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Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports

Malte Kircher, Constantin Lapa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a key player in a wide range of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases. Given the numerous implications of inflammatory processes in disease initiation and progression, functional imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) represent valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools in patient management. Since increased glucose metabolism is a hallmark of inflammation, PET using the radiolabeled glucose analog [(18)F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is the mainstay diagnostic test for nuclear imaging of (cardiac) inflammation...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Mathieu Rubeaux, Yuan Xu, Guido Germano, Daniel S Berman, Piotr J Slomka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is performed clinically worldwide to detect and monitor coronary artery disease (CAD). MPI allows an objective quantification of myocardial perfusion at stress and rest. This established technique relies on normal databases to compare patient scans against reference normal limits. In this review, we aim to introduce the process of MPI quantification with normal databases and describe the associated perfusion quantitative measures that are used...
August 2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Ljubica Mandic, Denise Traxler, Alfred Gugerell, Katrin Zlabinger, Dominika Lukovic, Noemi Pavo, Georg Goliasch, Andreas Spannbauer, Johannes Winkler, Mariann Gyöngyösi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial infarction (MI) leading to heart failure displays an important cause of death worldwide. Adequate restoration of blood flow to prevent this transition is a crucial factor to improve long-term morbidity and mortality. Novel regenerative therapies have been thoroughly investigated within the past decades. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium has shown beneficial effects on the prognosis of MI; therefore, the proangiogenic capacity of currently tested treatments is of specific interest...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Russell J Everett, David E Newby, Andrew Jabbour, Zahi A Fayad, Marc R Dweck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aortic valve disease is the most common form of heart valve disease in developed countries. Imaging remains central to the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with both aortic stenosis and regurgitation and has traditionally been performed with echocardiography. Indeed, echocardiography remains the cornerstone of aortic valve imaging as it is cheap, widely available and provides critical information concerning valve hemodynamics and ventricular function. RECENT FINDINGS: Whilst diagnostic in the vast majority of patients, echocardiography has certain limitations including operator variability, potential for measurement errors and internal inconsistencies in severity grading...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Kaitlin B Baron, Andrew D Choi, Marcus Y Chen
Coronary computed tomography (CT) allows for the acquisition of thin slices of the heart and coronary arteries, which can be used to detect and quantify coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite the proven clinical value in cardiac risk prognostication, there remain concerns regarding radiation exposure from CAC CT scans. There have been several recent technical advancements that allow for significant radiation dose reduction in CAC scoring. This paper reviews the clinical utility and recent literature in low radiation dose CAC scoring...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Bjarne Linde Nørgaard, Jonathon Leipsic, Bon-Kwon Koo, Christopher K Zarins, Jesper Møller Jensen, Niels Peter Sand, Charles A Taylor
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic and physiologic modeling now enables simulation of patient-specific hemodynamic parameters including blood velocity, pressure, pressure gradients, and FFR from standard acquired coronary computed tomography (CT) datasets...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Amir Ali Rahsepar, Armin Arbab-Zadeh
Diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease represent a major challenge to our health care systems affecting millions of patients each year. Until recently, the diagnosis of coronary artery disease could be conclusively determined only by invasive coronary angiography. To avoid risks from cardiac catheterization, many healthcare systems relied on stress testing as gatekeeper for coronary angiography. Advancements in cardiac computed tomography angiography technology now allows to noninvasively visualize coronary artery disease, challenging the role of stress testing as the default noninvasive imaging tool for evaluating patients with chest pain...
August 2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Thomas Buck, Björn Plicht
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is considered the most common valve disease with a prevalence of 2-3 % of significant regurgitation (moderate to severe and severe) in the general population. Accurate assessment of the severity of regurgitation was demonstrated to be of significant importance for patient management and prognosis and consequently has been widely recognized in recent guidelines. However, evaluation of severity of valvular regurgitation can be potentially difficult with the largest challenges presenting in cases of mitral regurgitation...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Lauren A Weber, Michael K Cheezum, Jason M Reese, Alison B Lane, Ryan D Haley, Meredith W Lutz, Todd C Villines
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have well-known limitations for the accurate assessment of individual cardiovascular risk. Unlike risk factor-based scores which rely on probabilistic calculations derived from population-based studies, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring, and carotid ultrasound allow for the direct visualization and quantification of subclinical atherosclerosis with the potential for a more accurate, personalized risk assessment and treatment approach. Among strategies used to guide preventive management, CAC scoring has consistently and convincingly outperformed traditional risk factors for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular events...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Patric Biaggi, Covadonga Fernandez-Golfín, Rebecca Hahn, Roberto Corti
Fusion of different imaging modalities has gained increasing popularity over the last decade. However, most fusions are done between static rather than dynamic images. In order to adequately visualize the complex three-dimensional structures of the beating heart, high-temporal and spatial image resolutions are mandatory. Currently, only the combination of transesophageal echocardiography with fluoroscopy allows real-time image fusion of high quality during structural heart disease (SHD) interventions. The use of markers as well as real-time image overlay greatly facilitates communication between SHD team members and potentially increases procedural success while reducing radiation dose and use of contrast...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Amardeep Ghosh Dastidar, Jonathan C L Rodrigues, Nauman Ahmed, Anna Baritussio, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) still remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Seven to fifteen percent of patients presenting with ACS have unobstructed coronary artery disease (CAD) on urgent angiography. Patients with ACS and unobstructed coronary arteries represent a clinical dilemma and their diagnosis and management is quite variable in current practice. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging with its unique non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization property has the potential to identify underlying etiologies and reach a final diagnosis...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Pieter G Raijmakers, Roel S Driessen, Niels van Royen, Alexander Nap, Albert C van Rossum, Paul Knaapen
