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Surgical Pathology Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477894/diagnostic-challenges-in-dermatopathology
#1
EDITORIAL
Thomas Brenn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477893/immunofluorescence-of-autoimmune-bullous-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Gilles F Diercks, Hendri H Pas, Marcel F Jonkman
Autoimmmune bullous diseases of skin and mucosa are uncommon, disabling, and potentially lethal diseases. For a quick and reliable diagnosis immunofluorescence is essential. This article describes two variants of immunofluorescence. The direct method uses a skin or mucosal biopsy of the patient to detect in vivo bound antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence uses patient's serum and a substrate to visualize circulating autoantibodies. These two methods supplemented with advanced techniques allow reliable classification of autoimmune bullous diseases; not only the main entities pemphigus and pemphigoid, but also subclasses within these groups...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477892/histopathologic-spectrum-of-connective-tissue-diseases-commonly-affecting-the-skin
#3
REVIEW
Alvaro C Laga, Allison Larson, Scott R Granter
Connective tissue disorders (CTDs), also known as collagen vascular diseases, are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a common pathogenic mechanism: autoimmunity. Precise classification of CTDs requires clinical, serologic, and pathologic correlation and may be difficult because of overlapping clinical and histologic features. The main contribution of histopathology in the diagnosis of these disorders is to confirm, rule out, or alert clinicians to the possibility of CTD as a disease category, rather than producing definitive diagnoses of specific entities...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477891/cutaneous-pseudolymphoma
#4
REVIEW
Christina Mitteldorf, Werner Kempf
The term, cutaneous pseudolymphoma (PSL), refers to a group of lymphocyte-rich infiltrates, which either clinically and/or histologically simulate cutaneous lymphomas. Clinicopathologic correlation is essential to achieve the final diagnosis in cutaneous PSL and to differentiate it from cutaneous lymphomas. A wide range of causative agents (eg, Borrelia, injections, tattoo, and arthropod bite) has been described. Based on clinical and/or histologic presentation, 4 main groups of cutaneous PSL can be distinguished: (1) nodular PSL, (2) pseudo-mycosis fungoides, (3) other PSLs (representing distinct clinical entities), and (4) intravascular PSL...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477890/epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-the-skin
#5
REVIEW
John R Goodlad
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferations involving the skin are a rare but important group of diseases with a broad spectrum of behavior, ranging from self-limiting spontaneously resolving disorders to highly aggressive malignancies. They may be of B, T, or natural killer (NK) cell type and include EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder, and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477889/cutaneous-lymphomas-with-cytotoxic-phenotype
#6
REVIEW
Adriana García-Herrera, Eduardo Calonje
Primary cutaneous cytotoxic lymphomas are T-cell or natural killer-cell lymphomas that express 1 or more cytotoxic markers. These neoplasms constitute a spectrum of diseases. In this review, an overview of clinical, morphologic, and phenotypical features of each subtype is provided. Differential diagnosis is discussed with attention to scenarios in which diagnostic difficulties are most frequently encountered.
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477888/merkel-cell-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
Melissa Pulitzer
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) encompasses neuroendocrine carcinomas primary to skin and occurs most commonly in association with clonally integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus with related retinoblastoma protein sequestration or in association with UV radiation-induced alterations involving the TP53 gene and mutations, heterozygous deletion, and hypermethylation of the Retinoblastoma gene. Molecular genetic signatures may provide therapeutic guidance. Morphologic features, although patterned, are associated with predictable diagnostic pitfalls, usually resolvable by immunohistochemistry...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477887/update-on-malignant-sweat-gland-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Michiel P J van der Horst, Thomas Brenn
Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477886/sebaceous-neoplasms
#9
REVIEW
Katharina Flux
Sebaceous skin tumors are classified into sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, and sebaceous carcinoma. An additional group of cystic sebaceous tumors indicate the Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). Cystic sebaceous tumors are considered as morphologic variants of the 3 main categories. Multilineage adnexal tumors with partly sebaceous differentiation may pose a challenge to categorize. Sebaceous hyperplasia and nevus sebaceus are not considered as true sebaceous tumor entities. Recently, attention has been drawn to morphologic clues of sebaceous differentiation...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477885/histopathology-of-spindle-cell-vascular-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Zlatko Marušić, Steven D Billings
Vascular tumors with a spindled morphology represent a diagnostic challenge in soft tissue pathology. It may be difficult to distinguish certain benign entities in this category from spindled vascular tumors of intermediate malignancy or even spindled variants of angiosarcoma. This article focuses on vascular tumors characterized by a predominantly spindled morphology, including spindle cell hemangioma, acquired tufted angioma (angioblastoma of Nakagawa), kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, Kaposi sarcoma, and spindle cell variants of angiosarcoma...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477884/cutaneous-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor
