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Journal of Infection and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153538/oral-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-from-a-brazilian-southeastern-population
#1
Laís Moreira Dutra, Thiago Humberto Mendonça Silva, Aloísio Falqueto, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Lucia Renata Meireles Souza, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Tânia Regina Grão Velloso
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent endemic systemic fungal infection in Latin America. In Brazil, it stands out as the eighth-highest cause of mortality among chronic or recurrent infections and has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycoses. Oral mucosal lesions may be the first visible physical manifestation of the disease. This study traced the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with oral lesions treated at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes, Federal University of Espirito Santo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153444/retrospective-evaluation-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-imipenem-cilastatin-and-meropenem-used-on-surgical-floors-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#2
Eman Youssif, Mohammed Aseeri, Sahal Khoshhal
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including appropriate de-escalation, is essential to reduce the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In surgical floors antibiotics are prescribed for prophylaxis (mostly, single dose), empirical treatment (started if infection is suspected till bacteria are identified with its sensitivity to antibiotics), or treatment of well-defined infection of previously isolated bacteria with its sensitivity to antibiotics. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics based on requests for cultures and de-escalation based on sensitivity results of culture tests at tertiary care hospital...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150378/enhanced-antibacterial-effects-of-green-synthesized-zno-nps-using-aristolochia-indica-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens-from-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#3
Katherin Steffy, G Shanthi, Anson S Maroky, S Selvakumar
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of Multi-drug resistance in microorganisms has become the greatest challenge in the treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and urges the need of a new antimicrobial agent. In this study, we determined the bactericidal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) green synthesized from Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) isolated from pus samples of DFU patients attending in a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-vis-DRS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and for its zeta potential value...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146429/routine-screening-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-first-trimester-abortion
#4
Ryan Schlueter, Andrea Siu, James Shelton, Men-Jean Lee
Currently no recommendation exists to collect genital culture for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at diagnosis of spontaneous abortion. A retrospective cross sectional study was performed to identify first trimester abortions with concurrent genital culture collection in an emergency room setting. The results were compared to most current 2015 Center for Disease Control (CDC) statistics. Among women aged 15-24 the rate of C. trachomatis was increased to 20.0% and greater than CDC rate of 6.7% (RR 2...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137958/knowledge-and-information-sources-on-standard-precautions-and-infection-control-of-health-sciences-students-at-king-saud-bin-abdulaziz-university-for-health-sciences-saudi-arabia-riyadh
#5
Abdullah Khubrani, Meshal Albesher, Abdulah Alkahtani, Faisal Alamri, Majid Alshamrani, Emad Masuadi
BACKGROUND: Only one study has been conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess medical students' knowledge of standard precautions (SPs) and infection control (IC). In this study, we examined knowledge of SPs and IC among clinical students attending the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we targeted clinical students from the following five colleges: Medicine (fifth and sixth years); Dentistry (second semester of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth years); Applied Medical Sciences (third and fourth years); Nursing (third and fourth years); and Pharmacy (third, fourth, and fifth years)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129527/identification-of-measles-virus-genotype-b3-associated-with-outbreaks-in-islamabad-pakistan-2013-2015
#6
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Massab Umair, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Maqbool Hussain, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid
BACKGROUND: Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. METHODS: Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126828/imported-malaria-in-bulgaria-status-and-prognosis-after-eradication-in-1965
#7
Iskra G Rainova, Rumen N Harizanov, Iskren T Kaftandjiev, Ognyan D Mikov, Nina D Tsvetkova
BACKGROUND: This retrospective analysis assessed all recorded malaria cases in Bulgaria after 1965, when the country was certified as malaria-free by the World Health Organization (WHO), and evaluated the readiness of the public health system to interrupt an outbreak of local transmission in case of infection importation. METHODS: The cases were analyzed according to causative species; geographic origin of the imported case; and the citizenship, age, and gender of the infected individuals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113779/hospital-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-high-risk-hospitalized-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-china-an-economic-burden-analysis
#8
Tianyuan Yan, Yingxia Li, Yu Sun, Haiyan Wang, Jingna Wang, Weili Wang, Yunhong Liu, Xiaohui Wu, Shuhui Wang
