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Expert Review of Hematology

Agnieszka Korfel, Martha Nowosielski, Javier Pardo-Moreno, Francisco Javier Penalver, Gabriele Buda, Hind Bennani, Myrto Costopoulos, Magali Le Garff-Tavernier, Carole Soussain, Mathias Schmid, Jose Alberto Orfao, Michael Glantz
Making the diagnosis of secondary CNS involvement in lymphoma can be difficult due to unspecific signs and symptoms, limited accessibility of brain/myelon parenchyma and low sensitivity and/or specifity of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination currently available. Areas covered: MRI of the total neuroaxis followed by CSF cytomorphology and flow cytometry are methods of choice when CNS lymphoma (CNSL) is suspected. To reduce the numerous pitfalls of these examinations several aspects should be considered...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Willem M Lijfering, Joseph S Biedermann, Marieke J H A Kruip, Frank W G Leebeek, Frits R Rosendaal, Suzanne C Cannegieter
Statins may be causally associated with a decreased risk of venous thrombosis. If so, this could be a substantive breakthrough since statins do not increase the risk of bleeding and could therefore be used as a safer antithrombotic drug. However, scepticism exists on the observed reduction of venous thrombosis by statins, as it may have been confounded by healthy user effects or other biases. Areas covered: The main focus of this review will be the biases that may have arisen in clinical studies that investigated the relationship between statin use and risk of venous thrombosis...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Antonino Neri, Katia Todoerti, Marta Lionetti, Vittorio Simeon, Marzia Barbieri, Filomena Nozza, Gabriella Vona, Alessandra Pompa, Luca Baldini, Pellegrino Musto
Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma. The introduction of novel agents and modern technologies has recently partially changed the clinical and biological scenario of this malignancy, allowing limited, but not negligible, progresses. Areas covered: We will discuss the complex landscape of genetic alterations in PPCL, derived from conventional and high-throughput technologies; the best available treatments for PPCL; the possible future therapeutic perspectives...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Eduardo Vilanova, Bianca F Glauser, Stephan-Nicollas M C G Oliveira, Ana M F Tovar, Paulo A S Mourão
Brazil is among the first countries approving the commercialization and clinical use of biosimilar enoxaparins. Our research group has performed quality control assessments of these drugs over the last decade. Areas covered: We have not found noticeable differences between Brazilian biosimilar enoxaparins and the original product regarding their physicochemical properties, disaccharide composition, anticoagulant activity, bioavailability and safety. Expert commentary: In spite of clinical and pharmacological advantages of enoxaparin, subcutaneous formulations of unfractionated heparin are employed by the Brazilian public health system for prevention and treatment of thromboembolism...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Halima Bello-Manga, Michael R DeBaun, Adetola A Kassim
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy in the world, with the majority of cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Concomitant nutritional deficiencies, infections or exposure to environmental toxins exacerbate chronic anemia in children with SCD. The resulting relative anemia is associated with increased risk of strokes, poor cognitive function and impaired growth. It may also attenuate optimal response to hydroxyurea therapy, the only effective and practical treatment option for SCD in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Kerry J Savage, Christian Steidl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Kenneth E Remy, Philip C Spinella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Loïc Sentilhes, Benjamin Merlot, Hugo Madar, François Sztark, Stéphanie Brun, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity worldwide and strategies to prevent and treat PPH vary among international authorities. Areas covered: This review seeks to provide a global overview of PPH (incidence, causes, risk factors), prevention (active management of the third stage of labor and prohemostatic agents), treatment (first, second and third-line measures to control PPH), by also underlining recommendations elaborated by international authorities and using algorithms...
