Read by QxMD icon Read

Food and Environmental Virology

Blandine Fauvel, Christophe Gantzer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Leslie Ogorzaly
The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays...
October 22, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Estefanía J Valverde, Irene Cano, Dolores Castro, Richard K Paley, Juan J Borrego
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infections have been described in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup), two of the most important marine fish species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In this study, a rapid, specific, and sensitive detection method for LCDV genotype VII based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed. The LAMP assay, performed using an apparatus with real-time amplification monitoring, was able to specifically detect LCDV genotype VII from clinically positive samples in less than 12 min...
October 5, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
P Kokkinos, I Kozyra, S Lazic, K Söderberg, P Vasickova, M Bouwknegt, S Rutjes, K Willems, R Moloney, A M de Roda Husman, A Kaupke, E Legaki, M D'Agostino, N Cook, C-H von Bonsdorff, A Rzeżutka, T Petrovic, L Maunula, I Pavlik, A Vantarakis
This study condenses data acquired during investigations of the virological quality of irrigation water used in production of fresh produce. One hundred and eight samples of irrigation water were collected from five berry fruit farms in Finland (1), the Czech Republic (1), Serbia (2), and Poland (1), and sixty-one samples were collected from three leafy green vegetable farms in Poland, Serbia, and Greece. Samples were analyzed for index viruses of human or animal fecal contamination (human and porcine adenoviruses, and bovine polyoma viruses), and human pathogenic viruses (hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, and noroviruses GI/GII)...
October 5, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Satu Oristo, Maria Rönnqvist, Mika Aho, Ava Sovijärvi, Tuula Hannila-Handelberg, Ari Hörman, Simo Nikkari, Paula M Kinnunen, Leena Maunula
This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9...
September 30, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
M Iaconelli, M Muscillo, S Della Libera, M Fratini, L Meucci, M De Ceglia, D Giacosa, G La Rosa
Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated...
September 28, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Jian Pu, Shinobu Kazama, Takayuki Miura, Nabila Dhyan Azraini, Yoshimitsu Konta, Hiroaki Ito, You Ueki, Ermaya Eka Cahyaningrum, Tatsuo Omura, Toru Watanabe
Norovirus GII.3, GII.4, and GII.17 were detected using pyrosequencing in sewage and oysters in January and February 2015, in Japan. The strains in sewage and oyster samples were genetically identical or similar, predominant strains belonging to GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 lineage. This is the first report of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in oysters.
September 19, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Cécile Le Mennec, Sylvain Parnaudeau, Myriam Rumebe, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Jean-Côme Piquet, S Françoise Le Guyader
A production area repeatedly implicated in oyster-related gastroenteritis in France was studied for several months over 2 years. Outbreaks and field samples were analyzed by undertaking triplicate extractions, followed by norovirus (NoV) detection using triplicate wells for genomic amplification. This approach allowed us to demonstrate that some variabilities can be observed for samples with a low level of contamination, but most samples analyzed gave reproducible results. At the first outbreak, implicated oysters were collected at the beginning of the contamination event, which was reflected by the higher NoV levels during the first month of the study...
September 9, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Megan C Niederwerder, Raymond R R Rowland
Since the appearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the late 1980s, the virus has become endemic throughout the world, with only the countries of Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand historically free of PRRS virus. Biosecurity is maintained largely through restrictions on the importation of pigs and semen. The risk for a PRRSV outbreak via the legal importation of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive countries remains controversial. However, examination of the historical record shows that countries retained a PRRSV-negative status during the importation of more than 500,000 tons of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive trading partners...
September 2, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Duangnapa Intharasongkroh, Pattaratida Sa-Nguanmoo, Supansa Tuanthap, Thanunrat Thongmee, Ausanee Duang-In, Sirapa Klinfueng, Jira Chansaenroj, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Sunchai Payungporn, Chintana Chirathaworn, Yong Poovorawan
Swine is an economically important livestock, yet pork consumption and close contact with pigs are associated with the risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Limited data on the prevalence of HEV in Southeast Asia have mainly examined farm animals. To investigate the potential zoonotic transmission of HEV from dietary consumption of pork and variety meats (i.e., offal or organ meats), we obtained 1090 liver, 559 pork meat, and 556 intestine samples from fresh markets in the Bangkok metropolitan area between November 2014 and February 2015...
