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Food and Environmental Virology

Marc-Antoine Sanchez, Simon-Pierre Corcostégui, Charles-Arnaud De Broucker, Olivier Cabre, Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, Sylvie Perelle, Katia Ambert-Balay, Vincent Pommier de Santi
In February 2016, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a French military unit located in Poitiers, France. Attack rate was of 34% (103/300). A case-control study identified association between illness and cake consumption. Stool samples were tested positive for Norovirus GII.17 for one patient and one post-symptomatic food worker (FW). The FW presented vomiting one day before cake preparation. The NoV strain was probably spread through food worker hand contact. Prevention of Norovirus foodborne outbreaks implies new guidelines for FWs management in France and Europe...
December 1, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Adrien Brié, Ravo Razafimahefa, Julie Loutreul, Aurélie Robert, Christophe Gantzer, Nicolas Boudaud, Isabelle Bertrand
Heat and free chlorine are among the most efficient and commonly used treatments to inactivate enteric viruses, but their global inactivation mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. These treatments have been shown to affect at least the capsid proteins of viruses and thus may affect the surface properties (i.e. electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity) of such particles. Our aim was to study the effects of heat and free chlorine on surface properties for a murine norovirus chosen as surrogate for human norovirus...
November 25, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
G La Rosa, S Della Libera, M Brambilla, C Bisaglia, G Pisani, A R Ciccaglione, R Bruni, S Taffon, M Equestre, M Iaconelli
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy...
November 16, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Mojgan Yazdi, Masoud Yavarmanesh, Masumeh Bahreini, Mohebbat Mohebbi
The aim of this research was to preliminary track fecal source male-specific F(+)RNA coliphages including human and animals in lettuce. At first, two published virus extraction procedures of ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation were compared using DAL assay for determining the recovery efficiency in lettuce spiked artificially with three concentrations (10(2), 10(4), 10(6) pfu/100 ml) of MS2 coliphage. The results showed that PEG precipitation had the highest recovery in which the recovery efficiency at the spiked level of 10(6) pfu/100 ml was 16...
November 4, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Dong Joo Seo, Changsun Choi
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause foodborne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Because HuNoV culture systems have not been developed thus far, no available medicines or vaccines preventing infection with HuNoVs exist. Some herbal extracts were considered as phytomedicines because of their bioactive components. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 29 edible herbal extracts against the norovirus surrogates murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) were examined. FCV was significantly inhibited to 86...
November 2, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Eva Emmoth, Jordi Rovira, Andreja Rajkovic, Elena Corcuera, Diego Wilches Pérez, Irene Dergel, Jakob R Ottoson, Frederik Widén
Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log10 reductions of ≥4.2, ≥5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively...
October 25, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Blandine Fauvel, Christophe Gantzer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Leslie Ogorzaly
The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays...
October 22, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Estefanía J Valverde, Irene Cano, Dolores Castro, Richard K Paley, Juan J Borrego
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infections have been described in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup), two of the most important marine fish species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In this study, a rapid, specific, and sensitive detection method for LCDV genotype VII based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed. The LAMP assay, performed using an apparatus with real-time amplification monitoring, was able to specifically detect LCDV genotype VII from clinically positive samples in less than 12 min...
October 5, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
P Kokkinos, I Kozyra, S Lazic, K Söderberg, P Vasickova, M Bouwknegt, S Rutjes, K Willems, R Moloney, A M de Roda Husman, A Kaupke, E Legaki, M D'Agostino, N Cook, C-H von Bonsdorff, A Rzeżutka, T Petrovic, L Maunula, I Pavlik, A Vantarakis
This study condenses data acquired during investigations of the virological quality of irrigation water used in production of fresh produce. One hundred and eight samples of irrigation water were collected from five berry fruit farms in Finland (1), the Czech Republic (1), Serbia (2), and Poland (1), and sixty-one samples were collected from three leafy green vegetable farms in Poland, Serbia, and Greece. Samples were analyzed for index viruses of human or animal fecal contamination (human and porcine adenoviruses, and bovine polyoma viruses), and human pathogenic viruses (hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, and noroviruses GI/GII)...