#11
REVIEW
Boštjan Luzar, Giovanni Falconieri
Cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas of neuroectodermal origin arising in the dermis and/or subcutis. In contrast with their deep soft tissue and visceral counterparts, cutaneous MPNSTs are rarely associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Two main subtypes of cutaneous MPNST can be distinguished histologically: conventional (ie, spindle cell) and epithelioid MPNST. The 2 subtypes also differ in predilection for deep versus superficial locations, association with preexistent benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors and S100 immunohistochemistry...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477883/atypical-fibroxanthoma-revisited
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Mentzel, Luis Requena, Thomas Brenn
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) represents a rare mesenchymal neoplasm arising predominantly in the head and neck area of elderly patients. Clinically, the neoplasm is characterized by a rapid and exophytic growth with frequent ulceration of the epidermis. Histopathologically, AFX represents a well-circumscribed, dermal-based neoplasm composed of a variable admixture of large histiocytoid cells, enlarged spindled and epithelioid tumor cells, and multinucleated tumor giant cells with bizarre and pleomorphic nuclei...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477882/advances-in-the-genetic-characterization-of-cutaneous-mesenchymal-neoplasms-implications-for-tumor-classification-and-novel-diagnostic-markers
#13
REVIEW
Leigh A Compton, Leona A Doyle
Cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms often pose significant diagnostic challenges; many such entities are rare or show clinical and histologic overlap with both other mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lesions. Recent advances in the genetic classification of many cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms have not only helped define unique pathologic entities and increase our understanding of their biology, but have also provided new diagnostic markers. This review details these recent discoveries, with a focus on their implications for tumor classification and diagnosis...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477881/spitz-tumors-of-the-skin
#14
REVIEW
F D Menezes, W J Mooi
Spitz tumors are melanocytic neoplasms hallmarked by large cell size, lack of high-grade atypia, and a regular architecture. Most are nonpigmented or poorly pigmented. Malignant potential ranges from absent (Spitz nevus), to fully present (spitzoid melanoma), with a further, ill-defined group of Spitz tumors with limited metastatic potential. Microscopic evaluation may prove inconclusive in some instances, resulting in a verdict of Spitz tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). STUMP is, therefore, not an entity, and should not be equated with Spitz tumors with limited metastatic potential...
June 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153138/head-and-neck-pathology
#15
EDITORIAL
Raja R Seethala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153137/glandular-neoplasia-of-the-sinonasal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Edward B Stelow
Glandular lesions that cannot be diagnosed readily as salivary gland tumors occur uncommonly in the upper aerodigestive tract. They occur only with some frequency within the sinonasal tract. Well-characterized lesions at this site include the respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma, seromucinous hamartoma, and intestinal and non-intestinal-type adenocarcinomas. This article reviews the clinicopathologic features of these fascinating lesions.
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153136/autoimmune-disease-manifestations-in-the-oral-cavity
#17
REVIEW
Kelly R Magliocca, Sarah G Fitzpatrick
Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns...
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153135/human-papillomavirus-associated-neoplasms-of-the-head-and-neck
#18
REVIEW
Aaron M Udager, Jonathan B McHugh
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an essential causal factor in a subset of head and neck neoplasms, most notably oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, for which HPV infection has important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. This article summarizes the current understanding of HPV-associated neoplasms of the head and neck, including the recently described carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features. Salient clinical, gross, and microscopic features are discussed, and the utility of specific ancillary studies is highlighted...
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153134/distinctive-head-and-neck-bone-and-soft-tissue-neoplasms
#19
REVIEW
Bibianna Purgina, Chi K Lai
Benign and malignant primary bone and soft tissue lesions of the head and neck are rare. The uncommon nature of these tumors, combined with the complex anatomy of the head and neck, pose diagnostic challenges to pathologists. This article describes the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of selected bone and soft tissue tumors involving the head and neck region, including angiofibroma, glomangiopericytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma...
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153133/odontogenic-cysts-and-neoplasms
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Ann Bilodeau, Bobby M Collins
This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma)...
March 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
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