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Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814598/associations-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-macular-degeneration
#1
Leonardo Biscetti, Elisa Luchetti, Andrea Vergaro, Paola Menduno, Carlo Cagini, Lucilla Parnetti
There is growing evidence of epidemiological, genetic, molecular and clinical links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Major interest in the relationship between AD and AMD has derived from the evidence that beta-amyloid, the main component of senile plaques, the hallmark of AD, is also an important component of drusen, the hallmark of AMD. This finding has a great potential in the present era of anti-amyloid agents for the treatment of AD. The connection between AD and AMD is also supported by the evidence that the two diseases share other pathophysiological factors, such as oxidative stress and neuroinflammation...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814597/three-dimensional-tumor-models-for-cancer-studies
#2
Patrice Penfornis, Krishna C Vallabhaneni, Amol V Janorkar, Radhika R Pochampally
It is well recognized that one of the major drawbacks of using traditional two dimensional cultures to model the living systems is inaccurately reflecting the physiological manner in which modulators, nutrients, oxygen, and metabolites are applied and removed. Moreover, the two dimensional culture system poorly reflects how different cell types interact with each other in the same microenvironment. Since the first global development of three dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques in the late 1960s, this last decade has seen an explosion of studies to promote 3D models in the fields of regenerative medicine and cancer...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814596/diagnosis-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
Bhavesh Patel, Aashish Ahuja, Ghassan S Kassab, Carlos A Labarrere
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the most common long-term complications in patients following heart transplantation. Because of its irreversible nature, early detection is essential to impact progression. Thus, imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Major advancements in imaging and analysis are required to overcome the limitations of current techniques. Coronary angiography which is the standard method, presents low sensitivity in detection, especially at an early stage...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814595/particulate-beta-glucan-induces-early-and-late-phagosomal-maturation-in-murine-macrophages
#4
Nida Fatima, Tarun Upadhyay, Deepak Sharma, Rolee Sharma
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814594/cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-microvascular-arteriolar-capillaries-capioles-and-survival
#5
Carlos A Labarrere, Beate R Jaeger, Ghassan S Kassab
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a serious complication of heart transplantation in adults and children. Risk factors include human leukocyte antigen mismatches, number and duration of rejection episodes, type of immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, diabetes, cytomegalovirus infection, mode of donor brain death, donor age and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Endothelial injury and dysfunction in CAV are characterized by changes in adhesion molecules and up-regulation of major histocompatibility class II antigens followed by endothelial activation of complement C4d...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814593/design-synthesis-and-use-of-peptoids-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cancer
#6
Arijit Bhowmik, Malini Basu, Mrinal K Ghosh
Genetic variations in cancer cells are the underpinning for the development of resistance and failure of the treatment by current anticancer drugs. Thus, an ideal drug must overcome failure of treatment and prevents development of drug resistance. There are a wide variety of emerging, easy to prepare and cost effective group of drugs that are collectively called peptoids or peptidomimetics. These new set of drugs exhibit distinct features including protease resistance, are non-immunogenic, do not hinder functionality and backbone polarity, and can adopt different conformations...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814592/ros-mediated-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-tinospora-cordifolia-on-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Jamal Akhtar Ansari, Namrata Rastogi, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Abdul Rahman Khan, Ravi Thakur, Vikas Kumar Srivastava, Durga Prasad Mishra, Nishat Fatima, Homa Jilani Khan, Mohammad Waseem
The inevitable development of chemoresistance and unmanageable side effects are the major therapeutic challenges in management of breast cancer imposing an urgent need for identification of novel therapeutic agents. In the present investigation, we report anti-proliferative activity of chloroform fraction of Tinospora cordifolia (TcCF), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, on breast cancer cells. We found that TcCF inhibited growth of breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. More interestingly, we observed TcCF treatment increased intra-cellular ROS levels, altered expression of pro and anti-apoptotic genes, decreased colony formation ability and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814591/insight-into-role-of-microbiota-gut-brain-peptides-as-a-target-for-biotechnology-innovations
#8
Carina Elisei, Alinne Pereira de Castro
It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814590/phytochemicals-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#9
Juhi Rais, Asif Jafri, Sahabjada Siddiqui, Madhu Tripathi, Mohammad Arshad
Ovarian cancer ranks 5(th) among the most common gynecologic cancers and causes the highest mortality in females. Here, we discuss the role of a group of natural products that are being used in treatment and prevention of a host of cancers including ovarian cancer. Some plants and nutraceuticals and their polyphenolic constituents such as flavones, flavonoids, and antioxidants have shown cytotoxic effects on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. While phytochemicals do not harm normal cells, they have been found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells by virtue of inhibition of proliferation and/or induction of apoptosis, making them ideal in cancer therapeutics or as adjunct to conventional treatment regimens...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814589/er-chaperone-grp78-regulates-autophagy-by-modulation-of-p53-localization
#10
Mohd Kamil, Ejazul Haque, Safia Irfan, Saba Sheikh, Adria Hasan, Aamir Nazir, Mohtashim Lohani, Snober S Mir
GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) is a major Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) chaperone that plays a pivotal role in normal ER functioning. Its increased expression also works as an indicator of ER stress. Its anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic activity makes it an intriguing target to study the relationship between GRP78 and p53, which is also a major regulator of apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of Rotenone and Parathion on human lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) specifically with respect to ER stress and its association with different cell death pathways...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814588/protective-effect-of-tangeritin-in-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Ambreen Fatima, Saba Khanam, Rahul Rahul, Smita Jyoti, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra region of midbrain. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein into depositions known as lewy bodies. Till date there is no cure for PD but the limited number of medications may provide temporary relief from the PD symptoms. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols found in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids have been universally accepted. Tangeritin is a pentamethoxy flavone found in the peels of Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814587/novel-biogenic-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#12
Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Ashish Pathak, Alok Patel, Priya Vashisth, Harmeet Singh, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Vikas Pruthi
Here, we explored the medicinal uses of the novel biogenic silver nanoparticles of Pterospermum acerifolium (PaAgNPs) as a cost effective, eco-friendly, reducing and stabilizing compounds. The formation of PaAgNPs was confirmed by changing its color from colorless to yellowish brown, with maximum absorbance at 417 nm. FTIR spectrum of PaAgNPs suggested the presence of polycyclic compound similar to betulinic acid which plays as a capping agent and provided stability to PaAgNPs. FESEM and HRTEM images depicted the spherical shape of synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles with an average particle size range of 10-20 nm...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814586/exercise-intolerance-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-children
#13
Predrag B Minic, Aleksandar D Sovtic
Respiratory symptoms at rest or during exercise may restrain the physical capabilities required for normal motor and psychosocial development in children. The most frequent cause of exercise intolerance, apart from poor physical fitness, is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which may occur in some healthy children and in children with asthma. It is proposed that hyperventilation during exercise is associated with drying and cooling of airways, which can trigger a proinflammatory response. Several tests are used to confirm EIB, and the exercise-challenge test is the most common...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814585/mechanisms-of-protein-aggregation-and-inhibition
#14
Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Parvez Alam, Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi, Yasser E Shahein, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Protein and peptide aggregation raises keen interest due to their involvement in number of pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidosis. Here, we have reviewed recent advances in mechanisms of aggregation, emerging technologies towards exploration, characterization of aggregate structures, detection at molecular level and the strategies to combat the phenomenon of aggregation both in cellular and in vitro conditions. In consistence, we have illustrated almost all factors that influence the protein aggregation both in vitro and in vivo environments...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100352/possible-role-of-apolipoprotein-a1-in-healing-and-cell-death-after-neuronal-injury
#15
Mohor B Sengupta, Debashis Mukhopadhyay
Limited axonal regeneration after traumatic injuries to the CNS presents a challenge in neuroscience. Investigation of CSF from subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) has found that the lipid catabolism pathway is implicated in the post injury scenario. Sequestration of the CNS by the blood brain barrier ensures a mechanism of cholesterol metabolism and recycling distinct from that in the peripheral tissues. Apolipoprotein A1, the protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is an abundant protein in the mammalian cerebrospinal fluid...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100351/new-insights-into-the-bioactivity-of-peptides-from-probiotics
#16
Santi M Mandal, Bikas R Pati, Ranadhir Chakraborty, Octavio L Franco
Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-infective therapy by heterologous expression of receptor peptides of bacterial toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100350/the-potential-impacts-of-formyl-peptide-receptor-1-in-inflammatory-diseases
#17
Shun-Chin Yang, Tsong-Long Hwang
Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. N-formyl peptides, which originate from bacterial peptides or mitochondrial proteins bind with a high binding affinity to formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). N-formyl peptide-FPR1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sterile and infectious inflammatory processes and causes phagocytosis of pathogens or injured cells by neutrophils. Excessive activation of neutrophils by binding of N-formyl peptides is associated with tissue injury requiring drugs that block FPR1-dependent signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100349/genes-associated-with-t-helper-17-cell-differentiation-and-function
#18
Ayten Nalbant, Doga Eskier
Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) constitute a lineage of CD4 effector T helper cells that is distinct from the Th1 and Th2 CD4 phenotypes. In humans, Th17 differentiation is induced in the presence of the cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TGF beta, whereas IL-23 maintains Th17 survival. Effector human Th17 cells express several cytokines and cell surface markers, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, CCR6 and TNFalpha. Studies on human cells have revealed that the RORC2 transcription factor plays an effective role in Th17 differentiation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100348/towards-understanding-the-genetics-of-autism
#19
Harshita Shailesh, Ishita Gupta, Said Sif, Allal Ouhtit
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect communication skills, social interaction and intellectual ability. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. Early studies focusing on candidate genes have shown that several genes associated with neuronal synaptic function are involved in development of ASD. Linkage studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ASD, and genome-wide association studies have implicated several loci, but failed to recognize a single specific locus with strong significance, indicating heterogeneity in ASD genetic determinants...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100347/immediate-epileptogenesis-impact-on-brain-in-c57bl-6j-mouse-kainate-model
#20
Sreekanth Puttachary, Shaunik Sharma, Achala Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
We have recently demonstrated immediate epileptogenesis in the C57BL/6J mouse, the strain that is resistant to kainate-induced neurotoxicity. By using a repeated low dose of kainate, we produced mild and severe status epilepticus (SE) models. In the present study, we demonstrate the impact of mild and severe SE, and spontaneous convulsive/nonconvulsive seizures (CS/NCS) on structure and function of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala at 7, 14 and 28 day post-SE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of brain sections confirmed reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis, neurodegeneration, and increased neurogenesis in both groups...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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