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Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191501/behavioral-adjustment-to-asymmetric-reward-availability-among-children-with-and-without-adhd-effects-of-past-and-current-reinforcement-contingencies
#1
Emi Furukawa, Brent Alsop, Egas M Caparelli-Dáquer, Erasmo Barbante Casella, Raquel Quimas Molina da Costa, Priscila de Moura Queiroz, Paula Almeida Galvão, Lúcia Rios da Silva Benevides, Helena Pinheiro Jucá-Vasconcelos, Gail Tripp
Altered reinforcement sensitivity is hypothesized to underlie symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we evaluate the behavioral sensitivity of Brazilian children with and without ADHD to a change in reward availability. Forty typically developing children and 32 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, without warning, after 30 rewards were delivered...
September 6, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187383/work-participation-in-adhd-and-associations-with-social-characteristics-education-lifetime-depression-and-adhd-symptom-severity
#2
Espen Anker, Anne Halmøy, Trond Heir
The literature refers to high rates of occupational failure in the population of adults with ADHD. The explanation for this is less known. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between social characteristics and clinical features of adults with ADHD and their occupational outcome. Out of 1050 patients diagnosed with ADHD in a specialized outpatient clinic between 2005 and 2017, 813 (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study. ADHD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and ADHD subtypes recorded accordingly...
September 5, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171588/correlates-of-nicotine-dependence-in-men-with-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-33-year-follow-up
#3
Lourdes García Murillo, María A Ramos-Olazagasti, Rachel G Klein, Salvatore Mannuzza, Francisco Xavier Castellanos
Identify correlates of nicotine dependence [lifetime (l) and ongoing (o)] in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. We conducted a 33-year prospective follow-up of boys (mean age 8) with combined type ADHD (n = 135/207, 65% original sample). Correlates of nicotine dependence in adulthood were selected from characteristics obtained in childhood and adolescence. Among selected childhood features, only immature behavior was significantly related to nicotine dependence (OR(o)  = 0...
August 31, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159702/adhd-symptoms-in-a-young-patient-with-central-diabetes-insipidus
#4
Irene Dupong, Sophie Guilmin-Crepon, Peyre Hugo
Diabetes insipidus is known to be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this case report, we present a child suffering from a central diabetes insipidus (DI) and an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The DI was due to a mutation on the vasopressin gene, impairing its secretion. We discuss the effects of this impairment on the central nervous system and how it might be linked to ADHD symptoms.
August 29, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132248/evaluating-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-ecological-momentary-assessment-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Carolina Miguelez-Fernandez, Santiago J de Leon, Itziar Baltasar-Tello, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, María Luisa Barrigon, Alba Sedano Capdevila, David Delgado-Gómez, Enrique Baca-García, Juan J Carballo
Ecological momentary assessment is an excellent tool for the measurement of different day-to-day domains in patients and capturing real-world and real-time data. The purpose of this review is to evaluate feasibility in current ecological momentary assessment studies on emotional and behavioral functioning, functional impairments, and quality of life patients with an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. This systematic review follows the recommendation of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines selecting articles published from January 1, 1990, up to the latest access on May 2018, identifying a pool of 23 eligible studies...
August 21, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051256/parent-and-child-neurocognitive-functioning-predict-response-to-behavioral-parent-training-for-youth-with-adhd
#6
Whitney D Fosco, Dustin E Sarver, Michael J Kofler, Paula A Aduen
Parental cognitive functioning is thought to play a key role in parenting behavior and may inform response to behavioral intervention. This open-label pilot study examined the extent to which parent and child cognition impacted response to behavioral parent training for children with ADHD. Fifty-four participants (27 parent-child dyads; Mages  = 10.6 and 45.2 for children and parents, respectively) completed tasks assessing visuospatial and phonological working memory, inhibitory control, and choice-reaction speed at pre-treatment...
