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Journal of Infection and Public Health

Ahmed A Al-Naqshbandi, Mahmoud A Chawsheen, Haval H Abdulqader
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health-associated problem worldwide. Like other medical conditions, UTI patients may suffer from poor treatment outcomes due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Determining patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in uropathogens will guide physicians to choose the best antibiotics for treating affected patients. In this project we aimed to evaluate the frequencies of pathogens associated with UTI and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
David E Rebellón Sánchez, Amalia Avendaño Sánchez, Yardany R Mendez Fandiño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Siti N Alia, Narcisse Joseph, Noraini Philip, Nurul N Azhari, Bashiru Garba, Siti N Masri, Zamberi Sekawi, Vasantha K Neela
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is often misdiagnosed with several other tropical febrile illnesses in Malaysia due to similarities in clinical manifestations. Although treatment regimens could be started based on clinical judgments, early diagnosis has become paramount as a guide to chemotherapeutic interventions. Confirmed laboratory diagnosis through MAT or PCR is time consuming and usually available only in reference laboratories and not practical in healthcare settings. Rapid and easy to perform diagnostic tests are widely used in these settings as the point of care diagnosis...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Shefali Gupta, Pradeep Jaswani, Raj K Sharma, Suraksha Agrawal, Narayan Prasad, Chinmoy Sahu, Amit Gupta, Kashi N Prasad
INTRODUCTION: Despite the advancement in diagnostic modalities of sepsis, it is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Differentiation between sepsis and non-infectious disease states remains a diagnostic challenge. Procalcitonin (PCT) is useful for the diagnosis of sepsis but it varies in cut-off ranges at different clinical settings. The aim of this study was to correlate serum PCT levels with cultures and to evaluate the best cut-off values with high sensitivity and specificity for PCT...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Elio Castagnola, Paola Tatarelli, Alessio Mesini, Ivana Baldelli, Daniela La Masa, Roberto Biassoni, Roberto Bandettini
BACKGROUND: Little is known about epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in children. Aim of this study was to describe CPE epidemiology in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Italy that admits patients coming from geographic areas with high diffusion of CPE. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of the proportion and rates per 100,000 hospital discharges (D) or hospitalization-days (HD) of invasive infections due to CPE from 2013 to 2017 and of CPE infections and colonizations from 2014 to 2017...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Asma Ashraf, Sara Zafar, Khizra Zahid, Muhammad Salahuddin Shah, Khalid A Al-Ghanim, F Al-Misned, Shahid Mahboob
INTRODUCTION: Nanoparticles (NPs) have become very important owing to their various uses. In this research, an environmentally friendly biological technique was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles with Coriandrum sativum L. The objective of this research to use the source for the fabrication of silver NPs from C. sativum L., and to check the activity of the fabricated silver NPs was determined versus a couple of gram negative and a couple of gram positive bacteria in the presence of antibiotic viz...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ibrahim A Al-Zahrani, Esam I Azhar, Asif A Jiman-Fatani, Loai A Siddig, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed K Al-Ghamdi, Colin R Harwood
OBJECTIVES: A rapid molecular typing system was used to determine the impact of mass migration on the clonal variation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) Jeddah, in the western region of Saudi Arabia. This region experiences an annual influx of millions of pilgrims. METHODS: SmaI-multiplex PCR typing (SMT) was used for the initial analysis of strains and the resulting data subsequently supported by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST)...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Bingshao Liang, Yongqiang Xie, Shujun He, Jialiang Mai, Yanmei Huang, Liyuan Yang, Huamin Zhong, Qiulian Deng, Shuwen Yao, Yan Long, Yiyu Yang, Sitang Gong, Zhenwen Zhou
PURPOSE: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis among all ages; however, information on the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of NTS isolates is limited. We aimed to explore the characteristics of NTS isolated from paediatric patients in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 4586 stool culture collected at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from 2014 to 2016. RESULTS: We identified 220 (4...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Muhammad Haroon, Hasnain Jan, Shah Faisal, Nasir Ali, Muhammad Kamran, Farhan Ullah
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a tropical disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). It is one of the most significant arthropod-borne viral infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to characterize epidemiological, clinical features and laboratory markers of dengue infection during the recent epidemic in Peshawar, KP. METHODS: During the prospective hospital-based observational study, 2000 dengue suspected cases were serologically examined at Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) Peshawar...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Peter Anto Johnson
As one of the most debilitating and underdiagnosed hereditary conditions across the globe, cystic fibrosis requires intensive support from the healthcare system - particularly due to the increased susceptibility to chronic infection and resulting respiratory failure which can rapidly lead to death. In turn, the prevalence and action of a certain strain of bacterium - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - has gained a great deal of interest. Life-threatening chronic infections by P. aeruginosa have been shown to involve biofilm formation, proliferation and the release of quorum-sensing signaling molecules...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Rajeswari Shome, Triveni Kalleshamurthy, Krithiga Natesan, K Rohit Jayaprakash, Kavya Byrareddy, Nagalingam Mohandoss, Swati Sahay, Bibek R Shome, Jagadish Hiremath, Habibur Rahman, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe
