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Journal of Infection and Public Health

Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Sanjay Mehendale, Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, C P Girish Kumar, Prabu Rajkumar, Bharathy Sukumar, Rajamohanan K, Girija Mohan, Devasena N, Sujatha Sridharan, Narayan Babu, G Mathevan, P Sugandhi Rao, S K Kar, Vikas Manchanda, Anil Kanga, Valsan Philip Verghese, Balaji Veeraraghavan
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of childhood bacterial meningitis in India. The United States Food and Drug Administration has licensed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test, Binax® NOW™, to detect the C polysaccharide antigen of S. pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Accurate etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in India is essential for effective treatment strategies and preventive interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSF samples from 2081 children admitted, with clinically suspected bacterial meningitis at 11 sentinel sites of hospital based sentinel surveillance network for bacterial meningitis in India between September 2009 and December 2016 were tested with ICT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Pradip V Barde, Neeta Mishra, Neeru Singh
BACKGROUND: Dengue is most important arboviral disease spreading to newer areas. Timely diagnosis and mosquito control are only ways to prevent outbreaks; however there are very few studies demonstrating this hypothesis. METHODS: During this study laboratory diagnosis for Dengue was provided to patient and the programme manager on the same day of receipt of the sample. The mobile number of the patient/kin of patient was used to contact patient and reach their address to conduct vector control within 24h of case detection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jing Jiang, Jian-Gang Ma, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Peng Xu, Guangyu Hou, Quan Zhao, Xiao-Xuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important intestinal parasites that can infect virtually all animals, including rabbits and humans. However, there is little information regarding the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in domestic rabbits in China. METHODS: A total of 426 rabbit fecal samples (136 from Shenyang City, 174 from Changchun City, and 116 from Jilin City) were examined by Lugol's iodine staining with microscopy analysis, and the positive samples were genotyped at the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and the beta giardin (bg) gene loci using nested PCR...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
M Fattorini, G Buonocore, D Lenzi, S Burgassi, R M R Cardaci, K P Biermann, G Cevenini, G Messina
BACKGROUND: The role of environmental cleaning as an effective measure to contain the diffusion of Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) has already been demonstrated. Among medical devices, neonatal incubators have been recognized as a source of pathogens involved in the spread of HAIs. Aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a disinfection protocol for neonatal incubators. METHODS: The cross sectional study took place in the "Neonatal Pediatric Unit" of the Teaching Hospital of Siena: twenty incubators, used for critical newborns, were swabbed in 13 sampling points before and after the implementation of the disinfection protocol...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Iwona Pawłowska, Lech Krawczyk, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii strains are currently the most commonly isolated non-fermenting rods at Polish intensive care units (ICUs), and they are the dominant aetiological agents of pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from patients who were hospitalised at Sosnowiec Hospital's ICU. We also investigated the drug sensitivity of A. baumannii in relation to antibiotic consumption expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jie Gao, Yuan Gao, Jingjing Ma
Cefuroxime is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent administered in cases of perioperative prophylaxis. Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of anaphylactic events with acute coronary syndromes. Limited data is available for cefuroxime-associated Kounis syndrome in perioperative prophylaxis. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman undergoing bilateral sweat gland resection who presented with Kounis syndrome following cefuroxime infusion for perioperative prophylaxis. The patient had severe symptoms and unique manifestations that never been reported before: pink frothy sputum indicating heart failure, due to severe systolic dysfunction requiring invasive ventilation and intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Indar K Sharawat, Hansashree Padmanabha, Renu Suthar, Sameer Vyas, Naveen Sankhyan
Neurocysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in children in developing countries and neurological symptoms such as seizures are the most common manifestations. However, symptoms of encephalopathy are an unusual presentation in children. A 4-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of febrile encephalopathy. His magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of milliary neurocysticercosis of various stages. Reports on recurrent encephalopathy following neurocysticercosis are scarce in literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Hana Alharthi
Despite a newfound wealth of data and information, the healthcare sector is lacking in actionable knowledge. This is largely because healthcare data, though plentiful, tends to be inherently complex and fragmented. Health data analytics, with an emphasis on predictive analytics, is emerging as a transformative tool that can enable more proactive and preventative treatment options. This review considers the ways in which predictive analytics has been applied in the for-profit business sector to generate well-timed and accurate predictions of key outcomes, with a focus on key features that may be applicable to healthcare-specific applications...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Mehmet Demirci, Suat Saribas, Nigar Ozer, Sezer Toprak, Emel Caglar, Gonenc Ortakoylu, Pelin Yuksel, Gulsel Ayaz, Hrisi Bahar Tokman, Omer Uysal, Harika Oyku Dinc, Tevhide Ziver, Bekir Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Several nucleic acid amplification techniques (IS6110, 16S rRNA, and 85B mRNA) were developed for the rapid, direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of 85B mRNA-based RT-qPCR by comparing with the real-time PCR COBAS TaqMan MTB Kit while using the BACTEC MGIT 960 method as the gold standard. METHODS: 60 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB and 60 individuals without TB were included as the study and control groups, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Marguerite L Monogue, Jessica K Ortwine, Wenjing Wei, Khalid Eljaaly, Kavita P Bhavan
BACKGROUND: Anti-staphylococcal penicillins have long been the first-line treatment option for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections. Recent retrospective data comparing nafcillin and cefazolin report similar clinical efficacy despite concerns about high inoculum MSSA infections. METHODS: This was a retrospective, non-inferiority, cohort study comparing treatment failure rates between nafcillin and cefazolin in patients with MSSA bacteremia from any source, other than meningitis...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Sasan Sadrizadeh, Jovan Pantelic, Max Sherman, Jordan Clark, Omid Abouali
