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Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604169/is-there-a-prodrom-period-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder-a-discussion-on-the-hypothesis-of-social-anxiety-disorder-development-secondary-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Ahmet Koyuncu, Ezgi Ince, Erhan Ertekin, Fahri Çelebi, Raşit Tükel
The association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is poorly established. In fact, increasing and converging evidences suggest that there is a close relationship between the two disorders. High comorbidity rate between these two disorders, follow-up studies showing high rates of later development of SAD in ADHD and treatment studies in which ADHD medications have been helpful for both conditions all indicate this relationship. Recently, we have published a hypothesis regarding the development of SAD secondary to ADHD...
January 2, 2019: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536198/patients-in-medical-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-are-they-at-risk-in-drug-screening
#2
Christina Mohr Jensen, Torben Breindahl
The use of medicines to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased worldwide, including the use of amphetamine-based medicines or prodrugs that metabolise to amphetamine in vivo. At the same time, drugs-of-abuse testing by non-specific, point-of-care immunoassay methods ('quick tests') has increased. This article discusses the risk of 'false positive' results or post-analytical misinterpretations of results when immunoassays are used to analyse biological samples from ADHD patients...
December 7, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515726/the-early-motor-development-in-children-diagnosed-with-adhd-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Sine Ravn Havmoeller, Per H Thomsen, Sanne Lemcke
Although there is limited knowledge about early signs of ADHD, deviations in motor development are suggested as a possible indicator of such early signs. The purpose of the present systematic review was to gather knowledge about motor development before three years of age in children later diagnosed with ADHD. A systematic search was completed in four research databases, and the quality of the identified studies was systematically assessed. Of 440 initial search results, only five studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully abstracted...
December 4, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382558/how-relevant-is-higher-order-language-deficit-hold-to-children-with-complex-presentations-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Rebecca Randell, Luke Somerville-Brown, Wai Chen
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with language impairment, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and higher-order language deficit (HOLD); yet, their complex relationship is poorly understood. HOLD encompasses deficits in using language for reasoning, problem-solving, causal and critical thinking. This study evaluates the roles of HOLD in children with ADHD. We hypothesise that both our subgroups (ADHD-only and ADHD + 'ASD traits') will have HOLD difficulties, though to a differing degree, as children with ADHD are compromised by executive function deficits, and those with additional ASD traits are further impaired by pragmatic language deficits...
October 31, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374709/the-positive-aspects-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-qualitative-investigation-of-successful-adults-with-adhd
#5
Jane Ann Sedgwick, Andrew Merwood, Philip Asherson
The behavioural characteristics of ADHD do not exist in binary form (i.e. normal vs. abnormal); instead, they exist on a spectrum or continuum. This implies that some aspects of ADHD can be adaptive rather than impairing, or some adults may possess certain strengths or attributes that mediate and/or compensate for their ADHD-related deficits or impairments. More research is needed to clarify these observations. To explore and describe positive aspects of ADHD from the perspective of successful adults with ADHD...
October 29, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367389/vitamin-d-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Evangelia Kotsi, Elisavet Kotsi, Despina N Perrea
The aim of this article was to assess the differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. We used the PubMed (1966-2017), Scopus (2004-2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2017), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL (2000-2017), and Google Scholar (2004-2017) databases. Statistical meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3. Εight studies were finally included in the present meta-analysis with a total number of 11,324 children...
October 26, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132248/evaluating-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-ecological-momentary-assessment-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Miguelez-Fernandez, Santiago J de Leon, Itziar Baltasar-Tello, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, María Luisa Barrigon, Alba Sedano Capdevila, David Delgado-Gómez, Enrique Baca-García, Juan J Carballo
Ecological momentary assessment is an excellent tool for the measurement of different day-to-day domains in patients and capturing real-world and real-time data. The purpose of this review is to evaluate feasibility in current ecological momentary assessment studies on emotional and behavioral functioning, functional impairments, and quality of life patients with an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. This systematic review follows the recommendation of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines selecting articles published from January 1, 1990, up to the latest access on May 2018, identifying a pool of 23 eligible studies...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051256/parent-and-child-neurocognitive-functioning-predict-response-to-behavioral-parent-training-for-youth-with-adhd
#8
Whitney D Fosco, Dustin E Sarver, Michael J Kofler, Paula A Aduen
Parental cognitive functioning is thought to play a key role in parenting behavior and may inform response to behavioral intervention. This open-label pilot study examined the extent to which parent and child cognition impacted response to behavioral parent training for children with ADHD. Fifty-four participants (27 parent-child dyads; Mages  = 10.6 and 45.2 for children and parents, respectively) completed tasks assessing visuospatial and phonological working memory, inhibitory control, and choice-reaction speed at pre-treatment...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982921/what-stops-practitioners-discussing-medication-breaks-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-identifying-barriers-through-theory-driven-qualitative-research
#9
Kinda Ibrahim, Parastou Donyai
National and international guidelines on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents call for annual reviews to assess continuing need for medication by considering brief periods without medication, referred to as 'Drug holidays'. However, drug holidays are reactively initiated by families, or recommended by practitioners if growth has been suppressed by medication rather than proactively to check the need. There is little evidence of planned, practitioner-initiated drug holidays from methylphenidate...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663184/performance-based-measures-and-behavioral-ratings-of-executive-function-in-diagnosing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#10
Alexander Tan, Lauren Delgaty, Kayla Steward, Melissa Bunner
Deficits in real-world executive functioning (EF) are a frequent characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the predictive value of using performance-based and behavioral rating measures of EF when diagnosing ADHD remains unclear. The current study investigates the use of performance-based EF measures and a parent-report questionnaire with established ecological validity and clinical utility when diagnosing ADHD. Participants included 21 healthy controls, 21 ADHD-primary inattentive, and 21 ADHD-combined type subjects aged 6-15 years...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556956/hyperactivity-in-mice-lacking-one-allele-of-the-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-67-gene
#11
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341693/internalized-stigma-anticipated-discrimination-and-perceived-public-stigma-in-adults-with-adhd
#12
Theresa Vera Masuch, Myriam Bea, Barbara Alm, Peter Deibler, Esther Sobanski
The objective of this study is to assess internalized stigma, perceived public stigma, anticipated discrimination and their associations with demographic, psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics in adult ADHD. Stigmatization was assessed with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination and the Questionnaire on Public Stereotypes Perceived by Adults with ADHD. The sample comprised n = 104 adults with ADHD, of whom n = 24 (23.3%) reported high internalized stigma, n = 92 (88...
