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March 2017: Immunotherapy
Cory A Brennick, Mariam M George, William L Corwin, Pramod K Srivastava, Hakimeh Ebrahimi-Nik
Over the last half century, it has become well established that cancers can elicit a host immune response that can target them with high specificity. Only within the last decade, with the advances in high-throughput gene sequencing and bioinformatics approaches, are we now on the forefront of harnessing the host's immune system to treat cancer. Recently, some strides have been taken toward understanding effective tumor-specific MHC I restricted epitopes or neoepitopes. However, many fundamental questions still remain to be addressed before this therapy can live up to its full clinical potential...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Elie El Rassy, Tarek Assi, Jamale Rizkallah, Joseph Kattan
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are actually being indicated more commonly in the management of chemoresistant cancer patients in view of their favorable toxicity profile in comparison to cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this paper, we report, to our knowledge, the first case suggestive of cytokine release syndrome secondary to pembrolizumab in a patient with metastatic lung squamous cell carcinoma. In view of the quick approvals of ICI and the absence of sufficient knowledge of the corresponding toxicity profile, the occurrence of any clinical or biological sign or symptom in patients receiving ICI requires further investigation...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Maria A Clavijo-Salomon, Patricia C Bergami-Santos, José Alexandre M Barbuto
With the enormous and growing interest in the clinical application of immunotherapy, we are currently facing the need to accurately monitor the immune function of cancer patients. Here, we describe changes in the immune status of a patient with metastatic type-2-papillary renal cell carcinoma, before and after surgery and subsequent immunotherapy with a dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrid vaccine. Through the accurate assessment of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) function, we show that Mo-DCs were freed from tumor-induced maturation blockage by tumor resection surgery, while Mo-DCs-tumor induced suppression and anergy were only interrupted by the vaccination treatment...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Samuel T Pellom, Ashutosh Singhal, Anil Shanker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Ruonan Chai, Beixing Liu, Feifei Qi
AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of the levels of IL-4, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TLSP) in patients with asthma and/or rhinitis, then do the simple verification in animals. METHODS: Levels of IL-4 IL-31, IL-33 and TLSP were detected by ELISA and real-time PCR in 64 asthma patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases), 64 rhinitis patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases), 64 asthma complicated with allergic rhinitis patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases) and 32 healthy controls...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Wan-Lun Yan, Kuan-Yin Shen, Chun-Yuan Tien, Yu-An Chen, Shih-Jen Liu
Cancer immunotherapy is a growing field. GM-CSF, a potent cytokine promoting the differentiation of myeloid cells, can also be used as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to elicit antitumor immunity. Additionally, GM-CSF is essential for the differentiation of dendritic cells, which are responsible for processing and presenting tumor antigens for the priming of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Some strategies have been developed for GM-CSF-based cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice: GM-CSF monotherapy, GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines, GM-CSF-fused tumor-associated antigen protein-based vaccines, GM-CSF-based DNA vaccines and GM-CSF combination therapy...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Kohei Tada, Yasuyuki Kurihara, Tomohiro Myojo, Fumitsugu Kojima, Yuya Ishikawa, Nobuyuki Yoshiyasu, Masaya Morimoto, Reiko Ito, Ryosuke Koyamada, Takuya Yamashita, Toru Bando, Shinichiro Mori, Yuji Heike
We report a case with suggestive antiprogrammed death-1 inhibitor-related pneumonitis in an endometrial cancer patient. This case presented with fever and cough after three dosages of nivolumab. Computed tomography initially showed centrilobular nodularities in a unilateral lung, which was compatible with aspiration pneumonia. However, diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGO) rapidly developed in the unilateral lung over 4 days despite the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Development of GGO was considered to be related to a nivolumab-mediated immune reaction...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Shokrollah Farrokhi, Narjes Abbasirad, Ali Movahed, Hossein Ali Khazaei, Masoud Pishjoo, Nima Rezaei
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors expressed on many cell types of innate immunity, recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbes. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a reduced microbial exposure in early childhood increases the susceptibility to allergic diseases due to deviation in development of the immune system. TLRs are key roles in the right and healthy direction of adaptive immunity with the induction of T-helper 2 toward Th1 immune responses and regulatory T cells...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Juan Bayo Calero, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona
Prognosis for patients with metastatic melanoma stays poor. Recent advances in the field of immuno-oncology increased treatment options for these patients and gave chances for obtaining partial and even complete response, prolonging survival in a subset of patients. Here, we describe a case of a 55-year-old man with multiple melanoma metastases into lungs who showed an extraordinary response to pembrolizumab used as a first-line treatment. The therapy was well tolerated, with no adverse reactions reported.
