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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497324/erratum-to-the-presence-of-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-in-relation-to-the-hygienic-level-in-food-service-operations-associated-with-a-suspected-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#1
Leena Maunula, M Rönnqvist, R Åberg, J Lunden, M Nevas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470455/potential-approaches-to-assess-the-infectivity-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-pork-products-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Nigel Cook, Martin D'Agostino, Reimar Johne
The zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an emerging issue. HEV appears common in pigs (although infected pigs do not show clinical signs), and evidence suggests that a number of hepatitis E cases have been associated with the consumption of undercooked pork meat and products. Little information is available on whether cooking can eliminate HEV, since there is currently no robust method for measuring its infectivity. HEV infectivity can be clearly demonstrated by monitoring for signs of infection (e...
May 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466464/mechanism-of-anti-rotavirus-synergistic-activity-by-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-a-proanthocyanidin-containing-nutraceutical
#3
S M Lipson, G Karalis, L Karthikeyan, F S Ozen, R E Gordon, S Ponnala, J Bao, W Samarrai, E Wolfe
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran(®)-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by ≤10%...
May 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455611/evaluation-of-virus-reduction-by-ultrafiltration-with-coagulation-sedimentation-in-water-reclamation
#4
Suntae Lee, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
April 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452010/occurrence-and-trend-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-bivalve-molluscs-production-areas-following-a-contamination-event
#5
Elisabetta Suffredini, Yolande Thérèse Rose Proroga, Simona Di Pasquale, Orlandina Di Maro, Maria Losardo, Loredana Cozzi, Federico Capuano, Dario De Medici
The aim of this study was to assess the trend of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a coastal zone impacted by a contamination event, providing data for the development of management strategies. A total of 352 samples, including four bivalve mollusc species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Solen vagina, Venus gallina and Donax trunculus), were taken over a period of 6 months from 27 production areas of the coast and analysis were performed according to ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. HAV presence was detected in 77 samples from 11 production areas and all positive results were related to samples collected in the first 3 months of the surveillance, during which HAV prevalence was 39...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452009/detection-of-potential-infectious-enteric-viruses-in-fresh-produce-by-rt-qpcr-preceded-by-nuclease-treatment
#6
Elisabet Marti, Monique Ferrary-Américo, Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Foodborne illnesses associated with contaminated fresh produce are a common public health problem and there is an upward trend of outbreaks caused by enteric viruses, especially human noroviruses (HNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). This study aimed to assess the use of DNase and RNase coupled to qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively, to detect intact particles of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), HNoV GI and GII and HAV in fresh produce. Different concentrations of DNase and RNase were tested to optimize the degradation of free DNA and RNA from inactivated HAdV and murine norovirus (MNV), respectively...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439785/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-norovirus-presence-in-mussels-harvested-in-montenegro
#7
Nevena Ilic, Branko Velebit, Vlado Teodorovic, Vesna Djordjevic, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Dragan Vasilev, Spomenka Djuric, Bojan Adzic, Mirjana Dimitrijevic
This study comprises the first systematic survey of the occurrence of Norovirus in Mediterranean mussels from harvesting areas in Montenegro coast of Adriatic Sea. Mussels may accumulate contaminants of public health concern, including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of harvesting areas is based on count of Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. It is assumed that E. coli does not reflect contamination with enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at six locations in Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors on the variability of E...
April 24, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401478/improved-detection-of-norovirus-and-hepatitis-a-virus-in-surface-water-by-applying-pre-pcr-processing
#8
Emmy Borgmästars, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Sofia Persson, Linda Jansson, Peter Rådström, Magnus Simonsson, Johannes Hedman, Ronnie Eriksson
Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of waterborne RNA viruses generally requires concentration of large water volumes due to low virus levels. A common approach is to use dead-end ultrafiltration followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. However, this procedure often leads to the co-concentration of PCR inhibitors that impairs the limit of detection and causes false-negative results. Here, we applied the concept of pre-PCR processing to optimize RT-qPCR detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI), genogroup II (GII), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in challenging water matrices...
April 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396977/dna-heat-treatment-for-improving-qpcr-analysis-of-human-adenovirus-in-wastewater
#9
Emily Rames, Anne Roiko, Helen Stratton, Joanne Macdonald
PCR inhibitory substances in complex sample matrices can cause false negatives or under-estimation of target concentration. This study assessed DNA heat treatment for reducing inhibition during qPCR analysis of human adenovirus (HAdV) in wastewater samples. Inhibition was reduced by heat treating DNA, where mean HAdV concentration was increased by 0.71 log10 GC/L (and up to 3.04 log10 GC/L in one case), and replicate variability and false negatives were reduced. DNA heat treatment should be further investigated for improving reliability of HAdV concentration estimates in water, which can support more accurate assessment of health risks associated with viral pathogen exposure...