August 31, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Sara A Burt, Jorg Veltman, Renate Hakze-van der Honing, Heike Schmitt, Wim H M van der Poel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Laura Y Sifuentes, Sonia L M Fankem, Kelly Reynolds, Akrum H Tamimi, Charles P Gerba, David Koenig
The purpose of this study was to validate the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for evaluating hygiene intervention effectiveness in reducing viral dissemination in an office environment. The bacterial virus MS-2 was used to evaluate two scenarios, one where the hand of an individual was contaminated and another where a fomite was contaminated. MS-2 was selected as a model because its shape and size are similar to many human pathogenic viruses. Two separate experiments were conducted, one in which the entrance door push plate was inoculated and the other in which the hand of one selected employee was inoculated...
August 18, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
W Randazzo, R Aznar, G Sánchez
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is extensively used to inactivate different type of pathogens through the use of photosensitizers (PS). Curcumin has been identified as an excellent natural photosensitizer with some potential applications in the food industry. The aim of this study was to assess the antiviral activity of photoactivated curcumin on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV). Initially, different concentrations of curcumin (13.5-1358 µM) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca...
August 5, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba
The genus Orthoreovirus contains nonenveloped viruses with double-stranded gene segments encased in a double-layered icosahedral capsid shell. These features constitute major determinants of virion stability in the environment and virion resistance against physical and chemical agents. Reovirus (ReoV) is the general term most commonly used for all virus strains that infect humans and nonhuman animals. Several studies have demonstrated the frequent occurrence of ReoV in wastewaters and natural waters, including surface and ground waters from different geographical areas...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
José Carlos Parada-Fabián, Patricia Juárez-García, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez
Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
F H Heldt, R Staggmeier, J S Gularte, M Demoliner, A Henzel, F R Spilki
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of food and waterborne hepatitis in human beings. HEV circulates among human populations and swine herds, and may be found in water contaminated by swine feces, as well as in pork. In the present study, 68 sediment samples and 250 water samples collected from the Sinos River tributaries, as well as 50 samples of pork products (pâté and blood sausage) marketed in the Sinos River watershed region, Brazil, were tested for the presence of HEV genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing was used for detection and characterization of HEV genomes...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Takayuki Miura, Sébastien Lhomme, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Yvonnick Guillois, Elizabeth Couturier, Jacques Izopet, Florence Abranavel, Françoise S Le Guyader
A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Miguel F Varela, Annalise S Hooper, Enrique Rivadulla, Jesús L Romalde
The prevalence and genetical diversity of human Sapovirus were studied during an 18-month study in Ría do Burgo, an estuary nearby the city of A Coruña in Galicia (NW Spain). Sapovirus was detected using RT-qPCR procedure in 30 out of 80 mussel samples (37.5 %). Quantifications ranged from 2.2 × 10(3) to 2.1 × 10(5) RNA copies per gram of digestive tissue. Detection occurred mainly during the cold and rainy seasons of the period studied. Sequences obtained could be distributed into 5 genotypes being the most abundant GI...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Faith E Bartz, Domonique Watson Hodge, Norma Heredia, Anna Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Luisa Solís, Lee-Ann Jaykus, Santos Garcia, Juan S Leon
Somatic coliphages were quantified in 459 produce and environmental samples from 11 farms in Northern Mexico to compare amounts of somatic coliphages among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples across the production steps on farms. Rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, tomatoes, and the hands of workers, soil, and water were collected during 2011-2012 at four successive steps on each farm, from the field before harvest through the packing facility, and assayed by FastPhage MPN Quanti-tray method...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Sara A Burt, Jorg Veltman, Renate Hakze-van der Honing, Heike Schmitt, Wim H M van der Poel
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Emilio D'Ugo, Stefania Marcheggiani, Ilaria Fioramonti, Roberto Giuseppetti, Roberto Spurio, Karim Helmi, Delphine Guillebault, Linda K Medlin, Ivan Simeonovski, Bas Boots, Ulrich Breitenbach, Latife Koker, Meric Albay, Laura Mancini
The transmission of water-borne pathogens typically occurs by a faecal-oral route, through inhalation of aerosols, or by direct or indirect contact with contaminated water. Previous molecular-based studies have identified viral particles of zoonotic and human nature in surface waters. Contaminated water can lead to human health issues, and the development of rapid methods for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a valuable tool for the prevention of their spread. The aims of this work were to determine the presence and identity of representative human pathogenic enteric viruses in water samples from six European countries by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and to develop two quantitative PCR methods for Adenovirus 41 and Mammalian Orthoreoviruses...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"