July 26, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982921/what-stops-practitioners-discussing-medication-breaks-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-identifying-barriers-through-theory-driven-qualitative-research
#7
Kinda Ibrahim, Parastou Donyai
National and international guidelines on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents call for annual reviews to assess continuing need for medication by considering brief periods without medication, referred to as 'Drug holidays'. However, drug holidays are reactively initiated by families, or recommended by practitioners if growth has been suppressed by medication rather than proactively to check the need. There is little evidence of planned, practitioner-initiated drug holidays from methylphenidate...
July 7, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492784/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-older-adults-with-adhd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mary V Solanto, Craig B Surman, Jose Ma J Alvir
Older adults with ADHD exhibit significant functional impairment, yet there is little research to guide clinicians in evidence-based care of these adults. This study examined response to treatment in older adults who participated in a previous study of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in adult ADHD. It was hypothesized that older adults would respond less well to CBT than younger adults, given the cognitive demands of the treatment. As described in the original publication, 88 adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomized to receive either a manualized 12-week CBT group intervention targeting executive dysfunction or a parallel Support group...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446032/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-joint-hypermobility-related-disorders-and-pain-expanding-body-mind-connections-to-the-developmental-age
#9
REVIEW
Carolina Baeza-Velasco, Lorenzo Sinibaldi, Marco Castori
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and generalized joint hypermobility (JH) are two separated conditions, assessed, and managed by different specialists without overlapping interests. Recently, some researchers highlighted an unexpected association between these two clinical entities. This happens in a scenario of increasing awareness on the protean detrimental effects that congenital anomalies of the connective tissue may have on human health and development. To review pertinent literature to identify possible connections between ADHD and GJH, special emphasis was put on musculoskeletal pain and syndromic presentations of GJH, particularly the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427262/factor-structure-and-clinical-correlates-of-the-61-item-wender-utah-rating-scale-wurs
#10
Matthew Calamia, Benjamin D Hill, Mandi W Musso, Russell D Pella, Wm Drew Gouvier
The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conceptualizations of ADHD symptoms...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330700/relation-between-internalizing-behaviors-externalizing-behaviors-and-peer-victimization-among-children-with-and-without-adhd
#11
Nicholas D Fogleman, Kirsten D Leaberry, Paul J Rosen, Danielle M Walerius, Kelly E Slaughter
The current study explored the concurrent and longitudinal association between internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and peer victimization among children with and without ADHD. Eighty children (42 ADHD, 38 non-ADHD) ages 8-12 participated in the present study conducted over a 6-month period. During the baseline session, parents completed a structured diagnostic interview and the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale to determine whether their child met criteria for ADHD, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess their child's internalizing and externalizing behaviors; children completed the Perception of Peer Support Scale (PPSS) to assess experiences of peer victimization...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222741/exploratory-study-of-barriers-to-successful-office-contacts-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Jayde T Hooven, Benjamin N Fogel, James G Waxmonsky, Deepa L Sekhar
The American Academy of Pediatrics published attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) guidelines, but significant variability exists in care. This exploratory study aimed to understand barriers to compliance with primary care office contacts for ADHD medication management. The study was conducted at a single academic medical center via retrospective chart review between 6/1/15 and 5/31/16 in combination with telephone interviews. Participants included 306 children 6-12 years old with an ADHD-related ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnosis...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168110/symptom-covariance-accounts-for-behavioral-approach-associations-across-impulse-control-disorders
#13
Brianne A Brooker, Dragana Ostojic, Carlin J Miller
Behavioral approach system (BAS) dysfunction has been identified as a correlate of and a potential mechanism for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders. This study examined the role of symptom covariation in the relations among BAS dysfunction, ADHD symptoms, and comorbid impulsive personality disorder features. Undergraduates (N = 207) completed measures of BAS functioning, ADHD symptoms, and borderline and antisocial personality disorder symptoms, and associated features (i...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124553/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Colette Gramszlo, Nicholas D Fogleman, Paul J Rosen, Janet Woodruff-Borden
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has often been studied in the context of internalizing disorders, but no studies to our knowledge have explored the relation between IU and externalizing disorders. Given the proposed link between IU and emotion regulation, the current study sought to examine levels of IU in an externalizing clinical population with known emotion regulation difficulties-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). IU levels in this population were compared to a clinical population known to experience elevated levels of IU...