October 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328576/editors-must-be-vigilant-to-guarantee-the-quality-and-credibility-of-published-scientific-work
#13
EDITORIAL
Manfred Gerlach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306405/individual-differences-in-tendencies-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-emotionality-empirical-evidence-in-young-healthy-adults-from-germany-and-china
#14
Jennifer Wernicke, Mei Li, Peng Sha, Min Zhou, Cornelia Sindermann, Benjamin Becker, Keith M Kendrick, Christian Montag
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity but also by negative emotionality. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether subclinical ADHD tendencies are associated with negative emotionality in healthy adult samples. The present study is of special interest since it investigated negative emotionality with a questionnaire anchored in Neuroscience Theory-the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS)...
October 10, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267329/living-in-the-zone-hyperfocus-in-adult-adhd
#15
Kathleen E Hupfeld, Tessa R Abagis, Priti Shah
Adults with ADHD often report episodes of long-lasting, highly focused attention, a surprising report given their tendency to be distracted by irrelevant information. This has been colloquially termed "hyperfocus" (HF). Here, we introduce a novel assessment tool, the "Adult Hyperfocus Questionnaire" and test the preregistered a priori hypothesis that HF is more prevalent in individuals with high levels of ADHD symptomology. We assess (1) a pilot sample (n = 251) and (2) a replication sample (n = 372) of adults with or without ADHD...
September 28, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264226/effect-of-physical-exercises-on-attention-motor-skill-and-physical-fitness-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jeyanthi S, Narkeesh Arumugam, Raju K Parasher
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are educated in classrooms along with typically developing children. Those with ADHD, however, find it difficult to participate in routine educational and recreational activities as they encounter problems associated with behaviour, attention, motor skills and physical endurance. Traditionally, the management of children with ADHD has focussed primarily on problems with cognition and has been heavily dependent on pharmaceutical interventions and, to a lesser extent, on non-pharmaceutical measures...
September 27, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225805/the-impact-of-successful-learning-of-self-regulation-on-reward-processing-in-children-with-adhd-using-fmri
#17
Sarah Baumeister, Isabella Wolf, Sarah Hohmann, Nathalie Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis
Neurofeedback (NF) is a non-pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is targeting self-regulation, is efficacious when standard protocols are used and induces partly specific neurophysiological changes in the inhibitory network. However, its effects on reward processing, which is also considered an important aspect of ADHD and has been linked to neurophysiological deficits, remain unknown. Children with ADHD (N = 15, mean age 11.8, SD 1.52) were randomly assigned to either slow cortical potential NF (n = 8) or EMG biofeedback control training (n = 7) and received 20 sessions of training under comparable conditions...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225804/rapid-screening-for-cognitive-deficits-in-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorders-with-the-screen-for-cognitive-impairment-in-psychiatry
#18
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Stéphane Potvin, Fernando Corbalan, Akram Djouini, Scot E Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Robert-Paul Juster, Edouard Kouassi
Cognitive impairments constitute a core feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), but are infrequently assessed in the clinical setting. We have previously demonstrated the ability of an objective cognitive battery, the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), to differentiate adult ADHD patients from healthy controls in five cognitive domains. Here, we further characterize these subtle cognitive deficits by conducting additional univariate analyses on our ADHD dataset to assess the contributions of various demographic characteristics on SCIP performance and to determine correlations between SCIP scores and scores on other measures evaluating illness severity, perceived cognitive deficits, and overall functioning...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191501/behavioral-adjustment-to-asymmetric-reward-availability-among-children-with-and-without-adhd-effects-of-past-and-current-reinforcement-contingencies
#19
Emi Furukawa, Brent Alsop, Egas M Caparelli-Dáquer, Erasmo Barbante Casella, Raquel Quimas Molina da Costa, Priscila de Moura Queiroz, Paula Almeida Galvão, Lúcia Rios da Silva Benevides, Helena Pinheiro Jucá-Vasconcelos, Gail Tripp
Altered reinforcement sensitivity is hypothesized to underlie symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we evaluate the behavioral sensitivity of Brazilian children with and without ADHD to a change in reward availability. Forty typically developing children and 32 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, without warning, after 30 rewards were delivered...
September 6, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187383/work-participation-in-adhd-and-associations-with-social-characteristics-education-lifetime-depression-and-adhd-symptom-severity
#20
Espen Anker, Anne Halmøy, Trond Heir
The literature refers to high rates of occupational failure in the population of adults with ADHD. The explanation for this is less known. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between social characteristics and clinical features of adults with ADHD and their occupational outcome. Out of 1050 patients diagnosed with ADHD in a specialized outpatient clinic between 2005 and 2017, 813 (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study. ADHD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and ADHD subtypes recorded accordingly...
September 5, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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