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Yan Hong Shang, Yu Zhang, Jing Hua Li, Peng Li, Xi Zhang
AIM: We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the overall incidence and risk of endocrine complications in cancer patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and oncology conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies. RESULTS: In comparison with chemotherapy or everolimus or cetuximab control, PD-1 inhibitors significantly increased the risk of all grade hypothyroidism (relative risk: 6.38; 95% CI: 3.78-10...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Hiroyuki Tada, Tsunao Kishida, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Hirotaka Konishi, Shuhei Komatsu, Atsushi Shiozaki, Daisuke Ichikawa, Kazuma Okamoto, Eigo Otsuji, Osam Mazda
AIM: The somatic cell reprogramming technology was applied to a novel and promising ex vivo immune-gene therapy strategy for cancer. To establish a novel ex vivo cytokine gene therapy of cancer using the somatic cell reprogramming procedures. METHODS: Mouse fibroblasts were converted into chondrocytes and subsequently transduced with IL-12 gene. The resultant IL-12 induced chondrogenic cells were irradiated with x-ray and inoculated into mice bearing CT26 colon cancer...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Daniel Wendling, Clément Prati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Amy J Petty, Yiping Yang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), representing most of the leukocyte population in solid tumors, demonstrate great phenotypic heterogeneity and diverse functional capabilities under the influence of the local tumor microenvironment. These anti-inflammatory and protumorigenic macrophages modulate the local microenvironment to facilitate tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we examine the origin of TAMs and the complex regulatory networks within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the polarization of TAMs toward a protumoral phenotype...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Alice Guazzelli, Emyr Bakker, Marija Krstic-Demonacos, Michael P Lisanti, Federica Sotgia, Luciano Mutti
Immunotherapy is an emerging therapeutic strategy with a promising clinical outcome in some solid tumors, particularly metastatic melanoma. One approach to immunotherapy is immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as blockage of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1. This special report aims to describe the state of clinical trials of tremelimumab in patients with unresectable malignant mesothelioma (MM) in particular with regard to the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability. Criticism and perspective of this treatment are also discussed...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Natural killer (NK) cells target the cells losing MHC-I in cancer, a phenotype that is similar to certain cells in immune-privileged sites whose milieus are separated from peripheral blood. NK cells are reported to be quantitatively and qualitatively different in immune-privileged sites from those cytotoxic ones in the blood. We hypothesize that cytotoxic and expanded NK cells induced in cancer patients may be turned into pathogenic factors if they enter immune-privileged microenvironments in susceptible individuals, such as, patients with brain cancer or a blood-brain barrier dysfunction...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Ian D Davis, Juliet Quirk, Leone Morris, Lauren Seddon, Tsin Yee Tai, Genevieve Whitty, Tina Cavicchiolo, Lisa Ebert, Heather Jackson, Judy Browning, Duncan MacGregor, Frederick Wittke, Gregor Winkels, Regina Alex, Lena Miloradovic, Eugene Maraskovsky, Weisan Chen, Jonathan Cebon
AIM: Pilot clinical trial of NY-ESO-1 (ESO) protein in ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant pulsed onto peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDC), to ascertain feasibility, evaluate toxicity and assess induction of ESO-specific immune responses. PATIENTS & METHODS: Eligible participants had resected cancers expressing ESO or LAGE-1 and were at high risk of relapse. PBDC were produced using CliniMACS(®)plus, with initial depletion of CD1c(+) B cells followed by positive selection of CD1c(+) PBDC...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Radomir Reszke, Jacek C Szepietowski
Biological drugs are pharmaceuticals manufactured using biotechnology methods that may target specific cytokines, cytokine receptors or surface molecules, and modulate the immunological response of the organism. Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease in which biological drugs have been evaluated and widely accepted in clinical practice. Secukinumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting IL-17A which has been extensively researched in clinical trials and registered in treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Alexander E Giakoustidis, Dimitrios E Giakoustidis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) consists the main primary malignant tumor of the liver. There is an underlining liver cirrhosis mainly attributed to chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and other pathologic conditions. Liver transplantation consists a radical management, treating both cancer and cirrhosis. By introducing the Milan Criteria for liver transplantation in HCC patients there was a 5-year survival escalation. Even though there is a careful selection of patients with HCC for transplantation, recurrent disease is still high...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
Jonathan E Cohen, Sharon Merims, Stephen Frank, Roni Engelstein, Tamar Peretz, Michal Lotem
The immune system is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth with curative potential, constituting in many eyes the future of antineoplastic therapy. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy in which autologous cancer-cognate lymphocytes are expanded and modified ex vivo and re-infused to combat the tumor. This review follows the evolvement of ACT and treatment protocols, focusing on unresolved dilemmas regarding this treatment while providing evidence for its effectiveness in refractory patients. Future directions of ACT are discussed, in particular with regard to genetic engineering of autologous cells, and the role of ACT in the era of checkpoint inhibitors is addressed...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
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