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Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410129/epigenetics-of-reproductive-infertility
#1
REVIEW
Laxmidhar Das, Sabnam Parbin, Nibedita Pradhan, Chahat Kausar, Samir K Patra
Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410128/genomics-tool-to-predict-and-prevent-male-infertility
#2
REVIEW
Ashutosh Halder, Prashant Kumar, Manish Jain, Amanpreet Kaur Kalsi
A large number of human diseases arise as a result of genetic abnormalities. With the advent of improved molecular biology techniques, the genetic etiology of male infertility is increasing. The common genetic factors responsible for male infertility are chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletion and cystic fibrosis. These are responsible for approximately 30 percent cases of male infertility. About 40 percent cases of male infertility are categorized as idiopathic. These cases may be associated with genetic and genomic abnormalities...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410127/oxidative-stress-major-executioner-in-disease-pathology-role-in-sperm-dna-damage-and-preventive-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Shilpa Bisht, Rima Dada
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in a wide array of diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases, complex lifestyle diseases and cancer. OS is caused by an imbalance in production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses in the cell which results in the damage of cellular components, inactivate essential metabolic enzymes and disrupt signal transduction pathways. OS induces peroxidative damage to the sperm plasma membrane, DNA fragmentation in sperm nuclear/mitochondrial genome and causes dysregulation in levels of mRNAs/transcripts...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410126/fertilization-failure-and-gamete-health-is-there-a-link
#4
REVIEW
Snehil Budhwar, Vertika Singh, Priyanka Verma, Kiran Singh
Fertilization is a hallmark event of sexual reproduction marked by the fusion of male and female gamete to form zygote. It is a highly complex, yet a robust process that is intricately regulated by various signalling molecules. A healthy fertilization is determined by the quality of zygote which is contingent on the health of egg and sperm. The relationship between infertility and gametic health can be reciprocal. On one hand gametogenesis has to be dynamic and unremitting to sustain the reproductive health, while on the other hand it has to be error free for proper embryonic development...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410125/multi-omics-and-male-infertility-status-integration-and-future-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Ashima Sinha, Virendra Singh, Savita Yadav
Within the cell, gene expression analysis is the key to gain information about  different cellular and physiological events. The multifaceted route of fertilization is a combination of different processes, which include production, maturation and ejaculation of the sperm, its travel through the female genital tract, followed by the ultimate fusion of the fertile sperm with the egg. Early embryogenesis and gametogenesis as well as gene expression at tissue level and global gene silencing are under different levels of stringent epigenetic checks...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410124/wildlife-population-management-are-contraceptive-vaccines-a-feasible-proposition
#6
REVIEW
Satish Kumar Gupta, Vidisha Minhas
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive vaccines eliciting immune response against hormones/proteins critical for reproduction have emerged as one of the promising options. Contraceptive vaccines based on neutralization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used for inhibition of fertility in various species such as wild horses, white-tailed deer, pigs, cats, dogs etc...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410123/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-a-therapeutic-hope-in-gynecologic-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Jyotika Rajawat, Nidhi Shukla, Durga Prasad Mishra
The Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a multifunctional nuclear protein involved in a variety of cellular functions. Recently, its role in the onset, progression and therapy resistance of cancers in general and reproductive cancers in particular has been recognised. The PARP associated signaling is perceived to play a key role in the development, sustenance and relapse of reproductive cancers. This has led to the preclinical and clinical assessment of PARP inhibitors as targeted therapeutic agents in reproductive cancers...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410122/high-value-compounds-from-microalgae-with-industrial-exploitability-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz M N Iqbal