September 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299870/adhd-in-acute-care-psychiatric-inpatients
#15
Katherine L Lines, Joseph Sadek
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and motor hyperactivity. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD, in the general adult population, has been estimated to be 2.8%. Patients with ADHD have a high incidence of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Those with a psychiatric disorder as well as ADHD have more psychosocial difficulties than those without ADHD. Despite knowing that ADHD is often comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses, there are currently no studies elucidating the prevalence of ADHD in the inpatient psychiatric population, nor is there significant information about its impact...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270893/correction-to-is-emotion-recognition-the-only-problem-in-adhd-effects-of-pharmacotherapy-on-face-and-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-adhd
#16
Esra Demirci, Ayten Erdogan
The author would like to correct the error in the publication of the original article. The corrected details are given below for your reading.
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103196/stimulant-rapid-metabolizers-wrong-label-real-phenomena
#17
Margaret D Weiss, Craig B H Surman, Dean Elbe
This is a review of the empirical literature regarding what has been described anecdotally as patients who are 'rapid metabolizers' of stimulant medication. The authors propose that this is a misnomer used to describe two types of atypical pharmacokinetic patterns of response: high-dose responders, short-duration responders and two types of atypical pharmacodynamics patterns of response: patients who develop either acute or chronic tolerance. The authors propose that use of more precise terminology should facilitate both patient education and research to better understand the physiology and clinical management of atypical response patterns to stimulant treatment...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081022/adhd-symptoms-in-healthy-adults-are-associated-with-stressful-life-events-and-negative-memory-bias
#18
Janna N Vrijsen, Indira Tendolkar, Marten Onnink, Martine Hoogman, Aart H Schene, Guillén Fernández, Iris van Oostrom, Barbara Franke
Stressful life events, especially Childhood Trauma, predict ADHD symptoms. Childhood Trauma and negatively biased memory are risk factors for affective disorders. The association of life events and bias with ADHD symptoms may inform about the etiology of ADHD. Memory bias was tested using a computer task in N = 675 healthy adults. Life events and ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. The mediation of the association between life events and ADHD symptoms by memory bias was examined. We explored the roles of different types of life events and of ADHD symptom clusters...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975530/a-case-series-on-the-potential-effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-24-h-heart-rate-variability-and-its-circadian-variation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Reiner Buchhorn, Julian Koenig, Marc N Jarczok, Hanna Eichholz, Christian Willaschek, Julian F Thayer, Michael Kaess
Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity (ADHD) in children is associated with decreased 24-h heart rate variability (HRV). Previous research has shown that supplementation of omega-3-fatty acid increases HRV. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the supplementation of omega-3-fatty acids would increase 24-h HRV in an uncontrolled case series of children with ADHD. HRV was recorded in 18 children and adolescents (age 13.35 ± 2.8 years) before and after omega-3 supplementation. Preliminary results indicate that omega-3 supplementation in children with AD(H)D may reduce mean heart rate and increase its variability...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905267/the-zappel-philipp-a-historical-example-of-adhd-clinics
#20
Michel Bader, Rosemary Tannock, Nouchine Hadjikhani
In his book "Die Geschichte von dem Zappel-Philipp," the German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894) offers a clinical vignette which raises the question of the description of a disobedient child or presenting hyperactivity symptoms. This article describes the historical context and the biographical aspects related to this interesting approach to describing a psychiatric syndrome to children and adults. It also underlines the importance of a global approach of ADHD that considers the familial environment and situational context of symptoms...
June 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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