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Journal of Infection and Public Health

Nahla K Ibrahim, Rana H Moshref, Leena H Moshref, Jawaher B Walid, Hadeel S AlSatti
Zika Virus (ZIKV) and its associated consequences remain vital public health challenge of international concerns. The current study was done to assess knowledge and attitudes towards ZIKV and the factors associated with good knowledge among medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 students. They were selected through multistage stratified random sample method, 2016. A validated, confidential, interviewing questionnaire contained 25 knowledge and 10 attitude items was used...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Li Yuanyue, Zulqarnain Baloch, Nafeesa Yasmeen, Yuan Tao, Wu Xiaomei, Xia Xueshan
This study was designed to explore baseline data about the prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among Chinese women who had cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. A total of 511 patients were recruited, and biopsy samples were collected from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HPV-positive samples, and the HPV GenoArray kit was used for genotyping. A total of 23 genotypes were detected, including 13 that were high risk-HPV (HR-HPV), 3 that were potential high risk-HPV (PHR-HPV) and 7 that were low risk-HPV (LR-HPV)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ayse S Dereli, Veysel Kayser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Indira B Martin, Vianna Williams, Desmond Ferguson, Stanley Read
Initiatives to increase access to quality rapid HIV diagnostics have had relative success in the Caribbean in recent years, including use of oral rapid HIV testing. However, to date, there has not been any investigation into the performance or acceptability of oral fluids HIV testing in the region. In this cross-sectional study in The Bahamas, 252 persons of unknown serostatus were tested side-by-side with two oral rapid test brands, and the results were compared with the national fingerprick algorithm. In addition, an exit survey was administered to 234 study participants to assess user test preference...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Adel F Almutairi, Abdallah A Adlan, Hanan H Balkhy, Oraynab Abou Abbas, Alexander M Clark
In summer 2015, a Saudi 1000-bed tertiary care hospital experienced a serious outbreak among patients of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS); during which, some healthcare providers contracted the virus, but none died. The outbreak provoked not only fear and stress; but also professional, emotional, ethical, and social conflicts and tension among healthcare providers and patients alike. Therefore, this study aims to explore what healthcare providers, who survived coronavirus infection, have experienced as a MERS patient and how the infection affected their relationship with their colleagues...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Nargis Alom Choudhury, Deepjyoti Paul, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Debadatta Dhar Chanda
This study was designed to investigate blaNDM-4 encoded within IncX3 type plasmid and their copy number alteration under carbapenem pressure within clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. NDM-4 producing E. coli isolates were collected from an Indian hospital and transferability as well as plasmid incompatibility typing was determined. Genetic environment and antibiogram profiling was carried out. Quantitative Real Time PCR was done to determine the change in plasmid copy number under concentration gradient carbapenem stress...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
R Seixas, T Nunes, J Machado, L Tavares, S P Owen, F Bernardo, M Oliveira
Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- is presently considered one of the major serovars responsible for human salmonellosis worldwide. Due to its recent emergence, studies assessing the demographic characterization and spatial epidemiology of salmonellosis 1,4,[5],12:i:- at local- or country-level are lacking. In this study, a analysis was conducted over a 10year period, from 2000 to the first quarter of 2011 at the Portuguese National Laboratory in Portugal mainland, with a total of 215 Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- serotyped isolates obtained from human infections by a passive surveillance system...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Smiljana J Cvjetkovic, Vida Lj Jeremic, Danijela V Tiosavljevic
Since vaccination coverage in Serbia has been decreasing and health professionals have been identified as the most important factor in making decisions about immunization, vaccination knowledge and attitudes of students, especially medical students, are of particular interest. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on three groups of 509 Belgrade University students (medical, law and engineering students). The data were collected using an on-line questionnaire posted to student groups and included the Vaccine Knowledge Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Vaccination Scale...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Inam D Khan, Shahbaz A Khan, Bushra Asima, Syed B Hussaini, M Zakiuddin, F A Faisal
The Hajj, a mass-gathering of over 3.5-million pilgrims, faces challenges to global health-security, housing, food, water, transportation, communication, sanitation, crowd-control and security. The Indian Medical Mission extended health-security to approximately 140,000 pilgrims, through outreach medical teams, primary-care clinics, tent-clinics, secondary-care hospitals and evacuation capabilities. Data on medical attendance, bed-occupancy, investigations, referrals, medication usage and deaths was compared...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ujjala Ghoshal, Vidhi Jain, Asmita Dey, Prabhat Ranjan
The diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis among HIV positive patients has been the focus of many studies worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on HIV negative immunocompromised patients like post-renal transplant recipients and those with haematological malignancies. Stool microscopy, the conventional method of diagnosis, is fraught with difficulties like cumbersome sample processing and subjective interpretation. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), on the other hand, is quicker and easier. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care and super speciality hospital of north India...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Akiko Kamimura, Ha N Trinh, Shannon Weaver, Alla Chernenko, Lindsey Wright, Mary Stoddard, Maziar M Nourian, Hanh Nguyen
