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Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)

Mariana B Lopes, Renata Cc Freitas, Mario H Hirata, Rosario Dc Hirata, Adriana A Rezende, Vivian N Silbiger, Raul H Bortolin, Andre D Luchessi
An integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in left ventricle (LV) of diabetes-induced rats was performed to elucidate the role of miRNAs and their mRNAs target in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). mRNA (GSE4745) and miRNA (GSE44179) datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus 2R (GEO2R) and differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs were selected. Cardiotoxicity-related mRNAs (n=7) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analyses 6 (IPA) and regulatory miRNAs (n=639) were identified using TargetScan 7...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Tanja Basan, Daniel Welly, Katja Kriebel, Malte Scholz, Anne Brosemann, Jan Liese, Brigitte Vollmar, Bernhard Frerich, Hermann Lang
The regeneration of periodontal tissues still remains a challenge in periodontology. The aim of the present study was to examine the regenerative potential of a) different collagen support versus blank, b) different collagen support +/- a growth factor cocktail (GF) and c) a collagen powder versus collagen powder + periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) comparatively in a large animal model. The stem cells (SC) were isolated from extracted teeth of 15 adult miniature pigs. A total of 60 class II furcation defects were treated with the materials named above...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Razan Alkhatib, Ali Hilal-Alnaqbi, Mariam Naciri, Rasoul Al-Majmaie, Prashanth Saseedharan, Sherif M Karam, Mohamed Al-Rubeai
The lining epithelium of the stomach includes multipotent stem cells which undergo proliferation and migration-associated differentiation. These cells give rise to multiple cell lineages that produce mucus, acid, pepsinogen and various hormones/peptides. A 3D culture for stem cells would facilitate identification of the factors that control proliferation and/or differentiation programs. Here, we report on the use of disk-like ImmobaSil HD silicone-rubber matrix based microcarriers that are permeable to oxygen and reduce the creation of toxic environment within the center of the microcarrierd for culturing the mouse gastric stem (mGS) cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Maria Alessandra Gammone, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Nicolantonio D'Orazio
Oxidative stress is a key contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Bioactive dietary elements including phytochemicals, and in particular, carotenoids display antioxidant effect and substantially reduce markers of oxidative stress. Carotenoids have been shown to prevent several chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases by reducing the inflammatory responses. Here, we discuss the use of traditional and novel carotenoids in prevention of cardiovascular disease.
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Ajay K Chaudhary, Jordan O'Malley, Sandeep Kumar, Joseph R Inigo, Rahul Kumar, Neelu Yadav, Dhyan Chandra
The gap between prostate cancer disparities among American men is narrowing, which is mostly due to increased screening of African American (AA) men. However, the biological reasons for prostate cancer disparities among American men still remain undefined. Mitochondrion, an organelle within cells, regulates both cell survival and cell death mechanisms. These cellular signaling pathways require various proteins localized to mitochondria, which are encoded by both nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Nuzhat Parveen, Ghulam Gha Shadab
Iron is a ubiquitous constituent of cytochromes, oxygen-binding molecules and a variety of enzymes because of its property to transition from ferric (Fe(3+)) to ferrous (Fe(2+)) state, leading to change in the redox potential. However, the same property accounts for free radical injury. In order to overcome harmful effects of iron we investigated the possible protective effect of quercetin (QCT), a flavonoid with antioxidant property, against the oxidative DNA damage caused by iron sulfate in vivo. We show that QCT exerts efficient anticlastogenic action in the context of iron sulfate treatment up to a dose of 500 mg/kg while it induces DNA damage at higher doses...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Anthony Ca Yii, Mariko S Koh, Therese S Lapperre, Gan L Tan, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Chronic lung disease is recognized as an important risk factor for developing pulmonary aspergillosis. The development of specific aspergillus-associated syndromes depends on host immunity and underlying lung disease. In the setting of asthma, hypersensitivity to Aspergillus can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). Chronic use of systemic or inhaled corticosteroids coupled with recurrent antibiotic use for exacerbations prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predisposes to chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Ana Canerina-Amaro, Luis G Hernandez-Abad, Isidre Ferrer, David Quinto-Alemany, Fatima Mesa-Herrera, Carla Ferri, Ricardo A Puertas-Avendano, Mario Diaz, Raquel Marin
The increase in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in old women may be attributable to estrogen deficiency, and estrogen replacement therapy may be useful in preventing or delaying the onset of this disease. In neuronal membranes, 17 beta-estradiol interacts with estrogen receptors (mERs) located in lipid raft signalosomes which trigger neuroprotective responses by anchoring to scaffolding caveolin-1 complexed with other proteins. We suggest that mER-signalosome malfunctions in AD and by menopause due to development of aberrations in these microstructures...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Ramar Perumal Samy, Sok Lin Foo, Octavio L Franco, Bradley G Stiles, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Lina Hk Lim
Malaria is one of the most widespread and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Currently available antimalarial drugs have side effects, and many strains of Plasmodia have developed resistance to such drugs. The present review examines the use of annexins and of natural peptides from snake venom as a new class of anti-malarial agents, with the key property of reducing inflammation. Severe cases of malaria manifest elevated serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammation, fibrin deposition, apoptosis, and reduction in peripheral CD8(+) T cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Saheem Ahmad, Hamda Khan, Uzma Shahab, Shahnawaz Rehman, Zeeshan Rafi, Mohd Yasir Khan, Ahsanullah Ansari, Zeba Siddiqui, Jalaluddin Mohammad Ashraf, Saleh M S Abdullah, Safia Habib, Moin Uddin
The available data suggest that among cellular constituents, proteins are the major target for oxidation primarily because of their quantity and high rate of interactions with ROS. Proteins are susceptible to ROS modifications of amino acid side chains which alter protein structure. Among the amino acids, Cysteine (Cys) is more prone to oxidation by ROS because of its high nucleophilic property. The reactivity of Cys with ROS is due to the presence of thiol group. In the oxidised form, Cys forms disulfide bond, which are primary covalent cross-link found in proteins, and which stabilize the native conformation of a protein...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Charu Gupta, Dhan Prakash, Sneh Gupta