BACKGROUND: Data on the economic burden of hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among high risk hospitalized patients are lacking in China. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap. METHODS: We used a prospective matched cohort design, comparing patients with LRTIs and 1:1 matched patients without LRTIs. Study period was from January 2013 to December 2015 analyzing inpatients from high risk wards - intensive care unit (ICU), dialysis, hematology, etc...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113778/quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-quantification-of-brucella-dna-in-serum-of-pre-and-post-therapeutic-occupationally-exposed-infected-human-population
#9
S Thakur, J S Bedi, R Singh, J P S Gill, A K Arora, Neeraj Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the neglected zoonotic diseases in humans. The serological methods based on antibody detections are unable to detect the effectiveness of treatment in humans as antibodies persist for long time in humans even after therapy. Therefore, we developed qPCR technique to overcome such discrepancy and device a rapid and efficient test for both diagnosis and follow up of the brucellosis affected individuals. METHODS: High risk suspected individuals with positive serology (RBPT, STAT and iELISA) and PCR were mainly analyzed for DNA quantification by qPCR assay...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103928/surveillance-of-intensity-level-and-geographical-spreading-of-dengue-outbreak-among-males-and-females-in-punjab-pakistan-a-case-study-of-2011
#10
Shahbaz Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Ramzan Talib, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Yasir, Muhammad Hasanain Chaudary
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is viral disease which spreads due to the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In recent years, it has affected around 40% population of the world. Its endemic flow has led to a large disease burden, in terms of human and financial resources. METHODS: Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are normally used to develop epidemiological thematic maps. This study explores the patterns and hotspots, associated with the catastrophic outbreak of dengue, in Punjab, in 2011...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100875/assessment-on-the-burden-of-bacillary-dysentery-associated-with-floods-during-2005-2009-in-zhengzhou-city-china-using-a-time-series-analysis
#11
Xiaowen Hu, Guoyong Ding, Ying Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Baofa Jiang, Wei Ni
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the impact of few times floods on bacillary dysentery in Zhengzhou during 2005-2009. METHODS: The Spearman correlation test was applied first to examine the lagged effects of floods on monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery during 2005-2009 in Zhengzhou. We further quantified the effects of 7 flood events on the morbidity of bacillary dysentery using the time-series Poisson regression controlling for climatic factors, seasonality, gender and age groups...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100874/can-preoperative-nasal-cultures-of-staphylococcus-aureus-predict-infectious-complications-or-outcomes-following-repair-of-fracture-nonunion
#12
David P Taormina, Sanjit R Konda, Frank A Liporace, Kenneth A Egol
INTRODUCTION: Much has been studied with reference to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) colonization and associated outcomes and comorbidities. In the area of Orthopedic surgery, literature predominantly comes from the field of arthroplasty. Little is known about outcomes of fracture and Orthopedic trauma patients in the setting of S. aureus colonization. We believe that MRSA/MSSA colonization in and of itself may be a weak marker for generally poor protoplasm, potentially with complex medical history including previous hospitalization or rehab placement...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097105/emergent-predictors-of-hepatitis-c-infection-among-non-injection-drug-users
#13
Sheila Araújo Teles, Elucir Gir, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Marcos André de Matos, Karla Antonieta Amorim Caetano
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents a significant public health issue, especially among high-risk populations, such as truck drivers, prisoners, people living with HIV, people living with tuberculosis, and people who are homeless. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the data of 1600 individuals recruited from high-risk populations who denied the use of injection drugs and/or history of blood transfusion to better understand on epidemiology of HCV...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097104/characterization-of-microbial-community-composition-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-on-intensive-care-surfaces
#14
K Johani, D Abualsaud, D M Costa, H Hu, G Whiteley, A Deva, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: Organisms causing healthcare associated infections can be sourced from the inanimate environment around patients. Residing in a biofilm increases the chances of these organisms persisting in the environment. We aimed to characterise bacterial environmental contamination, genetically and physiologically, and relate this to general intensive care unit (ICU) cleanliness. METHODS: Cleanliness was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements of 95 high-touch objects...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107608/a-fatal-case-of-rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-of-the-jaw-after-dental-extractions-and-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
Shilpa Prabhu, Manaf Alqahtani, Mohammed Al Shehabi
The purpose of presenting this case is to report a fatal case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis post-dental extraction in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Several cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis have been reported, but mucocutaneous mucormycosis has not been commonly reported to be a part of polymicrobial wound infections at multifocal sites. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the second case of polymicrobial rhinocerebral infection involving mucormycosis.
