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Journal of Infection and Public Health

Mamunur R Malik, Zaeem Ul Haq, Quaid Saeed, Ruth Riley, Wasiq M Khan
BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemics are unpredictable and can have severe health and economic implications. Preparedness for pandemic influenza as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO) is key in minimizing the potential impacts. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework is a global public-private initiative to strengthen the preparedness. A total of 43 countries receive funds through Partnership Contribution (PC) component of PIP Framework to enhance preparedness; seven of these fall in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Tatina T Todorova
BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common and usually mild disease but it has great importance in regard to general infectious morbidity. The current study aimed to characterize possible risk factors of varicella epidemiology in Bulgaria, a country where infection follows its natural epidemiological pattern as no mandatory or recommended vaccine is currently applied. METHODS: Administrative regions of Bulgaria were used as units of observation and a set of sociodemographic and economic determinants, as well as geographic location (south or north) were tested for associations with the mean 3-year varicella incidence rates (2013-2015)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Haishaerjiang Wushouer, Zhao-Xia Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang, Ping Ji, Qing-Fang Zhu, Renagu Aishan, Lu-Wen Shi
PURPOSES: The objective of the study was to identify the trends and relations between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antibiotic use in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of AMR prevalence, and trends and relations between AMR and antibiotic use during the 3-year period was performed. RESULTS: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli was the most prevalent resistant pathogen in terms of both resistance density and resistance proportion...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Edgar Perez Barragán, Elena Urdez Hernández, Bernardo Pérez Orozco, Mariela Sánchez González
Currently, neurosyphilis is an uncommon disease and may occur at any stage of syphilis. Co-infection of syphilis with HIV can affect the clinical course. We report a case of meningovascular neurosyphilis in a patient with HIV in whom basilar artery thrombosis and reactive VDRL in CSF were detected. Treatment with penicillin was instituted with adequate response showing clinical improvement. Neurosyphilis is a differential diagnosis in young patients with cerebral infarction, especially in HIV patients.
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Hamid Reza Goli, Mohammad Reza Nahaei, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mojtaba Nikbakht, Younes Khalili
BACKGROUND: The overexpression of efflux pumps and existence of class 1 integrons are the most important mechanisms that contribute to antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa especially in burn and Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The present study evaluated the role of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps and class 1 integrons in resistance to antibiotics in burn and ICU isolates of P. aeruginosa. METHODS: Fifteen burn and forty-two ICU isolates were obtained from four hospitals in Northwest Iran...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Anju Dinkar, Jitendra Singh, Pradyot Prakash, Arghya Das, Gopal Nath
BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases, such as chikungunya, dengue and now zika represent a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. Epidemiology of chikungunya and dengue is well known, including its social and climatic factors associated, but only few data and reports of chikungunya are available from North India. The clinical differentiation of chikungunya from dengue is no doubt challenging since both diseases can share clinical signs and symptoms leading to potential misdiagnosis of chikungunya in areas where dengue is endemic...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Samy Kasem, Ibrahim Qasim, Ali Al-Hufofi, Osman Hashim, Ali Alkarar, Ali Abu-Obeida, Albagir Gaafer, Abdelhamid Elfadil, Ahmed Zaki, Ahmed Al-Romaihi, Nasereldeen Babekr, Nadr El-Harby, Raed Hussien, Ali Al-Sahaf, Ali Al-Doweriej, Faisal Bayoumi, Leo L M Poon, Daniel K W Chu, Malik Peiris
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is associated with a severe respiratory disease in humans in the Middle East. The epidemiological profiles of the MERS-CoV infections suggest zoonotic transmission from an animal reservoir to humans. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate animal herds associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-infected patients in Saudi Arabia, during the last three years (2014-2016)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Carlos Jesús Conde-Glez, Ma Leonidez Olamendi-Portugal, Santa García-Cisneros, Tanya Plett-Torres, Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán
HPV is the sexually transmitted agent most common among young people, like college students. The aim of study was to associate sexual behavior characteristics of women with HPV, detected in genital samples taken before the introduction of the HPV vaccine. Female students during 2001-2005 donated genital samples and the samples were re-analyzed in 2013 for HPV genotyping by RT-PCR. The frozen storage of the students' genital samples allowed the detection of HPV DNA and its genotyping after years of sample collection...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Yuan Zhang, Yifan Ping, Ruyu Zhou, Juan Wang, Guangdong Zhang
This study aims to explore the water quality of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and the diversity of microbial communities in DUWLs. Water samples from 33 dental chair units (DCUs) were collected, diluted and then spread on sterilized R2A plate for incubation. Subsequently, the microbial colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) were recorded by an automatic colony analyzer. Total DNA extracted from the rest of the samples was tested on the Illumina MiSeq PE300 platform. T-test and Kruskal-Wallis rank test were adopted for statistical analysis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Abdullah A Alabbad, Abdulaziz K Alsaad, Mohamed A Al Shaalan, Sulaiman Alola, Esam A Albanyan
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine hesitancy is a major problem worldwide, with significant public health consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of influenza vaccine hesitancy and the effect of vaccine awareness campaigns on vaccine acceptance among three groups (parents, adult patients, and healthcare workers [HCWs]) at King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study was conducted during the 2015-2016 winter season...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Nourhane Hafza, Caren Challita, Iman Dandachi, Elias Dahdouh, Ziad Daoud
