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Food and Environmental Virology

Jill C Falman, Christine S Fagnant-Sperati, Alexandra L Kossik, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Effective surveillance of human enteric viruses is critical to estimate disease prevalence within a community and can be a vital supplement to clinical surveillance. This study sought to evaluate simple, effective, and inexpensive secondary concentration methods for use with ViroCap™ filter eluate for environmental surveillance of poliovirus. Wastewater was primary concentrated using cartridge ViroCap filters, seeded with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), and then concentrated using five secondary concentration methods (beef extract-Celite, ViroCap flat disc filter, InnovaPrep® Concentrating Pipette, polyethylene glycol [PEG]/sodium chloride [NaCl] precipitation, and skimmed-milk flocculation)...
January 5, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Aksara Thongprachum, Sayaka Takanashi, Salwa Mohd Mostafa, Hiroyuki Saito, Kazi Selim Anwar, Akiko Nomura, Sk Azimul Hoque, Rokeya Begum, Ummay Nasrin Sultana, Tania Hossain, Pattara Khamrin, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Global burden of acute viral gastroenteritis remains high, particularly in developing countries including Bangladesh. Sewage water (SW) is an important node to monitor enteric pathogens both in the environment and among the population. Analysis of SW in Dhaka city deems crucially important because a large number of urban-city dwellers live in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, under a constant threat of precarious sewerage system. In this study, we collected raw SW from five locations of Dhaka city every month from June 2016 to May 2017...
January 3, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Takayuki Miura, Arisa Gima, Michihiro Akiba
We investigated the present forms of genogroup II norovirus and group A rotavirus in surface water used for drinking water production. River water samples (N = 15) collected at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) monthly from June 2017 to August 2018 were fractioned by filtration through 10- and 0.45-μm-pore-size membranes, and viruses present in suspended and dissolved forms were quantitatively detected. Norovirus GII was present in > 10-μm- and 0.45-10-μm-suspended and dissolved forms with detection rates of 33%, 60%, and 87%, respectively...
December 17, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Oikwathaile Onosi, Nicole S Upfold, Michael D Jukes, Garry A Luke, Caroline Knox
Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) has a worldwide distribution and is associated with gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analyzed for the presence of AiV-1 using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Amplification and sequencing of the 3CD and VP1 genomic regions followed by phylogenetic analysis using selected genome sequences revealed the presence of AiV-1, genotype B. The results highlight the importance of further screening to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of this clinically important virus in South Africa...
December 17, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Nadine Althof, Eva Trojnar, Thomas Böhm, Sabine Burkhardt, Anja Carl, Matthias Contzen, Jochen Kilwinski, Steffen Mergemeier, Dominik Moor, Dietrich Mäde, Reimar Johne
Increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases are currently recognized in many European countries. The zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 mainly circulates in domestic pigs and wild boars, and can be transmitted to humans via consumption of insufficiently heated meat or meat products produced from those animals. Here, a detailed protocol for detection of HEV RNA in meat products is provided, which is based on the method originally described by Szabo et al. (Intl J Food Microbiol 215:149-156, 2015). It consists of a TRI Reagent®/chloroform-based food matrix homogenization, a silica bead-based RNA extraction and a real-time RT-PCR-based RNA detection...
November 21, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Nathan Dunkin, Caroline Coulter, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
With increasing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant in water treatment processes, this study determined PAA treatment effects on human noroviruses (hNoVs) genotype I (GI) and genotype II (GII) as well as effects on bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV) in relation to pH. Across all pH conditions, PAA achieved between 0.2 and 2.5 log10 reduction of hNoVs over 120 min contact time in buffer solution as measured by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). The PAA treatments produced similar RT-qPCR reductions of MS2 and MNV, in the range of 0...
November 15, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Laetitia Kaas, Leslie Ogorzaly, Gaël Lecellier, Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Jérémie Langlet
Lack of wastewater treatment efficiency causes receiving seawaters and bivalve molluscan shellfish to become contaminated, which can lead to public health issues. Six wastewater samples, five seawater samples and three batches of giant clams from Tahiti (French Polynesia) were investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, but also if present, for the diversity, infectivity and integrity of human adenoviruses (HAdV). Enteroviruses (EV), sapoviruses (SaV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV) were detected in all wastewater samples...
November 13, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
G Bonanno Ferraro, P Mancini, M Divizia, E Suffredini, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, G La Rosa
Human Cosavirus (HCoSV) is a newly discovered virus whose role in human enteric diseases is still unknown. In Italy, the prevalence and genetic diversity of HCoSV are unexplored. One hundred forty-one raw sewage samples collected throughout Italy were screened for HCoSV by RT-nested PCR. HCoSV was detected in 25.5% of samples. Species A, C, and D, and a potentially new species were detected. Our results show a significant circulation and heterogeneity of HCoSV in Italy.
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Akihiko Hata, Seiya Hanamoto, Masaru Ihara, Yuya Shirasaka, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Certain enteric viruses that are present in the water environment are potential risk factors of waterborne infections. To better understand the impact of viruses in water, both enteric viruses and their potential indicators should be comparatively investigated. In this study, occurrences of GI- and GII-noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV), rotavirus (RoV), Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enterovirus (EV), and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were quantitatively determined in surface water samples in Japan. Additionally, the genotype distribution of GI- and GII-NoVs was determined using a next-generation amplicon sequencing...
