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Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)

Salvatore Benvenga, Fabrizio Guarneri
We hypothesized that a thyroid hormone (TH)-binding consensus sequence, which is shared by human and animal TH plasma carriers (THPC), might also be shared by cell surface TH transporters (CMTTH) and TH nuclear receptors (THR). We generated the consensus for CMTTH or THR from 8,691 or 624 sequences. In the 49 position-long THPC consensus, eight positions were occupied by very highly conserved (>50% of sequences) and 11 by highly conserved (>33-50% of sequences) groups of residues. Matches between very highly conserved residues of the same group were seven, five or nine when comparing CMTTH vs THPC, THR vs THPC or THR vs CMTTH...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Mark S Gold, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Edward Justin Modestino, Igor Elman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Anhedonia is a condition that leads to the loss of feelings pleasure in response to natural reinforcers like food, sex, exercise, and social activities. This disorder occurs in addiction, and an array of related neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Anhedonia may by due to derangements in mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways and their terminal fields (e.g., striatum, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex) that persist long after the traces of the causative drugs are eliminated (pharmacokinetically)...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Beatriz Alonso, Raquel Cruces, Adrian Perez, Ana Fernandez-Cruz, Maria Guembe
We aimed to assess the anti-biofilm activity of vancomycin, maltodextrin, and their combination against vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strains based on an in vitro static model. Biofilms of 4 VSSA and 2 VRSA strains were grown in a 96-well static model. Vancomycin 2 mM, maltodextrin 10 mM, and both in combination were tested using tetrazolium salt (XTT), resazurin, and cfu/well counts. The efficacy of the antimicrobial solutions was expressed as the percentage reduction in metabolic activity with each method...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Vandita Singh, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Nejib Guizani, Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Tamiloli Hemalatha, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin-Thenmozhi, Namasivayam Elangovan, Thirunavukkarasu Velusamy
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated neuro apoptosis is reported to play a major role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Zizyphus spina-christi fruits (ZSCF) are used as traditional medicines that are well-known for their high antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ZSCF extract against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell lines. The effect of ZCSF on MPP+ induced cell viability (MTT - 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay), membrane damage - (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),  oxidative stress  (levels of ROS, nitric oxide and GSH and activities of SOD and catalase),  mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis (activity of caspase 3 and protein expressions of cyto c, Bax and Bcl-2) were measured...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Emmanuel A Andreadis, Charalampia V Geladari
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and its prevalence increases markedly with advancing age, worldwide. Almost every primary care physician, internist, or cardiologist, has dealt with stroke or with other complications of AF. Still, its management remains a hot issue for clinicians and the debate over which treatment strategy is the best is ongoing. Moreover, AF increases significantly the total cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Despite a great bulk of data in the existing medical literature, the pathophysiology of AF in patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is poorly understood, and the underlying signaling pathways linking hypertension (HTN) to AF remain to be fully elucidated...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42 , beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Namasivayam Elangovan, Thangavel Mohankumar, Jegadeesan Nataraj, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Mohamed Musthafa Essa, Mohammed Akbar, Mohammed Abdul Sattar Khan
The present study was carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of isolongifolene (ILF), a tricyclic sesquiterpene of Murraya koenigii, against rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis in a cellular model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were divided into four experimental groups (control, rotenone (100 nM), ILF (10 microM) + rotenone (100 nanoM), ILF 10 microM alone treated) based on 3-(4, 5-dimethyl 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results of the present study showed that the ILF treatment significantly alleviated rotenone-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Maria Santagati, Marina Scillato, Stefania Stefani
In this paper, we describe, for the first time, the genetic organization of the blpU -like cassette in Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc by entire genome sequencing. This strain has recently been found useful and widely applied as an oral probiotic in the prevention of recurrent otitis media. The 24SMBc blpU -like cassette  is 8,023 bp in length, organized in 11 orfs, of which orf 8 encodes for the pore-forming peptide bacteriocin, belonging to class IIc, with a double-glycine leader peptide. The first characterization of blp locus was described in Streptococcus pneumoniae, showing a crucial role in interspecies competition within the nasopharynx...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Hsiuying Wang
