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Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176898/faces-in-the-mirror-from-the-neuroscience-of-mimicry-to-the-emergence-of-mentalizing
#1
Antonella Tramacere, Pier Francesco Ferrari
In the current opinion paper, we provide a comparative perspective on specific aspects of primate empathic abilities, with particular emphasis on the mirror neuron system associated with mouth/face actions and expression. Mouth and faces can be very salient communicative classes of stimuli that allow an observer access to the emotional and physiological content of other individuals. We thus describe patterns of activations of neural populations related to observation and execution of specific mouth actions and emotional facial expressions in some species of monkeys and in humans...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155168/what-made-us-human-biological-and-cultural-evolution-of-homo-sapiens
#2
Stefano Parmigiani, Telmo Pievani, Ian Tattersall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124766/early-hominin-diversity-and-the-emergence-of-the-genus-homo
#3
William Harcourt-Smith
Bipedalism is a defining trait of hominins, as all members of the clade are argued to possess at least some characters indicative of this unusual form of locomotion. Traditionally the evolution of bipedalism has been treated in a somewhat linear way. This has been challenged in the last decade or so, and in this paper I consider this view in light of the considerable new fossil hominin discoveries of the last few years. It is now apparent that there was even more locomotor diversity and experimentation across hominins than previously thought, and with the discovery of taxa such as H...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101590/why-human-evolution-should-be-a-basic-science-for-medicine-and-psychology-students
#4
Paola Palanza, Stefano Parmigiani
Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081012/oldowan-hominin-behavior-and-ecology-at-kanjera-south-kenya
#5
Thomas Plummer, Laura Bishop
The Early Stone Age archaeological record does not become persistent and widespread until approximately 2.0-1.7 million years ago, when Oldowan sites spread across Africa and ultimately into Eurasia. However, good records of hominin behavior from this important time interval are uncommon. Here we describe recent findings from the two million year old Oldowan site of Kanjera South, on the Homa Peninsula of southwestern Kenya. Kanjera South is the oldest Oldowan site with large assemblages of stone artifacts and well-preserved archaeological fauna...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081011/what-do-our-genes-tell-us-about-our-past
#6
Rob DeSalle
The use of DNA sequences to elucidate the history of relationships of organisms is widespread, and focus on our species has been intense. This paper examines some simple aspects of using genetic information to analyze relationships within and amongst humans. Clonal markers (mtDNA and Y chromosomal DNA) have always shown a high degree of structure and robustness when analyzed for hierarchical structure. Results from genome wide phylogenetic structure in many organismal systems suggests instead that recombining genetic elements like the X chromosome and the autosomes will give conflicting information from genome region to genome region...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081010/formal-linguistics-as-a-cue-to-demographic-history
#7
Giuseppe Longobardi, Andrea Ceolin, Aaron Ecay, Silvia Ghirotto, Cristina Guardiano, Monica-Alexandrina Irimia, Dimitris Michelioudakis, Nina Radkevich, Davide Pettener, Donata Luiselli, Guido Barbujani
Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014833/a-tentative-framework-for-the-acquisition-of-language-and-modern-human-cognition
#8
Ian Tattersall
Modern human beings process information symbolically, rearranging mental symbols to envision multiple potential realities. They also express the ideas they form using structured articulate language. No other living creature does either of these things. Yet it is evident that we are descended from a non-symbolic and non-linguistic ancestor. How did this astonishing transformation occur? Scrutiny of the fossil and archaeological records reveals that the transition to symbolic reasoning happened very late in hominid history - indeed, within the tenure of anatomically recognizable Homo sapiens...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963222/the-evolution-of-language-and-thought
#9
Philip Lieberman
Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963221/what-constitutes-homo-sapiens-morphology-versus-received-wisdom
#10
Jeffrey Schwartz
Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894688/evolution-of-brain-and-culture-the-neurological-and-cognitive-journey-from-australopithecus-to-albert-einstein
#11
Dean Falk
Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829575/multi-level-human-evolution-ecological-patterns-in-hominin-phylogeny