  From the past several years, algal biotechnology has gained noticeable interests among research-based organizations and industrial sectors. Recent studies have provided considerable evidence that microalgae-derived bioactive compounds could play a vital role in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Microalgae-based industrial exploitability ranges from basic biomass-based food and feeds nutraceuticals to high-value pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, ecological and biomedical applications. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, social and environmental awareness, bio-inspired synthesis of microalgae-based green products, and recent advancements in algal biotechnology will extend the utilization of microalgae into new areas...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410121/nitric-oxide-signaling-during-meiotic-cell-cycle-regulation-in-mammalian-oocytes
#9
REVIEW
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shilpa Prasad, Ashutosh N Pandey, Karuppanan V Premkumar, Anima Tripathi, Anumegha Gupta, Doddalingaiah R Chetan, Pramod K Yadav, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Shail K Chaube
  Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a major signal molecules and modulate physiology of mammalian oocytes. Ovarian follicles generate large amount of NO through nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway to maintain diplotene arrest in preovulatory oocytes. Removal of oocytes from follicular microenvironment or follicular rupture during ovulation disrupt the flow of NO from granulosa cells to the oocyte that results a transient decrease of oocyte cytoplasmic NO level. Decreased NO level reduces cyclic nucleotides level by inactivating guanylyl cyclases directly or indirectly...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410120/snp_tata_comparator-genomewide-landmarks-for-preventive-personalized-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Mikhail Ponomarenko, Dmitry Rasskazov, Irina Chadaeva, Ekaterina Sharypova, Petr Ponomarenko, Olga Arkova, Elena Kashina, Nikita Ivanisenko, Dmitry Zhechev, Ludmila Savinkova, Nikolay Kolchanov
Year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress of science, technology, education, and medicine, which however has a downside. Owing to improvement in children's nutrition, developmental acceleration occurs that imbalances a child's system. Because of virtual worlds of the Internet, social experience of teenagers expands and clashes with puberty of adolescents. Due to the comfort of cities, urbanization emerges and causes stress to adults because of artificial light, noise, pollution, violations of personal space, and family disruption...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410119/second-law-efficiency-for-living-cells
#11
REVIEW
Umberto Lucia, Giulia Grisolia
The exergetic analysis of the biosystems is developed. It takes into account that cells are able to convert only part of the energy absorbed. The result is to highlight the fundamental role of the exergy as a quantity useful to develop considerations on the cells behavior in relation to normal or disease states.
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410118/disparity-in-rates-of-hpv-infection-and-cervical-cancer-in-underserved-us-populations
#12
REVIEW
Asok Ranjan Karuri, Vivek Kumar Kashyap, Murali Mohan Yallapu, Nadeem Zafar, Satish K Kedia, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C Chauhan
There is a higher rate of HPV infection and cervical cancer incidence and mortality in underserved US population who reside in Appalachian mountain region compared to Northern Plains. Social and behavioral factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption are for such a high incidence. However, by and large, the reasons for these discrepancies lie in the reluctance of the underserved population to adopt preventive measures such as prophylactic Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines and Pap smear screening that have significantly reduced the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Caucasian women...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410117/racial-disparities-disruptive-genes-in-prostate-carcinogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Savita Singh, Alexis Plaga, Girish C Shukla
Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MRS1), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410116/hyperbaric-oxygenation-for-resuscitation-and-therapy-of-elderly-patients-with-cerebral-and-cardio-respiratory-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Gennady G Rogatsky, Ilia Stambler
Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) has been gaining an increasing recognition as a versatile therapeutic approach. This article reviews the application of hyperbaric oxygenation as a method for resuscitation and therapy of elderly patients with cerebral and cardio-respiratory dysfunction, in acute as compared to chronic impairments. The vital role of proper dosage of HBO therapy to ensure both the efficacy and safety of the treatment is emphasized. We argue that in the acute stages of brain and cardiorespiratory impairment, the adequate hyperbaric oxygen dose is the most important condition for obtaining maximum therapeutic effect, due to the powerful anti-hypoxic capabilities of this method...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199183/mrna-mirna-integrative-analysis-of-diabetes-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-rats
