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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206760/hepatitis-a-virus-hepatitis-e-virus-and-rotavirus-in-foods-of-animal-origin-traded-at-the-borders-of-brazil-argentina-and-uruguay
#1
Juliano Gonçalves Pereira, Vanessa Mendonça Soares, Fernanda Gil de Souza, Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Emanoelli Aparecida Rodrigues Dos Santos, Mário Celso Sperotto Brum, Andreia Henzel, Eduarda Hallal Duval, Fernando Rosado Spilki, Wladimir Padilha da Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and rotavirus (RV) in fresh and processed meat traded on the border of Brazil with Argentina and Uruguay. In total, 159 samples of raw and processed foods of animal origin were collected in Paso de los Libres, Argentina (n = 53 raw meat, n = 24 processed meat) and Rivera, Uruguay (n = 55 raw meat, n = 18 processed meat), or were seized by the Brazilian International Agricultural Surveillance System-VIGIAGRO (Brazil-Argentina border) (n = 8 raw meat, n = 1 bush meat)...
September 11, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167976/occurrence-and-genetic-diversity-of-human-cosavirus-in-sewage-in-italy
#2
G Bonanno Ferraro, P Mancini, M Divizia, E Suffredini, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, G La Rosa
Human Cosavirus (HCoSV) is a newly discovered virus whose role in human enteric diseases is still unknown. In Italy, the prevalence and genetic diversity of HCoSV are unexplored. One hundred forty-one raw sewage samples collected throughout Italy were screened for HCoSV by RT-nested PCR. HCoSV was detected in 25.5% of samples. Species A, C, and D, and a potentially new species were detected. Our results show a significant circulation and heterogeneity of HCoSV in Italy.
August 30, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151619/comprehensive-study-on-enteric-viruses-and-indicators-in-surface-water-in-kyoto-japan-during-2014-2015-season
#3
Akihiko Hata, Seiya Hanamoto, Masaru Ihara, Yuya Shirasaka, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Certain enteric viruses that are present in the water environment are potential risk factors of waterborne infections. To better understand the impact of viruses in water, both enteric viruses and their potential indicators should be comparatively investigated. In this study, occurrences of GI- and GII-noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV), rotavirus (RoV), Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enterovirus (EV), and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were quantitatively determined in surface water samples in Japan. Additionally, the genotype distribution of GI- and GII-NoVs was determined using a next-generation amplicon sequencing...
August 27, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128980/hepatitis-e-virus-detected-in-pork-products
#4
LETTER
Xianhui Hao, Wentao Cao, Jianwen Situ, Yongqin Zhao, Fen Huang, Wenhai Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094754/comparison-of-swab-sampling-methods-for-norovirus-recovery-on-surfaces
#5
Cheonghoon Lee, SungJun Park, Kyuseon Cho, Ju Eun Yoo, Sunghee Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) can be easily transferred by the contacts of humans or fomites. Swab sampling methods are widely used for recovering HuNoVs from small surfaces of various fomites or hard-to-reach locations and swab sampling conditions are important for the accurate detection of HuNoVs, which have a low infectious dose and relatively long persistence under a range of environmental conditions. Therefore, to determine the suitable swab sampling method for recovering HuNoVs from various surfaces, we evaluated combinations of four swab materials (cotton, microdenier polyester [a type of microfiber], polyurethane foam, and rayon) and three elution buffer solutions (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], PBS with 0...
August 9, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051235/molecular-detection-of-indigenous-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-from-tibetan-pigs-in-tibet-china
#6
Lihong Zhang, Shucheng Huang, Kun Li, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Xiong Jiang, Xiaole Tong, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Suozhu Liu, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Hepatitis E is an important public health concern throughout the world. Many molecular and serological surveys have reported the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of HEV in humans and animals worldwide. However, the genotypic characterization of this virus is very limited in Tibetan pigs. Hence, we aimed to explore the genotype of HEV, prevailing among Tibetan pigs in China. For this purpose, 253 bile samples of Tibetan pigs (free-range animals) were collected from different slaughterhouses during 2017-2018 and subsequently tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR...
