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Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

Roghaye Zare, Peyman Jafari, Ahmad Ghanizadeh
It has never been investigated whether the assessment tools of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Quality-of-Life (AAQoL) scale and the SF-36 measure the same construct. The participants were 101 parents of children with ADHD and 243 parents of school children. The parents completed both the Persian version of the AAQoL and the SF-36 questionnaires. The present study revealed that the Persian version of both AAQoL and SF-36 for the assessment of HRQoL in parents of children with ADHD has convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency...
October 12, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Kate Kysow, Joanne Park, Charlotte Johnston
This study examined the use of compensatory strategies reported by adults with ADHD symptoms and their relation to measures of functioning. Forty-nine adults (55.1 % female) completed a structured diagnostic interview to assess ADHD, and responses were coded for compensatory strategies: Adaptation, Paying Attention, Organization, External Support, and Avoidance. The majority of adults with ADHD symptoms reported using compensatory strategies, and their reported strategy use in childhood was related to their use in adulthood...
September 10, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Jessica Morash-Conway, Melissa Gendron, Penny Corkum
The current study examined: (1) whether long-acting stimulant medication is effective in improving performance on measures of memory, attention, and academic productivity; and (2) whether sleep impacts the relationship between medication and performance. Participants were 21 newly diagnosed, medication-naïve children (mean age = 9.1 years) with ADHD, who participated in a 4-week blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial of long-acting MPH. Participants underwent assessments of sleep (i.e., polysomnography) and of cognitive performance...
August 11, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Debjani Das, Jorge I Vélez, Maria T Acosta, Maximilian Muenke, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Simon Easteal
The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is a widely used self-report instrument for retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD. However, many WURS items are not specific to ADHD. Here, we investigated the effect of excluding these items on the performance of the WURS in predicting adult ADHD based on previous diagnosis and current clinically significant symptoms. The study was conducted on a sample of adults (n = 1014; 48 % male) participating in a family-based investigation of ADHD. Participants completed the 61-item WURS questionnaire and the 66-item Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale...
August 10, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Colleen M Berryessa
Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system...
August 6, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Esra Demirci, Ayten Erdogan
The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals...
July 29, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Minji Sohn, Jeffery Talbert, Daniela C Moga, Karen Blumenschein
The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the expected health outcomes of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and other non-stimulant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of AAPs compared to other non-stimulant ADHD medications. We used decision analysis to compare three alternatives for treating children and adolescents with ADHD who failed initial stimulant treatment: (1) AAPs, (2) a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine), and (3) selective α2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine and guanfacine)...
September 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
B Bihlar Muld, J Jokinen, S Bölte, T Hirvikoski
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Self- and staff-rating scales were administered before and after the treatment...
September 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Bengi Semerci, Sarper Taskıran, Evren Tufan, Işın Şanlı
This study aimed to elicit patient- and treatment-related factors that can potentially predict treatment adherence in adult ADHD. Subjects who were over 18 and received a diagnosis of ADHD were included in the study. Chart review data of 102 subjects regarding demographics, medications, comorbidities, concomitant medications and domains of functional impairment were collected, and predictors were assessed using a binominal logistical regression model. One hundred and two patients (78.4 % male) with a mean age of 28...
September 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Oguz Tan, Baris Metin, Sinem Metin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)...
September 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Mini Tandon, Rebecca Tillman, Arpana Agrawal, Joan Luby
The study examined unique trajectories of ADHD severity from childhood (7-16 yo at baseline) through adulthood in a sample of ADHD, bipolar and healthy subjects. Comorbid disorders and temperament were examined as correlates of course of ADHD. N = 81 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, ascertained as a comparison group in a study of bipolar disorder (BP-I), were followed over a 10-year period. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) of ADHD severity was used to investigate trajectories of ADHD severity over 10 years...
September 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Maryanne Jaconis, Stephen J Boyd, Cynthia M Hartung, Sean M McCrea, Elizabeth K Lefler, Will H Canu
Although the research is clear that boys with ADHD have higher symptomatology and impairment than girls with ADHD, for adults the research is mixed. Some studies suggest no sex differences, whereas others suggest that women might have higher symptomatology and impairment. The present study examined sex differences in ADHD symptomatology and impairment, and the possible role of claimed and behavioral self-handicapping as an explanation for any differences. Claimed self-handicapping (CSH) involves reports of performance-inhibiting conditions, whereas behavioral self-handicapping (BSH) involves reporting more objective, intentional acts that could undermine performance...
June 21, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Judy van Stralen
Emotional dysregulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present systematic literature review was to identify published data related to the neuropsychology of emotional dysregulation in children with ADHD. The literature obtained is discussed in the contexts of deficits in emotional control, impairments in executive function, the emotional components of comorbidities, neurophysiological and autonomic correlates of emotional dysregulation, and the significance of multiple neuropsychological pathways of ADHD on emotional dysregulation...
June 14, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Elizabeth K Lefler, Gina M Sacchetti, Dawn I Del Carlo
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Ahmet Koyuncu, Fahri Çelebi, Erhan Ertekin, Burcu Ece Kök, Raşit Tükel
The aim of this study is to investigate the rate of childhood traumatic experiences and assess the relationship between childhood trauma and impulsivity in the presence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 123 patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were enrolled. All patients were assessed by using the clinical version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/CV) and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Romana Farooq, Lisa-Marie Emerson, Sue Keoghan, Marios Adamou
There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between ADHD and criminality, including a strong association between ADHD symptoms and the likelihood of being on probation or in prison. Most studies investigating the prevalence of ADHD in prison populations have focused on adult male offenders. In the current study, 69 female prisoners were screened for both childhood and adult ADHD symptoms using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The results indicate that 41 % of the prisoners met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and continued to meet criteria for ADHD as adults...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Giuseppe Pastura, Thomas Doering, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer Araújo
Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC)...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Azar Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Anahita Khorrami, Nahid Noorian
One of the main aspects of theory of mind is intentionality which refers to recognizing other people's intentions in their behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate intentionality in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with ADHD were compared to thirty age- and IQ-matched normal children. All participants were assessed using the moving shapes paradigm task which contains one large red and one small blue triangle moving around a black screen. They were asked to describe what the movements mean and how the triangles interact with each other...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
E Morgensterns, J Alfredsson, T Hirvikoski
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-based skills training groups for adults with ADHD in an outpatient psychiatric context. Furthermore, the purpose was to analyze the impact of clinical characteristics on the effect and attrition. Ninety-eight adults (out of 102) with ADHD were allocated to the treatment. Self-rating scales were administered as baseline before the first session (T1), post-treatment (T2), and at 3-month follow-up (T3)...
June 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
F López Seco, P Mundo-Cid, J Aguado-Gracia, A M Gaviria-Gómez, S Acosta-García, S Martí-Serrano, E Vilella, A Masana-Marín
The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered...
April 23, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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