#15
Mariana B Lopes, Renata Cc Freitas, Mario H Hirata, Rosario Dc Hirata, Adriana A Rezende, Vivian N Silbiger, Raul H Bortolin, Andre D Luchessi
An integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in left ventricle (LV) of diabetes-induced rats was performed to elucidate the role of miRNAs and their mRNAs target in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). mRNA (GSE4745) and miRNA (GSE44179) datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus 2R (GEO2R) and differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs were selected. Cardiotoxicity-related mRNAs (n=7) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analyses 6 (IPA) and regulatory miRNAs (n=639) were identified using TargetScan 7...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814584/enhanced-periodontal-regeneration-using-collagen-stem-cells-or-growth-factors
#16
Tanja Basan, Daniel Welly, Katja Kriebel, Malte Scholz, Anne Brosemann, Jan Liese, Brigitte Vollmar, Bernhard Frerich, Hermann Lang
The regeneration of periodontal tissues still remains a challenge in periodontology. The aim of the present study was to examine the regenerative potential of a) different collagen support versus blank, b) different collagen support +/- a growth factor cocktail (GF) and c) a collagen powder versus collagen powder + periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) comparatively in a large animal model. The stem cells (SC) were isolated from extracted teeth of 15 adult miniature pigs. A total of 60 class II furcation defects were treated with the materials named above...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814583/3d-culture-of-mouse-gastric-stem-cells-using-porous-microcarriers
#17
Razan Alkhatib, Ali Hilal-Alnaqbi, Mariam Naciri, Rasoul Al-Majmaie, Prashanth Saseedharan, Sherif M Karam, Mohamed Al-Rubeai
The lining epithelium of the stomach includes multipotent stem cells which undergo proliferation and migration-associated differentiation. These cells give rise to multiple cell lineages that produce mucus, acid, pepsinogen and various hormones/peptides. A 3D culture for stem cells would facilitate identification of the factors that control proliferation and/or differentiation programs. Here, we report on the use of disk-like ImmobaSil HD silicone-rubber matrix based microcarriers that are permeable to oxygen and reduce the creation of toxic environment within the center of the microcarrierd for culturing the mouse gastric stem (mGS) cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814582/prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-with-carotenoids
#18
Maria Alessandra Gammone, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Nicolantonio D'Orazio
Oxidative stress is a key contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Bioactive dietary elements including phytochemicals, and in particular, carotenoids display antioxidant effect and substantially reduce markers of oxidative stress. Carotenoids have been shown to prevent several chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases by reducing the inflammatory responses. Here, we discuss the use of traditional and novel carotenoids in prevention of cardiovascular disease.
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814581/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-prostate-cancer-racial-disparities-among-american-men
#19
Ajay K Chaudhary, Jordan O'Malley, Sandeep Kumar, Joseph R Inigo, Rahul Kumar, Neelu Yadav, Dhyan Chandra
The gap between prostate cancer disparities among American men is narrowing, which is mostly due to increased screening of African American (AA) men. However, the biological reasons for prostate cancer disparities among American men still remain undefined. Mitochondrion, an organelle within cells, regulates both cell survival and cell death mechanisms. These cellular signaling pathways require various proteins localized to mitochondria, which are encoded by both nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814580/the-dual-clastogenic-and-anti-clastogenic-properties-of-quercetin-is-dose-dependent
#20
Nuzhat Parveen, Ghulam Gha Shadab
Iron is a ubiquitous constituent of cytochromes, oxygen-binding molecules and a variety of enzymes because of its property to transition from ferric (Fe(3+)) to ferrous (Fe(2+)) state, leading to change in the redox potential. However, the same property accounts for free radical injury. In order to overcome harmful effects of iron we investigated the possible protective effect of quercetin (QCT), a flavonoid with antioxidant property, against the oxidative DNA damage caused by iron sulfate in vivo. We show that QCT exerts efficient anticlastogenic action in the context of iron sulfate treatment up to a dose of 500 mg/kg while it induces DNA damage at higher doses...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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