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Surgical Pathology Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190149/cytopathology-diagnostic-updates-and-advances-in-ancillary-testing
#1
EDITORIAL
Vickie Y Jo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190148/circulating-tumor-cells-applications-in-cytopathology
#2
REVIEW
Alarice C Lowe
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare tumor cells found in the blood of patients with cancer that can be reliably detected by CTC technologies to provide prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic information. CTC sampling reflects intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity better than targeted biopsy. CTC samples are minimally invasive and amenable to repeated sampling, allowing real-time evaluation of tumor in response to therapy-related pressures and possibly early detection. Cytology is the most natural arena for integration of CTC testing...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190147/advances-in-molecular-testing-techniques-in-cytologic-specimens
#3
REVIEW
Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
There has been a paradigm shift in the practice of cytopathology with the advent of highly sensitive molecular tests using small amounts of tissue that can provide diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information for clinical management. The cytopathologist plays a key role in providing a timely and accurate diagnosis as well as ensuring appropriate processing and handling of the specimen and judicious triaging of the tissue for molecular testing that guide therapeutic decisions. As the era of "precision medicine" continues to evolve and expand, cytopathology remains a dynamic field with advances in the practice of molecular cytopathology providing new paradigms in clinical care...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190146/updates-in-primary-bone-tumors-current-challenges-and-new-opportunities-in-cytopathology
#4
REVIEW
Xiaohua Qian
The review summarizes the current diagnostic challenges in fine-needle aspiration of primary bone tumors, with focus on the application of new molecular and immunohistochemical techniques in the diagnosis of giant cell-rich neoplasms, chondrosarcomas, and notochordal tumors.
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190145/applications-of-ancillary-testing-in-the-cytologic-diagnosis-of-soft-tissue-neoplasms
#5
REVIEW
Vickie Y Jo
Soft tissue neoplasms are diagnostically challenging, although many advances in ancillary testing now enable accurate classification of fine-needle aspiration biopsies by detection of characteristic immunophenotypes (including protein correlates of molecular alterations) and molecular features. Although there are many useful diagnostic immunohistochemical markers and molecular assays, their diagnostic utility relies on correlation with clinical and morphologic features, judicious application, and appropriate interpretation because no single test is perfectly sensitive or specific...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190144/adult-renal-neoplasms-cytology-immunohistochemistry-and-cytogenetic-characteristics
#6
REVIEW
Jaylou Velez-Torres, Luiz Paulo Guido, Merce Jorda
Tissue sampling of renal masses is traditionally performed using percutaneous sonographic or CT guidance core biopsy (CB) with or without touch preparation cytology and/or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The combined used of CB and FNAC is expanding in clinical practice, especially in small renal masses and plays a pivotal role in therapeutic decision making. Grouping the renal neoplasms in differential diagnostic groups helps in choosing specific immunohistochemical markers and reaching an accurate diagnosis...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190143/diagnostic-advances-in-urine-cytology
#7
REVIEW
Juan Xing, Jordan P Reynolds
The utility of urine cytology has shifted from the identification of red blood cells, crystals, or parasites to its currently used role of detection of cancer cells exfoliated in urine samples. A variety of ancillary tests have been developed to complement the diagnostic ability of urine cytology. Furthermore, urine testing will continue to evolve as the pathogenesis of genitourinary tract diseases in depth is understood. This article focuses on the diagnostic advances in urine cytology from the cytomorphological perspective, past and current reporting schemes, and the application of ancillary testing in urine samples...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190142/updates-in-cervical-cytology-the-90-year-long-journey-from-battle-creek-to-today
#8
REVIEW
Catherine J Roe, Krisztina Z Hanley
Ninety years ago, at the Battle Creek conference, Papanicolaou introduced cervical exfoliative cytology. Since then, the "Pap test" has come a long way. The discovery of a causal relationship between cervical carcinoma and HPV infection opened the door for molecular testing and immunomarkers for HPV. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, 1988, established quality assurance and quality control programs to monitor performance of cytology laboratories. The Bethesda System for reporting cervical cytology laid the foundations for cervical cytology education, implementation of management guidelines, and further research on cervical carcinogenesis...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190141/pancreatic-cytology
#9
REVIEW
Raza S Hoda, Martha B Pitman
The diagnostic approach to pancreaticobiliary disease requires a multidisciplinary team in which the cytopathologist plays a crucial role. Fine-needle aspiration, obtained by endoscopic ultrasound, is the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic lesions. Preoperative clinical management depends on many factors, many of which rely on accurate cytologic assessment. Pancreaticobiliary cytology is wrought with diagnostic pitfalls. Clinical history, imaging studies, cytology samples, and ancillary tests, including immunohistochemistry, biochemical analysis, and genetic sequencing, are integral to forming a complete diagnosis and guiding optimal patient management...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190140/evaluation-of-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-on-cytologic-specimens
#10
REVIEW
Erika E Doxtader, Deborah J Chute
Carcinoma of unknown primary is defined as metastatic carcinoma without a clinically obvious primary tumor. Determining the tissue of origin in carcinoma of unknown primary is important for site-directed therapy. Immunohistochemistry is the most widely used tool for the work-up of metastases, but molecular profiling assays are also available. This review provides an overview of immunohistochemical stains in the work-up of metastatic carcinoma, with a focus on newer site-specific markers, and discusses the role of gene expression profiling assays for determining tissue of origin...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190139/updates-in-effusion-cytology
#11
REVIEW
Christin M Lepus, Marina Vivero
Effusion cytology plays multiple roles in the management of benign and malignant disease, from primary diagnosis to tissue allocation for ancillary diagnostic studies and biomarker testing of therapeutic targets. This article summarizes recent advances in pleural effusion cytology, with a focus on the practical application of immunohistochemical markers, cytogenetic techniques, flow cytometry, and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and management of primary and secondary neoplasms of the pleura.
