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Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199190/filamentous-hemagglutinin-adhesin-fhab-limits-a-baumannii-biofilm-formation
#1
Shakiba Darwish Alipour Astaneh, Iraj Rasooli, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Increased resistance and survival, as well as immune evasion, play a significant role in the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we report on the adhesion of the bacterium to epithelial cells and formation of biofilm on abiotic surfaces. We identificed autotransporter (AT) genes that encode homologues (Fha-like) of the two-partner secretion system (TPS) in A.baumannii (ATCC19606) which we designate as FhaB (exoprotein) and FhaC (transporter) and demonstrate that these novel genes, are under the control of distinct regulatable promoters within either the same (FhaBC) or two distinct (FhaB and FhaC) cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199189/presence-of-psa-antibodies-in-seminal-plasma-of-infertile-men
#2
Vanessa A Cuppett, Suresh C Sikka, Rajesh K Naz
Immunoinfertility due to antisperm antibodies and semen hyperviscosity are among major causes of male infertility. Although the modulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been investigated in prostate abnormalities, its role and the effect of its dysfunction in male fertility/infertility have not been extensively examined. The present study was conducted to examine the presence of PSA antibodies locally in the seminal plasma of men having immunoinfertility and semen hyperviscosity. Seminal plasma samples from immunoinfertile men (n=25), men with hyperviscous semen (n=25), and normal men (n=24) were collected and analyzed for immunoreactivity with PSA in ELISA and Western blot...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199188/trigonella-seed-extract-ameliorates-inflammation-via-regulation-of-the-inflammasome-adaptor-protein-asc
#3
Nidhi Sharma, Samyuktha Suresh, Ananya Debnath, Sushmita Jha
Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) is an important medicinal plant, well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of its action remain largely unknown. The apoptosis associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) (ASC) is central to inflammatory and cell death pathways in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we show that fenugreek seed extract provides cytoprotection to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammed and nanosilica-treated fibroblasts via a reactive oxygen species independent pathway...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199187/combinatorial-effect-of-curcumin-with-docetaxel-modulates-apoptotic-and-cell-survival-molecules-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Saswati Banerjee, Santosh K Singh, Indrajit Chowdhury, Rajesh Singh
Docetaxel is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent to target androgen signaling in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa); however, prolonged treatment with docetaxel results in drug-resistant cancer cells. Combination therapies have the potential of increasing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as decreasing the side effects. Curcumin is a nontoxic organic compound with multifaceted chemopreventive potential. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin can reinforce the effect of docetaxel on PCa cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199186/potential-of-redox-therapies-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
Elzbieta Miller, Lukasz Markiewicz, Jacek Kabzinski, Dominik Odrobina, Ireneusz Majsterek
Recently significant advances have been made to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders to provide real therapeutic benefits. There is evidence that persistent inflammation and oxidative stress are the crucial factors of ongoing cell damage in neurodegenerative complex etiology. The variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are the cause of both axonal and neuronal destruction, which is pathological hallmark of neurodegeneration. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress is currently one of the main neuroprotective strategies...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199185/age-and-sex-related-differences-in-normal-pituitary-gland-and-fossa-volumes
#6
Hrvoje Ivan Pecina, Tatjana Cicvara Pecina, Vlasta Vyroubal, Ivan Kruljac, Mario Slaus
This study investigates the influence of age and sex on the volumes of the pituitary fossa and gland in 91 males and 108 females from Croatia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the endocranium for complaints not related to the pituitary gland. Isometric 3DT1 MPRAGE and 3DT1 MPR sequences were obtained on 1.5. Tesla and analysed on ISSA software. The volumes were obtained from the sum of all the areas multiplied by the thickness of the section. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa for males was 1111...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199184/biphasic-organo-bioceramic-fibrous-composite-as-a-biomimetic-extracellular-matrix-for-bone-tissue-regeneration
#7
Sanjay Kumar, James A Stokes Iii, Derrick Dean, Christian Rogers, Elijah Nyairo, Vinoy Thomas, Manoj K Mishra
In bone tissue engineering, the organo-ceramic composite, electrospun polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) scaffold has the potential to support cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and homeostasis. Here, we report the effect of PCL/HA scaffold in tissue regeneration using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We characterized the scaffold by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and assessed its biocompatibility...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814598/associations-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-macular-degeneration
#8
Leonardo Biscetti, Elisa Luchetti, Andrea Vergaro, Paola Menduno, Carlo Cagini, Lucilla Parnetti
There is growing evidence of epidemiological, genetic, molecular and clinical links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Major interest in the relationship between AD and AMD has derived from the evidence that beta-amyloid, the main component of senile plaques, the hallmark of AD, is also an important component of drusen, the hallmark of AMD. This finding has a great potential in the present era of anti-amyloid agents for the treatment of AD. The connection between AD and AMD is also supported by the evidence that the two diseases share other pathophysiological factors, such as oxidative stress and neuroinflammation...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814597/three-dimensional-tumor-models-for-cancer-studies
#9
Patrice Penfornis, Krishna C Vallabhaneni, Amol V Janorkar, Radhika R Pochampally
It is well recognized that one of the major drawbacks of using traditional two dimensional cultures to model the living systems is inaccurately reflecting the physiological manner in which modulators, nutrients, oxygen, and metabolites are applied and removed. Moreover, the two dimensional culture system poorly reflects how different cell types interact with each other in the same microenvironment. Since the first global development of three dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques in the late 1960s, this last decade has seen an explosion of studies to promote 3D models in the fields of regenerative medicine and cancer...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814596/diagnosis-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Bhavesh Patel, Aashish Ahuja, Ghassan S Kassab, Carlos A Labarrere
