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Pavan Tenneti, Mitesh J Board, Hani M Babiker
The standard of care for early hepatobiliary cancers (HBC) includes surgical resection. Liver transplantations or locoregional therapies are beneficial in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under certain circumstances. Systemic treatments have some benefit in advanced HBC, though long-term prognosis remains poor. We evaluated the role of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of HBCs through a systematic literature review. The recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 improved median survival in patients with local/metastatic HCC more strongly at high dose than at low dose (14...
June 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Stephanie K Dougan, Michael Dougan
Inhibition of the T-cell co-inhibitory checkpoint receptors or their ligands CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 using monoclonal antibodies has proven to be highly effective against many cancers. Yet many cancers remain resistant to checkpoint blockade, and durable remissions occur in only a minority of patients. Novel approaches to enhancing antitumor responses are thus necessary in order to expand the reach of these treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family comprises a diverse group of proteins, many of which have immunoregulatory roles...
May 29, 2018: Immunotherapy
Melvin Berger, Thomas Harbo, David R Cornblath, Orell Mielke
Subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) administration may be preferred over the intravenous route (IVIG) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) because it minimizes 'end of cycle' treatment-related fluctuations, reduces systemic adverse effects, improves convenience/quality of life and potentially lowers overall costs. Early reports of the use of highly concentrated SCIG preparations suggested they were effective and well-tolerated in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This was confirmed in the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra® study of 172 subjects randomized to receive maintenance therapy with placebo or one of two doses of IgPro20 (20% IgG stabilized with L-Proline) for 6 months...
May 16, 2018: Immunotherapy
Oliver Pfaar, Peter Socrates Creticos
Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been demonstrated to be both efficacious and safe for the treatment of respiratory allergies such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or allergic asthma. Based on the clinical documentation of SLIT ragweed tablets, they have gained marketing authorization in the USA by the US FDA in 2014 for adult patients. Following clinical data from (pivotal) multicenter Phase II and III trials as performed in the USA and Canada and real life experience after registration in 2014, SLIT ragweed tablets can be recommended as efficacious and safe treatment option with disease modifying potential when adequately indicated and performed...
May 16, 2018: Immunotherapy
María Claudia Ortega-López, Javier Garay, Mónica León Pinilla
AIM: Investigate efficacy, safety and quality of life of gammanorm® 16.5% (subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIG]) in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and safety and to lesser extent efficacy in autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS & METHODS: Medical records were extracted from 31 pediatric and 12 adult patients who received SCIG as part of the Personalized Program at University Children's Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. RESULTS: Mean SCIG dose was 28...
May 15, 2018: Immunotherapy
Gaetano Zizzo, Elisa Gremese, Gianfranco Ferraccioli
Abatacept (CTLA4Ig), a selective T-cell costimulation modulator, has been approved for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis patients with an inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but not for those with uncontrolled skin lesions, nor with axial involvement. In this review, we will try to interpret such a differential efficacy of abatacept on the psoriatic arthritis clinical domains, on the basis of its differential effectiveness on the diverse T-cell subsets at different sites...
May 8, 2018: Immunotherapy
Roni Weisshof, Maya Aharoni Golan, Olivia V Yvellez, David T Rubin
Janus kinases (JAK) play a major role in the immunologic pathways and specifically in signal transduction in inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, they can serve as a target for new therapeutic options. Tofacitinib is a novel, first-in-class, pan-Janus kinase inhibitor. It has been found to be effective and safe in the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. In this review, we will describe the drug's mechanism of action as well as the clinical evidence for its effectiveness in treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
April 27, 2018: Immunotherapy
Songwe Fanuel, Saeideh Tabesh, Kobra Mokhtarian, Esmaeil Saroddiny, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Zahra Pourpak, Reza Falak, Gholam Ali Kardar
AIM: House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. This study was aimed at constructing and characterizing a recombinant fusion protein, DpTTDp, which was based on carrier-bound Der p 1-derived peptides for HDM allergen immunotherapy. METHODS: Using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we identified from Der p 1, a 34-mer hypoallergenic peptide. Two copies of the hypoallergen were then fused to a partial fragment of a tetanus toxoid molecule's N-and C terminus and expressed in Escherichia coli...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Pier L Zinzani, Nima Rezaei
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. The estimated deaths and new cases of NHL in the USA in 2018 have reached 19,910 and 74,680, respectively, with 5-year survival rate of 71%. Therapeutic interventions for NHL consist of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a potential alternative treatment for NHL that is currently used in different lines of treatment. Studies show that nuclear medicine physicians and radiation oncologists are not yet certain about the proper line for administration of RIT...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Keith A Sacco, Roshini S Abraham
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody used to treat hematologic and autoimmune diseases by depleting CD20-expressing B cells. Patients may develop hypogammaglobulinemia following treatment, with some demonstrating failure of B-cell recovery. The true frequency of hypogammaglobulinemia and/or impaired B-cell reconstitution post rituximab is unknown due to the lack of prospective studies in different patient cohorts. The clinical significance remains controversial; some patients have recurrent infections while others are relatively asymptomatic...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Brittany E Givens, Sean M Geary, Aliasger K Salem
Allergic asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent in the developed world, and many common allergens are capable of inducing allergic asthma responses, particularly in atopic individuals. Unmethylated CpG-oligonucleotide (ODN) therapy can shift the immune response to mitigate these allergic responses. Therapeutic and prophylactic delivery of soluble CpG-ODN in preclinical studies has shown promise in treating existing asthma and preventing allergic responses upon subsequent allergen exposure, respectively. However, when CpG-ODN is coupled with nanoparticles or self assembled into nanostructures, improved efficacy of CpG-ODN treatment for several common allergens is observed in preclinical studies and clinical trials...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Wenming Zhang, Chunrong Lin, Vanitha Sampath, Kari Nadeau
Although traditional pharmacological approaches improve outcomes in disease management for allergic asthma, these fail to modify the underlying immune responses. Allergen immunotherapy remains the only etiological therapy for the treatment of respiratory allergies for which clinical efficacy has been demonstrated through several well-controlled studies. In this review, we examine evidence from the past 5 years regarding the impact of allergen immunotherapy on allergic asthma to inform practitioners and stimulate further discussion and research...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Ratika Gupta, Jeffrey Balduzzi, Mark Davis-Lorton
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease resulting in unpredictable and potentially life-threatening subcutaneous and submucosal attacks mediated by the vasoactive peptide, bradykinin. HAE often presents within the first or second decade of life, with attacks increasing in both frequency and severity over time. First-line therapies exert their action by replacing C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) or via blocking the production or function of bradykinin. Cinryze® is a nanofiltered C1-INH, approved in Europe for the acute treatment, preprocedure prevention and routine prophylaxis of HAE attacks, and for routine prophylaxis of attacks in the USA...
