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Scientific Studies of Reading

Young-Suk Grace Kim, Christian Vorstius, Ralph Radach
The goal was to investigate the nature of online comprehension monitoring, its predictors, and its relation to reading comprehension. Questions were concerned with (1) beginning readers' sensitivity to inconsistencies, (2) predictors of online comprehension monitoring, and (3) the relation of online comprehension monitoring to reading comprehension over and above word reading and listening comprehension. Using eye-tracking technology, online comprehension monitoring was measured as the amount of time spent rereading target implausible words and looking back at surrounding contexts...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
Lynn S Fuchs, Jennifer K Gilbert, Douglas Fuchs, Pamela M Seethaler, BrittanyLee N Martin
This study was designed to deepen insights on whether word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension (TC) and on the role of language in WPs. A sample of 325 second graders, representing high, average, and low reading and math performance, was assessed on (a) start-of-year TC, WP skill, language, nonlinguistic reasoning, working memory, and foundational skill (word identification, arithmetic) and (b) year-end WP solving, WP-language processing (understanding WP statements, without calculation demands), and calculations...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Richard K Wagner, Jeanette Taylor
A fairly recent definition of reading disability (RD) is that in the form of a hybrid model. The model views RD as a latent construct that is manifested through various observable unexpected impairments in reading related skills and through inadequate response to intervention. The current report evaluated this new conceptualization of RD from an etiological perspective. The sample consisted of 2737 twin pairs in first through fourth grade ( M age = 8.52) from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. Using twin analyses, results showed that a substantial proportion of genetic variance, a small proportion of shared environmental, and a small proportion of non-shared environmental variance was attributed to the RD factor...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
Melanie Gangl, Kristina Moll, Manon W Jones, Chiara Banfi, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Karin Landerl
Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading style in an eye-tracking paradigm with German dysfluent 3rd and 4th graders. Twenty-six TypFix-readers (fixation counts within the range of 47 age-matched typical readers) were compared with 42 HighFix-readers (increased fixation counts)...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
Saskia Selzam, Philip S Dale, Richard K Wagner, John C DeFries, Martin Cederlöf, Paul F O'Reilly, Eva Krapohl, Robert Plomin
It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education ( EduYears ) to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample of 5,825 unrelated individuals. EduYears GPS accounts for up to 5% of the variance in reading performance at age 14. GPS predictions remained significant after accounting for general cognitive ability and family socioeconomic status...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Studies of Reading
Marina L Puglisi, Charles Hulme, Lorna G Hamilton, Margaret J Snowling
The home literacy environment is a well-established predictor of children's language and literacy development. We investigated whether formal, informal, and indirect measures of the home literacy environment predict children's reading and language skills once maternal language abilities are taken into account. Data come from a longitudinal study of children at high risk of dyslexia ( N  = 251) followed from preschool years. Latent factors describing maternal language were significant predictors of storybook exposure but not of direct literacy instruction...
2017: Scientific Studies of Reading
Lindsay N Harris, Charles Perfetti
Share (1995) has proposed phonological recoding (the translation of letters into sounds) as a self-teaching mechanism through which readers establish complete lexical representations. More recently, McKague et al. (2008) proposed a similar role for orthographic recoding , i.e., feedback from sounds to letters, in building and refining lexical representations. We reasoned that an interaction between feedback consistency measures and spelling ability in a spelling decision experiment would lend support to this hypothesis...
2017: Scientific Studies of Reading
Lorna G Hamilton, Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
The home literacy environment (HLE) predicts language and reading development in typically developing children; relatively little is known about its association with literacy development in children at family-risk of dyslexia. We assessed the HLE at age 4 years, precursor literacy skills at age 5, and literacy outcomes at age 6, in a sample of children at family-risk of dyslexia (n = 116) and children with no known risk (n = 72). Developmental relationships between the HLE and literacy were comparable between the groups; an additional effect of storybook exposure on phoneme awareness was observed in the family-risk group only...