BACKGROUND: Swine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis. The study describes the occurrence of brucellosis in two organized piggeries in Southern India. METHODS: A total of 585 serum samples comprising 575 from pigs and 10 from animal handlers were collected and tested by serological tests and PCR. Tissue samples were collected for isolation of the pathogen. RESULTS: Out of 575 serum samples screened, 236 (41.04%) were positive for brucellosis by both Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA) and 47 (8...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Hassan Zaraket, Nada Melhem, Mamunur Malik, Wasiq M Khan, Ghassan Dbaibo, Abdinasir Abubakar
Vaccination is the main control measure for influenza and its severe complications. To better understand the influenza vaccination situation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, we conducted an extensive review of literature published between 2006 and 2016 in the region on influenza vaccine policies, use, recommendations and coverage. Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. These originated from 11 of the 22 countries of the region, with most being from Saudi Arabia and Iran. The review revealed knowledge gaps and misconceptions about influenza and its vaccines even among healthcare workers...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jiang-Nan Wu, Yong Zhou
BACKGROUND: An effective method for the rapid identification of vulnerable preschool children at risk of not completing the national immunization programme (NIP) vaccine series in China is still lacking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 772 preschool children born between September 1 2009 and August 31, 2011 was conducted in 2015 in Fujian Province, south-eastern China. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews with the parents or guardians of the children using a standard questionnaire...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for more than two thirds of the world's HIV infection. Despite scaled-up prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) continues to escalate. We describe the challenges faced by PMTCT in MTCT in SSA. The study reviewed articles and reports published online. The most common barriers and challenges were non-disclosure of HIV status, late initiation of ARVs treatment/adherence, STIs screening, long clinics waiting time, non-involvement of men in ANC/PMTCT, infant feeding methods and sensitization of community members on ANC/PMTCT programmes...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Gintaras Zilinskas, Laura Tamasauskiene, Domantas Tamasauskas
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic consumption is high and varies between different European Union countries. One of the reasons could be different subjective perception of safe antibiotic use. The aim of our study was to analyse citizens' subjective perception of safe antibiotic use in the European Union countries in the context of different antibiotic policies. Some countries are prepared comprehensive national strategies and action plans and implement many activities in different areas while other countries implement actions only in particular fields and even do not have prepared strategy or action plan...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Santa García-Cisneros, Miguel Á Sánchez-Alemán, Carlos J Conde-Glez, Sergio J Lara-Zaragoza, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Tanya Plett-Torres, Maria Olamendi-Portugal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted agent and is detected worldwide. HSV-2 is the main cause of genital ulcers and is diagnosed mainly with serological tests. The objective of current study was to evaluate the use of DBS samples to detect HSV-2 antibodies using commercial ELISA and Western blot tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IgG-G2 ELISA (Human® Diagnostics, Germany) and Western blot IgG/IgM (EUROLINE-WB, Euroimmun® Germany) tests were modified to use DBS samples...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Di Zhang, Sasa Hu, Jinyao Sun, Lu Zhang, Haiyan Dong, Weiyi Feng, Jin'e Lei, Yalin Dong
PURPOSE: China launched a 3-year rectification scheme on the clinical use of antibiotics in 2011, and a specific scheme on carbapenem use in February 2017. This study investigated the trends in and correlations between antibiotic consumption and the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN) at a tertiary hospital during these years, particularly in carbapenem consumption. METHODS: The data were collected calculated per quarter from 2011 to 2017...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Tilak C Nath, Retna S Padmawati, Elsa H Murhandarwati
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has implemented school-based mass drug administration (MDA) bi-annually since 2008 aimed to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Despite several rounds of MDA, the government is still facing challenges to achieve the target coverage and utilization of the intervention. This study was done to explore and explain the barriers and gaps that hinder the utilization and coverage of MDA for STH. METHODS: This research was a mixed method study, was conducted in two selected districts of Bangladesh...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Gianluca Cuomo, Iacopo Franconi, Nicoletta Riva, Alessandro Bianchi, Margherita Digaetano, Antonella Santoro, Mauro Codeluppi, Andrea Bedini, Giovanni Guaraldi, Cristina Mussini
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV, HIV, HCV, tuberculosis and syphilis infection among immigrants assigned to the immigrant centre of the province of Modena. METHODS: At the time of arrival all immigrant were tested for: HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb, Ag p24/HIVAb, HCVAb, RPR, TPPA, Mantoux test (>10mm diameter of induration was considered to be positive), Chest X-rays. In case of positive samples, second level tests were performed (HbeAg, HBeAb, HDVAb, and baseline management and treatment of the infection detected)...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Pankaj Dhaka, Satyaveer S Malik, Jay P Yadav, Manesh Kumar, Amit Baranwal, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Deepak B Rawool
BACKGROUND: The present investigation of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and farm workers on an organized cattle dairy farm, which appears to be the first of its kind in India, was undertaken to assess the status of this largely neglected and masked zoonosis. METHODS: A total of 665 samples comprising of serum (n=224), milk (n=217) and vaginal swabs (n=224) collected from milch animals (n=224) with a history of reproductive disorders were screened. Besides these, ticks (n=114); animal feed (n=4) and environmental samples (n=13) as well as serum (n=19) of farm workers were also collected...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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