July 26, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728977/successful-use-of-advertisement-pictures-to-assist-recall-in-a-food-borne-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-the-netherlands-2017
#7
Madelief Mollers, Ingeborg L A Boxman, Harry Vennema, Ife A Slegers-Fitz-James, Diederik Brandwagt, Ingrid H Friesema, Jenny S Batstra, Margreet J M Te Wierik
This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case-control study was initiated using a questionnaire and a list of pictures of soft fruit available at the supermarket chain involved. Twelve out of 13 cases consumed a specific frozen raspberry/blueberry product shown on the list (OR 46...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725931/the-impact-of-winter-relocation-and-depuration-on-norovirus-concentrations-in-pacific-oysters-harvested-from-a-commercial-production-site
#8
Agnieszka Rupnik, Sinéad Keaveney, Leon Devilly, Francis Butler, William Doré
Oysters contaminated with norovirus present a significant public health risk when consumed raw. In this study, norovirus genome copy concentrations were determined in Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) harvested from a sewage-impacted production site and then subjected to site-specific management procedures. These procedures consisted of relocation of oysters to an alternative production area during the norovirus high-risk winter periods (November to March) followed by an extended depuration (self-purification) under controlled temperature conditions...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722006/a-one-year-survey-of-norovirus-in-uk-oysters-collected-at-the-point-of-sale
#9
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696605/assessment-of-the-virological-quality-of-marine-and-running-surface-waters-in-nw-greece-a-case-study
#10
Petros Kokkinos, Hera Karayanni, Alexandra Meziti, Ria Feidaki, Spyros Paparrodopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis
The virological quality of surface marine and running water samples collected from Igoumenitsa gulf and Kalamas river (NW Greece) was assessed from October 2012 to September 2013. Sampling sites were exposed to different land and/or anthropogenic effects. Seawater samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations (new harbor, old harbor, wastewater treatment plant outlet, protected Natura area, Drepano beach). Viral targets included human adenoviruses (hAdVs), as index human viruses, while noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were also studied...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679283/persistence-of-viruses-by-qpcr-downstream-of-three-effluent-dominated-rivers-in-the-western-united-states
#11
Hannah P Sassi, Koiya D Tuttle, Walter Q Betancourt, Masaaki Kitajima, Charles P Gerba
This study was designed to determine the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) signal persistence of viruses in three effluent-dominated streams. Samples were collected from the effluent outfall of three wastewater treatment plants in the Western United States and downstream at different locations. All samples were tested for the presence of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), adenoviruses, norovirus GI and GII, Aichi virus, and enteroviruses using qPCR. PMMoV was detected most frequently in 54/57 (94...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623595/hiding-in-plain-sight-it-s-time-to-investigate-other-possible-transmission-routes-for-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-in-developed-countries
#12
REVIEW
Nicola J King, Joanne Hewitt, Anne-Marie Perchec-Merien
Historically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ("autochthonous") cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564721/evaluation-of-bacterial-contamination-as-an-indicator-of-viral-contamination-in-a-sedimentary-aquifer-in-uruguay
#13
P Gamazo, M Victoria, J F Schijven, E Alvareda, L F L Tort, J Ramos, L Burutaran, M Olivera, A Lizasoain, G Sapriza, M Castells, R Colina
In Uruguay, groundwater is frequently used for agricultural activities, as well as for human consumption in urban and rural areas. As in many countries worldwide, drinking water microbiological quality is evaluated only according to bacteriological standards and virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In this work, the incidence of human viral (Rotavirus A, Norovirus GII, and human Adenovirus) and bacterial (total and thermotolerant coliform and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) contamination in groundwater in the Salto district, Uruguay, as well as the possible correlation between these groups of microorganisms, was studied...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492902/screening-of-ready-to-eat-meat-products-for-hepatitis-e-virus-in-switzerland
