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Environmental Health Insights

Brenda L Jacklitsch, Keith A King, Rebecca A Vidourek, Ashley L Merianos
Heat-related illness (HRI), injury, and death among oil spill cleanup responders can be prevented through training and educational materials. This study assessed heat-related training and educational materials currently used and desired by oil spill cleanup responders. A needs assessment was completed by 65 oil spill cleanup responders regarding their occupational heat-related experiences and training needs. Oil spill cleanup responders reported participating on average in 37 oil spill cleanup activities per year...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Sabino Maldonado-Torres, Rubi Gurung, Hom Rijal, Andrew Chan, Shishir Acharya, Snezna Rogelj, Menake Piyasena, Gayan Rubasinghege
With the growth of the human population, a greater quantity of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have been released into the environment. Although research has addressed the levels and the impact of PPCPs in the environment, the fate of these compounds in surface waters is neither well known nor characterized. In the environment, PPCPs can undergo various transformations that are critically dependent on environmental factors such as solar radiation and the presence of soil particles. Given that the degradation products of PPCPs are poorly characterized, these "secondary residues" can be a significant environmental health hazard due to their drastically different toxicologic effects when compared with the parent compounds...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Amit Kumar Gorai, Paul B Tchounwou, S S Biswal, Francis Tuluri
Rising concentration of air pollution and its associated health effects is rapidly increasing in India, and Delhi, being the capital city, has drawn our attention in recent years. This study was designed to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in a mega city, Delhi. The daily PM2.5 concentrations monitored by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi during November 2016 to October 2017 in different locations distributed in the region of the study were used for the analysis...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Michael Eddleston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Justin E Harbison, Amy B Runde, Marlon Henry, Bridget Hulsebosch, Alka Meresh, Haley Johnson, Roger S Nasci
Effectiveness in controlling mosquitoes in storm water catch basins in the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (northeastern Cook County, Illinois) was determined for 3 formulations of methoprene-based larvicides (Altosid XR 150-day Briquets, Altosid 30-day Pellets, Altosid 30-day Granules) in 2017 using a pass/fail evaluation criterion, in which emergence of a single adult from pupae collected from the basin constituted a control failure. Over the course of the 16-week study, basins receiving the 150-day briquets were treated once and basins receiving the pellet and granular formulations were treated every 4 weeks, with the first treatment occurring during the last week of May...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Tim Kelley, Gregory D Kearney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Brittany Corley, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Eleanor Rogan, Donald Coulter, John Sparks, Lorena Baccaglini, Madeline Howell, Sidra Liaquat, Rex Commack, Alan S Kolok
In 2009, a paper was published suggesting that watersheds provide a geospatial platform for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, the health of the environment, and human health. This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Erik Jørs, Dinesh Neupane, Leslie London
Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Kathleen Ward Brown, Bemnet Gessesse, Lindsey J Butler, David L MacIntosh
Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Dinesh Neupane, Erik Jørs, Lars Peter Andreas Brandt
Background: Farmers in developing countries use highly toxic organophosphate pesticides. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare plasma cholinesterase (PChE) enzyme activity before and after exposure to organophosphate pesticides in a real-life setting. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 25 farmers spraying organophosphate pesticide in their farm. The PChE level was measured and clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity were asked before and immediately after spraying...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Devoun R Stewart, Emily Saunders, Roberto A Perea, Rosa Fitzgerald, David E Campbell, William R Stockwell
Proposed emission control strategies for reducing ozone and particulate matter are evaluated better when air quality and health effects models are used together. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is the US Environmental Protection Agency's model for determining public policy and forecasting air quality. CMAQ was used to forecast air quality changes due to several emission control strategies that could be implemented between 2008 and 2030 for the South Coast Air Basin that includes Los Angeles...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Joab Odhiambo Okullo, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, George Morara Ogendi
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Claudia Sibani, Kristian Kjaer Jessen, Bircan Tekin, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. METHOD: A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Ezra Jonathan Mrema, Aiwerasia Vera Ngowi, Stephen Simon Kishinhi, Simon Henry Mamuya
Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Lance M Hallberg, Jonathan B Ward, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Bill T Ameredes
Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Bastian Pedersen, Charles Ssemugabo, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Aggrey Atuhaire, Emmanuel Kaye, Innocent Louis Mutambuze, Graham Matthews, Theodor Friedrich, Erik Jørs
Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eating such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Hinson Antoine Vikkey, Dossou Fidel, Yehouenou Pazou Elisabeth, Hountikpo Hilaire, Lawin Hervé, Aguèmon Badirou, Koudafoke Alain, Houngbégnon Parfait, Gounongbé Fabien, Fayomi Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Marlene Skovgaard, Susana Renjel Encinas, Olaf Chresten Jensen, Jens Hinge Andersen, Guido Condarco, Erik Jørs
Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
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