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that can be triggered by virus, H1N1/tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines or by presence of a tumor. The association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis vaccination was examined and a general protocol of phylogenetic method which details the steps and code and an example of its utility is provided. The approach used here is potentially useful for analyzing the relationship between vaccines and diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Deepak Singh Bagri, Devanshi Chandel Upadhyay, Subodh Kumar Jain, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyay
Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Mohammed Hussen Bule, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Faheem Maqbool, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Microalgae are one of the oldest microorganisms, that grow in various hostile environments, ranging from deserts to Antarctica. The microalgae sustain life in such harsh environments through generation of secondary metabolites. Microalgae biosynthesize a large number of diverse bioactive metabolites with activities on cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. Here, we highlight the bioactive compounds that are isolated from microalgae for the purpose of using them as food, and as chemicals in pharmaceutical industry as new agents with therapeutic benefits...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Hongyu Li, Kai Sun, Ruiping Zhao, Jiang Hu, Zhiru Hao, Fei Wang, Yaojun Lu, Fu Liu, Yong Zhang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. CHD is characterized by formation of arterial plaques which are mainly comprised of lipids, calcium and inflammatory cells. These plaques narrow the lumen of coronary arteries leading to episodic or persistent angina. Rupture of these plaques leads to the formation of thrombus, which as a result of cessation of blood flow, causes myocardial infarct and death. CHD is exacerbated by risk factors including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
R B Singh, Sanjay Mishra, Shailesh Kumar, Amit Mani Tiwari, Fabien De Meester, Ramesh K Goyal, Kumar Kartikey, Meenakshi Singh
According to a relatively recent UNICEF report, 15 percent of the infant population of the world is of low birth weight with India accounting for one third of all the world's low-weight newborns. Twenty percent of all low birth weight infants die within a month. This mortality figure is higher in developing countries due to inadequate nutritional intake by pregnant women. Development of a new package of nutrient-rich food based on egg or milk or soy bean proteins, containing multiple micronutrient supplements, available at affordable cost, may protect against morbidity and mortality among pregnant women as well as low birth weight in newborns...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Mauro Cataldi, Chiara Vigliotti
Three main types of electrical oscillations are recorded from the hippocampus in vivo : theta (θ), gamma (γ) and sharp wave ripples with frequency bands of 4-12, 25-100 and 110-250 Hz, respectively. Theta activity is the more robust of them, and has important physiological roles because it is involved in spatial navigation, memory formation and memory retrieval. Classical lesion studies in vivo have suggested that the hippocampus passively follows the θ  rhythm generated in the septum by neurons that are synaptically connected with hippocampal neurons though septo-hippocampal connections...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Renato Andreotti, Poliana Fernanda Giachetto, Rodrigo Casquero Cunha
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus has substantial economic impact on the cattle breeding industry and, chemical control and tick resistance development are the major concern. There is a worldwide search for new options, and control using vaccines has been the main focus nowadays. Studies performed in Brazil found that Bm86-based immunization of bovines reduced the infestation of R. (B.) microplus of vaccinated bovines by 45% to 60%. Native Boophilus microplus tripsin inhibitors (BmTIs) with trypsin-, kallikrein-, and elastase-inhibiting activities have been used as immunogens in bovines reaching 72...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Muhammad Babar Khawar, Rabia Mehmood, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Nadeem Sheikh
Human genome project unveiled that only 1.5.-2.0.% of the genome is protein coding. ENCODE and related studies showed that most part of the genome transcribed into RNAs, and most of them do not code for a functional proteins, hence the name non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs are small ncRNAs (less than 200 nucleotides) and long ncRNAs (longer than 200 nucleotides up to 10 kb). They act as a direct link between highly ordered chromosome structures, gene expression and serve as a bridge between genome and chromatin modification complexes as guides, scaffolds, and decoys...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Antara De
In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, a gene under constant positive selection pressure to evade host immunity and vaccination...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Enzo Maria Vingolo, Giuseppe Napolitano, Serena Fragiotta
Microperimetric biofeedback training (MBFT) is a visual rehabilitative strategy based on fixation stability improvement reinforcing or creating a new preferential fixation locus. The rationale consists in reeducating visual system to a new visual condition, promoting retina-brain transmission, and thus cortical plasticity. The use of MBFT found is major application in visual diseases involving central vision, but later it revealed promising functional outcomes even in myopia, inherited retinal degenerations and nystagmus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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