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Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772525/vaginal-microbiota-dysmicrobism-and-role-of-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#2
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Vincenzo Petix, Lucia Corich, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and iners predominated on the healthy vaginal mucosa, while Lactobacillus gasseri predominated in the intermediate dysmicrobism...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772524/high-incidence-of-braf-v600-mutation-in-indian-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#3
Ashna Gauthaman, Anbalagan Moorthy
In cancer cells,  BRAF  is frequently mutated at codon 600 (V600 ) leading to the replacement of valine amino acid with other amino acids. The current study was performed to assess the prevalence of  BRAF V600  mutation in Indian patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Among the patients, 27% were homozygous, and 71% were heterozygous for the mutation and only 2% showed a wild genotype. Since identification of  BRAF V600  mutation in cancer patients is used for selection of the therapeutic agents, this study shows that all Indian patients with HNSCCmust be screened for this mutation...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772523/mhc-b-haplotypes-impact-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-rsv-a-infection
#4
Vishwa Mohini Khare, Vishesh Kumar Saxena, Alka Tomar, Karam Pal Singh, Kunwar Bahadur Singh, Amit Kumar Tiwari
We investigated the impact of haplotype of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-B on the outcome of infection of Synthetic Dam Line (SDL) broiler strain with Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV). Genomic analysis of MHC-B haplotypes, revealed a total of 12 known standard haplotypes that constituted to twenty-five different genotypes and one new haplotype of 217 bp size, designated BX . The inoculation of RSV-A in SDL chicks resulted in the development of tumors of progressive or regressive phenotypes with varying tumor profile index (TPI)...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772522/bariatric-surgery-drives-major-rearrangements-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-including-the-biofilm-composition
#5
Giuseppina Campisciano, Carolina Cason, Silvia Palmisano, Michela Giuricin, Alessia Rizzardi, Lory Saveria Croce, Nicolo De Manzini, Manola Comar
The intestinal microbiota disequilibrium has been associated with obesity, while the role of the gut mucosal biofilms in this pathology is still unknown. We analysed the changes in the intestinal microbiota of obese patients after bariatric surgery with the aim of disclosing the rearrangement of the biofilm configuration. Although the bariatric surgery drives major rearrangements of the gut microbiota, obese patients maintain the Prevotella enterotype before and after surgery, as shown by normal weight patients, with an increase of Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis ...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772521/myricetin-attenuates-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinsonism
#6
Vijayraja Dhanraj, Jeyaprakash Karuppaiah, Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Namasivayam Elangovan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata in rotenone induced Drosophila model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and apoptosis...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772520/-valeriana-wallichii-extract-inhibits-tert-booh-induced-oxidative-damage-and-cytotoxicity
#7
Vishal Jain, Ruma Dutta, Doddamane Thippeswamy Maheshwari, Darmendra Kumar Meena, Kshipra Misra, Mysore Sadashiva Yogendra Kumar
Oxidative s tress is well known to be involved in pathophysiology of several disorders. Valeriana wallichii (VW) root extracts is known for its expedient activities but its antioxidant and cytoprotective efficacy need to be explored further. In present study tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) was used to induce oxidative stress in C6 glioma cells. Antioxidant activity of the VW root extracts were evaluated by chemical assays i.e . DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay. Further effect of VW on tert-BOOH induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage was studied...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772519/p53-and-p-glycoprotein-influence-chemoresistance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
ShengLei Li, Ming Gao, ZongMing Li, LiJie Song, XianZheng Gao, Jing Han, Feng Wang, YongFang Chen, WenCai Li, JianPing Yang
Chemoresistance is a critical obstacle to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms underlying resistance to doxorubicin, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil involve p53 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). p53 plays a role in cell growth; therefore, resistance mechanisms involve chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and p53 mutation and inactivation. P-gp is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump regulated by p53. Its role in drug resistance has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying the involvement of p53 and P-gp in chemoresistance and may alter our traditional understanding of p53 and P-gp function...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293468/the-diagnosis-of-plant-pathogenic-bacteria-a-state-of-art
#9
Valeria Scala, Nicoletta Pucci, Stefania Loreti
Plant protection plays an important role in agriculture for the food quality and quantity. The diagnosis of plant diseases and the identification of the pathogens are essential prerequisites for their understanding and control. Among the plant pests, the bacterial pathogens have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Different techniques (microscopy, serology, biochemical, physiological, molecular tools and culture propagation) are currently used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens. Detection and identification are critical steps for the appropriate application of phytosanitary measures...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293467/thraatchathi-chooranam-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-oxidative-stress
#10
Ramakrishnan Ganapathy, Sugumar Mani, Balaji Raghavendran Hanumanth Rao, Kamarul Tunku, Bipul Ray, Abid Bhat, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Thraatchathi Chooranam (TC), is a polyphenol-rich Indian traditional medicine. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TC against H2O2 induced oxidative stress and apoptotic damage in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Cell viability assay indicated relative safety (IC50= 488.10±12.04 mg/ml) of TC. Pretreatment of cells with TC upregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and anti-oxidants TRX1 and TRXR and downregulated Bax and HIF-α and inflammatory genes iNOS and TNF-α. Together, these findings show that TC has both anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293466/prostate-cancer-susceptibility-and-growth-linked-to-y-chromosome-genes
#11
Riddhi Patel, Ahmad O Khalifa, Ilaha Isali, Sanjeev Shukla
The role of Y chromosome in prostate cancer progression and incidence is not well known. Among the 46 chromosomes, Y chromosome determines the male gender. The Y chromosome is smaller than the X chromosome and contains only 458 genes compared to over 2000 genes found in the X chromosome. The Y chromosome is prone to high mutation rates, created exclusively in sperm cells due to the highly oxidative environment of the testis. Y chromosome harbors epigenetic information, which affects the expression of genes associated with the incidence and progression of prostate cancer...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293465/pathomechanisms-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-multidimensional-approaches
