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Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

Jiexi Yan, Xiaolei Liang, Chang Liu, Yuemei Cheng, Lanxia Zhou, Kairong Wang, Li Zhao
Multidrug-resistant bacteria are emerging as a global threat, making the search for alternative compounds urgent. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) became a promising hotspot due to their distinct action mechanism and possibility to be used as an alternative or complement to traditional antibiotics. However, gaining a better understanding about the relationship between antimicrobial peptides structure and its bioactivity is crucial for the development of next generation of antimicrobial agents. NK-2, derived from mammalian protein NK-lysin, has potent antitumor and bactericidal abilities...
October 17, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Zaichao Xu, Lixiang Cao, Jun Liu, Hongming Tan, Zujun Deng
Bacterial species of Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium in the intestinal tract have been used as probiotics. Selections for probiotic candidates by the culture-based approaches are time-consuming and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a new method based on sequencing strategies to select the probiotic Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. The Illumina-based sequencing strategies with different specific primers for Bacillus, Clostridium, and Bifidobacterium were applied to analyze diversity of the genera in goat feces...
October 16, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Sundru Manjulata Devi, Prakash M Halami
In the present study, 14 different plantaricin-encoding genes of pln loci were studied and compared to available sequences from public domain database of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Based upon the presence and absence of selected genes, pln locus was grouped into eight clusters. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis for seven genes has discriminated the complex pln locus into five types which includes WCFS1 (in Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum MCC 2976 and MCC 2974 and Lactobacillus paraplantarum MCC 2978), closely related to J51 (in Lb...
October 13, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Sandip Chattopadhyay, Shamima Khatun, Moulima Maity, Suryashis Jana, Hasina Perveen, Moumita Dash, Arindam Dey, Lipi Rani Jana, Pikash Pratim Maity
Managing arsenic intoxication with conventional metal chelators is a global challenge. The present study demonstrated the therapeutic role of probiotics against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and female reproductive dysfunction. Sodium arsenite-treated (1.0 mg/100 g body weight) Wistar female rats were followed up by a post-treatment of commercially available probiotic mixture in powder form (0.25 mg/100 g body weight) orally. Rats that experienced arsenic ingestion showed a significant lessening in the activities of uterine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of non-protein soluble thiol (NPSH) with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD)...
October 9, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Santosh Anand, Surajit Mandal, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
The present study was to investigate the utilization of prebiotics by Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 298 and its synergistic adversary effect on both population and production of heat-labile (LT) toxin in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). To select suitable prebiotic in order to enhance functionality, its utilization and the prebiotic activity score was examined. Antivirulence effect on ETEC was inspected by its inactivation rate and heat-labile toxin production in presence of different synbiotic combination...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Beata Sulik-Tyszka, Emilian Snarski, Magda Niedźwiedzka, Małgorzata Augustyniak, Thorvald Nilsen Myhre, Anna Kacprzyk, Ewa Swoboda-Kopeć, Marta Roszkowska, Jadwiga Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Wiesław Wiktor Jędrzejczak, Marta Wróblewska
Very few reports have been published to date on the bloodstream infections caused by Saccharomyces spp. in oncohaematological patients, and there are no guidelines on the use of this probiotic microorganism in this population. We describe the use of probiotic preparation containing Saccharomyces boulardii in a large group of oncohaematological patients. We retrospectively analysed the data from 32,000 patient hospitalisations at the haematological centre during 2011-2013 (including 196 haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients) in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Sandip K Wagh, Praful P Gadge, Manohar V Padul
Peptidase therapy is suggested to be effective to minimize gliadin toxicity in celiac disease (CD). Hence, present study deals with gliadin-hydrolysing peptidases. The efficient peptidase from the Bacillus tequilensis was purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and preparative electrophoresis. Analysis of in-solution and in-gel hydrolysis of gliadin using one and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed nearly complete hydrolysis of gliadin peptides after 180 min of incubation with B. tequilensis protease. Purified peptidase was found to be stable at acidic (pH 3...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
J W Hegarty, C M Guinane, R P Ross, C Hill, P D Cotter
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. Bacteriocin production has often been mooted as a desirable probiotic trait and, in specific cases, has been shown to promote probiotic survival within the gastrointestinal tract, contribute to the control of pathogens and even influence host gene expression in the gut. However, it is not clear what proportion of probiotic strains routinely found in commercial products produces bacteriocins, and additionally, it is not known which bacteriocins are produced most frequently...
September 23, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Girish K Amritha, G Venkateswaran
Phytate is a potent inhibitor of mineral absorption in humans occurring in plant-based food. Application of lactobacilli that produce phytate-degrading enzymes (phytases) to reduce phytate is an interesting yet a not much explored sector of research. Therefore, phytate dephosphorylation by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325 was evaluated. Cells at stationary phase showed phytase activity which was maximal at 24 h of growth. Glucose concentration and the type of phosphorous source in the media modulated the enzyme activity...