September 2, 2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Laura M Steacy, Amy M Elleman, Maureen W Lovett, Donald L Compton
In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis (Share, 1995), little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading gains among children with reading disability (RD) enrolled in Phonological and Strategy Training (PHAST) or Phonics for Reading (PFR). Conditions differed in sublexical training with PHAST stressing multi-level connections and PFR emphasizing simple grapheme-phoneme correspondences...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Rebecca Treiman, Brett Kessler, Tatiana Cury Pollo, Brian Byrne, Richard K Olson
Learning the orthographic forms of words is important for both spelling and reading. To determine whether some methods of scoring children's early spellings predict later spelling performance better than do other methods, we analyzed data from 374 U.S. and Australian children who took a 10-word spelling test at the end of kindergarten (mean age 6 years, 2 months) and a standardized spelling test approximately two years later. Surprisingly, scoring methods that took account of phonological plausibility did not outperform methods that were based only on orthographic correctness...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Nathalie J Veenendaal, Margriet A Groen, Ludo Verhoeven
The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared three theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody and a bidirectional relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension. Further, we controlled for autoregressive effects and included decoding efficiency as a measure of general reading skill...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Victor Kuperman, Julie A Van Dyke, Regina Henry
The present study examined the visual scanning hypothesis, which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in three modified RAN tasks. We analyzed two samples of undergraduate readers (age 17-27), we evaluated the incremental contributions of these components and found that saccadic planning to non-linguistic stimuli alone explained roughly one-third of the variance that conventional RAN tasks explained in eye-movements registered during text reading for comprehension...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Jay G Rueckl
The strategy underlying most computational models of word reading is to specify the organization of the reading system-its architecture and the processes and representations it employs-and to demonstrate that this organization would give rise to the behavior observed in word reading tasks. This approach fails to adequately address the variation in reading behavior observed across and within linguistic communities. Only computational models that incorporate learning can fully account for variation in organization...
January 1, 2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Jason D Zevin, Brett Miller
Reading research is increasingly a multi-disciplinary endeavor involving more complex, team-based science approaches. These approaches offer the potential of capturing the complexity of reading development, the emergence of individual differences in reading performance over time, how these differences relate to the development of reading difficulties and disability, and more fully understanding the nature of skilled reading in adults. This special issue focuses on the potential opportunities and insights that early and richly integrated advanced statistical and computational modeling approaches can provide to our foundational (and translational) understanding of reading...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Christopher Schatschneider, Richard K Wagner, Sara A Hart, Elizabeth L Tighe
The present study employed data simulation techniques to investigate the one-year stability of alternative classification schemes for identifying children with reading disabilities. Classification schemes investigated include low performance, unexpected low performance, dual-discrepancy, and a rudimentary form of constellation model of reading disabilities that included multiple criteria. Data from Spencer et al. (2014) were used to construct a growth model of reading development. The parameters estimated from this model were then used to construct three simulated datasets wherein the growth parameters were manipulated in one of three ways: A stable-growth pattern, a mastery learning pattern and a fan-spread pattern...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Kazunaga Matsuki, Victor Kuperman, Julie A Van Dyke
Studies investigating individual differences in reading ability often involve data sets containing a large number of collinear predictors and a small number of observations. In this paper, we discuss the method of Random Forests and demonstrate its suitability for addressing the statistical concerns raised by such datasets. The method is contrasted with other methods of estimating relative variable importance, especially Dominance Analysis and Multimodel Inference. All methods were applied to a dataset that gauged eye-movements during reading and offline comprehension in the context of multiple ability measures with high collinearity due to their shared verbal core...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
Carol McDonald Connor, Ralph Radach, Christian Vorstius, Stephanie L Day, Leigh McLean, Frederick J Morrison
In this study, we investigated fifth-graders' (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text...
2015: Scientific Studies of Reading
Lan Zhang, Rebecca Treiman
One influential theory of literacy development, the constructivist perspective, claims that young children believe that writing represents meaning directly and that the appearance of a written word should reflect characteristics of its referent. There has not been strong evidence supporting this idea, however. Circumventing several methodological concerns with previous studies, we examined written spellings of young children who did not yet use letters to represent the sounds of words, that is, prephonological spellers...
2015: Scientific Studies of Reading
Marcia A Barnes, Yusra Ahmed, Amy Barth, David J Francis
The integration of knowledge during reading was tested in 1,109 secondary school students. Reading times for the second sentence in a pair (Jane's headache went away) were compared in conditions where the first sentence was either causally or temporally related to the first sentence (Jane took an aspirin vs. Jane looked for an aspirin). Mixed-effects explanatory item response models revealed that at higher comprehension levels, sentences were read more quickly in the causal condition. There were no condition-related reading time differences at lower comprehension levels...
2015: Scientific Studies of Reading
Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs, Donald L Compton, Carol L Hamlett, Amber Y Wang
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension)...
2015: Scientific Studies of Reading
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