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Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332146/physiological-substrates-of-executive-functioning-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Bailey A Munro, Lisa L Weyandt, Lily E Hall, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Benjamin G Kuhar
Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions...
March 22, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293899/effects-of-atomoxetine-on-attention-in-wistar-rats-treated-with-the-neurotoxin-n-2-chloroethyl-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine-dsp4
#2
Joachim Hauser, Andreas Reissmann, Thomas-A Sontag, Oliver Tucha, Klaus W Lange
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), which allows a depletion of noradrenergic terminals in a dose-dependent manner, on attention in rats as measured using the five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT). In addition, we investigated whether the effects of DSP4 treatment can be reversed by atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
March 14, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260152/the-risk-of-misdiagnosing-posture-weakness-as-hyperactivity-in-adhd-a-case-study
#3
Carsten Vogt
Difficulties in sustaining posture can present with features associated with hyperactive behaviour listed in DSM-5 and ICD-10 classifications for ADHD. Information from a system measuring motor activity during a neurocognitive test (QbTest), occupational therapist reports and Conners rating scales are compared between cases with and without posture problems. Weakness in sustaining posture results in elevated activity measures during infrared motion analysis. Strong posture on the other hand appears to mitigate activity levels...
March 4, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238028/prepotent-response-inhibition-and-reaction-times-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-from-a-caribbean-community
#4
Giomar Jiménez-Figueroa, Carlos Ardila-Duarte, David A Pineda, Johan E Acosta-López, Martha L Cervantes-Henríquez, Wilmar Pineda-Alhucema, Jeimys Cervantes-Gutiérrez, Marisol Quintero-Ibarra, Manuel Sánchez-Rojas, Jorge I Vélez, Pedro J Puentes-Rozo
Impairment in inhibitory control has been postulated as an underlying hallmark of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can be utilized as a quantitative trait for genetic studies. Here, we evaluate whether inhibitory control, measured by simple automatized prepotent response (PR) inhibition variables, is a robust discriminant function for the diagnosis of ADHD in children and can be used as an endophenotype for future genetic studies. One hundred fifty-two school children (30.9% female, 67...
February 25, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176268/no-genetic-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-nine-adhd-candidate-snps
#5
Julia M Geissler, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach, Daniela Berg, Claudia Schulte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13)...
February 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124223/is-adhd-a-valid-diagnosis-in-older-adults
#6
REVIEW
Craig B H Surman, David W Goodman
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that often persists into adulthood. It is possible that different criteria are necessary for older adults than younger adults: the manifestations of ADHD could change with age; other conditions with onset in later life share presenting symptoms with ADHD; different contextual challenges and patterns of compensatory support may exist. For these reasons, we reviewed evidence for the validity of DSM ADHD criteria in adulthood for individuals over the age of 50. Specifically, we evaluated evidence that the DSM criteria for ADHD identify a valid syndrome in older adults based on clinical presentation, laboratory or testing findings, absence of alternate diagnosis to explain symptoms, course of the syndrome, or familial presence of the condition...
January 25, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110366/atomoxetine-treatment-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-outcomes-on-parent-rated-core-symptomatology
#7
REVIEW
Jessica L Gayleard, Matthew P Mychailyszyn
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) impacts a significant number of children and adolescents and often leads to deleterious functional impairment. Psychostimulant medication has historically been the first line of pharmacological intervention, though recent years have seen greater attention paid to non-stimulant alternatives. The objective of the present study was to conduct the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date evaluating the efficacy of atomoxetine in reducing core symptomatology of ADHD according to parent report...
January 21, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097536/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adhd-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder-in-nigeria
#8
Musa U Umar, Auwal S Salihu, Shakirat D Owolabi
Substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with ADHD. ADHD increases the severity of SUD and has negative influence on the prognosis of the disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of ADHD in individuals with SUD. During 2013-2015, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 233 drug treatment-seeking individuals was assessed. Diagnosis of ADHD was done using DSM-IV criteria with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (DIVA 2.0), while Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA 6...