Any sexually active person has the possibility of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV) sometime in their lifetime. HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV if obtained prior to viral exposure. Research on knowledge and beliefs of HPV and HPV vaccination among college students in Vietnam is significantly scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge and beliefs about HPV among college students in Vietnam compared to college students in the US. This cross-cultural comparison will fill a void in current research on this subject...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Maria Luisa Cristina, Cristiano Alicino, Marina Sartini, Valeria Faccio, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Valerio Del Bono, Giovanni Cassola, Anna Maria De Mite, Maria Paola Crisalli, Gianluca Ottria, Elisa Schinca, Giuliano Lo Pinto, Luigi Carlo Bottaro, Claudio Viscoli, Andrea Orsi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Giancarlo Icardi
In the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become endemic in several countries, including Italy. In the present study, we assessed the differences in epidemiology, management, and mortality of CR-Kp bloodstream infection (BSI) in the three main adult acute-care hospitals of the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy. From January 2013 to December 2014, all patients with CR-Kp BSI were identified through the computerized microbiology laboratory databases of the three hospitals. The primary endpoints of the study were incidence and characteristics of CR-Kp BSI in hospitals within the same endemic metropolitan area...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Saad Sawal Albogami, Meshal R Alotaibi, Saud A Alsahli, Emad Masuadi, Mohammad Alshaalan
ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20-30% of all hospital admissions and 30-60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Dan Dano Ibrahim, Sani Ousmane, Kamayé Moumouni, Ali Elhadji Mahamane
Pneumonia is the major cause of mortality in children under five years. A total of 751 children aged 1-59 months admitted for acute respiratory infection were included in this study. Pneumococcal serum IgG antibody was determined by ELISA. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined by molecular analyses of nasopharyngeal swabbings, and the rapid urinary diagnostic test Binax NOW(®)Sp was used for detection of pneumococcal antigen in urine. A total of 224 (29.8%) children had vaccination record books, and among them, 186 (83%) were vaccinated with the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV-23), 7 (3%) were vaccinated with the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-13), and 31 (14%) had not been vaccinated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Kimberly A D'Souza, Syed Mohammad Asad Zaidi, Maria Jaswal, Shahid Butt, Saira Khowaja, Shifa Salman Habib, Amyn Abdul Malik
Predictors of smear non-conversion at baseline can help identify cases at risk for failure of tuberculosis treatment. Retrospective data for smear-positive Category 1 patients in Karachi, Pakistan, was analyzed. Predictors of sputum conversion were determined using multiple logistic regression with sputum conversion as outcome variable and patient demographics, baseline weight, baseline sputum smear grade, case-finding approach as explanatory variables. Age ≥35 years, baseline sputum grade of 3+ were significantly associated with predicting sputum smear positivity at month 2 of treatment...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ravi Mallina, J Craik, N Briffa, Viren Ahluwalia, J Clarke, A G Cobb
The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is greater in elderly patients. Probiotics may have a beneficial effect in the prevention of CDAD. However, their effect in elderly orthopaedic patients has not been previously reported. Between April 2013 and April 2014, 105 patients admitted with femoral neck fractures, and who required 3days of antibiotics for infection of any cause, were prescribed the probiotic ACTIMEL until 3days after the last antibiotic dose. The incidence of CDAD was compared with historical controls (April 2011-April 2012)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Amen Bawazir, Eman Al-Mazroo, Hoda Jradi, Anwar Ahmed, Motasim Badri
In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Fawzia E Alotaibi, Elham E Bukhari, Maha M Al-Mohizea, Taghreed Hafiz, Eman Bin Essa, Yasmeen I AlTokhais
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been steadily spreading worldwide during the last decade. Nine patients were identified prospectively and were followed during their hospitalization course to identify the epidemiology, clinical profiles and outcomes. These patients had one or more cultures positive for a CRE isolate, contributing to a total of eleven positive cultures from various sites without including duplicates of isolates obtained from the same site. Isolates from these patients included five Klebseilla pneumoniae, three Escherichia coli, and one Enterobacter aerogenes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ali Rabaan, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging disease with a relatively high case fatality rate. Most cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia, and the disease epidemic potential is considered to be limited. However, human-human transmission has occurred, usually in the context of healthcare facility-associated outbreaks. The scientific and medical community depends on timely publication of epidemiological information on emerging diseases during outbreaks to appropriately target public health responses...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Daoqun Li, Yuzhu Song, Cheng-Lin Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xueshan Xia, A-Mei Zhang
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a serious medical and societal problem in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation characteristics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates in Yunnan, China. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in 523 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Six drug resistance genes (katG, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, embB, and pncA) were selected to screen for mutations. In total, 54 clinical M...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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