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Richard Trollope, Sue Johnson, Henry Ireland
Richard Trollope and Sue Johnson talk with Henry Ireland, Senior Editor about the recent approval of biosimilar rituximab (Truxima(®)) & the current state of biosimilar uptake across Europe Richard Trollope, Head of Biosimilars, Mundipharma International Limited, qualified as a biochemist before joining Wyeth's commercial operations, prior to its acquisition by Pfizer. Richard later joined Yamanouchi Pharmaceuticals (now Astellas Pharma). His fascination with oncology led him to join Mundipharma in Europe and after joining the company's UK arm (Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited), Richard began his journey in biosimilars...
May 19, 2017: Immunotherapy
Dong Jin, Xin Yu, Bing Chen, Zhitao Li, Jia Ding, Xiuyun Zhao, Gaofu Qi
AIM: Development of EGF and VEGF vaccines with high antigenicity for combined immunotherapy of EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer. METHOD:  EGF genes from mouse, human and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling, then a chimeric EGF was selected out by PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunization for combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with a previously constructed chimeric VEGF vaccine from shuffling. RESULTS: Combined vaccination with chimeric EGF and VEGF from shuffling could induce high titer of antibodies against EGF and VEGF to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, and improve the survival rate of mice with breast cancer...
May 16, 2017: Immunotherapy
Manuel Araújo, Dário Ligeiro, Luís Costa, Filipa Marques, Helder Trindade, José Manuel Correia, Candida Fonseca
Programmed cell death-1 protein (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that has gained popularity in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Inhibiting this checkpoint is known to enhance immune response, but is also known to diminish immune tolerance and to increase autoimmune toxicity. We discuss a case of rapid onset fulminant Type 1 diabetes induced by treatment with anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibody, nivolumab, in a patient with late-stage non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of previous diabetes but did reveal a high-risk genotype for Type 1 diabetes development (DR3-DQ2; DR4-DQ8)...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Weijie Ma, Xi Chen, Yufeng Yuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Yoke L Khoo, Swee H Cheah, Heilly Chong
AIM: To develop a fully bioactive humanized antibody from the chimeric rituximab for potential clinical applications using a relatively simpler and faster logical and bioinformatics approach. METHODS: From bioinformatics data, mismatched mouse amino acids in variable light and heavy chain amphipathic regions were identified and substituted with those common to human antibody framework. Appropriate synthetic DNA sequences inserted into vectors were transfected into HEK293 cells to produce the humanized antibody...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Francesca Aroldi, Alberto Zaniboni
Despite the identification of some efficient drugs for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer, this tumor remains one of the most lethal cancers and is characterized by a strong resistance to therapies. Pancreatic cancer has some unique features including the presence of a microenvironment filled with immunosuppressive mediators and a dense stroma, which is both a physical barrier to drug penetration and a dynamic entity involved in immune system control. Therefore, the immune system has been hypothesized to play an important role in pancreatic cancer...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Ziqi Tao, Shuang Li, Thomas E Ichim, Junbao Yang, Neil Riordan, Venkata Yenugonda, Ivan Babic, Santosh Kesari
The clinical success of checkpoint inhibitors has led to a renaissance of interest in cancer immunotherapies. In particular, the possibility of ex vivo expanding autologous lymphocytes that specifically recognize tumor cells has attracted much research and clinical trial interest. In this review, we discuss the historical background of tumor immunotherapy using cell-based approaches, and provide some rationale for overcoming current barriers to success of autologous immunotherapy. An overview of adoptive transfer of lymphocytes, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cell therapies is provided...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Ivan Bontempi, Pedro Fleitas, Alexia Poato, Miguel Vicco, Luz Rodeles, Estefania Prochetto, Gabriel Cabrera, Bruno Beluzzo, Diego Arias, Andrea Racca, Sergio Guerrero, Iván Marcipar
AIM: The development of vaccines against Trypanosoma cruzi remains in an exploratory stage. Despite several antigen candidates have been evaluated, a comparison among the performance of the immunogens cannot be carried out because the available reports differ in formulations and infection model. In this work, we compared the protective capacity of seven T. cruzi antigens in the same model of five new antigens and two well-established candidates. Materials & methods: We evaluated highly immunogenic proteins that contain tandem repeats (FRA [flagelar repetitive protein], Tc3, Tc6); enzymes involved in metabolic pathways critical for parasite survival (cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase and tryparedoxin peroxidase); and enzymes involved in parasite invasion (trans-sialidase [TS] and cruzipain)...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
Chiara Ciccarese, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Alessandra Modena, Francesco Massari, Matteo Brunelli, Emanuela Fantinel, Davide Bimbatti, Giulia A Zamboni, Walter Artibani, Giampaolo Tortora
AIM: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against PD-1/PD-L1 have recently entered the therapeutic algorithm of several solid tumors. Among treatment-related adverse events pulmonary toxicity (PT) is of particular interest. We assess the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PT in patients treated with anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs. RESULTS: 11 articles were selected. The incidence of any- and high-grade PT was low (2.9 and 1.0%, respectively). Compared with standard therapies, anti-PD-1 mAbs do not significantly increase the risk of both any-grade (RR: 2...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
David M Gill, Guru Sonpavde, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Jung-Soo Pyo, Guhyun Kang
