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Environmental Health Insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469452/risk-factors-of-pesticide-poisoning-and-pesticide-users-cholinesterase-levels-in-cotton-production-areas-glazou%C3%A3-and-sav%C3%A3-townships-in-central-republic-of-benin
#1
REVIEW
Hinson Antoine Vikkey, Dossou Fidel, Yehouenou Pazou Elisabeth, Hountikpo Hilaire, Lawin Hervé, Aguèmon Badirou, Koudafoke Alain, Houngbégnon Parfait, Gounongbé Fabien, Fayomi Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469451/pesticide-residues-in-commercial-lettuce-onion-and-potato-samples-from-bolivia-a-threat-to-public-health
#2
REVIEW
Marlene Skovgaard, Susana Renjel Encinas, Olaf Chresten Jensen, Jens Hinge Andersen, Guido Condarco, Erik Jørs
Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469450/effect-of-integrated-pest-management-training-on-ugandan-small-scale-farmers
#3
REVIEW
Anna Sabine Clausen, Erik Jørs, Aggrey Atuhaire, Jane Frølund Thomsen
Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), potential exposure, and self-reported poisoning symptoms among 35 FFS farmers, 44 neighboring farmers, and 35 control farmers after an IPM intervention in Uganda (2011-2012). The FFS farmers were encouraged to teach their neighboring farmers...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469449/obstacles-and-opportunities-for-diffusion-of-integrated-pest-management-strategies-reported-by-bolivian-small-scale-farmers-and-agronomists
#4
REVIEW
Erik Jørs, Antonio Aramayo, Omar Huici, Flemming Konradsen, Gabriel Gulis
Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469448/neurological-deficits-after-long-term-pyrethroid-exposure
#5
Martin Rune Hassan Hansen, Erik Jørs, Flemming Lander, Guido Condarco, Fróði Debes, Noemi Tirado Bustillos, Vivi Schlünssen
Pyrethroid pesticides have been suggested to be a cause of Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 Bolivian public health vector program spray men, primarily exposed to pyrethroids. Pesticide exposure and central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were determined by a structured interview, whereas neuromotor and neurocognitive performance was assessed using the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System and CATSYS system...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469447/insights-into-the-morphology-of-the-east-asia-pm2-5-annual-cycle-provided-by-machine-learning
#6
Daji Wu, Gebreab K Zewdie, Xun Liu, Melanie Anne Kneen, David John Lary
The abundance of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) is a significant environmental and health issue. Many tools have been used to examine the relationship between PM2.5 abundance and meteorological variables, but some of the relationships are nonlinear, non-Gaussian, and even unknown. Machine learning provides a broad range of practical algorithms to help examine this issue. In this study, we use machine learning to classify the morphology of PM2.5 seasonal cycles in East Asia...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469446/using-machine-learning-to-estimate-atmospheric-ambrosia-pollen-concentrations-in-tulsa-ok
#7
Xun Liu, Daji Wu, Gebreab K Zewdie, Lakitha Wijerante, Christopher I Timms, Alexander Riley, Estelle Levetin, David J Lary
This article describes an example of using machine learning to estimate the abundance of airborne Ambrosia pollen for Tulsa, OK. Twenty-seven years of historical pollen observations were used. These pollen observations were combined with machine learning and a very complete meteorological and land surface context of 85 variables to estimate the daily Ambrosia abundance. The machine learning algorithms employed were Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), neural networks, and random forests...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469445/epidemiology-of-organophosphate-poisoning-in-the-tshwane-district-of-south-africa
#8
REVIEW
L L Razwiedani, Pgd Rautenbach
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate poisoning is a major public health problem in South Africa. Individuals get exposed to organophosphate in both the domestic and industrial spheres. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using retrospective, secondary data of organophosphate poisoning cases over a 3-year period, reported at the Tshwane District surveillance office. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and Epi Info version 7 was used for descriptive statistics...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469444/knowledge-and-practices-relating-to-acute-pesticide-poisoning-among-health-care-providers-in-selected-regions-of-tanzania
#9
Elikana Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Habib Mkalanga, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs) undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. METHODOLOGY: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91). The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%)...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469443/self-reported-effects-of-water-on-health-in-first-nations-communities-in-saskatchewan-canada-results-from-community-based-participatory-research
#10
Cheryl L Waldner, Hubert Tote Alimezelli, Lianne McLeod, Rebecca Zagozewski, Lori Ea Bradford, Lalita A Bharadwaj
Water-related health challenges on First Nations reserves in Canada have been previously documented. Our objective was to describe factors associated with self-reported health effects from tap water in 8 First Nations reserve communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Community-based participatory approaches were used in designing and implementing cross-sectional household surveys. Individual, household, community, and contextual effects were considered in multilevel analysis. Negative health effects from tap water were reported by 28% of households (n = 579)...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980419/patterns-of-pesticide-use-and-associated-factors-among-the-commercial-farmers-of-chitwan-nepal