#12
Pooja Sagvekar, Roshan Dadachanji, Krutika Patil, Srabani Mukherjee
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disorder affecting numerous women of reproductive age across the globe. Characterized mainly by irregular menses, hirsutism, skewed LH: FSH ratios and bulky polycystic ovaries, this multifactorial endocrinopathy results in unfavorable reproductive and metabolic sequelae, including anovulatory infertility, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in later years. Increasing evidence has shown that the manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is attributable to a cumulative impact of altered genetic, epigenetic and protein profiles which bring about a systemic dysfunction...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293464/five-hit-hypothesis-in-atm-gene-an-individualized-model-in-a-breast-cancer-patient
#13
Parvin Mehdipour, Asaad Azarnezhad
The aim of this study was to trace D1853N in a proband affected with primary BC to explore the molecular, cellular and structural aspects of ATM. Exon 37 and splicing regions were PCR-sequenced. Allelic location of the alterations was determined by molecular cloning. Possible impact of alterations was investigated through the bioinformatics and protein expression assays. Five genetic variants including IVS 36-91 AA>TT, IVS 36-8 T>C, D1853N, IVS 37+47 A>G, IVS 37+60 Del T were found in the target regions of ATM and all the alterations were occurred heterezygously...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293463/nanoantibiotics-future-nanotechnologies-to-combat-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Saima Muzammil, Sumreen Hayat, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, Bilal Aslam, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Mhammad Atif Nisar, Muhammad Saqalein, Muhammad Atif, Ayesha Sarwar, Anwaar Khurshid, Nasir Amin, Zhiming Wang
The discovery of antibiotics was hailed as a historic breakthrough for the human race in the fight against bacterial and malignant infections. However, in a very short time, owing to their acute and aggressive nature, bacteria have developed resistance against antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics agents. Potentially, this situation could again result in bacterial infection outbreaks. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been proven as better alternatives; the combination of antibiotics and metal oxide nanoparticles was shown to decrease the toxicity and enhance the antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer efficacy of the agents...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293462/modifying-progression-of-aging-and-reducing-the-risk-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-probiotics-and-synbiotics
#15
Huey Shi Lye, Yee Teng Lee, Shao Yin Ooi, Lai Kuan Teh, Lay Ngor Lim, Loo Keat Wei
Aging, which affects most of the multi-cellular organisms, is due to a potentially complex set of mechanisms that collectively cause a time-dependent decline of physiological functions. Aging restrains longevity and leads to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease and lacunar stroke. Human microbiota is now considered to have a strong impact on the progression of aging. The impact of aging and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases can be reduced by using probiotics, or preferably by combining probiotics and prebiotics, also known as synbiotics, that can drastically modify the composition of gut microbiome...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293461/daily-subcutaneous-testosterone-for-management-of-testosterone-deficiency
#16
Nasimeh Yazdani, Stacy Matthews Branch
Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a public health concern, a predictor of metabolic syndrome, and is associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Testosterone deficiency in men is treated by a variety of methods including injectable testosterone compounds, patches, gels, pellets, and oral preparations. The use of testosterone alone has been linked to various adverse effects including, infertility, testicular atrophy, erythropoiesis, and gynecomastia. To determine the effectiveness of therapy using the Daily Subcutaneous Testosterone (DST) method in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and an aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole), a retrospective analysis was conducted of men diagnosed and treated for TD...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930620/effects-and-mechanisms-of-actions-of-phytochemicals-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#17
REVIEW
Richard E Hartman, David M Ross
Alzheimer's disease affects millions of people, yet, there are only a limited number approaches for it pharmacological treatment. Thus, identifying factors that decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is of paramount importance. A growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that dietary fruits and vegetables have neuroprotective effects against the harmful effects of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and aging. These effects are mediated by various phytochemical compounds found in plants that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial properties...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930619/asiatic-acid-nullified-aluminium-toxicity-in-in-vitro-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Jegadeesan Nataraj, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental toxicant that lacks biological functions; however, its accumulation in the brain has been demonstrated to be linked to several neuropathological conditions particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica , has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of AA against aluminium maltolate ( Al(mal)3 ) induced neurotoxicity by assessing cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and signaling indices) via AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in SH-SY 5Y  neuroblastoma cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930618/enhancement-of-biomass-and-phycocyanin-content-of-spirulina-platensis
#19
Mahammed Ilyas Khazi, Zeliha Demirel, Meltem Conk Dalay
Response surface methodology (RSM) based on the 23 factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate optimum culture conditions (temperature, light irradiance and agitation) to enhance biomass and phycocyanin content of Spirulina platensis . The predicted maximum biomass and phycocyanin content by RSM was 1.06 g L-1 and 107 mg L-1 , respectively, whereas maximum biomass and phycocyanin content of 1.32 g L-1 and 127 mg L-1 was obtained in the validation experiments under optimized conditions after 10 days of cultivation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930617/genetic-manipulation-of-microalgae-for-the-production-of-bioproducts
#20
REVIEW
Patricia Vazquez-Villegas, Mario A Torres-Acosta, Sergio A Garcia-Echauri, Jose M Aguilar-Yanez, Marco Rito-Palomares, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz
Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular tags for diagnostics and fixation of greenhouse gases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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