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Peter Socrates Creticos, Oliver Pfaar
Sublingual tablet immunotherapy provides an attractive alternative approach to allergen immunotherapy, as the allergen is administered as a rapidly dissolving sublingual tablet. Part I of this two-part series on the ragweed sublingual tablet describes the dose-ranging clinical work, the safety studies and the clinical outcomes from the pivotal trials which provide clear evidence for statistically significant and clinically meaningful benefit in the treatment of patients suffering from ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis-conjunctivitis with or without milder asthma...
April 10, 2018: Immunotherapy
Songwe Fanuel, Saeideh Tabesh, Kobra Mokhtarian, Esmaeil Saroddiny, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Zahra Pourpak, Reza Falak, Gholam Ali Kardar
AIM: House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. This study was aimed at constructing and characterizing a recombinant fusion protein, DpTTDp, which was based on carrier-bound Der p 1-derived peptides for HDM allergen immunotherapy. METHODS: Using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we identified from Der p 1, a 34-mer hypoallergenic peptide. Two copies of the hypoallergen were then fused to a partial fragment of a tetanus toxoid molecule's N-and C terminus and expressed in Escherichia coli...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Pier L Zinzani, Nima Rezaei
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. The estimated deaths and new cases of NHL in the USA in 2018 have reached 19,910 and 74,680, respectively, with 5-year survival rate of 71%. Therapeutic interventions for NHL consist of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a potential alternative treatment for NHL that is currently used in different lines of treatment. Studies show that nuclear medicine physicians and radiation oncologists are not yet certain about the proper line for administration of RIT...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Keith A Sacco, Roshini S Abraham
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody used to treat hematologic and autoimmune diseases by depleting CD20-expressing B cells. Patients may develop hypogammaglobulinemia following treatment, with some demonstrating failure of B-cell recovery. The true frequency of hypogammaglobulinemia and/or impaired B-cell reconstitution post rituximab is unknown due to the lack of prospective studies in different patient cohorts. The clinical significance remains controversial; some patients have recurrent infections while others are relatively asymptomatic...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Brittany E Givens, Sean M Geary, Aliasger K Salem
Allergic asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent in the developed world, and many common allergens are capable of inducing allergic asthma responses, particularly in atopic individuals. Unmethylated CpG-oligonucleotide (ODN) therapy can shift the immune response to mitigate these allergic responses. Therapeutic and prophylactic delivery of soluble CpG-ODN in preclinical studies has shown promise in treating existing asthma and preventing allergic responses upon subsequent allergen exposure, respectively. However, when CpG-ODN is coupled with nanoparticles or self assembled into nanostructures, improved efficacy of CpG-ODN treatment for several common allergens is observed in preclinical studies and clinical trials...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Wenming Zhang, Chunrong Lin, Vanitha Sampath, Kari Nadeau
Although traditional pharmacological approaches improve outcomes in disease management for allergic asthma, these fail to modify the underlying immune responses. Allergen immunotherapy remains the only etiological therapy for the treatment of respiratory allergies for which clinical efficacy has been demonstrated through several well-controlled studies. In this review, we examine evidence from the past 5 years regarding the impact of allergen immunotherapy on allergic asthma to inform practitioners and stimulate further discussion and research...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Ratika Gupta, Jeffrey Balduzzi, Mark Davis-Lorton
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease resulting in unpredictable and potentially life-threatening subcutaneous and submucosal attacks mediated by the vasoactive peptide, bradykinin. HAE often presents within the first or second decade of life, with attacks increasing in both frequency and severity over time. First-line therapies exert their action by replacing C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) or via blocking the production or function of bradykinin. Cinryze® is a nanofiltered C1-INH, approved in Europe for the acute treatment, preprocedure prevention and routine prophylaxis of HAE attacks, and for routine prophylaxis of attacks in the USA...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Alessio Cortellini, Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti, Elisabetta Gambale, Francesco Atzori, Federica Zoratto, Alessandro Parisi, Davide Brocco, Annagrazia Pireddu, Katia Cannita, Daniela Iacono, Maria R Migliorino, Teresa Gamucci, Michele De Tursi, Tina Sidoni, Maria Tiseo, Maria Michiara, Anselmo Papa, Gesuino Angius, Silverio Tomao, Maria C Fargnoli, Clara Natoli, Corrado Ficorella
AIM: Tumors related to hereditary susceptibility seem to have an immunosensitive phenotype. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study, to investigate if family history of cancer, multiple neoplasms and early onset of cancer could be related to clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Activity and efficacy data of 211 advanced cancer patients (kidney, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelium, colorectal and HeN), treated at seven Italian centers with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, were analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Magdalena Vola, Amy Mónaco, Thais Bascuas, Geraldine Rimsky, Caroline Isabel Agorio, José Alejandro Chabalgoity, María Moreno
AIM: We evaluated a novel approach combining the use of attenuated Salmonella immunotherapy with a Toll-like receptor agonist, imiquimod, in B16F1 melanoma-bearing mice. MATERIALS & METHODS: B16F1 melanoma-bearing mice were daily treated with topical imiquimod in combination with one intratumoral injection of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LVR01. RESULTS: The combined therapy resulted in retarded tumor growth and prolonged survival...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Elie El Rassy, Ziad Bakouny, Fouad Aoun, Fadi G Haddad, Ghassan Sleilaty, Tarek Assi, Joseph Kattan