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107607/emergence-and-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-henan-china-2014
#16
Wen-Juan Liang, Hui-Ying Liu, Guang-Cai Duan, Yong-Xin Zhao, Shuai-Yin Chen, Hai-Yan Yang, Yuan-Lin Xi
The emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains is a main risk for global public health, but little is known of carbapenemase producing E. coli in Henan, China. The study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and mechanism of carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains in a hospital in Xinxiang, Henan, China, 2014. A total of 5 carbapenemase-producing E. coli strains were screened from 1014 isolates. We found that they were all resistant to meropenem and imipenem. Amikacin showed the best sensitivity, with gentamicin coming up next...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066021/emergence-of-antibiotic-resistant-shigella-species-a-matter-of-concern
#17
REVIEW
Minakshi Puzari, Mohan Sharma, Pankaj Chetia
A major threat to the world is the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which has rendered previously susceptible drugs useless and increased the rate of therapeutic failures. Shigella species, which are the causative organism of Shigellosis, were earlier susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid but now they have developed resistance against fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and azithromycin. Many shigellosis outbreaks have been reported by resistant strains of Shigella species...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066020/repeat-gram-negative-hospital-acquired-infections-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Mansi Agarwal, Stephanie Shiau, Elaine L Larson
Repeat HAIs among frequently hospitalized patients may be contributing to the high rates of antibiotic resistance seen in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in hospital settings. This systematic review examines the state of the literature assessing the association between repeat GNB HAIs and changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns. A systematic search of English language published literature was conducted to identify studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2015. Studies must have assessed drug resistance in repeat GNB infections longitudinally at the patient level...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056517/molecular-characterization-of-dengue-viruses-isolated-from-patients-in-central-java-indonesia
#19
Endang S Kusmintarsih, Rahma F Hayati, Oktaviani N Turnip, Benediktus Yohan, Suhestri Suryaningsih, Hery Pratiknyo, Dionisius Denis, R Tedjo Sasmono
BACKGROUND: Dengue is hyper-endemic in Indonesia. Purwokerto city in Central Java province is routinely ravaged by the disease. Despite the endemicity of dengue in this city, there is still no data on the virological aspects of dengue in the city. We conducted a molecular surveillance study of the circulating dengue viruses (DENV) in Purwokerto city to gain information on the virus origin, serotype and genotype distribution, and phylogenetic characteristics of DENV. METHODS: A cross-sectional dengue molecular surveillance study was conducted in Purwokerto...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029975/distressed-setting-and-profound-challenges-pandemic-influenza-preparedness-plans-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#20
Mamunur R Malik, Zaeem Ul Haq, Quaid Saeed, Ruth Riley, Wasiq M Khan
BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemics are unpredictable and can have severe health and economic implications. Preparedness for pandemic influenza as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO) is key in minimizing the potential impacts. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework is a global public-private initiative to strengthen the preparedness. A total of 43 countries receive funds through Partnership Contribution (PC) component of PIP Framework to enhance preparedness; seven of these fall in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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