega-3-fatty acids would increase 24-h HRV in an uncontrolled case series of children with ADHD. HRV was recorded in 18 children and adolescents (age 13.35 ± 2.8 years) before and after omega-3 supplementation. Preliminary results indicate that omega-3 supplementation in children with AD(H)D may reduce mean heart rate and increase its variability...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905267/the-zappel-philipp-a-historical-example-of-adhd-clinics
#7
Michel Bader, Rosemary Tannock, Nouchine Hadjikhani
In his book "Die Geschichte von dem Zappel-Philipp," the German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894) offers a clinical vignette which raises the question of the description of a disobedient child or presenting hyperactivity symptoms. This article describes the historical context and the biographical aspects related to this interesting approach to describing a psychiatric syndrome to children and adults. It also underlines the importance of a global approach of ADHD that considers the familial environment and situational context of symptoms...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875432/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-cortisol-reactivity-in-response-to-a-stressor-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Jaclyn M Kamradt, Allison M Momany, Molly A Nikolas
A substantial literature suggests that abnormal cortisol reactivity may be a vulnerability for deleterious mental health outcomes, including ADHD. ADHD has been linked with difficulty in emotion regulation and increased risk of experiencing stressors, both of which may be related to psychobiological abnormalities (e.g., abnormal cortisol reactivity). Research has been mixed regarding the association between cortisol reactivity and ADHD. Therefore, the present meta-analytic review (k = 12) sought to quantify this association and review the relevant methodological issues and theoretical implications of this area of research...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836147/reduced-emotional-empathy-in-adults-with-subclinical-adhd-evidence-from-the-empathy-and-systemizing-quotient
#9
Y Groen, A E den Heijer, A B M Fuermaier, M Althaus, O Tucha
Studies in children with ADHD suggest impairments in social cognitive functions, whereas studies in adults with ADHD are scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ADHD traits and self-reported social cognitive style in a sample of adults from the general population. For this purpose, a community sample of 685 adults filled out online self-report questionnaires about ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale, ARS), social cognitive functioning and friendships. The Empathy Quotient (EQ) with the subscales Cognitive Empathy (CE), Emotional Empathy (EE) and Social Skills (SS), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were included for measuring social cognitive style and the Friendship Questionnaire (FQ) for the quality of friendships...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663184/performance-based-measures-and-behavioral-ratings-of-executive-function-in-diagnosing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#10
Alexander Tan, Lauren Delgaty, Kayla Steward, Melissa Bunner
Deficits in real-world executive functioning (EF) are a frequent characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the predictive value of using performance-based and behavioral rating measures of EF when diagnosing ADHD remains unclear. The current study investigates the use of performance-based EF measures and a parent-report questionnaire with established ecological validity and clinical utility when diagnosing ADHD. Participants included 21 healthy controls, 21 ADHD-primary inattentive, and 21 ADHD-combined type subjects aged 6-15 years...
April 16, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594723/how-do-children-with-and-without-adhd-talk-about-frustration-use-of-a-novel-emotion-narrative-recall-task
#11
Nicholas D Fogleman, Kirsten D Leaberry, Paul J Rosen, Danielle M Walerius, Kelly Slaughter
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties related to emotional reactivity and regulation. The current study examines differences in the emotional reactivity and regulation of children with and without ADHD in the context of their real-life experiences of negative emotion using a novel ecologically valid methodology. Eighty-three 8-12-year-old children (46 ADHD, 38 non-ADHD) participated in the study. Children completed the negative emotion narrative recall task, a novel task whereby children provided a narrative recall of a real-life event where they experienced negative emotion...
March 28, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556956/hyperactivity-in-mice-lacking-one-allele-of-the-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-67-gene
#12
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
March 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831742/prevalence-of-sexual-dysfunctions-and-other-sexual-disorders-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-compared-to-the-general-population
#13
D Bijlenga, J A Vroege, A J M Stammen, M Breuk, A M Boonstra, K van der Rhee, J J S Kooij
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity that lead to dysfunctioning in daily life. One of the affected areas of life that has so far not been studied in ADHD is sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to assess prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and other sexual disorders among adults with ADHD. A total of n = 136 adult patients treated in a Dutch outpatient ADHD clinic filled out two questionnaires to screen for sexual dysfunctions and other sexual disorders...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601956/subjective-distress-associated-with-adult-adhd-evaluation-of-a-new-self-report
#14
Rosetta Nicastro, Martin Desseilles, Paco Prada, Sébastien Weibel, Nader Perroud, Marianne Gex-Fabry
The current study aims at documenting the psychometric properties of the Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD-Self-Report (SDAAA-SR), a newly developed instrument for the assessment of psychological suffering in ADHD adults. The SDAAA-SR was administered to 247 students and 142 ADHD adults. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed. Sensitivity to change was examined in a subsample of 25 ADHD patients who participated in a 1-year therapy...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493018/emerging-role-of-mirna-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Saurabh Srivastav, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder whose aetiology still remains elusive. Nevertheless, evidence supports a high genetic contribution that interacts with environmental factors, also known to modulate epigenetic processes. These epigenetic modulators are a class of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), known as post-transcriptional regulators, which have emerged as prospective players in neuropsychiatric disorders since they play a role in brain development, synapse formation, and the fine-tuning of genes underlying synaptic and memory formation...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447335/positive-alcohol-expectancies-mediate-associations-between-adhd-behaviors-and-alcohol-related-problems-among-college-students
#16
Alexis Elmore, Molly Nikolas, Will Canu
An increasing percentage of college students report being affected by ADHD behaviors, and this population is at increased risk of experiencing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption. However, specific factors motivating alcohol consumption and contributing to negative outcomes among these individuals are not well understood. Recent work suggests alcohol expectancies may interact with ADHD behaviors to influence negative drinking-related outcomes among those with elevated inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401487/perception-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Philippa Hüpen, Stefanie M De Vries, Morgana Müller, Francien M Kok, Janneke Koerts, Joost Heutink, Lara Tucha, Manfred Gerlach, Oliver Tucha
A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as neuropsychological and perceptual functions are closely interrelated and are often difficult to disentangle in behavioral assessments. This study presents the conduct and results of a systematic literature review on perceptual functions in children and adults with ADHD...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332146/physiological-substrates-of-executive-functioning-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Bailey A Munro, Lisa L Weyandt, Lily E Hall, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Benjamin G Kuhar
Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions...
March 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492784/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-older-adults-with-adhd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Mary V Solanto, Craig B Surman, Jose Ma J Alvir
Older adults with ADHD exhibit significant functional impairment, yet there is little research to guide clinicians in evidence-based care of these adults. This study examined response to treatment in older adults who participated in a previous study of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in adult ADHD. It was hypothesized that older adults would respond less well to CBT than younger adults, given the cognitive demands of the treatment. As described in the original publication, 88 adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomized to receive either a manualized 12-week CBT group intervention targeting executive dysfunction or a parallel Support group...
February 28, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446032/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-joint-hypermobility-related-disorders-and-pain-expanding-body-mind-connections-to-the-developmental-age
#20
REVIEW
Carolina Baeza-Velasco, Lorenzo Sinibaldi, Marco Castori
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and generalized joint hypermobility (JH) are two separated conditions, assessed, and managed by different specialists without overlapping interests. Recently, some researchers highlighted an unexpected association between these two clinical entities. This happens in a scenario of increasing awareness on the protean detrimental effects that congenital anomalies of the connective tissue may have on human health and development. To review pertinent literature to identify possible connections between ADHD and GJH, special emphasis was put on musculoskeletal pain and syndromic presentations of GJH, particularly the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome...
February 14, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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