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Xianhui Hao, Wentao Cao, Jianwen Situ, Yongqin Zhao, Fen Huang, Wenhai Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Cheonghoon Lee, SungJun Park, Kyuseon Cho, Ju Eun Yoo, Sunghee Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) can be easily transferred by the contacts of humans or fomites. Swab sampling methods are widely used for recovering HuNoVs from small surfaces of various fomites or hard-to-reach locations and swab sampling conditions are important for the accurate detection of HuNoVs, which have a low infectious dose and relatively long persistence under a range of environmental conditions. Therefore, to determine the suitable swab sampling method for recovering HuNoVs from various surfaces, we evaluated combinations of four swab materials (cotton, microdenier polyester [a type of microfiber], polyurethane foam, and rayon) and three elution buffer solutions (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], PBS with 0...
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Lihong Zhang, Shucheng Huang, Kun Li, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Xiong Jiang, Xiaole Tong, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Suozhu Liu, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Hepatitis E is an important public health concern throughout the world. Many molecular and serological surveys have reported the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of HEV in humans and animals worldwide. However, the genotypic characterization of this virus is very limited in Tibetan pigs. Hence, we aimed to explore the genotype of HEV, prevailing among Tibetan pigs in China. For this purpose, 253 bile samples of Tibetan pigs (free-range animals) were collected from different slaughterhouses during 2017-2018 and subsequently tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR...
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Roberto Delogu, Andrea Battistone, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Stefano Fontana, Concetta Amato, Karen Cristiano, Sabine Gamper, Josef Simeoni, Rita Frate, Laura Pellegrinelli, Sandro Binda, Licia Veronesi, Roberta Zoni, Paolo Castiglia, Andrea Cossu, Maria Triassi, Francesca Pennino, Cinzia Germinario, Viviana Balena, Antonella Cicala, Pietro Mercurio, Lucia Fiore, Carlo Pini, Paola Stefanelli
Within the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of the detected viruses...
December 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Juliano Gonçalves Pereira, Vanessa Mendonça Soares, Fernanda Gil de Souza, Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Emanoelli Aparecida Rodrigues Dos Santos, Mário Celso Sperotto Brum, Andreia Henzel, Eduarda Hallal Duval, Fernando Rosado Spilki, Wladimir Padilha da Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and rotavirus (RV) in fresh and processed meat traded on the border of Brazil with Argentina and Uruguay. In total, 159 samples of raw and processed foods of animal origin were collected in Paso de los Libres, Argentina (n = 53 raw meat, n = 24 processed meat) and Rivera, Uruguay (n = 55 raw meat, n = 18 processed meat), or were seized by the Brazilian International Agricultural Surveillance System-VIGIAGRO (Brazil-Argentina border) (n = 8 raw meat, n = 1 bush meat)...
September 11, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Madelief Mollers, Ingeborg L A Boxman, Harry Vennema, Ife A Slegers-Fitz-James, Diederik Brandwagt, Ingrid H Friesema, Jenny S Batstra, Margreet J M Te Wierik
This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case-control study was initiated using a questionnaire and a list of pictures of soft fruit available at the supermarket chain involved. Twelve out of 13 cases consumed a specific frozen raspberry/blueberry product shown on the list (OR 46...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Agnieszka Rupnik, Sinéad Keaveney, Leon Devilly, Francis Butler, William Doré
Oysters contaminated with norovirus present a significant public health risk when consumed raw. In this study, norovirus genome copy concentrations were determined in Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) harvested from a sewage-impacted production site and then subjected to site-specific management procedures. These procedures consisted of relocation of oysters to an alternative production area during the norovirus high-risk winter periods (November to March) followed by an extended depuration (self-purification) under controlled temperature conditions...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Petros Kokkinos, Hera Karayanni, Alexandra Meziti, Ria Feidaki, Spyros Paparrodopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis
The virological quality of surface marine and running water samples collected from Igoumenitsa gulf and Kalamas river (NW Greece) was assessed from October 2012 to September 2013. Sampling sites were exposed to different land and/or anthropogenic effects. Seawater samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations (new harbor, old harbor, wastewater treatment plant outlet, protected Natura area, Drepano beach). Viral targets included human adenoviruses (hAdVs), as index human viruses, while noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were also studied...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Hannah P Sassi, Koiya D Tuttle, Walter Q Betancourt, Masaaki Kitajima, Charles P Gerba
This study was designed to determine the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) signal persistence of viruses in three effluent-dominated streams. Samples were collected from the effluent outfall of three wastewater treatment plants in the Western United States and downstream at different locations. All samples were tested for the presence of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), adenoviruses, norovirus GI and GII, Aichi virus, and enteroviruses using qPCR. PMMoV was detected most frequently in 54/57 (94...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Nicola J King, Joanne Hewitt, Anne-Marie Perchec-Merien
Historically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ("autochthonous") cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus...
September 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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