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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907902/an-environmental-surveillance-in-uruguay-reveals-the-presence-of-highly-divergent-types-of-human-enterovirus-species-c-and-a-high-frequency-of-species-a-and-b-types
#1
Andrés Lizasoain, Fernanda M Burlandy, Matías Victoria, Luis F López Tort, Edson E da Silva, Rodney Colina
Information about Human Enterovirus circulation in Uruguay is scarce. The aim of this study was to generate the first description about their circulation in the country through the study of sewage samples collected before and after the switch from Oral Poliovirus Vaccine to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine. Viruses were concentrated by an adsorption-elution to a negatively charged membrane, and real-time quantitative PCR and qualitative PCR methods were used to detect, quantify, and characterize enteroviruses...
June 16, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948963/poliovirus-and-other-enteroviruses-from-environmental-surveillance-in-italy-2009-2015
#2
Roberto Delogu, Andrea Battistone, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Stefano Fontana, Concetta Amato, Karen Cristiano, Sabine Gamper, Josef Simeoni, Rita Frate, Laura Pellegrinelli, Sandro Binda, Licia Veronesi, Roberta Zoni, Paolo Castiglia, Andrea Cossu, Maria Triassi, Francesca Pennino, Cinzia Germinario, Viviana Balena, Antonella Cicala, Pietro Mercurio, Lucia Fiore, Carlo Pini, Paola Stefanelli
Within the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of the detected viruses...
June 12, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761412/persistence-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-fresh-produce-and-production-environments-and-the-effect-of-disinfection-procedures-a-review
#3
REVIEW
N Cook, I Bertrand, C Gantzer, R M Pinto, A Bosch
Although information is limited, it is evident that prolonged persistence of infectious Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a factor in the transmission of the virus via fresh produce. Consequently, data on persistence of the virus on produce, and in environments relevant to production, such as soils, water and surfaces, are required to fully understand the dynamics of transmission of HAV via foods. Furthermore, information on effective disinfection procedures is necessary to implement effective post-harvest control measures...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761411/detection-of-pathogenic-viruses-in-the-ambient-air-in-seoul-korea
#4
Tae-Hee Han, Sang-Hun Park, Ju-Young Chung, Hyo-Won Jeong, Jihun Jung, Jae-In Lee, Young-Ok Hwang, Il-Young Kim, Jip-Ho Lee, Kweon Jung
The possible transport of pathogenic microorganisms during Asian dust events could be an important concern for health workers; however, this is still uncertain owing to a lack of supporting evidence. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in air samples collected during the Asian and non-Asian dust periods. Between March and September 2016, air samples were collected at three weather observation stations in Seoul using a high-volume air sampler. Multiplex PCR was performed using the Allplex™ respiratory and gastrointestinal panel assay kits to detect 46 microorganisms...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728977/successful-use-of-advertisement-pictures-to-assist-recall-in-a-food-borne-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-the-netherlands-2017
#5
Madelief Mollers, Ingeborg L A Boxman, Harry Vennema, Ife A Slegers-Fitz-James, Diederik Brandwagt, Ingrid H Friesema, Jenny S Batstra, Margreet J M Te Wierik
This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case-control study was initiated using a questionnaire and a list of pictures of soft fruit available at the supermarket chain involved. Twelve out of 13 cases consumed a specific frozen raspberry/blueberry product shown on the list (OR 46...
May 4, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728976/correction-to-genetic-diversity-among-genogroup-ii-noroviruses-and-progressive-emergence-of-gii-17-in-wastewaters-in-italy-2011-2016-revealed-by-next-generation-and-sanger-sequencing
#6
E Suffredini, M Iaconelli, M Equestre, B Valdazo-González, A R Ciccaglione, C Marcantonio, S Della Libera, F Bignami, G La Rosa
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of Table 1 was incorrect. The corrected table is given below. The original article has been corrected.
May 4, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725931/the-impact-of-winter-relocation-and-depuration-on-norovirus-concentrations-in-pacific-oysters-harvested-from-a-commercial-production-site
#7
Agnieszka Rupnik, Sinéad Keaveney, Leon Devilly, Francis Butler, William Doré
Oysters contaminated with norovirus present a significant public health risk when consumed raw. In this study, norovirus genome copy concentrations were determined in Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) harvested from a sewage-impacted production site and then subjected to site-specific management procedures. These procedures consisted of relocation of oysters to an alternative production area during the norovirus high-risk winter periods (November to March) followed by an extended depuration (self-purification) under controlled temperature conditions...