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the most common long-term complications in patients following heart transplantation. Because of its irreversible nature, early detection is essential to impact progression. Thus, imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Major advancements in imaging and analysis are required to overcome the limitations of current techniques. Coronary angiography which is the standard method, presents low sensitivity in detection, especially at an early stage...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814595/particulate-beta-glucan-induces-early-and-late-phagosomal-maturation-in-murine-macrophages
#11
Nida Fatima, Tarun Upadhyay, Deepak Sharma, Rolee Sharma
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814594/cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-microvascular-arteriolar-capillaries-capioles-and-survival
#12
Carlos A Labarrere, Beate R Jaeger, Ghassan S Kassab
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a serious complication of heart transplantation in adults and children. Risk factors include human leukocyte antigen mismatches, number and duration of rejection episodes, type of immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, diabetes, cytomegalovirus infection, mode of donor brain death, donor age and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Endothelial injury and dysfunction in CAV are characterized by changes in adhesion molecules and up-regulation of major histocompatibility class II antigens followed by endothelial activation of complement C4d...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814593/design-synthesis-and-use-of-peptoids-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cancer
#13
Arijit Bhowmik, Malini Basu, Mrinal K Ghosh
Genetic variations in cancer cells are the underpinning for the development of resistance and failure of the treatment by current anticancer drugs. Thus, an ideal drug must overcome failure of treatment and prevents development of drug resistance. There are a wide variety of emerging, easy to prepare and cost effective group of drugs that are collectively called peptoids or peptidomimetics. These new set of drugs exhibit distinct features including protease resistance, are non-immunogenic, do not hinder functionality and backbone polarity, and can adopt different conformations...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814592/ros-mediated-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-tinospora-cordifolia-on-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Jamal Akhtar Ansari, Namrata Rastogi, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Abdul Rahman Khan, Ravi Thakur, Vikas Kumar Srivastava, Durga Prasad Mishra, Nishat Fatima, Homa Jilani Khan, Mohammad Waseem
The inevitable development of chemoresistance and unmanageable side effects are the major therapeutic challenges in management of breast cancer imposing an urgent need for identification of novel therapeutic agents. In the present investigation, we report anti-proliferative activity of chloroform fraction of Tinospora cordifolia (TcCF), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, on breast cancer cells. We found that TcCF inhibited growth of breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. More interestingly, we observed TcCF treatment increased intra-cellular ROS levels, altered expression of pro and anti-apoptotic genes, decreased colony formation ability and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814591/insight-into-role-of-microbiota-gut-brain-peptides-as-a-target-for-biotechnology-innovations
#15
Carina Elisei, Alinne Pereira de Castro
It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814590/phytochemicals-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#16
Juhi Rais, Asif Jafri, Sahabjada Siddiqui, Madhu Tripathi, Mohammad Arshad
Ovarian cancer ranks 5(th) among the most common gynecologic cancers and causes the highest mortality in females. Here, we discuss the role of a group of natural products that are being used in treatment and prevention of a host of cancers including ovarian cancer. Some plants and nutraceuticals and their polyphenolic constituents such as flavones, flavonoids, and antioxidants have shown cytotoxic effects on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. While phytochemicals do not harm normal cells, they have been found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells by virtue of inhibition of proliferation and/or induction of apoptosis, making them ideal in cancer therapeutics or as adjunct to conventional treatment regimens...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814589/er-chaperone-grp78-regulates-autophagy-by-modulation-of-p53-localization
#17
Mohd Kamil, Ejazul Haque, Safia Irfan, Saba Sheikh, Adria Hasan, Aamir Nazir, Mohtashim Lohani, Snober S Mir
GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) is a major Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) chaperone that plays a pivotal role in normal ER functioning. Its increased expression also works as an indicator of ER stress. Its anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic activity makes it an intriguing target to study the relationship between GRP78 and p53, which is also a major regulator of apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of Rotenone and Parathion on human lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) specifically with respect to ER stress and its association with different cell death pathways...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814588/protective-effect-of-tangeritin-in-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Ambreen Fatima, Saba Khanam, Rahul Rahul, Smita Jyoti, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra region of midbrain. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein into depositions known as lewy bodies. Till date there is no cure for PD but the limited number of medications may provide temporary relief from the PD symptoms. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols found in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids have been universally accepted. Tangeritin is a pentamethoxy flavone found in the peels of Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814587/novel-biogenic-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#19
Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Ashish Pathak, Alok Patel, Priya Vashisth, Harmeet Singh, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Vikas Pruthi
Here, we explored the medicinal uses of the novel biogenic silver nanoparticles of Pterospermum acerifolium (PaAgNPs) as a cost effective, eco-friendly, reducing and stabilizing compounds. The formation of PaAgNPs was confirmed by changing its color from colorless to yellowish brown, with maximum absorbance at 417 nm. FTIR spectrum of PaAgNPs suggested the presence of polycyclic compound similar to betulinic acid which plays as a capping agent and provided stability to PaAgNPs. FESEM and HRTEM images depicted the spherical shape of synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles with an average particle size range of 10-20 nm...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814586/exercise-intolerance-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-children
#20
Predrag B Minic, Aleksandar D Sovtic
Respiratory symptoms at rest or during exercise may restrain the physical capabilities required for normal motor and psychosocial development in children. The most frequent cause of exercise intolerance, apart from poor physical fitness, is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which may occur in some healthy children and in children with asthma. It is proposed that hyperventilation during exercise is associated with drying and cooling of airways, which can trigger a proinflammatory response. Several tests are used to confirm EIB, and the exercise-challenge test is the most common...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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