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Immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649876/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-nivolumab-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Shigeru Kawai, Takayo Ota, Hiroshi Tsukuda, Masahiro Fukuoka
A 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer presented with left eyelid ptosis and grade 4 creatine phosphokinase elevation after the 2nd cycle of nivolumab monotherapy. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in several trials. Dyspnea and muscle weakness developed rapidly with an acute exacerbation. She underwent plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin followed by treatment with low-dose prednisolone. She had gradual symptoms improvement...
June 26, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523951/launching-biosimilar-rituximab-an-industry-opinion-on-biosimilar-uptake-in-europe
#2
Richard Trollope, Sue Johnson, Henry Ireland
Richard Trollope and Sue Johnson talk with Henry Ireland, Senior Editor about the recent approval of biosimilar rituximab (Truxima(®)) & the current state of biosimilar uptake across Europe Richard Trollope, Head of Biosimilars, Mundipharma International Limited, qualified as a biochemist before joining Wyeth's commercial operations, prior to its acquisition by Pfizer. Richard later joined Yamanouchi Pharmaceuticals (now Astellas Pharma). His fascination with oncology led him to join Mundipharma in Europe and after joining the company's UK arm (Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited), Richard began his journey in biosimilars...
May 19, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509606/combined-immunotherapy-of-breast-cancer-with-egf-and-vegf-vaccines-from-dna-shuffling-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Dong Jin, Xin Yu, Bing Chen, Zhitao Li, Jia Ding, Xiuyun Zhao, Gaofu Qi
AIM: Development of EGF and VEGF vaccines with high antigenicity for combined immunotherapy of EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer. METHOD:  EGF genes from mouse, human and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling, then a chimeric EGF was selected out by PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunization for combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with a previously constructed chimeric VEGF vaccine from shuffling. RESULTS: Combined vaccination with chimeric EGF and VEGF from shuffling could induce high titer of antibodies against EGF and VEGF to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, and improve the survival rate of mice with breast cancer...
May 16, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653575/evaluation-of-a-new-protocol-for-wheat-desensitization-in-patients-with-wheat-induced-anaphylaxis
#4
Mahsa Rekabi, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Vahab Rekabi, Abolfazl Rajabi, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Sima Shokri, Narges Eslami, Javad Ahmadian, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Farhad Seif, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Nadieh Akbarpour, Mohammad Nabavi
AIM: New approaches such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) may be useful in IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to wheat. PATIENTS & METHODS: 12 patients underwent OIT protocol that comprised of two phases: the first with semolina flour and the second with spaghetti. Total and specific wheat IgE were assayed by ELISA before and after OIT and 18 months later. Skin prick tests were also performed. RESULTS: Patients successfully tolerated 50 g of wheat. The median baseline total IgE was decreased after up-dosing phase and decreased after follow-up (p < 0...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653574/combination-of-sorafenib-and-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-potential-regimen
#5
Yonghao Yang, Hongwei Lin, Lingdi Zhao, Yongping Song, Quanli Gao
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) exhibits primary resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As an immunogenic cancer, MRCC is relatively sensitive to immunotherapy such as that with cytokines, immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T-cell therapy. In addition, many targeted agents developed over the past decade exhibit greater efficacy than cytokines and have become the standard first-line therapy for MRCC. Several preclinical studies have shown that the targeted agent sorafenib possesses an immunomodulation function and may be suitable for combination with immunotherapy...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653573/the-future-of-immune-checkpoint-cancer-therapy-after-pd-1-and-ctla-4
#6
Andrew W Hahn, David M Gill, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal
The adaptive immune system plays an important role in eradicating malignant cells. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals to T cells though immune checkpoint receptors are involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Exploitation of immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1 and CTLA-4, with monoclonal antibodies has created impressive clinical responses. Many other immune checkpoint co-inhibitors and co-stimulators exist, including the B7 superfamily and tumor necrosis factor receptors superfamily. Here, we will examine co-inhibitors and co-stimulators beyond PD-1 and CTLA-4 that are being investigated in active clinical trials...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653572/regulatory-t-cells-as-a-target-in-anticancer-immunotherapy
#7
Tomohiro Enokida, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653571/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-and-the-future-of-preclinical-models-for-predicting-their-toxicities
#8
Anja Wegner
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy has achieved highly promising results in clinical trials, particularly in B-cell malignancies. However, reports of serious adverse events including a number of patient deaths have raised concerns about safety of this treatment. Presently available preclinical models are not designed for predicting toxicities seen in human patients. Besides choosing the right animal model, careful considerations must be taken in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell design and the amount of T cells infused...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653570/the-second-wave-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-tsunami-advance-challenges-and-perspectives
#9
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Gil Awada, Ahmad Awada
After the first wave of the tsunami of immune checkpoint inhibitors, 2016 was marked by the second wave, revealed by numerous US FDA approvals, publications and abstracts in relation with these drugs in different cancers and settings. First, we reported all new indications of anti-CTLA4, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 and anti-PDL1 approved by the FDA, the positive clinical trials published and the abstracts reported at important scientific meetings during 2016. Then, we highlighted the updates on debatable issues related to checkpoint inhibitors, since the first wave published in a previous issue...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653569/the-mutable-vaccine-for-mutable-viruses
#10
Marilia Cascalho, Samuel J Balin, Jeffrey L Platt
