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Environmental Health Insights

Tim Kelley, Stephanie Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Alisa L Rich, Laura M Phipps, Sweta Tiwari, Hemanth Rudraraju, Philip O Dokpesi
An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Termeh Kousha, Mila Kingsbury, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for depression. METHODS: Health data were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. ED visits for depression were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), Tenth revision codes; ICD-10: F32 (mild depressive episode) and ICD-10: F33 (recurrent depressive disorder)...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Marian A Nkansah, Francis Opoku, James H Ephraim, David D Wemegah, Luke P M Tetteh
Due to the increase in students' population over the years, the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana, and its surrounding communities have seen an increase in the number of beauty salons. The assessment of the quality of salon wastewater has received little attention, as a potential source of environmental and public health hazard, due to the lack of literature on this issue. The main aim of this study is to assess wastewater effluent characteristics in KNUST and its surrounding areas, in relation to its physicochemical and microbial parameters...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Basil N Okeahialam
Human health and disease often demonstrate seasonal patterns. Knowledge of these aspects aids anticipation and planning. Numerous studies have shown that hypertension and cardiovascular diseases demonstrate a seasonal pattern. The Harmattan, the cold dusty season in Sub-Saharan Africa, is the season of greatest concern in this regard. In this commentary, the author draws on his and other researchers' studies to explain the grounds for onset and worsening of existing cardiovascular diseases. As implied in the title, it is a season that puts great strain on the cardiologist and the health system, as well as greater disease burden on the patient...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Cassie Jaeger, Shelley A Tischkau
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of three or more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, increased blood pressure, and high levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins, has reached dangerous and costly levels worldwide. Increases in morbidity and mortality result from a combination of factors that promote altered glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. Although diet and exercise are commonly touted as important determinants in the development of metabolic dysfunction, other environmental factors, including circadian clock disruption and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by dietary or other environmental sources, must also be considered...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Ana Marie R Leung, Jinky Leilanie Dp Lu
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study aimed at the environmental health hazards at work and cyanide exposure of small-scale gold miners engaged in gold extraction from ores in a mining area in the Philippines. METHODS: Methods consisted of structured questionnaire-guided interviews, work process observation tools, physical health assessment by medical doctors, and laboratory examination and blood cyanide determination in the blood samples of 34 indigenous small-scale gold miners from Benguet, Philippines...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Rebecca C Christofferson, Christopher N Mores
The extrinsic incubation period is a critical component in the assessment of arboviral transmission potential. It defines the time it takes for a mosquito to become infectious following exposure to an arbovirus. Since this is a temporal process, the lifespan of a mosquito is intimately tied to the extrinsic incubation period and thus transmission potential of these viruses. Temperature is a known effector of both vector competence (the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen) and mosquito mortality, but the interaction among temperature, vector competence, and mosquito mortality is not well characterized...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Justin Gerding, Micaela Kirshy, John W Moran, Ron Bialek, Vanessa Lamers, John Sarisky
Local health department (LHD) vector control programs have experienced reductions in funding and capacity. Acknowledging this situation and its potential effect on the ability to respond to vector-borne diseases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Public Health Foundation partnered on a performance management initiative for LHD vector control programs. The initiative involved 14 programs that conducted a performance assessment using the Environmental Public Health Performance Standards...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Evin Danisman Bruschweiler, Pascal Wild, Cong Khanh Huynh, Dessislava Savova-Bianchi, Brigitta Danuser, Nancy B Hopf
Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Surendra Karki, Gabriel L Hamer, Tavis K Anderson, Tony L Goldberg, Uriel D Kitron, Bethany L Krebs, Edward D Walker, Marilyn O Ruiz
The local abundance of Culex mosquitoes is a central factor adding to the risk of West Nile virus transmission, and vector abundance data influence public health decisions. This study evaluated differences in abundance estimates from mosquitoes trapped using two common methods: CO2-baited CDC light traps and infusion-baited gravid traps in suburban, Chicago, Illinois. On a weekly basis, the two methods were modestly correlated (r = 0.219) across 71 weeks over 4 years. Lagged weather conditions of up to four weeks were associated with the number of mosquitoes collected in light and gravid traps...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Jo Anne G Balanay, Gregory D Kearney, Adam J Mannarino
Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used). Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures were 83...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Alisa L Rich, Helen T Orimoloye
BACKGROUND: The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Maryam Niyyati, Reza Saberi, Alireza Latifi, Zohreh Lasjerdi
A comprehensive survey was conducted along 10 km of geothermal rivers in southwestern Iran. A total of 40 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., and genotypes were determined by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also identified using tolerance ability test. High occurrences of Acanthamoeba (50%) were detected in the sampling areas. Based on sequencing analysis, isolates belonging to T4 (93.7%) and T2 (6...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Justin E Harbison, Peter C Corcoran, Amy Runde, Marlon Henry, Christopher Xamplas, Roger S Nasci
Since the mid-1990s, the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (NSMAD) has applied extended-release formulations of mosquito larvicides to approximately 50,000 catch basins in the suburbs north of Chicago, IL, USA. This is performed as part of NSMAD's efforts to reduce local populations of the West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens. Analyses from NSMAD's monitoring of larvicide-treated basins throughout the District over the 2014 and 2015 seasons suggest that larvicides intended to provide extended durations of control (30-180 days) failed to provide control for the maximum duration specified on the product label in approximately 25% of the District's basins...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Afshin Maleki, Hiua Daraei, Elham Mohammadi, Shiva Zandi, Pari Teymouri, Amir Hossien Mahvi, Fardin Gharibi
With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Alisa L Rich, Jay T Patel, Samiah S Al-Angari
Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Stephen A Klotz, F Mazda Shirazi, Keith Boesen, Norman L Beatty, Patricia L Dorn, Shannon Smith, Justin O Schmidt
Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Dina M Schreinemachers, Andrew J Ghio
Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Justin E Harbison, Marlon Henry, Peter C Corcoran, Dave Zazra, Christopher Xamplas
Stormwater catch basins are commonly treated with larvicides by mosquito control agencies to reduce local populations of mosquito species capable of transmitting West Nile virus. Recent evidence suggests that extended-release larvicides formulated to last up to 180 days in catch basins may not be effective in some basins due to chronic flushing, rapid dissolution, or burying of treatment in sump debris. To investigate if increasing the number of applications could improve effectiveness, a small study was performed over 13 weeks in 2015 to evaluate two extended-release larvicides (Natular™ XRT 180-day tablets and Natular™ T30 30-day tablets) and a larvicide oil (CocoBear™)...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
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