March 23, 2018: Immunotherapy
Alessio Cortellini, Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti, Elisabetta Gambale, Francesco Atzori, Federica Zoratto, Alessandro Parisi, Davide Brocco, Annagrazia Pireddu, Katia Cannita, Daniela Iacono, Maria R Migliorino, Teresa Gamucci, Michele De Tursi, Tina Sidoni, Maria Tiseo, Maria Michiara, Anselmo Papa, Gesuino Angius, Silverio Tomao, Maria C Fargnoli, Clara Natoli, Corrado Ficorella
AIM: Tumors related to hereditary susceptibility seem to have an immunosensitive phenotype. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study, to investigate if family history of cancer, multiple neoplasms and early onset of cancer could be related to clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Activity and efficacy data of 211 advanced cancer patients (kidney, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelium, colorectal and HeN), treated at seven Italian centers with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, were analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Magdalena Vola, Amy Mónaco, Thais Bascuas, Geraldine Rimsky, Caroline Isabel Agorio, José Alejandro Chabalgoity, María Moreno
AIM: We evaluated a novel approach combining the use of attenuated Salmonella immunotherapy with a Toll-like receptor agonist, imiquimod, in B16F1 melanoma-bearing mice. MATERIALS & METHODS: B16F1 melanoma-bearing mice were daily treated with topical imiquimod in combination with one intratumoral injection of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LVR01. RESULTS: The combined therapy resulted in retarded tumor growth and prolonged survival...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Elie El Rassy, Ziad Bakouny, Fouad Aoun, Fadi G Haddad, Ghassan Sleilaty, Tarek Assi, Joseph Kattan
AIM: To determine which of the approved immune checkpoint inhibitors is the optimal treatment in metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. METHODS & MATERIALS: Only the pivotal Phase III trials of second-line metastatic urothelial bladder cancer were included in this network meta-analysis. RESULTS: This NMA included three pooled trials (NCT00315237, NCT02256436 and NCT02302807) of 1125 participants. Pembrolizumab was the only treatment with positive effect on overall survival compared with the best supportive care...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Sung-Woo Cho, Doo Hee Han, Jeong-Whun Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee
Allergen immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is generally recommended for treating seasonal AR in adults and children; however, questions remain in regard to AR treatment in relation to house dust mite (HDM). Due to heterogeneous formulations, different outcome reporting systems, and the lack of a standardized dose, HDM SLITs have not been standardized in published studies. Nevertheless, studies continuously report positive effects of HDM SLIT in AR, and HDM SLIT remains a treatment option for patients with HDM-induced allergic asthma that frequently co-exists with AR...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Stefan Zielen, Jennis Gabrielpillai, Eva Herrmann, Johannes Schulze, Ralf Schubert, Martin Rosewich
BACKGROUND: Ultra-short course pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is attractive to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Long term efficacy of MPL-AIT has not been evaluated. METHODS: 68 patients (age 16.75 ± 5.3 years) with allergic rhinitis to grass pollen were investigated. Group 1: 21 controls; Group 2: 19 after complete AIT, and Group 3: 28 with AIT and treatment cessation: 4 years range 3-6 years ago. RESULTS: The clinical symptoms (running nose, sneezing, conjunctivitis and the weekly overall score) were significantly reduced in patients group 2 and 3 compared with controls without AIT p < 0...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
O Pfaar, U Pieper-Fürst, R Mösges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Hongxia Zhang, Xiaojun Xia
Commentary article based on the original research article by Li Y, He L, Dong H et al. Fever-inspired immunotherapy based on photothermal CpG nanotherapeutics: the critical role of mild heat in regulating tumor microenvironment. Advanced Science 1700805, 1-12 (2018).
June 2018: Immunotherapy
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