#12
Andrea Parravicini, Telmo Pievani
Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829574/visuospatial-integration-and-human-evolution-the-fossil-evidence
#13
Emiliano Bruner, Marina Lozano, Carlos Lorenzo
Visuospatial integration concerns the ability to coordinate the inner and outer environments, namely the central nervous system and the outer spatial elements, through the interface of the body. This integration is essential for every basic human activity, from locomotion and grasping to speech or tooling. Visuospatial integration is even more fundamental when dealing with theories on extended mind, embodiment, and material engagement. According to the hypotheses on extended cognition, the nervous system, the body and the external objects work as a single integrated unit, and what we call "mind" is the process resulting from such interaction...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829573/make-it-clear-molds-transparent-casts-and-lightning-techniques-for-stereomicroscopic-analysis-of-taphonomic-modifications-on-bone-surfaces
#14
Edgard Camarós, Carlos Sánchez-Hernández, Florent Rivals
This paper provides detailed description of a non-destructive, low-cost, and low-time consuming technique for producing high-resolution casts for the observation of taphonomic modifications on bone surfaces. The aim of the whole process is to obtain molds that accurately replicate the original bone surface at both the macro- and microscopic levels. The high quality transparent epoxy casts produced are analyzed by light microscopy and used to produce detailed microphotographs of bone surfaces. After describing each step of the process, we present some examples of its application in the case of anthropic activity, carnivores, or other post-depositional modifications...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829572/the-place-of-homo-floresiensis-in-human-evolution
#15
Karen Baab
Two main evolutionary scenarios have been proposed to explain the presence of the small-bodied and small-brained Homo floresiensis species on the remote Indonesian island of Flores in the Late Pleistocene. According to these two scenarios, H. floresiensis was a dwarfed descendent of H. erectus or a late-surviving remnant of a older lineage, perhaps descended from H. habilis. Each scenario has interesting and important implications for hominin biogeography, body size evolution, brain evolution and morphological convergences...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708102/the-false-dichotomy-a-refutation-of-the-neandertal-indistinguishability-claim
#16
Thomas Wynn, Karenleigh Overmann, Frederick Coolidge
In the debate about the demise of the Neandertal, several scholars have claimed that humanity's nearest relatives were indistinguishable archaeologically, and thus behaviorally and cognitively, from contemporaneous Homo sapiens. They suggest that to hold otherwise is to characterize Neandertals as inferior to H. sapiens, a false dichotomy that excludes the possibility that the two human types simply differed in ways visible to natural selection, including their cognition. Support of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim requires ignoring the cranial differences between the two human types, which have implications for cognition and behavior...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656957/new-evaluation-of-the-castel-di-guido-hyoid
#17
Luigi Capasso, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Lucia Mancini, Claudio Tuniz, David Frayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656956/-breasts-are-getting-bigger-where-is-the-evidence
#18
Nicola Brown, Joanna Scurr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26583275/filling-the-gap-human-cranial-remains-from-gombore-ii-melka-kunture-ethiopia-ca-850-ka-and-the-origin-of-homo-heidelbergensis
#19
Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Lorenza Gagliardi, Marcello Piperno, Giorgio Manzi
African archaic humans dated to around 1,0 Ma share morphological affinities with Homo ergaster and appear distinct in cranio-dental morphology from those of the Middle Pleistocene that are referred to Homo heidelbergensis. This observation suggests a taxonomic and phylogenetic discontinuity in Africa that ranges across the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal (780 ka). Yet, the fossil record between roughly 900 and 600 ka is notoriously poor. In this context, the Early Stone Age site of Gombore II, in the Melka Kunture formation (Upper Awash, Ethiopia), provides a privileged case-study...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26196116/three-hands-one-year-later
#20
COMMENT
Karenleigh A Overmann, Enza E Spinapolice, Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Ariane Burke, Carlos Lorenzo, Duilio Garofoli, Emiliano Bruner, Marina Lozano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2015: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
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