October 5, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Satu Oristo, Maria Rönnqvist, Mika Aho, Ava Sovijärvi, Tuula Hannila-Handelberg, Ari Hörman, Simo Nikkari, Paula M Kinnunen, Leena Maunula
This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9...
September 30, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
M Iaconelli, M Muscillo, S Della Libera, M Fratini, L Meucci, M De Ceglia, D Giacosa, G La Rosa
Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated...
September 28, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Jian Pu, Shinobu Kazama, Takayuki Miura, Nabila Dhyan Azraini, Yoshimitsu Konta, Hiroaki Ito, You Ueki, Ermaya Eka Cahyaningrum, Tatsuo Omura, Toru Watanabe
Norovirus GII.3, GII.4, and GII.17 were detected using pyrosequencing in sewage and oysters in January and February 2015, in Japan. The strains in sewage and oyster samples were genetically identical or similar, predominant strains belonging to GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 lineage. This is the first report of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in oysters.
September 19, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Cécile Le Mennec, Sylvain Parnaudeau, Myriam Rumebe, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Jean-Côme Piquet, S Françoise Le Guyader
A production area repeatedly implicated in oyster-related gastroenteritis in France was studied for several months over 2 years. Outbreaks and field samples were analyzed by undertaking triplicate extractions, followed by norovirus (NoV) detection using triplicate wells for genomic amplification. This approach allowed us to demonstrate that some variabilities can be observed for samples with a low level of contamination, but most samples analyzed gave reproducible results. At the first outbreak, implicated oysters were collected at the beginning of the contamination event, which was reflected by the higher NoV levels during the first month of the study...
September 9, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Martins Ajibade Adefisoye, Uchechukwu U Nwodo, Ezekiel Green, Anthony Ifeanyin Okoh
The occurrence of enteric viruses in reclaimed wastewater, their removal by efficient treatment processes and the public health hazards associated with their release into the environments are of great significance in environmental microbiology. In this study, TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus (RV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, over a twelve-month sampling period...
December 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Megan C Niederwerder, Raymond R R Rowland
Since the appearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the late 1980s, the virus has become endemic throughout the world, with only the countries of Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand historically free of PRRS virus. Biosecurity is maintained largely through restrictions on the importation of pigs and semen. The risk for a PRRSV outbreak via the legal importation of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive countries remains controversial. However, examination of the historical record shows that countries retained a PRRSV-negative status during the importation of more than 500,000 tons of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive trading partners...
September 2, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba
The genus Orthoreovirus contains nonenveloped viruses with double-stranded gene segments encased in a double-layered icosahedral capsid shell. These features constitute major determinants of virion stability in the environment and virion resistance against physical and chemical agents. Reovirus (ReoV) is the general term most commonly used for all virus strains that infect humans and nonhuman animals. Several studies have demonstrated the frequent occurrence of ReoV in wastewaters and natural waters, including surface and ground waters from different geographical areas...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
José Carlos Parada-Fabián, Patricia Juárez-García, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez
Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
F H Heldt, R Staggmeier, J S Gularte, M Demoliner, A Henzel, F R Spilki
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of food and waterborne hepatitis in human beings. HEV circulates among human populations and swine herds, and may be found in water contaminated by swine feces, as well as in pork. In the present study, 68 sediment samples and 250 water samples collected from the Sinos River tributaries, as well as 50 samples of pork products (pâté and blood sausage) marketed in the Sinos River watershed region, Brazil, were tested for the presence of HEV genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing was used for detection and characterization of HEV genomes...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Takayuki Miura, Sébastien Lhomme, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Yvonnick Guillois, Elizabeth Couturier, Jacques Izopet, Florence Abranavel, Françoise S Le Guyader
A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Miguel F Varela, Annalise S Hooper, Enrique Rivadulla, Jesús L Romalde
The prevalence and genetical diversity of human Sapovirus were studied during an 18-month study in Ría do Burgo, an estuary nearby the city of A Coruña in Galicia (NW Spain). Sapovirus was detected using RT-qPCR procedure in 30 out of 80 mussel samples (37.5 %). Quantifications ranged from 2.2 × 10(3) to 2.1 × 10(5) RNA copies per gram of digestive tissue. Detection occurred mainly during the cold and rainy seasons of the period studied. Sequences obtained could be distributed into 5 genotypes being the most abundant GI...
September 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
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