AIM: To determine which of the approved immune checkpoint inhibitors is the optimal treatment in metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. METHODS & MATERIALS: Only the pivotal Phase III trials of second-line metastatic urothelial bladder cancer were included in this network meta-analysis. RESULTS: This NMA included three pooled trials (NCT00315237, NCT02256436 and NCT02302807) of 1125 participants. Pembrolizumab was the only treatment with positive effect on overall survival compared with the best supportive care...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Sung-Woo Cho, Doo Hee Han, Jeong-Whun Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee
Allergen immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is generally recommended for treating seasonal AR in adults and children; however, questions remain in regard to AR treatment in relation to house dust mite (HDM). Due to heterogeneous formulations, different outcome reporting systems, and the lack of a standardized dose, HDM SLITs have not been standardized in published studies. Nevertheless, studies continuously report positive effects of HDM SLIT in AR, and HDM SLIT remains a treatment option for patients with HDM-induced allergic asthma that frequently co-exists with AR...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Stefan Zielen, Jennis Gabrielpillai, Eva Herrmann, Johannes Schulze, Ralf Schubert, Martin Rosewich
BACKGROUND: Ultra-short course pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is attractive to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Long term efficacy of MPL-AIT has not been evaluated. METHODS: 68 patients (age 16.75 ± 5.3 years) with allergic rhinitis to grass pollen were investigated. Group 1: 21 controls; Group 2: 19 after complete AIT, and Group 3: 28 with AIT and treatment cessation: 4 years range 3-6 years ago. RESULTS: The clinical symptoms (running nose, sneezing, conjunctivitis and the weekly overall score) were significantly reduced in patients group 2 and 3 compared with controls without AIT p < 0...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
O Pfaar, U Pieper-Fürst, R Mösges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Garry M Walsh
A marked heterogeneity is exhibited by asthma both clinically and at the molecular level with different phenotypes driven by diverse mechanistic pathways that require specifically targeted treatments. Biologics aimed at IL-4/13, IL-5 or IgE are proven or potentially effective treatments for patients with difficult to treat eosinophilic asthma. Importantly, it is now widely accepted that biologic-based therapies give significant clinical improvements in those patient populations where asthma phenotypes are taken into account...
March 20, 2018: Immunotherapy
Reynold A Panettieri, Millie Wang, Martin Braddock, Karin Bowen, Gene Colice
Tralokinumab, a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody, specifically neutralizes IL-13. The ATMOSPHERE clinical development program comprised four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and an open-label study that aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tralokinumab for the treatment of severe, uncontrolled asthma. The two pivotal trials (STRATOS 1 and STRATOS 2; NCT02161757 and NCT02194699) evaluated the efficacy and safety of tralokinumab, with STRATOS 1 identifying a subgroup most likely to demonstrate enhanced response to treatment...
March 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Nicolai Leuchten, Martin Aringer
Giant cell arteritis is a systemic vasculitis of large vessels, manifesting mainly as temporal arteritis or large vessel vasculitis of the aorta and its branches. Glucocorticoid therapy is essential and so far had to be continued over a period of 1.5-2 years, resulting in relevant morbidity through adverse effects. With the approval of tocilizumab, an effective glucocorticoid sparing option is now available. In two randomized controlled trials, a profound reduction of cumulative glucocorticoid dose, prolonged relapse-free remission and reduced number of adverse events in the treatment groups have been demonstrated...
March 5, 2018: Immunotherapy
Raimon Sanmartí, Virginia Ruiz-Esquide, Carla Bastida, Dolor Soy
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent immune-mediated chronic rheumatic disease and is associated with joint destruction and disability. Therapeutic strategies, including biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have improved the prognosis and quality of life of RA patients. Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptor licensed in 2009 that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in various adult RA populations. RA management guidelines and recommendations consider TCZ as one of the bDMARDS indicated after methotrexate or other conventional synthetic DMARDs and/or TNF inhibitors failure in adult RA...
March 2, 2018: Immunotherapy
Sizheng Zhao, Eduardo Mysler, Robert J Moots
Etanercept was the first specific anticytokine therapy approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its clinical efficacy and safety has been demonstrated by several clinical trials in early as well as established disease. Etanercept, along with other TNF inhibitors, have revolutionized management of RA and dramatically improved disease activity, function, quality of life and mortality for these patients. It is structurally distinct from other TNF inhibitors and thus has desirable profiles for immunogenicity, drug survival and infection rate...
February 27, 2018: Immunotherapy
Janet Roberts, Darren D O'Rielly, Proton Rahman
Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. The IL-23/IL-17 axis is an important pathway in the development of psoriatic disease. Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody that binds to the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, which, in turn, inhibits downstream signaling pathways. PSUMMIT-1 and PSUMMIT-2 are two pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating global improvement in primary and secondary outcomes including inhibition of radiographic progression. Therapeutic benefit of ustekinumab for synovitis appears independent of previous disease modifying antirheumatic disease or anti-TNF exposure...
February 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Mahnaz Seifi-Alan, Roshanak Shamsi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide common malignancy with poor prognosis. Several studies have aimed at identification of appropriate biomarkers for early detection of this cancer. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) as a novel group of tumor-associated antigens have been demonstrated to be expressed in HCC samples as well as peripheral blood samples from these patients but not in the corresponding adjacent noncancerous samples. Such pattern of expression has provided them an opportunity to be used as immunotherapeutic targets...
April 2018: Immunotherapy
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