April 10, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391510/evaluation-of-two-triplex-one-step-qrt-pcr-assays-for-the-quantification-of-human-enteric-viruses-in-environmental-samples
#10
Kata Farkas, Dafydd E Peters, James E McDonald, Alexis de Rougemont, Shelagh K Malham, Davey L Jones
Human enteric viruses are responsible for waterborne and shellfish-associated disease outbreaks worldwide. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is often used to assess the health risks associated with shellfish and environmental water, but viral titres in sediments are less commonly investigated. In this study, we developed and validated two multiplex qRT-PCR assays for aquatic sediment and shellfish samples targeting viruses that are a common cause of gastroenteritis (norovirus GI, GII and hepatitis A virus), two emerging viruses (sapovirus and hepatitis E virus), along with mengovirus (MgV), which is often used as a sample process control for the assessment of RNA extraction efficiency...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391509/changes-in-environmental-conditions-modify-infection-kinetics-of-dairy-phages
#11
Delfina Zaburlin, Andrea Quiberoni, Diego Mercanti
Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349492/risk-analysis-and-occurrence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-in-domestic-swine-in-northeast-brazil
#12
Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Kennya G S Lopes, Deivson S Cunha, Virginia S Silva, Clara N Barbosa, Daniel F Brandespim, José Wilton Pinheiro Junior, Giovani R Bertani, Laura H V G Gil
Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in animals from abattoir and in farms from northeast Brazil. Our results suggest that HEV is highly disseminated in the swine population and might present a great risk to animal handlers and for consumption of raw or undercooked meat and meat products in northeast Brazil.
March 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299601/the-presence-of-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-in-relation-to-the-hygienic-level-in-food-service-operations-associated-with-a-suspected-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#13
Leena Maunula, M Rönnqvist, R Åberg, J Lunden, M Nevas
Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks appear frequently in food service operations (FSOs), such as in restaurants and canteens. In this study the presence of NoV and adenovirus (AdV) genomes was investigated on the surfaces of premises, especially in kitchens, of 30 FSOs where foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks were suspected. The objective was to establish a possible association between the presence of virus genomes on surfaces and a visual hygienic status of the FSOs. NoV genome was found in 11 and AdV genome in 8 out of 30 FSOs...
March 15, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271397/erratum-to-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-4-sequences-detected-in-sewage-from-treatment-plants-of-china
#14
Heng Li, Wei Li, Ruiping She, Liang Yu, Qiaoxing Wu, Jingling Yang, Fengjiao Hu, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Yue Zhao, Jingjing Mao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258477/detection-of-norovirus-gii-17-kawasaki-2014-in-shellfish-marine-water-and-underwater-sewage-discharges-in-italy
#15
G La Rosa, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, V Martella, E Suffredini
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the variants of genotype GII.4 are currently the predominant human strains. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been reported as the cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. The GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 variant has also been reported sporadically in patients with gastroenteritis outside of Asia, including Italy. In this study, 384 shellfish samples were subjected to screening for human NoVs using real-time PCR and 259 (67...
March 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238030/evaluation-of-assays-to-quantify-infectious-human-norovirus-for-heat-and-high-pressure-inactivation-studies-using-tulane-virus
#16
Xinhui Li, Runze Huang, Haiqiang Chen
We compared the heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation results of Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate, obtained by plaque assay, direct quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), porcine gastric mucin magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) binding assay followed by RT-qPCR (PGM/PCR), and propidium monoazide (PMA) assay followed by RT-qPCR (PMA/PCR). Heat and HHP inactivation of a HuNoV genotype I.1 (GI.1) strain and a genotype II.4 (GII.4) strain was also evaluated using those molecular assays...
February 25, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233174/relative-abundance-of-human-bocaviruses-in-urban-sewage-in-greater-cairo-egypt
#17
Hazem Hamza, Mats Leifels, Michael Wilhelm, Ibrahim Ahmed Hamza
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is predominantly found in the respiratory tract infections and in the stool of patients with gastroenteritis symptoms. However, data on the prevalence of HBoV genotypes in environmental samples are limited. Here we addressed the prevalence of HBoV in sewage collected from three different wastewater treatment plants in Egypt. HBoV-1, HBoV-2, and HBoV-3 were detected, whereas none of the samples were positive for HBoV-4. The median concentration of HBoV in influent samples was 8.5 × 10(3) GC/l for HBoV-1, 3...
February 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771874/in-situ-dynamics-of-f-specific-rna-bacteriophages-in-a-small-river-new-way-to-assess-viral-propagation-in-water-quality-studies
#18
Blandine Fauvel, Christophe Gantzer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Leslie Ogorzaly
The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays...
March 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696180/contamination-by-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-and-in-hands-of-conscripts-in-two-finnish-garrisons
#19
Satu Oristo, Maria Rönnqvist, Mika Aho, Ava Sovijärvi, Tuula Hannila-Handelberg, Ari Hörman, Simo Nikkari, Paula M Kinnunen, Leena Maunula
This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9...
March 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210987/antiviral-activity-of-ctn-15-34-a-cathelicidin-derived-eicosapeptide-against-infectious-myonecrosis-virus-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-primary-hemocyte-cultures
#20
P R N Vieira-Girão, C B Falcão, I R C B Rocha, H M R Lucena, F H F Costa, G Rádis-Baptista
The shrimp farming has been converted into a mature aquaculture industry dealing with over millions of metric tonnes of processed commodities. Nevertheless, the global shrimp productions are constantly threatened by disease outbreaks, mainly triggered by rapidly disseminating viruses. Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is one of these epizootic agents affecting shrimp production in Brazil, of which no treatment exists. Herein, the antiviral activity against IMNV of an eicosapeptide, named Ctn[15-34], derived from a member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, was demonstrated...
February 16, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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