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Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

Mohor B Sengupta, Debashis Mukhopadhyay
Limited axonal regeneration after traumatic injuries to the CNS presents a challenge in neuroscience. Investigation of CSF from subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) has found that the lipid catabolism pathway is implicated in the post injury scenario. Sequestration of the CNS by the blood brain barrier ensures a mechanism of cholesterol metabolism and recycling distinct from that in the peripheral tissues. Apolipoprotein A1, the protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is an abundant protein in the mammalian cerebrospinal fluid...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Santi M Mandal, Bikas R Pati, Ranadhir Chakraborty, Octavio L Franco
Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-infective therapy by heterologous expression of receptor peptides of bacterial toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Shun-Chin Yang, Tsong-Long Hwang
Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. N-formyl peptides, which originate from bacterial peptides or mitochondrial proteins bind with a high binding affinity to formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). N-formyl peptide-FPR1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sterile and infectious inflammatory processes and causes phagocytosis of pathogens or injured cells by neutrophils. Excessive activation of neutrophils by binding of N-formyl peptides is associated with tissue injury requiring drugs that block FPR1-dependent signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Ayten Nalbant, Doga Eskier
Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) constitute a lineage of CD4 effector T helper cells that is distinct from the Th1 and Th2 CD4 phenotypes. In humans, Th17 differentiation is induced in the presence of the cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TGF beta, whereas IL-23 maintains Th17 survival. Effector human Th17 cells express several cytokines and cell surface markers, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, CCR6 and TNFalpha. Studies on human cells have revealed that the RORC2 transcription factor plays an effective role in Th17 differentiation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Harshita Shailesh, Ishita Gupta, Said Sif, Allal Ouhtit
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect communication skills, social interaction and intellectual ability. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. Early studies focusing on candidate genes have shown that several genes associated with neuronal synaptic function are involved in development of ASD. Linkage studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ASD, and genome-wide association studies have implicated several loci, but failed to recognize a single specific locus with strong significance, indicating heterogeneity in ASD genetic determinants...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Sreekanth Puttachary, Shaunik Sharma, Achala Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
We have recently demonstrated immediate epileptogenesis in the C57BL/6J mouse, the strain that is resistant to kainate-induced neurotoxicity. By using a repeated low dose of kainate, we produced mild and severe status epilepticus (SE) models. In the present study, we demonstrate the impact of mild and severe SE, and spontaneous convulsive/nonconvulsive seizures (CS/NCS) on structure and function of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala at 7, 14 and 28 day post-SE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of brain sections confirmed reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis, neurodegeneration, and increased neurogenesis in both groups...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Fulvio Lauretani, Andrea Ticinesi, Tiziana Meschi, Giulio Teresi, Gian Paolo Ceda, Marcello Maggio
The continuous increase in elderly and oldest-old population, and subsequent rise in prevalence of chronic neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are a major challenge for healthcare systems. These two conditions are the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in older persons and physicians should engage treatment for these patients. In this field, Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) specifically focused on elderly populations are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify RCTs conducted among AD and PD and to examine the difference between mean age of enrollment and incidence of these two neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Anne Chetty, Gong-Jie Cao, Azeem Sharda, Theresia Tsay, Heber C Nielsen
The temporal origins of childhood asthma are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that allergen sensitization which begins in early infancy causes IgE-mediated airway and vascular remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) without or with anti-IgE antibody from postnatal day (P) 10 through P42. We studied airway resistance in response to Methacholine (MCh) challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) inflammatory cell content, immunohistochemistry for inflammation, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) proteins, and Western blotting for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Debatosh Majumdar, Mohammad Aminur Rahman, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Dong M Shin
Sexually transmitted oral cancer/head and neck cancer is increasing rapidly. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is playing a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Paclitaxel is a widely used anticancer drug for breast, ovarian, testicular, cervical, non-small cell lung, head and neck cancer. However, it is water insoluble and orally inactive. We report the synthesis of water soluble nanosize conjugates of paclitaxel, branched PEG, and EGFR-targeting peptide by employing native chemical ligation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Aliyu Muhammad, Oyeronke A Odunola, Mohammed A Ibrahim, Abdullahi B Sallau, Ochuko L Erukainure, Idown A Aimola, Ibrahim Malami
Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Emily S Riddle, Martha H Stipanuk, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer
Life expectancy in the U.S. and globally continues to increase. Despite increased life expectancy quality of life is not enhanced, and older adults often experience chronic age-related disease and functional disability, including frailty. Additionally, changes in body composition such as the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) and subsequent increases in adipose tissue can augment disease and disability in this population. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant concentrations may also lead to metabolic dysfunction in older adults...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Cao Li, Huiming Peng, Lukasz Japtok, Aaron Seitz, Andrea Riehle, Barbara Wilker, Matthias Soddemann, Burkard Kleuser, Michael Edwards, David Lammas, Yang Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassme
Tuberculosis is one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. The initial pulmonal localization of the pathogens often develops into systemic infection with high lethality. We investigated the role of the mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase (Nsm)/ceramide system in systemic infection of mice and murine macrophages with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Our results demonstrate that BCG infection of RAW cells, a macrophage cell line, results in rapid activation of Nsm but not of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
William Omar Contreras Lopez, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Clement Hamani, Travis S Tierney, Eduardo Alho, Maria Gabriela dos Santos Ghilardi, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Raquel Chacon Ruiz Martinez
Cerebral microdialysis is a chemical detection method capable of identifying and simultaneously sampling a wide range of substances in the micromilieu of the monitoring probe. The interstitial space of biological tissues and fluids is sampled through a thin fenestrated dialysis catheter inserted into the brain. The technique has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the procedure is not widely used by neurosurgeons, possibly owing to unclear indications and poor effective benefits, mostly secondary to significant pitfalls...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Allal Ouhtit, Ishita Gupta, Zoya Shaikh
BRIP1 encodes a protein belonging to the RecQ DEAH helicase family. It interacts with BRCA1, and is involved in the repair of DNA damage and tumor suppression. Aberrations in BRIP1 have been mainly associated with the development of breast cancer (BC), ovarian cancer, and type J Fanconi anemia. Based on recent work, we hypothesize that BRIP1 might be the gene involved in the onset of BC in families that do not show BRACA1/2 mutations. This review will focus on the findings supporting this hypothesis, the mechanisms linking BRIP1 to the onset of BC, and the potential clinical relevance of its various inhibitors...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Susan A McCoard, Francisco A Sales, Quentin L Sciascia
Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Sherona R Sirkisoon, Richard L Carpenter, Tadas Rimkus, Lance Miller, Linda Metheny-Barlow, Hui-Wen Lo
Breast cancer occurs in approximately 1 in 8 women and 1 in 37 women with breast cancer succumbed to the disease. Over the past decades, new diagnostic tools and treatments have substantially improved the prognosis of women with local diseases. However, women with metastatic disease still have a dismal prognosis without effective treatments. Among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes typically have higher rates of metastasis to the brain. Basal-like metastatic breast tumors frequently express EGFR...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Omar Ahmad, Michael Chan, Paul Savage, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo, Shadi Qasem
Sarcomas are rare tumors with devastating clinical consequences, often affecting children as well as adults. Brain metastasis in sarcoma is frequently preceded by lung metastasis. Common offenders include Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Although our understanding of sarcoma metastasis remains limited, several cellular factors and signaling pathways appear to play regulatory roles and/or exhibit prognostic values in sarcoma metastasis. In addition, MicroRNAs have been shown to have either positive or negative impact on sarcoma biology and metastasis...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Michael E Haughton, Michael D Chan, Kounosuke Watabe, Marcelo Bonomi, Waldemar Debinski, Glenn J Lesser, Jimmy Ruiz
Common and deadly complications of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are brain metastases (BM). BM portends a poorer prognosis with limited effective treatment options and current management strategies present several challenges from iatrogenic complications of supportive medications, optimal delivery of drug across the blood-brain barrier, and preservation of neurocognitive function. Long term side effects and survivorship issues have become more evident in the era of targeted therapy where a systemic disease is much better controlled...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Carmen Salerno, Dario Di Stasio, Massimo Petruzzi, Dorina Lauritano, Enrica Gentile, Agostino Guida, Claudio Maio, Mariasofia Tammaro, Rosario Serpico, Alberta Lucchese
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Kelly J Peyton, Xiao-ming Liu, William Durante
The vascular endothelium is continuously exposed to cyclic mechanical strain due to the periodic change in vessel diameter as a result of pulsatile blood flow. Since emerging evidence indicates the cyclic strain plays an integral role in regulating endothelial cell function, the present study determined whether application of a physiologic regimen of cyclic strain (6% at 1 hertz) influences the proliferation of human arterial endothelial cells. Prolonged exposure of human dermal microvascular or human aortic endothelial cells to cyclic strain for up to 7 days resulted in a marked decrease in cell growth...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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