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Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293468/the-diagnosis-of-plant-pathogenic-bacteria-a-state-of-art
#1
Valeria Scala, Nicoletta Pucci, Stefania Loreti
Plant protection plays an important role in agriculture for the food quality and quantity. The diagnosis of plant diseases and the identification of the pathogens are essential prerequisites for their understanding and control. Among the plant pests, the bacterial pathogens have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Different techniques (microscopy, serology, biochemical, physiological, molecular tools and culture propagation) are currently used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens. Detection and identification are critical steps for the appropriate application of phytosanitary measures...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293467/thraatchathi-chooranam-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-oxidative-stress
#2
Ramakrishnan Ganapathy, Sugumar Mani, Balaji Raghavendran Hanumanth Rao, Kamarul Tunku, Bipul Ray, Abid Bhat, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Thraatchathi Chooranam (TC), is a polyphenol-rich Indian traditional medicine. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TC against H2O2 induced oxidative stress and apoptotic damage in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Cell viability assay indicated relative safety (IC50= 488.10±12.04 mg/ml) of TC. Pretreatment of cells with TC upregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and anti-oxidants TRX1 and TRXR and downregulated Bax and HIF-α and inflammatory genes iNOS and TNF-α. Together, these findings show that TC has both anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293466/prostate-cancer-susceptibility-and-growth-linked-to-y-chromosome-genes
#3
Riddhi Patel, Ahmad O Khalifa, Ilaha Isali, Sanjeev Shukla
The role of Y chromosome in prostate cancer progression and incidence is not well known. Among the 46 chromosomes, Y chromosome determines the male gender. The Y chromosome is smaller than the X chromosome and contains only 458 genes compared to over 2000 genes found in the X chromosome. The Y chromosome is prone to high mutation rates, created exclusively in sperm cells due to the highly oxidative environment of the testis. Y chromosome harbors epigenetic information, which affects the expression of genes associated with the incidence and progression of prostate cancer...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293465/pathomechanisms-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-multidimensional-approaches
#4
Pooja Sagvekar, Roshan Dadachanji, Krutika Patil, Srabani Mukherjee
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disorder affecting numerous women of reproductive age across the globe. Characterized mainly by irregular menses, hirsutism, skewed LH: FSH ratios and bulky polycystic ovaries, this multifactorial endocrinopathy results in unfavorable reproductive and metabolic sequelae, including anovulatory infertility, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in later years. Increasing evidence has shown that the manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is attributable to a cumulative impact of altered genetic, epigenetic and protein profiles which bring about a systemic dysfunction...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293464/five-hit-hypothesis-in-atm-gene-an-individualized-model-in-a-breast-cancer-patient
#5
Parvin Mehdipour, Asaad Azarnezhad
The aim of this study was to trace D1853N in a proband affected with primary BC to explore the molecular, cellular and structural aspects of ATM. Exon 37 and splicing regions were PCR-sequenced. Allelic location of the alterations was determined by molecular cloning. Possible impact of alterations was investigated through the bioinformatics and protein expression assays. Five genetic variants including IVS 36-91 AA>TT, IVS 36-8 T>C, D1853N, IVS 37+47 A>G, IVS 37+60 Del T were found in the target regions of ATM and all the alterations were occurred heterezygously...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293463/nanoantibiotics-future-nanotechnologies-to-combat-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Saima Muzammil, Sumreen Hayat, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, Bilal Aslam, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Mhammad Atif Nisar, Muhammad Saqalein, Muhammad Atif, Ayesha Sarwar, Anwaar Khurshid, Nasir Amin, Zhiming Wang
The discovery of antibiotics was hailed as a historic breakthrough for the human race in the fight against bacterial and malignant infections. However, in a very short time, owing to their acute and aggressive nature, bacteria have developed resistance against antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics agents. Potentially, this situation could again result in bacterial infection outbreaks. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been proven as better alternatives; the combination of antibiotics and metal oxide nanoparticles was shown to decrease the toxicity and enhance the antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer efficacy of the agents...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293462/modifying-progression-of-aging-and-reducing-the-risk-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-probiotics-and-synbiotics
#7
Huey Shi Lye, Yee Teng Lee, Shao Yin Ooi, Lai Kuan Teh, Lay Ngor Lim, Loo Keat Wei
Aging, which affects most of the multi-cellular organisms, is due to a potentially complex set of mechanisms that collectively cause a time-dependent decline of physiological functions. Aging restrains longevity and leads to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease and lacunar stroke. Human microbiota is now considered to have a strong impact on the progression of aging. The impact of aging and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases can be reduced by using probiotics, or preferably by combining probiotics and prebiotics, also known as synbiotics, that can drastically modify the composition of gut microbiome...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293461/daily-subcutaneous-testosterone-for-management-of-testosterone-deficiency
#8
Nasimeh Yazdani, Stacy Matthews Branch
Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a public health concern, a predictor of metabolic syndrome, and is associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Testosterone deficiency in men is treated by a variety of methods including injectable testosterone compounds, patches, gels, pellets, and oral preparations. The use of testosterone alone has been linked to various adverse effects including, infertility, testicular atrophy, erythropoiesis, and gynecomastia. To determine the effectiveness of therapy using the Daily Subcutaneous Testosterone (DST) method in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and an aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole), a retrospective analysis was conducted of men diagnosed and treated for TD...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930620/effects-and-mechanisms-of-actions-of-phytochemicals-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#9
Richard E Hartman, David M Ross