January 17, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian clock, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian clock in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058589/assessment-of-effects-of-atomoxetine-in-adult-patients-with-adhd-consistency-among-three-geographic-regions-in-a-response-maintenance-study
#10
Yoko Tanaka, Rodrigo Escobar, Himanshu P Upadhyaya
A previous study (Upadhyaya et al. in Eur J Psychiatry 2013b; 27:185-205) reported that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrated maintenance of response for up to 25 weeks after initially responding to atomoxetine treatment. In the present report, the consistency of treatment effect across three geographic regions (Europe, United States/Canada [US/Can], and Latin America [Latin Am]) was explored. Data were analyzed from a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, maintenance-of-response (randomized withdrawal) trial of atomoxetine versus placebo in adults with ADHD...
January 6, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039669/the-development-of-the-sgi-16-a-shortened-sensory-gating-deficit-and-distractibility-questionnaire-for-adults-with-adhd
#11
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Régis Lopez, Pierre Michel, Laura Brandejsky, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Christophe Lancon, Laurent Boyer
The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is a questionnaire composed of 36 items designed to investigate abnormal perception related to the inability to control sensitivity to sensory stimuli frequently reported in adult with ADHD. This questionnaire can be considered too lengthy to be taken by people with ADHD, and a shortened version is needed. One hundred and sixty-three adults with ADHD responded to the SGI-36. An item reduction process took into account both the results of statistical analyses and the expertise of a steering committee...
December 30, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168407/what-are-the-benefits-of-methylphenidate-as-a-treatment-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
EDITORIAL
Manfred Gerlach, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Luis A Rohde, Marcel Romanos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005216/is-there-a-difference-between-child-self-ratings-and-parent-proxy-ratings-of-the-quality-of-life-of-children-with-a-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Helen Galloway, Emily Newman
There are contemporary indicators that parent proxy-ratings and child self-ratings of a child's quality of life (QoL) are not interchangeable. This review examines dual informant studies to assess parent-child agreement on the QoL of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A systematic search of four major databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases) was completed, and related peer-reviewed journals were hand-searched. Studies which reported quantitative QoL ratings for matched parent and child dyads were screened in accordance with relevant inclusion and exclusion criteria...
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866355/the-descriptive-epidemiology-of-dsm-iv-adult-adhd-in-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#14
John Fayyad, Nancy A Sampson, Irving Hwang, Tomasz Adamowski, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Laura H S G Andrade, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G Karam, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Miguel Xavier, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2...
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734284/do-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-quality-of-life-aaqol-scale-and-the-sf-36-scale-measure-the-same-construct-of-health-related-quality-of-life
#15
Roghaye Zare, Peyman Jafari, Ahmad Ghanizadeh
It has never been investigated whether the assessment tools of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Quality-of-Life (AAQoL) scale and the SF-36 measure the same construct. The participants were 101 parents of children with ADHD and 243 parents of school children. The parents completed both the Persian version of the AAQoL and the SF-36 questionnaires. The present study revealed that the Persian version of both AAQoL and SF-36 for the assessment of HRQoL in parents of children with ADHD has convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency...
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515452/the-role-of-sleep-quality-and-quantity-in-moderating-the-effectiveness-of-medication-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-adhd
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jessica Morash-Conway, Melissa Gendron, Penny Corkum
The current study examined: (1) whether long-acting stimulant medication is effective in improving performance on measures of memory, attention, and academic productivity; and (2) whether sleep impacts the relationship between medication and performance. Participants were 21 newly diagnosed, medication-naïve children (mean age = 9.1 years) with ADHD, who participated in a 4-week blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial of long-acting MPH. Participants underwent assessments of sleep (i.e., polysomnography) and of cognitive performance...
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497734/attention-reward-and-inhibition-symptomatic-features-of-adhd-and-issues-for-offenders-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#17
REVIEW
Colleen M Berryessa
Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system...
March 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013402/psychometric-properties-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-weiss-functional-impairment-rating-scale-self-report
#18
Toshinobu Takeda, Yui Tsuji, Junichiro Kanazawa, Takanobu Sakai, Margaret D Weiss
The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale Self-Report has been translated into nine languages and has been widely used in assessing functional impairment of adults with ADHD. This study is a psychometric validation of the WFIRS-S in Japanese. The WFIRS-S-J and other questionnaires were administered to 46 adults with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 104 control adults, and 889 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5...
December 24, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012033/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-adult-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Alexandra Philipsen, Alexandra P Lam, Sigrid Breit, Caroline Lücke, Helge H Müller, Swantje Matthies
The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas...
December 23, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830480/in-memoriam-paul-h-wender
#20
Michael Rösler, Thomas Gift, Barrie Marchant, Frederick Reimherr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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