The dissemination of Multi Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) is one of the major public health problems addressed nowadays. High fecal carriage rates of MDR Enterobacteriaceae were reported from Lebanese nursing homes. Studies have shown that the acquisition of resistance genes by bacteria might confer a fitness cost detected as a decrease in the frequency of these bacteria as compared to sensitive isolates. In this study, the competitive growth of MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolated from elderly is assessed. Sensitive and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were identified...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ali Ahmed, Kah Seng Lee, Allah Bukhsh, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Long Chiau Ming, Tahir Mehmood Khan
The increase in Muslim parents' refusal and hesitancy to accept childhood vaccination was identified as one of the contributing factors in the increase of vaccine-preventable diseases cases in countries such as Afghanistan, Malaysia and Pakistan. The spread of inaccurate and irresponsible information by the anti-vaccination movement may inflict more harm than good on Muslim communities. To curb this issue, health authorities in Pakistan and Malaysia have resorted to imposing strict punishments on parents who refuse to allow their children to be vaccinated...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Hussien Ahmed, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Attia Attia, Mohamed Gadelkarim, Mohamed Gabr, Ahmed Negida, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Velpatasvir is a newly FDA-approved inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the safety and efficacy of velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. A computerized literature search of PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane CENTRAL was conducted using relevant keywords. Data from eligible studies were pooled in a fixed effect meta-analysis model, using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. Pooled data from six randomized trials (n=1427 patients) showed that velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir achieved sustained virological response (SVR12) rates of 98...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Manoochehr Solgi, Manoochehr Karami, Jalal Poorolajal
BACKGROUND: Real time detection of influenza outbreaks is necessary by public health authorities. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) in detection of influenza outbreaks in Iran from January 2010 to December 2015. METHODS: The EWMA algorithms were applied to weekly counts of suspected cases of influenza (influenza-like illnesses) to detect real outbreaks which have occurred in Iran from January 2010 to December 2015...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Rukeme M Noriode, Emmanuel T Idowu, Olubunmi A Otubanjo, Margaret A Mafe
BACKGROUND: Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. METHODS: Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Roula Matta, Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit, Wafaa Bawab, Anne-Marie Rogues, Pascale Salameh
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the species resistance of different pathogens between community acquired and hospital acquired infections pointing at patients' related independent co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: It was a retrospective cohort, multicenter study from five private hospitals located in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Two hundred fifty-eight adult patients were included. RESULTS: 110 Gram negative pathogens and 26 Gram positive pathogens were implicated in hospital acquired infections...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Xu Su, Bradley F Carlson, Xiexiu Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Ying Zhang, JoLynn P Montgomery, Yaxing Ding, Abram L Wagner, Brenda Gillespie, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Use of dried blood spots (DBS) offers advantages over serum samples in studies conducted in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to compare the number of adequate spots collected across different demographic groups. METHODS: Five DBS were collected from 3316 individuals aged 0-49 years in Tianjin, China for a measles antibody study; DBS were rated "adequate" or "inadequate." Linear regression, with the number of adequate DBS on a card as the outcome variable, was used to test for predictors of DBS adequacy...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Eman E Taher, Eman M H Méabed, Islam Abdallah, Wafaa Y Abdel Wahed
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a severe corneal infection that may occur as a serious outcome of improper use of contact lenses (CL). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to diagnose AK in soft CL users presenting with infectious keratitis, and to identify the prevalent genotypes isolated from different cases. Another aim was to determine the CL hygiene-related risk behaviors, and to explore the risk of water exposure for developing AK. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Elham A Hassan, Nahla M Elsherbiny, Abeer S Abd El-Rehim, Asmaa M A Soliman, Asmaa O Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) threaten patient's safety worldwide especially in the intensive care units (ICU). In end-stage liver disease (ESLD), the condition is much more complicated. Data regarding HAIs among ESLD patients is lacking. We aimed to assess the incidence of HAIs, risk factors, causative micro-organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities and mortality rates among patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) admitted to pre-transplant liver intensive care unit (LICU)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Arushi Gahlot Saini, Sooraj Patil, Triptee Agrawal, Aseem Basha, Rashi Garg, M R Shivaprakash, Pankaj Vaidya, Akshay Saxena, Pratibha Singhi
Crytococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that frequently affects immune-compromised patients, although increasingly being detected in the immune-competent host as well. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a young child in whom no immune deficiency was yet identified. A 4-year-old child presented with high-grade fever, intermittent abdominal pain and generalized skin eruptions for the past two months. He had pallor, firm lymphadenopathy, skin lesions with scarring and firm hepatosplenomegaly...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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