#11
Gayatri Khanal, Amarjeet Singh
Farmers in developing countries are exposed to pesticide hazards due to unsafe handling. This study was conducted to identify the prevailing practices of pesticide use and factors affecting the handling of pesticides among the farmers of Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 farmers. None of the farmers completely followed all the protective measures. About 59% disposed the empty pesticide containers to a nearby water source and 62% preferred house ceilings as a storage place. Males (aOR = 3...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891049/quantifying-the-seafood-consumption-patterns-of-recreational-anglers-in-charleston-and-berkeley-counties-south-carolina
#12
Matthew T Perkinson, Trevor D Faith, Grace M Vahey, John E Vena, Edith M Williams
This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795667/chronic-ethanol-exposure-effects-on-vitamin-d-levels-among-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#13
Olalekan Ogunsakin, Tete Hottor, Ashish Mehta, Maureen Lichtveld, Michael McCaskill
Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773989/residual-isocyanates-in-medical-devices-and-products-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment
#14
Gillian Franklin, Homero Harari, Samavi Ahsan, Dhimiter Bello, David A Sterling, Jonathan Nedrelow, Scott Raynaud, Swati Biswas, Youcheng Liu
We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU) and PU foam (PUF) devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE™. Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679523/insights-into-zika-virus-history-human-health-effects-and-control-measures
#15
EDITORIAL
Tim Kelley, Stephanie Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660460/the-increasing-prevalence-in-intersex-variation-from-toxicological-dysregulation-in-fetal-reproductive-tissue-differentiation-and-development-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#16
REVIEW
Alisa L Rich, Laura M Phipps, Sweta Tiwari, Hemanth Rudraraju, Philip O Dokpesi
An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597809/air-pollution-and-emergency-department-visits-for-depression-a-multicity-case-crossover-study
#17
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Termeh Kousha, Mila Kingsbury, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for depression. METHODS: Health data were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. ED visits for depression were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), Tenth revision codes; ICD-10: F32 (mild depressive episode) and ICD-10: F33 (recurrent depressive disorder)...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594788/characterization-of-beauty-salon-wastewater-from-kwame-nkrumah-university-of-science-and-technology-kumasi-ghana-and-its-surrounding-communities
#18
Marian A Nkansah, Francis Opoku, James H Ephraim, David D Wemegah, Luke P M Tetteh
Due to the increase in students' population over the years, the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana, and its surrounding communities have seen an increase in the number of beauty salons. The assessment of the quality of salon wastewater has received little attention, as a potential source of environmental and public health hazard, due to the lack of literature on this issue. The main aim of this study is to assess wastewater effluent characteristics in KNUST and its surrounding areas, in relation to its physicochemical and microbial parameters...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594787/the-cold-dusty-harmattan-a-season-of-anguish-for-cardiologists-and-patients
#19
Basil N Okeahialam
Human health and disease often demonstrate seasonal patterns. Knowledge of these aspects aids anticipation and planning. Numerous studies have shown that hypertension and cardiovascular diseases demonstrate a seasonal pattern. The Harmattan, the cold dusty season in Sub-Saharan Africa, is the season of greatest concern in this regard. In this commentary, the author draws on his and other researchers' studies to explain the grounds for onset and worsening of existing cardiovascular diseases. As implied in the title, it is a season that puts great strain on the cardiologist and the health system, as well as greater disease burden on the patient...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559298/role-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-circadian-clock-disruption-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Cassie Jaeger, Shelley A Tischkau
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of three or more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, increased blood pressure, and high levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins, has reached dangerous and costly levels worldwide. Increases in morbidity and mortality result from a combination of factors that promote altered glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. Although diet and exercise are commonly touted as important determinants in the development of metabolic dysfunction, other environmental factors, including circadian clock disruption and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by dietary or other environmental sources, must also be considered...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
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