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Caterina Borgna-Pignatti, Sara Zanella
Pica is the compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances. It is often associated with iron deficiency but its pathophysiology is unknown. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the keywords listed below. Our aim was to describe the phenomenon in its various aspects, to touch briefly on the historical and cultural background, and to examine in more detail the studies that tried to analyze the relative roles of iron deficiency and pica. Expert commentary: Pica is an intriguing symptom known for centuries...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Franco Locatelli, Alice Bertaina, Valentina Bertaina, Pietro Merli
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) still causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients given allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite effective pharmacotherapy, potentially life-threatening CMV disease occurs nowadays in up to 10% of HSCT recipients; moreover, routinely used anti-CMV agents have been shown to be associated with morbidity. Areas covered: This review examines different issues related to diagnosis and management of CMV infection in HSCT recipients, paying particular attention to the monitoring of CMV-specific immune recovery, approaches of adoptive cell therapy and new antiviral drugs...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Kristen Pettit, Olatoyosi Odenike
INTRODUCTION: The past 10 years have seen dramatic advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). With this knowledge has come novel, molecularly targeted therapies such as JAK inhibitors that may decrease symptoms and improve quality of life for patients with MPNs. Despite these advances, progression of the disease to an acute leukemic (blast) phase remains difficult to predict and even more difficult to treat, with high rates of disease relapse and mortality...
July 29, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Sophie Jones, Fiona Newall, Paul Monagle
INTRODUCTION: Given the increase in venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in children, the incidence, diagnosis and management of post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in children is of increasing interest. Current challenges facing clinicians caring for children with VTE is the limited evidence of the long-term outcomes for this cohort; specifically the significance and potential functional impairment associated with PTS. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews the current evidence to elucidate the risk factors for PTS in children, methods for diagnosis and management of PTS in children (aged less than 18 years)...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
INTRODUCTION: It has been reported an increase of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, antiangiogenic drugs could be useful in the management of hemophilic arthropathy. The aim of this review paper is to revise the role of angiogenesis in hemophilic arthropathy. AREAS COVERED: This article is a narrative review of the pathophysiology of the disturbed angiogenesis in hemophilia and the potential role of antiangiogenic drugs in nonhemophilia patients Expert commentary: Antiangiogenic drugs could be helpful in the future for the treatment of hemarthroses in hemophilic arthropathy...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Pamela Blair Allen, Leo I Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by genetic reliance on the PD-1 pathway. Rapid accumulation of data describing the role and efficacy of PD-1 and its blockade warrants a focused review. AREAS COVERED: In this article, we will review the unique biologic features that predispose cHL to PD-1 inhibition, current data regarding the safety and efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in the treatment of cHL, biomarkers of immune response, ongoing clinical trials with PD-1 inhibitors, as well as areas of uncertainty...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Jonathan Canaani, Arnon Nagler
INTRODUCTION: Therapy for the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is an evolving area of research which has made significant use of the increased understanding of the complex biology of these disorders. Novel agents targeting multiple pathogenic pathways are being actively tested in preclinical and clinical settings and hold the potential to be available to clinicians before long. AREAS COVERED: Herein we provide an historical framework for understanding the current use of hypomethylating agents in MDS and discuss recent developments in the field of targeted therapy in MDS including data from published and ongoing clinical studies with oral hypomethylating agents, PI3/polo-like kinase inhibitors, TGF-β inhibitor/ligand traps, and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Pier Luigi Meroni, Lorenza Maria Argolini, Irene Pontikaki
INTRODUCTION: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity associated with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) including lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI). AREAS COVERED: APS is considered as the most common acquired hypercoagulation state of autoimmune origin in children. Unfortunately, data about incidence, prevalence, thrombosis risk and effective treatment in paediatric APS are limited and unmethodical...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Ahmet Emre Eskazan, Muhlis Cem Ar, Teoman Soysal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Marc Poch Martell, Hassan Sibai, Uday Deotare, Jeffrey H Lipton
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder that has become the neoplastic poster child for understanding the disease biology of a malignant disease and targeting effective therapy. The targeted therapy of BCR-ABL inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has provided the epitome for "Ehlrich's magic bullet" postulated decades ago. AREAS COVERED: Due to the therapy with these drugs, the survival of newly diagnosed patients with this disease now approaches that of age matched controls...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Sachin Gopalkrishna Pai, Jason Benjamin Kaplan, Francis Joseph Giles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Saveria Capria, Walter Barberi, Salvatore Perrone, Antonietta Ferretti, Adriano Salaroli, Giorgia Annechini, Gianna Maria D'Elia, Robin Foà, Alessandro Pulsoni
INTRODUCTION: Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHL) remain incurable with standard approaches. The timing of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is changing following the introduction of new drugs that can potentially defer the transplant, improved reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and haploidentical allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT). AREAS COVERED: The most relevant aspects concerning the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the management of iNHL are discussed...
October 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
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