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Environmental Health Insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497309/an-operational-evaluation-of-3-methoprene-larvicide-formulations-for-use-against-mosquitoes-in-catch-basins
#1
Justin E Harbison, Amy B Runde, Marlon Henry, Bridget Hulsebosch, Alka Meresh, Haley Johnson, Roger S Nasci
Effectiveness in controlling mosquitoes in storm water catch basins in the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (northeastern Cook County, Illinois) was determined for 3 formulations of methoprene-based larvicides (Altosid XR 150-day Briquets, Altosid 30-day Pellets, Altosid 30-day Granules) in 2017 using a pass/fail evaluation criterion, in which emergence of a single adult from pupae collected from the basin constituted a control failure. Over the course of the 16-week study, basins receiving the 150-day briquets were treated once and basins receiving the pellet and granular formulations were treated every 4 weeks, with the first treatment occurring during the last week of May...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497308/insights-into-the-environmental-health-burden-of-childhood-asthma
#2
Tim Kelley, Gregory D Kearney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398918/using-watershed-boundaries-to-map-adverse-health-outcomes-examples-from-nebraska-usa
#3
Brittany Corley, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Eleanor Rogan, Donald Coulter, John Sparks, Lorena Baccaglini, Madeline Howell, Sidra Liaquat, Rex Commack, Alan S Kolok
In 2009, a paper was published suggesting that watersheds provide a geospatial platform for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, the health of the environment, and human health. This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326530/pesticide-poisonings-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
EDITORIAL
Erik Jørs, Dinesh Neupane, Leslie London
Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270018/potential-effectiveness-of-point-of-use-filtration-to-address-risks-to-drinking-water-in-the-united-states
#5
Kathleen Ward Brown, Bemnet Gessesse, Lindsey J Butler, David L MacIntosh
Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225470/plasma-cholinesterase-levels-of-nepalese-farmers-following-exposure-to-organophosphate-pesticides
#6
Dinesh Neupane, Erik Jørs, Lars Peter Andreas Brandt
Background: Farmers in developing countries use highly toxic organophosphate pesticides. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare plasma cholinesterase (PChE) enzyme activity before and after exposure to organophosphate pesticides in a real-life setting. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 25 farmers spraying organophosphate pesticide in their farm. The PChE level was measured and clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity were asked before and immediately after spraying...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162976/linking-air-quality-and-human-health-effects-models-an-application-to-the-los-angeles-air-basin
#7
Devoun R Stewart, Emily Saunders, Roberto A Perea, Rosa Fitzgerald, David E Campbell, William R Stockwell
Proposed emission control strategies for reducing ozone and particulate matter are evaluated better when air quality and health effects models are used together. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is the US Environmental Protection Agency's model for determining public policy and forecasting air quality. CMAQ was used to forecast air quality changes due to several emission control strategies that could be implemented between 2008 and 2030 for the South Coast Air Basin that includes Los Angeles...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051705/open-defaecation-and-its-effects-on-the-bacteriological-quality-of-drinking-water-sources-in-isiolo-county-kenya
#8
Joab Odhiambo Okullo, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, George Morara Ogendi
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904524/prevalence-circumstances-and-management-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-hospitals-in-kampala-city-uganda
#9
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890656/effects-of-teaching-health-care-workers-on-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pesticide-poisonings-in-uganda
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Sibani, Kristian Kjaer Jessen, Bircan Tekin, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. METHOD: A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690397/pesticide-exposure-and-health-problems-among-female-horticulture-workers-in-tanzania
#11
REVIEW
Ezra Jonathan Mrema, Aiwerasia Vera Ngowi, Stephen Simon Kishinhi, Simon Henry Mamuya
Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659715/advanced-collaborative-emissions-study-auxiliary-findings-on-2007-compliant-diesel-engines-a-comparison-with-diesel-exhaust-genotoxicity-effects-prior-to-2007
#12
REVIEW
Lance M Hallberg, Jonathan B Ward, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Bill T Ameredes
Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615953/characteristics-of-pesticide-poisoning-in-rural-and-urban-settings-in-uganda
#13
REVIEW
Bastian Pedersen, Charles Ssemugabo, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615952/assessment-of-dithiocarbamate-residues-on-tomatoes-conventionally-grown-in-uganda-and-the-effect-of-simple-washing-to-reduce-exposure-risk-to-consumers
#14
REVIEW
Aggrey Atuhaire, Emmanuel Kaye, Innocent Louis Mutambuze, Graham Matthews, Theodor Friedrich, Erik Jørs
Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eating such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469452/risk-factors-of-pesticide-poisoning-and-pesticide-users-cholinesterase-levels-in-cotton-production-areas-glazou%C3%A3-and-sav%C3%A3-townships-in-central-republic-of-benin
#15
REVIEW
Hinson Antoine Vikkey, Dossou Fidel, Yehouenou Pazou Elisabeth, Hountikpo Hilaire, Lawin Hervé, Aguèmon Badirou, Koudafoke Alain, Houngbégnon Parfait, Gounongbé Fabien, Fayomi Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469451/pesticide-residues-in-commercial-lettuce-onion-and-potato-samples-from-bolivia-a-threat-to-public-health
#16
REVIEW
Marlene Skovgaard, Susana Renjel Encinas, Olaf Chresten Jensen, Jens Hinge Andersen, Guido Condarco, Erik Jørs
Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469450/effect-of-integrated-pest-management-training-on-ugandan-small-scale-farmers
#17
REVIEW
Anna Sabine Clausen, Erik Jørs, Aggrey Atuhaire, Jane Frølund Thomsen
Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), potential exposure, and self-reported poisoning symptoms among 35 FFS farmers, 44 neighboring farmers, and 35 control farmers after an IPM intervention in Uganda (2011-2012). The FFS farmers were encouraged to teach their neighboring farmers...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469449/obstacles-and-opportunities-for-diffusion-of-integrated-pest-management-strategies-reported-by-bolivian-small-scale-farmers-and-agronomists
#18
REVIEW
Erik Jørs, Antonio Aramayo, Omar Huici, Flemming Konradsen, Gabriel Gulis
Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469448/neurological-deficits-after-long-term-pyrethroid-exposure
#19
Martin Rune Hassan Hansen, Erik Jørs, Flemming Lander, Guido Condarco, Fróði Debes, Noemi Tirado Bustillos, Vivi Schlünssen
Pyrethroid pesticides have been suggested to be a cause of Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 Bolivian public health vector program spray men, primarily exposed to pyrethroids. Pesticide exposure and central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were determined by a structured interview, whereas neuromotor and neurocognitive performance was assessed using the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System and CATSYS system...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469447/insights-into-the-morphology-of-the-east-asia-pm2-5-annual-cycle-provided-by-machine-learning
#20
Daji Wu, Gebreab K Zewdie, Xun Liu, Melanie Anne Kneen, David John Lary
The abundance of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) is a significant environmental and health issue. Many tools have been used to examine the relationship between PM2.5 abundance and meteorological variables, but some of the relationships are nonlinear, non-Gaussian, and even unknown. Machine learning provides a broad range of practical algorithms to help examine this issue. In this study, we use machine learning to classify the morphology of PM2.5 seasonal cycles in East Asia...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
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