BACKGROUND: Operating rooms (ORs) are usually over-pressurized in order to prevent the penetration of contaminated air and the consequent risk of surgical site infection. However, a door-opening can result in the rapid disappearance of pressure and contaminants can then easily penetrate into the surgical zone. Therefore, a broad knowledge and understanding of OR ventilation systems and their protective potential is essential for optimizing the surgical environment. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the air quality and level of airborne particles during a single and multiple door-opening cycles in an operating room supplied by a turbulent-mixing ventilation system...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Huda F Abbag, Awad Ahmed El-Mekki, Ali Aobaid Ali Al Bshabshe, Ahmed A Mahfouz, Ahasen A Al-Dosry, Rasha T Mirdad, Nora F AlKhttabi, Lubna F Abbag
INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, and is named for the crown-like spikes on its surface. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV infection ranges from asymptomatic to very severe disease, and the classical presentation includes fever, cough chills, sore throat, myalgia, and arthralgia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 339 healthcare personnel was conducted over an 8-month period in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia using a structured survey that included demographic information and questions testing participant's knowledge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Dipti Ranjan Behera, Sunita Bhatnagar
Antifilarial potential of three medicinal plants namely, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia catappa was explored using Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10mg/ml. Amongst all the extracts, methanol extract of T. bellerica showed highest macrofilaricidal activity i.e. 84.63±1.11 at 10mg/ml in MTT reduction assay with IC50 value of 2.7mg/ml. which was better than the standard DEC i.e. 79.22±3.1% at 10mg/ml with IC50 value 2.84mg/ml. Other plant extracts showed mild in vitro macrofilaricidal activity...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jianhua Lu, Ying Lv, Zhuo Lv, Yi Xu, Yan Huang, Meilan Cui, Huimin Yan
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells within germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue play an important role in HIV infection. Recently, circulating Tfh cells have been described, which share phenotypic and functional characteristics with GC Tfh cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HIV infection on four circulating Tfh subsets, including CD4+CXCR5+, CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+, CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+, and CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD-1+ cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 33 HIV-infected individuals and 21 healthy controls...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Sharafaldeen Bin Nafisah, Aliyah H Alamery, Aminah Al Nafesa, Bakhitah Aleid, Nora Ayman Brazanji
BACKGROUND: School closure as a non-pharmaceutical measure appeared as an efficient strategy in previous epidemics. We investigated the impact of school closure on the epidemic peak whether implemented before or after the epidemic reaches its peak. We also investigated the optimal duration of closure. METHODS: Data sources included Medline-PubMed, ProQuest and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were all articles that reported a quantified effect on school closure on an influenza epidemic...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Samy Kasem, Ibrahim Qasim, Ali Al-Doweriej, Osman Hashim, Ali Alkarar, Ali Abu-Obeida, Mohamed Saleh, Ali Al-Hofufi, Hussein Al-Ghadier, Raed Hussien, Ali Al-Sahaf, Faisal Bayoumi, Asmaa Magouz
BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has been reported for the first time infecting a human being since 2012. The WHO was notified of 27 countries have reported cases of MERS, the majority of these cases occur in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Dromedary camels are likely to be the main source of Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans. METHODS: MERS-CoV infection rates among camels in livestock markets and slaughterhouses were investigated in Saudi Arabia...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Erwin Krauskopf
BACKGROUND: The Journal of Infection and Public Health published its first issue in 2008. The fact that the journal has been published uninterruptedly as well as its editorial content and the application of a peer-review process to select manuscripts, made the journal eligible to be indexed by databases such as Scopus. This study presents a general overview of the journal from 2008 until 2016 using bibliometric indicators to assess its performance. METHODS: The data for this study, dating between 2008 and 2016, was extracted from Scopus database...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Maria L Cristina, Cristiano Alicino, Marina Sartini, Valeria Faccio, Anna M Spagnolo, Valerio D Bono, Giovanni Cassola, Anna M De Mite, Maria P Crisalli, Gianluca Ottria, Elisa Schinca, Giuliano L Pinto, Luigi C Bottaro, Claudio Viscoli, Andrea Orsi, Daniele R Giacobbe, Giancarlo Icardi
In the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become endemic in several countries, including Italy. In the present study, we assessed the differences in epidemiology, management, and mortality of CR-Kp bloodstream infection (BSI) in the three main adult acute-care hospitals of the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy. From January 2013 to December 2014, all patients with CR-Kp BSI were identified through the computerized microbiology laboratory databases of the three hospitals. The primary endpoints of the study were incidence and characteristics of CR-Kp BSI in hospitals within the same endemic metropolitan area...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Carla Zmeter, Hussam Tabaja, Ala I Sharara, Souha S Kanj
More clinical infections with non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae have been recently reported. These pathogens usually do not cause the epidemic and pandemic cases of cholera seen with choleragenic vibrios. However, they can still cause intestinal as well as extra-intestinal disease and can be associated with significant mortality. Herein, we present the first case of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia reported in Lebanon since the beginning of the Lebanese waste crisis.
January 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Sabeena Mustafa, Hanan Balkhy, Musa N Gabere
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus with mechanisms that may be driven by innate immune responses. Despite the effort of scientific studies related to this virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is still a public health concern. MERS-CoV infection has a high mortality rate, and to date, no therapeutic or vaccine has been discovered, that is effective in treating or preventing the disease. In this review, we summarize our understanding of the molecular and biological events of compounds acting as MERS-CoV inhibitors, the outcomes of existing therapeutic options and the various drugs undergoing clinical trials...
January 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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