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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779481/environmental-surveillance-for-noroviruses-in-selected-south-african-wastewaters-2015-2016-emergence-of-the-novel-gii-17
#1
V V Mabasa, K D Meno, M B Taylor, Janet Mans
Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the predominant genotype associated with gastroenteritis pandemics and new strains emerge every 2-3 years. Between 2008 and 2011, environmental studies in South Africa (SA) reported NoVs in 63% of the sewage-polluted river water samples. The aim of this study was to assess whether wastewater samples could be used for routine surveillance of NoVs, including GII.4 variants. From April 2015 to March 2016, raw sewage and effluent water samples were collected monthly from five wastewater treatment plants in SA...
August 4, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687986/insights-from-a-systematic-search-for-information-on-designs-costs-and-effectiveness-of-poliovirus-environmental-surveillance-systems
#2
REVIEW
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Marita Zimmermann, Mark A Pallansch, Kimberly M Thompson
Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies...
July 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685229/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-norovirus-and-e-coli-in-sydney-rock-oysters-following-a-sewage-overflow-into-an-estuary
#3
Felicity Brake, Andreas Kiermeier, Tom Ross, Geoffrey Holds, Lina Landinez, Catherine McLeod
This paper reports a study of norovirus (NoV) GII distribution and persistence in Sydney rock oysters (SRO) (Saccostrea glomerata) located in an estuary after a pump station sewage overflow. SRO were strategically placed at six sites spanning the length of the estuary from the pump station to the sea. The spatial and temporal distribution of NoV, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in oysters was mapped after the contamination event. NoV GI and GII, HAV and E. coli were quantified for up to 48 days in oysters placed at six sites ranging from 0...
July 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674934/improvement-of-the-bag-mediated-filtration-system-for-sampling-wastewater-and-wastewater-impacted-waters
#4
Christine Susan Fagnant, Liliana Margarita Sánchez-Gonzalez, Nicolette A Zhou, Jill Christin Falman, Michael Eisenstein, Dylan Guelig, Byron Ockerman, Yifei Guan, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Yarrow S Linden, Nicola Koren Beck, Robyn Wilmouth, Evans Komen, Benlick Mwangi, James Nyangao, Jeffry H Shirai, Igor Novosselov, Peter Borus, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) plays an important role in the global program for eradication of wild PV. The bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) was first developed in 2014 and enhances PV surveillance when compared to the two-phase grab method currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the BMFS design was improved and tested for its usability in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface waters in Nairobi, Kenya. Modifications made to the BMFS included the size, color, and shape of the collection bags, the filter housing used, and the device used to elute the samples from the filters...
July 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674933/challenging-investigation-of-a-norovirus-foodborne-disease-outbreak-during-a-military-deployment-in-central-african-republic
#5
Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, M Boni, C Tong, P-A Renoult, A Fournier, L Joie, A Mérens, A Chesnay, S Perelle, A Fraisse, K Ambert-Balay, D Chal, S Larréché, R Michel, V Pommier de Santi
In January 2016, a large-scale outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among French armed forces deployed in the Central African Republic. Challenging investigations, conducted from France, made it possible to identify a norovirus genogroup II in both stool and food samples, confirming a norovirus foodborne disease outbreak. Infected food handler management is discussed.
July 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660425/the-fate-of-mengovirus-on-fiberglass-filter-of-air-handling-units
#6
Victor Bandaly, Aurélie Joubert, Pierre Le Cann, Yves Andres
One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective...
June 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#7
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
June 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639212/surveillance-of-noroviruses-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-occurrence-of-new-giv-genotype-in-clinical-and-wastewater-samples
#8
Julia Monassa Fioretti, Tulio Machado Fumian, Mônica Simões Rocha, Ingrid de Arruda Lucena Dos Santos, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Janaina de Souza Rodrigues, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years...
June 21, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#9
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616833/use-of-preservative-agents-and-antibiotics-for-increased-poliovirus-survival-on-positively-charged-filters
#10
Christine Susan Fagnant, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Liliana Sánchez-Gonzalez, Jill Christin Falman, Erika Karen Keim, Yarrow Linden, Alana Scheibe, Kilala Sayisha Barnes, Nicola Koren Beck, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008)...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550646/distribution-of-naturally-occurring-norovirus-genogroups-i-ii-and-iv-in-oyster-tissues
#11
Taruta Lowmoung, Kannika Pombubpa, Teerapong Duangdee, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Leera Kittigul
This study evaluated different tissues of naturally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) for the presence of noroviruses. RNA from digestive tissues, gills, and mantle of the oysters was extracted and tested for norovirus genogroup (G) I, GII, and GIV using RT-nested PCR. In spiking experiments with a known norovirus, GII.4, the detection limits were 2.97 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of digestive tissues, 2.62 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of gills, and 1.61 × 10(3) RNA copies/g of mantle. A total of 85 oyster samples were collected from a fresh market in Bangkok, Thailand...