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various immunotherapeutic agents and chemotherapy for unresected or metastatic melanomas. METHODS: We performed a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian statistical model to compare objective response rate (ORR) of various immunotherapies from 12 randomized controlled studies. RESULTS: The estimated ORRs of immunotherapy and chemotherapy were 0.224 and 0.108, respectively. The ORRs of immunotherapy in untreated and pretreated patients were 0...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Steven K Grossenbacher, Ethan G Aguilar, William J Murphy
Natural killer (NK) cells are potent antitumor effector cells of the innate immune system. Based on their ability to eradicate tumors in vitro and in animal models, significant enthusiasm surrounds the prospect of leveraging human NK cells as vehicles for cancer immunotherapy. While interest in manipulating the effector functions of NK cells has existed for over 30 years, there is renewed optimism for this approach today. Although T cells receive much of the clinical and preclinical attention when it comes to cancer immunotherapy, new strategies are utilizing adoptive NK-cell immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies and engineered molecules which have been developed to specifically activate NK cells against tumors...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Christi M Steendam, Floris Dammeijer, Joachim G J V Aerts, Robin Cornelissen
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a poor prognosis. In the era of immunotherapies, the field is rapidly changing, and the clinician needs to be aware of the current state and future perspectives of immunotherapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the current status of immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines and cellular therapies specifically in NSCLC. Last but not least, we will discuss rational combination strategies that are promising for the near future...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Pedro N Aguiar, Ramon Andrade De Mello, Peter Hall, Hakaru Tadokoro, Gilberto de Lima Lopes
AIM: The treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer has changed after the development of the immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although the most studied biomarker is PD-L1 expression, its clinical significance is still debatable. In this article, we show the updated survival analysis of all published data. METHODS: We searched in network and conference data sources for relevant clinical studies of immunotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer that assessed the PD-L1 expression even as an exploratory analysis...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Pablo Martínez, Josep María Del Campo
No definitive cure is known for recurrent, persistent or metastatic cervical carcinoma. Chemotherapy remains the standard of care, although available options are scarce and do not provide satisfactory results. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown a strong and prolonged response in several types of cancer, although only in a subset of patients. Defining the profile of the patients likely to benefit from such treatment is a subject of active research. Here, we present a case of a heavily pretreated patient with recurrent advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who had exhausted all available treatment options and showed a striking response to the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Arcangelo Liso, Francesca Massenzio, Fabrizio Stracci
AIM: Placenta specific 1 (PLAC1) is a protein rarely expressed in normal cells, except it is important for placental development, with a possible role in the establishment of the mother-fetus interface. The gene is also highly active in a wide variety of cancers and therefore, immunization with PLAC1 peptides could possibly be part of future immunotherapeutic strategies. We investigated whether vaccination against PLAC1 could induce infertility. MATERIALS & METHODS: We inoculated female mice with PLAC1 peptides, put them in mating, measured antibody response (ELISA assay) and checked, in immunohistochemistry, binding of the induced antibodies to the native antigen...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
Oren Levine, Tahira Devji, Feng Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Emelissa J Mendoza, Trina Racine, Gary P Kobinger
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the deadliest in history, prompting the evaluation of various drug candidates, including antibody-based therapeutics for the treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Prior to 2014, only convalescent blood products from EHF survivors had been administered to newly infected individuals as a form of treatment. However, during the recent outbreak, monoclonal antibody cocktails such as ZMapp, ZMAb and MB-003 were either tested in a human clinical safety and efficacy trial or provided to some based on compassionate grounds...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Anjie Zhen, Mayra A Carrillo, Scott G Kitchen
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for suppressing HIV and improving patients' quality of life, HIV persists in cART-treated patients and remains an incurable disease. Financial burdens and health consequences of lifelong cART treatment call for novel HIV therapies that result in a permanent cure. Cellular immunity is central in controlling HIV replication. However, HIV adopts numerous strategies to evade immune surveillance. Engineered immunity via genetic manipulation could offer a functional cure by generating cells that have enhanced antiviral activity and are resistant to HIV infection...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Wanning Wang, Guang-Yu Zhou, Wenlong Zhang
As an uncommon disease, primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PBM DLBCL) is rarely reported in recent years. In this paper, we discuss a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with fever and fatigue, and was diagnosed with PBM DLBCL. Although the initial diagnosis reflected a positive expression of CD20 by lymphoma cells, the course of disease appeared as a rapid remission but a quick recurrence, after eight cycles of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP). With the positive expression of CD20 in recurrent lesions, he received another four cycles of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy (R-GDP)...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
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