September 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Lorenzo Favaro, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov
Over the last decades, much research has focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins because of their potential as biopreservatives and their action against the growth of spoilage microbes. Meat and fermented meat products are prone to microbial contamination, causing health risks, as well as economic losses in the meat industry. The use of bacteriocin-producing LAB starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats. However, although bacteriocins can be produced during meat processing, their levels are usually much lower than those achieved during in vitro fermentations under optimal environmental conditions...
September 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Banafsheh Douzandeh-Mobarrez, Ashraf Kariminik
IL-17A is a cytokine which is produced by several immune and non-immune cells. The cytokine plays dual roles from protection from microbes and protection from pro-inflammatory based diseases to induction of the pro-inflammatory based diseases. The main mechanisms which lead to the controversial roles of IL-17A are yet to be clarified. Gut microbiota (GM) are the resident probiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts which have been introduced as a plausible regulator of IL-17A production and functions. This review article describes the recent information regarding the roles played by GM in determination of IL-17A functions outcome...
September 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Maryam Miraghajani, Nafiseh Zaghian, Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Maryam Mirlohi, Reza Ghiasvand
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one the most important complications of diabetes leading to end-stage renal disease. Dietary approaches have been considered to control of the kidney function deterioration among these patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of fortified soy milk with Lactobacillus plantarum A7 on renal function biomarkers in type 2 DN patients. Forty-eight DN subjects were attended to this parallel randomized trial study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing 200 mL/day probiotic soy milk in intervention group or soy milk in the control condition for 8 weeks...
September 8, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chang-Ho Kang, Takyong Gu, Jae-Seong So
We attempted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and selected several environmental stress-resistant isolates for the development of a future probiotic adjuvant for marine aquaculture. Twenty-six presumptive LAB isolates were extracted from oysters and screened (by an agar diffusion assay) for antimicrobial activity toward various pathogens: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus iniae, and Edwardsiella tarda. Eight isolates had an antibacterial activity toward V...
September 5, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Ciro Esposito, Agnese Roberti, Francesco Turrà, Mariapina Cerulo, Giovanni Severino, Alessandro Settimi, Maria Escolino
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), as a preventive measure of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children who underwent hypospadias repair and its clinical consequences on postoperative outcome, comparing the group treated with probiotics + antibiotics with two control groups (only antibiotics and antibiotics + placebo). We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study with three groups of patients (30 boys for each group) who underwent hypospadias repair in our unit from March 2016 to December 2016...
September 4, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chang-Ho Kang, Seul Hwa Han, YongGyeong Kim, Nam-Soo Paek, Jae-Seong So
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a very common infection worldwide that is mainly caused by Candida albicans. In a previous study, we showed that Lactobacillus salivarius MG242 has anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity. In this study, we investigated the potential of using L. salivarius MG242 for biocontrol of C. albicans. In line with the results from a spot overlay assay, MG242 inhibited the growth of C. albicans by 99.99 ± 0.01% in co-culture, suggesting that L. salivarius MG242 has the potential to be developed into a probiotic formula to treat or prevent VVC...
August 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Giorgio La Fata, Peter Weber, M Hasan Mohajeri
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host...
August 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Sonia Kulkarni, Saiful F Haq, Shalaka Samant, Sunilkumar Sukumaran
Loss in probiotic viability upon exposure to stressful storage and transport conditions has plagued the probiotic market worldwide. Lactobacillus acidophilus is an important probiotic that is added to various functional foods. It is known to be fairly labile and susceptible to temperature variations that it encounters during processing and storage which increases production cost. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that pre-exposure to sub-lethal doses of stress, particularly, temperature and pH, leads to improved survival of various probiotics when they subsequently encounter the same stress of a much greater magnitude...
August 30, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Hossein Keyvani, Narges Ghobadi
We performed a randomized double-blind controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of multistrain probiotic and acyclovir in women patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study were being treated with multistrain Lactobacillus brevis one vaginal capsule every 12 h and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice daily for 6 months. Of 53 patients who completed both treatment courses, no important differences were identified between acyclovir and probiotic for the primary and secondary efficacy endpoint, resolution of episode (hazard ratio, 0...
August 30, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Vadakedath Nithya, Maya Prakash, Prakash M Halami
The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP...
August 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Estefânia Fernandes Garcia, Amanda de Oliveira Araújo, Marciane Magnani, Maria Saarela, Evandro Leite de Souza
Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity...
August 23, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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