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Ian D Davis, Juliet Quirk, Leone Morris, Lauren Seddon, Tsin Yee Tai, Genevieve Whitty, Tina Cavicchiolo, Lisa Ebert, Heather Jackson, Judy Browning, Duncan MacGregor, Frederick Wittke, Gregor Winkels, Regina Alex, Lena Miloradovic, Eugene Maraskovsky, Weisan Chen, Jonathan Cebon
AIM: Pilot clinical trial of NY-ESO-1 (ESO) protein in ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant pulsed onto peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDC), to ascertain feasibility, evaluate toxicity and assess induction of ESO-specific immune responses. PATIENTS & METHODS: Eligible participants had resected cancers expressing ESO or LAGE-1 and were at high risk of relapse. PBDC were produced using CliniMACS(®)plus, with initial depletion of CD1c(+) B cells followed by positive selection of CD1c(+) PBDC...
February 10, 2017: Immunotherapy
Radomir Reszke, Jacek C Szepietowski
Biological drugs are pharmaceuticals manufactured using biotechnology methods that may target specific cytokines, cytokine receptors or surface molecules, and modulate the immunological response of the organism. Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease in which biological drugs have been evaluated and widely accepted in clinical practice. Secukinumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting IL-17A which has been extensively researched in clinical trials and registered in treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
February 6, 2017: Immunotherapy
Serena Delbue, Manola Comar, Pasquale Ferrante
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the α4 chain of the very late activating antigen 4 and α4β7 integrins, present on the leukocytes surface, used as monotherapy for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It substantially reduces relapse rate and the accumulation of disability, but its use is associated with a very adverse event, that is the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS, due to the lytic replication of the human polyomavirus JC...
December 22, 2016: Immunotherapy
Alexander E Giakoustidis, Dimitrios E Giakoustidis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) consists the main primary malignant tumor of the liver. There is an underlining liver cirrhosis mainly attributed to chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and other pathologic conditions. Liver transplantation consists a radical management, treating both cancer and cirrhosis. By introducing the Milan Criteria for liver transplantation in HCC patients there was a 5-year survival escalation. Even though there is a careful selection of patients with HCC for transplantation, recurrent disease is still high...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Jonathan E Cohen, Sharon Merims, Stephen Frank, Roni Engelstein, Tamar Peretz, Michal Lotem
The immune system is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth with curative potential, constituting in many eyes the future of antineoplastic therapy. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy in which autologous cancer-cognate lymphocytes are expanded and modified ex vivo and re-infused to combat the tumor. This review follows the evolvement of ACT and treatment protocols, focusing on unresolved dilemmas regarding this treatment while providing evidence for its effectiveness in refractory patients. Future directions of ACT are discussed, in particular with regard to genetic engineering of autologous cells, and the role of ACT in the era of checkpoint inhibitors is addressed...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Faiz Anwer, Al-Aman Shaukat, Umar Zahid, Muhammad Husnain, Ali McBride, Daniel Persky, Melissa Lim, Nida Hasan, Irbaz Bin Riaz
CD19, CD20 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy has shown promising results for the treatment of relapsed or refractory hematological malignancies. Best results have been reported in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with a complete response rate above 80%. Patients who received donor-derived CAR T cells for the relapsed malignancy after stem cell transplantation (allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant) were identified from the published trials. A total of 72 patients from seven studies were treated with donor-derived CAR T cells...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Manuel E Patarroyo, Martha P Alba, Rocío Rojas-Luna, Adriana Bermudez, Jorge Aza-Conde
A totally effective, antimalarial vaccine must involve sporozoite and merozoite proteins (or their fragments) to ensure complete parasite blocking during critical invasion stages. This Special Report examines proteins involved in critical biological functions for parasite survival and highlights the conserved amino acid sequences of the most important proteins involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes and merozoite invasion of red blood cells. Conserved high activity binding peptides are located in such proteins' functionally strategic sites, whose functions are related to receptor binding, nutrient and protein transport, enzyme activity and molecule-molecule interactions...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Jean-Marc Hoffmann, Michael Schmitt, Ming Ni, Anita Schmitt
Up to today treatment of leukemia patients remains challenging and different therapies have been developed, among them the generation of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines. DCs, highly specific for immunogenic cancer antigens, are generated either ex vivo or in vivo and boost the immune response against leukemic cells. Nevertheless, response rates are still heterogeneous and DC vaccines need improvement. New methods for generating DC vaccines have been summed up under the term 'next-generation DC vaccines'. They range from the analysis of human leukocyte antigen-ligandomes to immunogenic cell death inducers, from the production of viral vectors to mRNA transfection and finally from delivering peptides to DCs in vivo through either antibodies or cell-penetrating peptides...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Mehdi Najar, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have well-characterized properties and thus represent an attractive cell population for use in several therapeutic applications. Due to the limitations and inconveniences associated with classical sources of MSCs, the identification and characterization of alternative sources are required for safe and efficient cell therapy. The skin tissue is currently referred to as a reservoir of cells with therapeutically relevant functions. Historically considered biological waste, foreskin (FSK) is increasingly used to provide immunotherapeutic MSCs for medicinal products...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Leena Halim, Ana Catarina Parente-Pereira, John Maher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Alvaro Moreira, Waltraud Leisgang, Gerold Schuler, Lucie Heinzerling