Diamond nano-particles find new and far-reaching applications in modern biomedical science and biotechnologies. Due to its excellent biocompatibility, nano-diamonds serve as versatile platforms that can be embedded within polymer-based microfilm devices. Nano-diamonds are complexed with a chemotherapeutic that enables sustained/slow release of the drug for a minimum of one month, with a significant amount of drug in reserve. This opens up the potential for highly localized drug release as a complementary and potent form of treatment with systemic injection towards the reduction of continuous dosing, and as such, attenuation of the often powerful side effects of chemotherapy...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Lyes Bachatene, Vishal Bharmauria
Neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are sensitive to simple features of the visual scene such as contrast, spatial frequency or orientations. In higher mammals, they are organized into columns of orientation-preference, whereas such organization is absent in rodents. However, in both types of organization, neurons can be highly selective or poorly selective for a particular stimulus. In mouse V1, it has been shown that all stimuli are represented on the dendritic tree of single neurons. To what extent this concept is applicable in higher mammals? In this review, we discuss possible models of integrating visual information from visual cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Zhilin Chen, Ashley L Eadie, Sean R Hall, Laurel Ballantyne, David Ademidun, M Yat Tse, Stephen C Pang, Luis G Melo, Christopher A Ward, Keith R Brunt
Hypoxia and inflammatory cytokine activation (H&I) are common processes in many acute and chronic diseases. Thus, a single vector that responds to both hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, is useful for assesing the severity of such diseases. Adaptation to hypoxia is regulated primarily by hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF alpha) nuclear proteins that engage genes containing a hypoxia response element (HRE). Inflammation activates a multitude of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, that invariably modulate activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Maria D Castellone, Mikko O Laukkanen
Activation of resting fibroblasts to myofibroblasts characterizes several physiological and pathological conditions, from wound healing to aggressive metastatic cancers. In tissue damage, including wound healing, fibroblasts are activated in response to injury for a limited period of time to stimulate the healing process. Similar biological mechanisms are maintained in pathological conditions, e.g., scleroderma and cancer, where myofibroblasts persist in producing cytokines and growth factors to drive the development of fibrosis and the progression of disease...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Julieta Panero, Patricia Dos Santos, Irma Slavutsky
Telomeres are highly regulated and dynamic complexes that protect the genomic DNA and prevent the end of linear chromosomes from being misrecognized as a broken DNA. Due to the end replication problem, telomeres of somatic cells shorten with each cell division, inducing cell senescence. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase capable of compensating telomere attrition by adding telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Human telomeres are associated with the shelterin complex which consists of six telomere-associated proteins that specifically bind to telomeric DNA...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Masayuki Mishima
Current anticancer therapy may be one of the most important exogenous sources of exposure to genotoxic agents in US, Japan, and Europe, where approximately 40-55 percent of the population is diagnosed with cancer at a certain point in their life. This review focuses on recent efforts to integrate a novel biomarker, gamma-H2AX, into anticancer drug screening to classify the mode of action (MoA) for genotoxic outcome into clastogenicity and aneugenicity, a distinction that has considerable impact on risk assessment and control strategy...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Joseph K Ritter, Guangbi Li, Min Xia, Krishna Boini
   Anandamide (AEA) is the N-acyl ethanolamide of arachidonic acid, an agonist of cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors in the body. The kidneys are enriched in AEA and in enzymes that metabolize AEA, but the roles of AEA and its metabolites in the kidney remain poorly understood. This system likely is involved in the regulation of renal blood flow and hemodynamics and of tubular sodium and fluid reabsorption. It may act as a neuromodulator of the renal sympathetic nervous system. AEA and its cyclooxygenase-2 metabolites, the prostamides, in the renal medulla may represent a unique antihypertensive system involved in the long-term control of blood pressure...
June 1, 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Syed S Quadri, Silas A Culver, Caixia Li, Helmy M Siragy
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in mediating actions of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This review sheds light on the recent developments regarding the complex interactions between components of RAS and COX-2; and their implications on renal function and disease. COX-2 is believed to counter regulate the effects of RAS activation and therefore counter balance the vasoconstriction effect of Ang II. In kidney, under normal conditions, these systems are essential for maintaining a balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction...
June 1, 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Laura Menchetti, Giovanna Traina, Giovanni Tomasello, Patrizia Casagrande-Proietti, Leonardo Leonardi, Olimpia Barbato, Gabriele Brecchia
This paper reviews the composition of colostrum and the potential preventive and therapeutic use of this "first milk" for treating various gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Colostrum is a complex biological liquid that is richer in antimicrobial peptides, immune-regulating compounds and growth factors than the subsequent mature milk. The main functions of colostrum are to provide essential nutritional components, strengthen the natural defense system, modulate immune response, balance intestinal microbiota and enhance the growth and repair of several tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Silvia Lucangioli, Manuela Martinefski, Valeria Tripodi
In recent years, the analytical determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has gained importance in clinical diagnosis and in pharmaceutical quality control. CoQ10 is an important cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a potent endogenous antioxidant. CoQ10 deficiency is often associated with numerous diseases and patients with these conditions may benefit from administration of supplements of CoQ10. In this regard, it has been observed that the best benefits are obtained when CoQ10 deficiency is diagnosed and treated early...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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