May 26, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197972/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-retail-pork-products-marketed-in-canada
#12
Oksana Mykytczuk, Jennifer Harlow, Sabah Bidawid, Nathalie Corneau, Neda Nasheri
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181155/genetic-analysis-of-norovirus-strains-that-caused-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-among-river-rafters-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona
#13
Masaaki Kitajima, Brandon C Iker, Anne Magill-Collins, Marlene Gaither, James D Stoehr, Charles P Gerba
Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176295/critical-review-on-the-public-health-impact-of-norovirus-contamination-in-shellfish-and-the-environment-a-uk-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Francis Hassard, Jasmine H Sharp, Helen Taft, Lewis LeVay, John P Harris, James E McDonald, Karen Tuson, James Wilson, David L Jones, Shelagh K Malham
We review the risk of norovirus (NoV) infection to the human population from consumption of contaminated shellfish. From a UK perspective, risk is apportioned for different vectors of NoV infection within the population. NoV spreads mainly by person-to-person contact or via unsanitary food handling. NoV also enters the coastal zone via wastewater discharges resulting in contamination of shellfish waters. Typically, NoV persists in the marine environment for several days, with its presence strongly linked to human population density, wastewater discharge rate, and efficacy of wastewater treatment...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160215/the-impact-of-the-extreme-amazonian-flood-season-on-the-incidence-of-viral-gastroenteritis-cases
#15
Carmen Baur Vieira, Adriana de Abreu Corrêa, Michele Silva de Jesus, Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz, Peter Wyn-Jones, David Kay, Mônica Simões Rocha, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120262/re-emergence-of-a-gii-4-norovirus-sydney-2012-variant-equipped-with-gii-p16-rdrp-and-its-predominance-over-novel-variants-of-gii-17-in-south-korea-in-2016
#16
Yong Seon Choi, Eung Seo Koo, Man Su Kim, Jong Duck Choi, Yongsik Shin, Yong Seok Jeong
Noroviruses are major causative pathogen of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Of the seven genogroups of noroviruses suggested recently, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) had been the most common genotype identified in hospitalized patients in the last few decades. However, since the latter half of 2014, new variants of GII.17 have been reported as the main causes of outbreaks over GII.4 in East Asia and have also occurred in America and Europe. In this study, we monitored norovirus GII in coastal streams at South Gyeongsang province and South Jeolla province of South Korea from March 2015 to May 2016...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110375/hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-4-sequences-detected-in-sewage-from-treatment-plants-of-china
#17
Heng Li, Wei Li, Ruiping She, Liang Yu, Qiaoxing Wu, Jingling Yang, Fengjiao Hu, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Yue Zhao, Jingjing Mao
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage samples in Shen Zhen, China. Sewage samples were collected from 152 sewage plants including livestock sewage, domestic sewage and treated sewage from May to July of 2015. Two of 152 samples were HEV positive (1.32%) from the livestock sewage plants. Partial ORF2 fragments of HEV were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5.1. Blast and phylogenetic analyses showed that both of these two sequences belonged to HEV Genotype 4...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054332/prevalence-of-foodborne-viruses-in-mussels-in-southern-italy
#18
Giovanna Fusco, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Barbara Cioffi, Giovanni Ianiro, Pierpaolo Palermo, Marina Monini, Maria Grazia Amoroso
In this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) belonging to class A and class B mollusc-harvesting areas in the Campania region in southern Italy was evaluated. One hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription PCR during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups I and II), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040848/new-proof-of-concept-in-viral-inactivation-virucidal-efficacy-of-405%C3%A2-nm-light-against-feline-calicivirus-as-a-model-for-norovirus-decontamination
#19
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Elizabeth Graham, Michael McDonald, Chintamani D Atreya, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS-generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting, and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV)...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943110/food-borne-viruses-in-shellfish-investigation-on-norovirus-and-hav-presence-in-apulia-se-italy
#20
G La Bella, V Martella, M G Basanisi, G Nobili, V Terio, G La Salandra
Shellfish are an important vehicle for transmission of food-borne pathogens including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). The risks related with consumption of shellfish are greater if these products are eaten raw or slightly cooked. As molluscs are filter-feeding organisms, they are able to concentrate pathogens dispersed in the water. Data on shellfish viral contamination are therefore useful to obtain a background information on the presence of contamination in the environment, chiefly in shellfish production areas and to generate a picture of the epidemiology of viral pathogens in local populations...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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