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190138/updates-in-lung-cancer-cytopathology
#12
REVIEW
Paul A VanderLaan
Lung cancer diagnosis and ancillary testing are increasingly relying on cytology and small biopsy specimens obtained via minimally invasive means. Paired with traditional immunohistochemical characterization of tumors, biomarker testing and comprehensive genomic profiling are becoming essential steps in the workup of lung cancer to identify targetable alterations and guide optimal therapy selection. Recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy have led to an increasingly complex and unresolved landscape for tumor PD-L1 testing...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190137/head-and-neck-cytopathology-human-papillomavirus-positive-carcinomas-including-diagnostic-updates-testing-modalities-and-recommendations
#13
REVIEW
Emilio Madrigal, Justin A Bishop, William C Faquin
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma caused by transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV) is now well established as a unique form of head and neck cancer. Given the high frequency of metastasis to cervical lymph nodes by HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) represents a widely accepted method for the sampling and diagnosis of these cancers. The recently published College of American Pathologists Guideline (2017) provides recommendations for the effective performance and interpretation of high-risk (HR) HPV testing in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), including testing on FNA samples of metastatic HNSCC to cervical lymph nodes...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190136/updates-in-salivary-gland-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-the-use-of-the-milan-system-and-ancillary-testing
#14
REVIEW
Edward B Stelow
Salivary gland fine needle aspiration biopsies remain common specimens seen by most cytology services. The diagnostic diversity and overlap between many of the lesions seen with these biopsies impart many challenges for the cytopathologist, rendering most specific diagnoses impossible with cytology alone. Here, the use of the Milan System for the classification of salivary gland fine needle aspiration biopsy FNAB is discussed, together with the potential use of ancillary testing in arriving at definitive diagnoses...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190135/updates-in-thyroid-cytology
#15
REVIEW
Michiya Nishino, Jeffrey F Krane
Genomic, clinical, and pathologic studies have prompted a more risk-stratified approach to the management of patients with thyroid nodules. The recent nomenclature change concerning noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features reflects the clinical trend toward conservative treatment choices for carefully selected low-risk thyroid neoplasms. These developments have occurred in parallel with a growing array of molecular tests intended to improve clinical triage for patients with indeterminate fine needle aspiration diagnoses...
September 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751886/hepatic-pathology-evolving-concepts-in-diagnosis-and-pathogenesis-for-medical-diseases-and-tumors
#16
EDITORIAL
John Hart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751885/frozen-sections-of-the-liver
#17
REVIEW
Meredith E Pittman, Rhonda K Yantiss
Intraoperative consultation requires skills in gross examination and histologic diagnosis, as well as an ability to perform rapid interpretations under time constraints. The aim of this review is to provide surgical pathologists with a framework for dealing with hepatic specimens in the frozen section area by covering common clinical scenarios and histologic findings. Differential diagnoses are considered in relation to primary hepatic neoplasia and metastatic diseases. Benign mimics of malignancy and other pitfalls in frozen section diagnosis of lesional tissue are covered...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751884/acute-chronic-and-humoral-rejection-pathologic-features-under-current-immunosuppressive-regimes
#18
REVIEW
Jamie Koo, Hanlin L Wang
Under current immunosuppressive regimes, T-cell-mediated acute and chronic rejection remain common and important posttransplant complications. The definition of humoral (antibody-mediated) rejection has been greatly expanded in recent years. The histopathologic assessment of allograft biopsies continues to serve an important role in the diagnosis of rejection and to facilitate patient management. The diagnosis of both acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection requires integration of the results of donor-specific antibody testing and C4d immunostaining, as well as exclusion of other potential etiologies of allograft dysfunction...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751883/cholangiocarcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Alyssa M Krasinskas
This article focuses on cholangiocarcinoma, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic. The various classification schemes based on anatomic location, macroscopic growth pattern, microscopic features, and cell of origin are outlined. The clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular differences between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, as well as differences in the 2 subtypes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, are discussed. Finally, precursor lesions, prognosis, treatment, and promising new potential targeted therapies are reviewed...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751882/hepatic-lymphoma-diagnosis
#20
REVIEW
Won-Tak Choi, Ryan M Gill
Systemic hematopoietic disorders may present on liver biopsy, and rare cases of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) may be encountered. Hepatopathologists must be familiar with the full spectrum of hematopoietic disorders involving the liver and be prepared to exclude benign mimics. PHL, which is confined to the liver without extrahepatic involvement, can present as solitary or multiple nodules, raising consideration for carcinoma on imaging, or may mimic benign inflammatory conditions, posing a diagnostic challenge...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
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