AIM: The prognostic role of eosinophils in cancer has been controversial. Some entities such as gastrointestinal cancers show a better survival, while others such as Hodgkin's lymphoma a worse survival in patients with eosinophilia. Patients who exhibited an increase in eosinophils upon therapy with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab were shown to survive longer. We wanted to investigate whether eosinophilia is a prognostic marker in metastatic melanoma. METHODS: In total, 173 patients with metastatic melanoma from our data base (median age 60 years; n = 86 with immunotherapy, n = 87 without immunotherapy) were analyzed for eosinophil counts and survival over the course of 12 years...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Yiqun Zhou, Xiaolan Li, Yun Liu, Qiquan Sun
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a pivotal cause of long-term graft failure following renal transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibody reduction is essential to prevent AMR and improve long-term graft survival in renal transplant recipients. Although the number of early AMR episodes can be successfully controlled by attenuating de novo donor-specific antibodies, the long-term outcomes are unsatisfactory. Numerous studies have focused on new strategies to reverse AMR, but the available evidence suggests that maintenance immunosuppressive agents play important roles...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Adam J Adler, Payal Mittal, Joseph M Ryan, Beiyan Zhou, Jeffrey S Wasser, Anthony T Vella
Recent advances in cancer biology and genetics have fostered precision therapies targeting tumor-specific attributes. Immune-based therapies that elicit cytolytic T cells (CTL) specific for tumor antigens can provide therapeutic benefit to cancer patients, however, cure rates are typically low. This largely results from immunosuppressive mechanisms operating within the tumor microenvironment, many of which inflict metabolic stresses upon CTL. Conversely, immunotherapies can mitigate specific metabolic stressors...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Sonia Mannan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Immunotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Giandomenico Roviello, Laura Zanotti, Pierpaolo Correale, Angela Gobbi, Simon Wigfield, Alessandra Guglielmi, Chiara Pacifico, Daniele Generali
AIM: IL-2 is one of the first immunomodulating cytokines to be tested in the treatment of cancer patients. The effects of this agent in the treatment of solid tumors other than renal cancer and melanoma are poorly understood. MATERIALS & METHODS: We have carried out a meta-analysis of randomized studies. We fixed the response rate as the primary outcome. RESULTS: The pooled risk ratio for an objective response with IL-2 plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone was 1...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Mahmoud A Ali, Marwa Matboli, Marwa Tarek, Maged Reda, Kamal M Kamal, Mahmoud Nouh, Ahmed M Ashry, Ahmed Fath El-Bab, Hend A Mesalam, Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Omar Abdel-Rahman
Epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes contribute to carcinogenesis. Understanding the epigenetic and genetic components of tumor immune evasion is crucial. Few cancer genetic mutations have been linked to direct correlations with immune evasion. Studies on the epigenetic modulation of the immune checkpoints have revealed a critical interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation. Epigenetic modifiers can activate many silenced genes. Some of them are immune checkpoints regulators that turn on immune responses and others turn them off resulting in immune evasion...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Ksenia Bezverbnaya, Ashish Mathews, Jesse Sidhu, Christopher W Helsen, Jonathan L Bramson
Immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been advancing steadily in clinical trials. Since the ability of engineered T cells to recognize intended tumor-associated targets is crucial for the therapeutic success, antigen-binding domains play an important role in shaping T-cell responses. Single-chain antibody and T-cell receptor fragments, natural ligands, repeat proteins, combinations of the above and universal tag-specific domains have all been used in the antigen-binding moiety of chimeric receptors...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Laura C Cappelli, Jarushka Naidoo, Clifton O Bingham, Ami A Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Elina Timosenko, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Vincenzo Cerundolo
To evade immune destruction, tumors exploit a wide range of immune escape mechanisms, including the induction of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. This is mediated, in part, by amino acid degrading enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, arginase 1 and arginase 2, which have emerged as key players in the regulation of tumor-induced immune tolerance. Here we describe how the expression of tryptophan- and arginine-degrading enzymes by tumor and tumor-infiltrating cells can hamper cancer-specific immune responses, and discuss how this knowledge is being exploited to develop new strategies for cancer immunotherapy...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
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