Alzheimer's disease affects millions of people, yet, there are only a limited number approaches for it pharmacological treatment. Thus, identifying factors that decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is of paramount importance. A growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that dietary fruits and vegetables have neuroprotective effects against the harmful effects of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and aging. These effects are mediated by various phytochemical compounds found in plants that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial properties...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930619/asiatic-acid-nullified-aluminium-toxicity-in-in-vitro-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Jegadeesan Nataraj, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental toxicant that lacks biological functions; however, its accumulation in the brain has been demonstrated to be linked to several neuropathological conditions particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica, has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of AA against aluminium maltolate (Al(mal)3) induced neurotoxicity by assessing cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and signaling indices) via AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in SH-SY 5Y  neuroblastoma cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930618/enhancement-of-biomass-and-phycocyanin-content-of-spirulina-platensis
#11
Mahammed Ilyas Khazi, Zeliha Demirel, Meltem Conk Dalay
Response surface methodology (RSM) based on the 2(3) factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate optimum culture conditions (temperature, light irradiance and agitation) to enhance biomass and phycocyanin content of Spirulina platensis. The predicted maximum biomass and phycocyanin content by RSM was 1.06 g L(-1) and 107 mg L(-1), respectively, whereas maximum biomass and phycocyanin content of 1.32 g L(-1) and 127 mg L(-1) was obtained in the validation experiments under optimized conditions after 10 days of cultivation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930617/genetic-manipulation-of-microalgae-for-the-production-of-bioproducts
#12
Patricia Vazquez-Villegas, Mario A Torres-Acosta, Sergio A Garcia-Echauri, Jose M Aguilar-Yanez, Marco Rito-Palomares, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz
Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular tags for diagnostics and fixation of greenhouse gases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930616/development-of-a-semi-automated-image-based-high-throughput-drug-screening-system
#13
Remzi Onur Eren, Dmitry Kopelyanskiy, Dimitri Moreau, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Marc Chambon, Gerardo Turcatti, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Nicolas Fasel
We previously reported that the innate sensing of the endosymbiont Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) within Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis through Toll-like receptor 3, worsens the pathogenesis of parasite infection in mice. The presence of LRV1 has been associated with the failure of first-line treatment in patients infected with LRV1 containing -L. guyanensis and -L. braziliensis parasites. Here, we established a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening (HTDS) protocol to measure parasiticidal activity of the Prestwick chemical library in primary murine macrophages infected with LRV1-containing L...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930615/role-for-apolipoprotein-e-in-neurodegeneration-and-mercury-intoxication
#14
Gabriela de Paula Fonseca Arrifano, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Jose Rogerio Souza-Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira Paraense, Andrea Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Jose Richardo Dos Santos Vieira, Artur Luis da Costa Silva, Barbarella de Matos Macchi, Jose Luiz Martins do Nascimento, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
Mercury intoxication is a serious public health problem and a worldwide concern. The Minamata Convention on Mercury has been signed by 128 countries and endorsed by the World Health Organization with the recommendation of promoting the management of epidemiological information. The Central Nervous System is the main target organ for mercury. Symptoms of intoxication include altered motor coordination, visual and tactile dysfunction and paralysis, caused by neurodegeneration with a key role for oxidative damage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930614/inter-species-functional-interactome-of-nuclear-steroid-receptors-r1
#15
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos
Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustrating that robust interactions have been preserved in rodents, frog, zebra fish and drosophila...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930613/an-automated-approach-for-early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-using-sd-oct-images
#16
Ahmed H ElTanboly, Agustina Palacio, Ahmed M Shalaby, Andrew E Switala, Omar Helmy, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
  This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#17
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy III, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward J Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930611/biomass-breakdown-a-review-on-pretreatment-instrumentations-and-methods
#18
Preeti Vyas, Ashwani Kumar, Suren Singh
Enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuel production is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, due to its renewable and environmental friendly nature. Naturally, plants protect their cell wall polysaccharides by giving limited access to the cell wall degrading enzymes. Lignocellulose breakdown requires proper pretreatments that disrupt the close inter-component association between the constituents of the plant cell wall. For efficient biomass conversion, the choice of the correct pretreatment is important for removing the barriers to enhance access to microbial enzymes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930610/rps6ka4-mir1237-and-aurkc-promoter-regions-are-differentially-methylated-in-wilms-tumor
#19
Hanna S Pereira, Sheila C Soares Lima, Paulo S de Faria, Leila Ca Cardoso, Hector N Seuanez
Wilms' tumor (WT) is the most frequent renal cancer in childhood, the occurrence of which is characterized by a relatively low frequency of associated mutations. While epigenetic alterations have been postulated to play a relevant role in the emergence of this tumor, the mechanisms involved in WT development remain largely unknown. In this study, the DNA methylation profile of WT was characterized with Beadchip array. Comparisons between WT with normal kidney identified 827 differentially methylated regions, most of which were attributable in hypermethylation in CpG islands...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930609/age-related-pathological-changes-in-the-pancreas
#20
Yoko Matsuda
Pancreas has a complex histology and is characterized by a combination of endocrine and exocrine cells. Pancreas undergoes various pathological changes with aging characterized by increased fatty replacement, fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, amyloid deposition, a decreased weight as well as development of intra-epithelial neoplastic changes. These age-related alterations lead to diabetes mellitus and can predispose the individual to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In this review, we summarize age-related morphological and pathological changes of aging in pancreas...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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