Mutable viruses, such as HIV, pose difficult obstacles to prevention and/or control by vaccination. Mutable viruses rapidly diversify in populations and in individuals, impeding development of effective vaccines. We devised the 'mutable vaccine' to appropriate the properties of mutable viruses that undermine conventional strategies. The vaccine consists of a DNA construct encoding viral antigen and regulatory sequences that upon delivery to B cells target the enzymatic apparatus of 'somatic hypermutation' causing the construct to mutate one million-times baseline rates and allowing production and presentation of antigen variants...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653568/time-to-leave-rigid-traditions-in-type-1-diabetes-research
#11
Johnny Ludvigsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595520/a-case-of-fulminant-type-1-diabetes-following-anti-pd1-immunotherapy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-patient
#12
Manuel Araújo, Dário Ligeiro, Luís Costa, Filipa Marques, Helder Trindade, José Manuel Correia, Candida Fonseca
Programmed cell death-1 protein (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that has gained popularity in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Inhibiting this checkpoint is known to enhance immune response, but is also known to diminish immune tolerance and to increase autoimmune toxicity. We discuss a case of rapid onset fulminant Type 1 diabetes induced by treatment with anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibody, nivolumab, in a patient with late-stage non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of previous diabetes but did reveal a high-risk genotype for Type 1 diabetes development (DR3-DQ2; DR4-DQ8)...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595519/t-cell-associated-immunotherapy-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Weijie Ma, Xi Chen, Yufeng Yuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595518/humanization-of-chimeric-anti-cd20-antibody-by-logical-and-bioinformatics-approach-with-retention-of-biological-activity
#14
Yoke L Khoo, Swee H Cheah, Heilly Chong
AIM: To develop a fully bioactive humanized antibody from the chimeric rituximab for potential clinical applications using a relatively simpler and faster logical and bioinformatics approach. METHODS: From bioinformatics data, mismatched mouse amino acids in variable light and heavy chain amphipathic regions were identified and substituted with those common to human antibody framework. Appropriate synthetic DNA sequences inserted into vectors were transfected into HEK293 cells to produce the humanized antibody...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595517/immunotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-present-and-future
#15
Francesca Aroldi, Alberto Zaniboni
Despite the identification of some efficient drugs for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer, this tumor remains one of the most lethal cancers and is characterized by a strong resistance to therapies. Pancreatic cancer has some unique features including the presence of a microenvironment filled with immunosuppressive mediators and a dense stroma, which is both a physical barrier to drug penetration and a dynamic entity involved in immune system control. Therefore, the immune system has been hypothesized to play an important role in pancreatic cancer...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595516/cellular-immunotherapy-of-cancer-an-overview-and-future-directions
#16
Ziqi Tao, Shuang Li, Thomas E Ichim, Junbao Yang, Neil Riordan, Venkata Yenugonda, Ivan Babic, Santosh Kesari
The clinical success of checkpoint inhibitors has led to a renaissance of interest in cancer immunotherapies. In particular, the possibility of ex vivo expanding autologous lymphocytes that specifically recognize tumor cells has attracted much research and clinical trial interest. In this review, we discuss the historical background of tumor immunotherapy using cell-based approaches, and provide some rationale for overcoming current barriers to success of autologous immunotherapy. An overview of adoptive transfer of lymphocytes, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cell therapies is provided...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595515/trans-sialidase-overcomes-many-antigens-to-be-used-as-a-vaccine-candidate-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#17
Ivan Bontempi, Pedro Fleitas, Alexia Poato, Miguel Vicco, Luz Rodeles, Estefania Prochetto, Gabriel Cabrera, Bruno Beluzzo, Diego Arias, Andrea Racca, Sergio Guerrero, Iván Marcipar
AIM: The development of vaccines against Trypanosoma cruzi remains in an exploratory stage. Despite several antigen candidates have been evaluated, a comparison among the performance of the immunogens cannot be carried out because the available reports differ in formulations and infection model. In this work, we compared the protective capacity of seven T. cruzi antigens in the same model of five new antigens and two well-established candidates. Materials & methods: We evaluated highly immunogenic proteins that contain tandem repeats (FRA [flagelar repetitive protein], Tc3, Tc6); enzymes involved in metabolic pathways critical for parasite survival (cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase and tryparedoxin peroxidase); and enzymes involved in parasite invasion (trans-sialidase [TS] and cruzipain)...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595514/the-incidence-and-relative-risk-of-pulmonary-toxicity-in-patients-treated-with-anti-pd1-pd-l1-therapy-for-solid-tumors-a-meta-analysis-of-current-studies
#18
Chiara Ciccarese, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Alessandra Modena, Francesco Massari, Matteo Brunelli, Emanuela Fantinel, Davide Bimbatti, Giulia A Zamboni, Walter Artibani, Giampaolo Tortora
AIM: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against PD-1/PD-L1 have recently entered the therapeutic algorithm of several solid tumors. Among treatment-related adverse events pulmonary toxicity (PT) is of particular interest. We assess the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PT in patients treated with anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs. RESULTS: 11 articles were selected. The incidence of any- and high-grade PT was low (2.9 and 1.0%, respectively). Compared with standard therapies, anti-PD-1 mAbs do not significantly increase the risk of both any-grade (RR: 2...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472906/which-checkpoint-inhibitor-an-embarrassment-of-riches-for-bladder-cancer
#19
David M Gill, Guru Sonpavde, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472905/immunotherapy-in-advanced-melanoma-a-network-meta-analysis
#20
Jung-Soo Pyo, Guhyun Kang
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various immunotherapeutic agents and chemotherapy for unresected or metastatic melanomas. METHODS: We performed a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian statistical model to compare objective response rate (ORR) of various immunotherapies from 12 randomized controlled studies. RESULTS: The estimated ORRs of immunotherapy and chemotherapy were 0.224 and 0.108, respectively. The ORRs of immunotherapy in untreated and pretreated patients were 0...
May 2017: Immunotherapy
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