Chronic total coronary occlusions (CTO) are documented in approximately one fifth of diagnostic invasive coronary angiographies (ICA). Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of CTO are challenging and are accompanied by higher complication and lower success rates in comparison with non-CTO PCI. Scrutinous evaluation of ischemia and viability to justify percutaneous revascularization is therefore of importance to select eligible patients for such a procedure. Furthermore, knowledge of the anatomical features of the occlusion may predict the chances of success of PCI CTO and could even guide the procedural strategy to augment the likelihood of recanalization...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Dustin M Thomas, Sanjay Divakaran, Todd C Villines, Khurram Nasir, Nishant R Shah, Ahmad M Slim, Ron Blankstein, Michael K Cheezum
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) have significant data supporting their ability to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) and classify patient risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Evidence regarding CAC use for screening has established an excellent prognosis in patients with no detectable CAC, and the ability to risk re-classify the majority of asymptomatic patients considered intermediate risk by traditional risk scores. While data regarding the ideal management of CAC findings are limited, evidence supports statin consideration in patients with CAC > 0 and individualized aspirin therapy accounting for CAD risk factors, CAC severity, and factors which increase a patient's risk of bleeding...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Yasumi Uchida, Yasuto Uchida
Novel imaging techniques using biomarkers have clarified the mechanisms of hitherto unanswered or misunderstood phenomena of coronary artery disease and enabled evaluation of myocardial blood and tissue fluid flows in vivo. Dye-staining coronary angioscopy using Evans blue (EB) as the biomarker can visualize fibrin and damaged endothelial cells, revealing that the so-called platelet thrombus is frequently a fibrin-rich thrombus; occlusive transparent fibrin thrombus, but not platelet thrombus, is not infrequently a cause of acute coronary syndrome; "fluffy" coronary luminal surface is caused by fibrin threads arising from damaged endothelial cells and is a residue of an occlusive thrombus after autolysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome without angiographically demonstrable coronary stenosis; and web or membrane-like fibrin thrombus is a cause of stent edge restenosis...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Simon Greulich, Vanessa M Ferreira, Erica Dall'Armellina, Heiko Mahrholdt
Several exogenous or endogenous factors can lead to inflammatory heart disease. Beside infectious myocarditis, other systemic inflammatory disorders such as sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), Churg-Strauss syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis can affect the myocardium. Myocardial inflammation may have a major impact on the outcome of these patients, resulting in sudden cardiac death, severe arrhythmias, or end-stage heart failure. The current gold standard for definite confirmation of inflammatory heart disease is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), but is invasive and suffers low sensitivity and specificity due to sampling errors...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Frank J Rybicki, Yu-Hsiang Juan, Sachin S Saboo, Elizabeth George, Rani Bhivasankar, Dimitrios Mitsouras
Iodinated contrast delivery is a key component of coronary CT angiography. However, the purpose of contrast delivery has been limited to morphology alone. Specifically, iodine opacification of the coronary lumen has been used to separate it from the coronary artery wall and lesions within the coronary arteries. Because contrast is delivered to the coronary arteries according to the coronary blood flow, there is flow information encoded within the contrast opacification which, depending on CT hardware and acquisition protocol, can be recognized in coronary CT angiography...
October 1, 2014: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Marcella Calfon Press, Farouc A Jaffer
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an inflammatory process that results in buildup of atherosclerosis, typically lipid-rich plaque in the arterial wall. Progressive narrowing of the vessel wall and subsequent plaque rupture can lead to myocardial infarction and death. Recent advances in intravascular fluorescence imaging techniques have provided exciting coronary artery-targeted platforms to further characterize the molecular changes that occur within the vascular wall as a result of atherosclerosis and following coronary stent-induced vascular injury...
October 1, 2014: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Adefolakemi Babatunde, Asim Rizvi, Quynh A Truong
Acute chest pain remains one of the most common patient presentations encountered in the emergency department. With the evolution of biomarkers and improvement in cardiac imaging there has been advancement in risk stratification of patients, but millions of dollars continue to be spent in the assessment of chest pain. Investigators have explored possible comparative alternatives to the traditional work up of chest pain. In this review, we will discuss the current state of biomarker use in the evaluation of acute chest pain...
July 2014: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Yoshiaki Ohyama, Gustavo J Volpe, Joao A C Lima
Noninvasive cardiac imaging plays a central role in the assessment of patients with heart failure at all stages of disease. Moreover, this role can be even more important for individuals with asymptomatic cardiac functional or structural abnormalities-subclinical myocardial disease - because they could have benefits from early interventions before the onset of clinical heart failure. In this sense, cardiac magnetic resonance offers not only precise global cardiac function and cardiac structure, but also more detailed regional function and tissue characterization by recent developing methods...
April 2014: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Muhammad Ali, Benjamin Pulli, John W Chen
Molecular imaging is highly advantageous as various insidious inflammatory events can be imaged in a serial and quantitative fashion. Combined with the conventional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear imaging, it helps us resolve the extent of ongoing pathology, quantify inflammation and predict outcome. Macrophages are increasingly gaining importance as an imaging biomarker in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages, recruited to the site of injury, internalize necrotic or foreign material...
April 1, 2014: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
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