#14
Dominik Moor, Marianne Liniger, Andreas Baumgartner, Richard Felleisen
Seroprevalence data for pig herds suggested that there must be a relevant reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Switzerland. To know more about the viral presence in ready-to-eat meat products, we screened pork liver sausages and raw meat sausages from the Swiss retail market for the presence of HEV. Testing was performed with a detection method where the virus extraction step was optimized. As for the performance of the improved method, the mean recovery rate for the mengovirus process control was 24.4%, whereas for HEV-inoculated sample matrices between 10...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907902/an-environmental-surveillance-in-uruguay-reveals-the-presence-of-highly-divergent-types-of-human-enterovirus-species-c-and-a-high-frequency-of-species-a-and-b-types
#15
Andrés Lizasoain, Fernanda M Burlandy, Matías Victoria, Luis F López Tort, Edson E da Silva, Rodney Colina
Information about Human Enterovirus circulation in Uruguay is scarce. The aim of this study was to generate the first description about their circulation in the country through the study of sewage samples collected before and after the switch from Oral Poliovirus Vaccine to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine. Viruses were concentrated by an adsorption-elution to a negatively charged membrane, and real-time quantitative PCR and qualitative PCR methods were used to detect, quantify, and characterize enteroviruses...
June 16, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948963/poliovirus-and-other-enteroviruses-from-environmental-surveillance-in-italy-2009-2015
#16
Roberto Delogu, Andrea Battistone, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Stefano Fontana, Concetta Amato, Karen Cristiano, Sabine Gamper, Josef Simeoni, Rita Frate, Laura Pellegrinelli, Sandro Binda, Licia Veronesi, Roberta Zoni, Paolo Castiglia, Andrea Cossu, Maria Triassi, Francesca Pennino, Cinzia Germinario, Viviana Balena, Antonella Cicala, Pietro Mercurio, Lucia Fiore, Carlo Pini, Paola Stefanelli
Within the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of the detected viruses...
June 12, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468537/hepatitis-a-virus-disinfection-in-water-by-solar-photo-fenton-systems
#17
David Polo, Irene García-Fernández, Pilar Fernández-Ibañez, Jesús L Romalde
This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of solar photo-Fenton systems for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in water. The effect of solar irradiance, dark- Fenton reaction and three different reactant concentrations (2.5/5, 5/10 and 10/20 mg/L of Fe2+ /H2 O2 ) on the photo-Fenton process were tested in glass bottle reactors (200 mL) during 6 h under natural sunlight. Disinfection kinetics were determined both by RT-qPCR and infectivity assays. Mean water temperatures ranged from 25 to 27...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442296/first-report-of-the-presence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-scottish-harvested-shellfish-purchased-at-retail-level
#18
Zoe O'Hara, Claire Crossan, John Craft, Linda Scobie
Shellfish samples (n = 310) purchased from local supermarkets were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by nested RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, 2.9% of samples tested positive for the presence of HEV. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV sequences revealed all as being genotype 3 HEV. This is the first report of the detection of HEV in commercially sold shellfish in Scotland. These findings may encourage further research that will help address the gaps in the knowledge in respect to foodborne transmission of HEV in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417429/effect-of-the-shellfish-proteinase-k-digestion-method-on-norovirus-capsid-integrity
#19
Jérémie Langlet, Laetitia Kaas, Dawn Croucher, Joanne Hewitt
Norovirus outbreaks are associated with the consumption of contaminated shellfish, and so efficient methods to recover and detect infectious norovirus in shellfish are important. The Proteinase K digestion method used to recover norovirus from shellfish, as described in the ISO 15216, would be a good candidate but its impact on the virus capsid integrity and thus infectivity was never examined. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Proteinase K digestion method, and of the heat treatment component of the method alone, on norovirus (genogroups I and II) and MS2 bacteriophage capsid integrity...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#20
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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