May 3, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722006/a-one-year-survey-of-norovirus-in-uk-oysters-collected-at-the-point-of-sale
#8
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
May 2, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696605/assessment-of-the-virological-quality-of-marine-and-running-surface-waters-in-nw-greece-a-case-study
#9
Petros Kokkinos, Hera Karayanni, Alexandra Meziti, Ria Feidaki, Spyros Paparrodopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis
The virological quality of surface marine and running water samples collected from Igoumenitsa gulf and Kalamas river (NW Greece) was assessed from October 2012 to September 2013. Sampling sites were exposed to different land and/or anthropogenic effects. Seawater samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations (new harbor, old harbor, wastewater treatment plant outlet, protected Natura area, Drepano beach). Viral targets included human adenoviruses (hAdVs), as index human viruses, while noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were also studied...
April 25, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468537/hepatitis-a-virus-disinfection-in-water-by-solar-photo-fenton-systems
#10
David Polo, Irene García-Fernández, Pilar Fernández-Ibañez, Jesús L Romalde
This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of solar photo-Fenton systems for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in water. The effect of solar irradiance, dark- Fenton reaction and three different reactant concentrations (2.5/5, 5/10 and 10/20 mg/L of Fe2+ /H2 O2 ) on the photo-Fenton process were tested in glass bottle reactors (200 mL) during 6 h under natural sunlight. Disinfection kinetics were determined both by RT-qPCR and infectivity assays. Mean water temperatures ranged from 25 to 27...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442296/first-report-of-the-presence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-scottish-harvested-shellfish-purchased-at-retail-level
#11
Zoe O'Hara, Claire Crossan, John Craft, Linda Scobie
Shellfish samples (n = 310) purchased from local supermarkets were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by nested RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, 2.9% of samples tested positive for the presence of HEV. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV sequences revealed all as being genotype 3 HEV. This is the first report of the detection of HEV in commercially sold shellfish in Scotland. These findings may encourage further research that will help address the gaps in the knowledge in respect to foodborne transmission of HEV in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417429/effect-of-the-shellfish-proteinase-k-digestion-method-on-norovirus-capsid-integrity
#12
Jérémie Langlet, Laetitia Kaas, Dawn Croucher, Joanne Hewitt
Norovirus outbreaks are associated with the consumption of contaminated shellfish, and so efficient methods to recover and detect infectious norovirus in shellfish are important. The Proteinase K digestion method used to recover norovirus from shellfish, as described in the ISO 15216, would be a good candidate but its impact on the virus capsid integrity and thus infectivity was never examined. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Proteinase K digestion method, and of the heat treatment component of the method alone, on norovirus (genogroups I and II) and MS2 bacteriophage capsid integrity...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#13
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299861/human-bocavirus-detection-quantification-and-molecular-characterization-in-sewage-and-surface-waters-in-uruguay
#14
Matías Salvo, Andrés Lizasoain, Matías Castells, Viviana Bortagaray, Sebastián Castro, Rodney Colina, Fernando Lopez Tort, Matías Victoria
Human bocavirus (HBoV) infections are related to respiratory and gastroenteric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HBoV in both sewage and surface waters in Uruguay. Sixty-eight sewage samples from the cities of Salto, Paysandú, Bella Unión, Fray Bentos, Treinta y Tres and Melo and 36 surface water samples from the cities of Salto, Florida and Santa Lucía were studied. HBoV was screened by multiplex qPCR for the detection of the four subtypes, followed by monoplex qPCRs for the independent quantification of each subtype...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248990/large-scale-survey-of-human-enteroviruses-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-of-a-metropolitan-area-of-southern-italy
#15
Francesca Pennino, Antonio Nardone, Paolo Montuori, Sara Aurino, Ida Torre, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Concetta Amato, Maria Triassi
Human enteroviruses (HEVs) occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters, constituting a major cause of acute waterborne disease worldwide. In this study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Naples, Southern Italy, from January 2010 to December 2014. Influent and effluent samples from the three WWTPs were collected monthly. One hundred and sixty-one of the 731 wastewater samples collected (22...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243126/efficiency-of-reovirus-concentration-from-water-with-positively-charged-filters
#16
Walter Q Betancourt, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Charles P Gerba
This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214559/virus-type-specific-removal-in-a-full-scale-membrane-bioreactor-treatment-process
#17
Takayuki Miura, Julien Schaeffer, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Françoise S Le Guyader
We investigated removal of noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant by monitoring virus concentrations in wastewater samples during two gastroenteritis seasons and evaluating the adsorption of viruses to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Sapoviruses and rotaviruses were detected in 25% of MBR effluent samples with log reduction values of 3- and 2-logs in geometric mean concentrations, respectively, while noroviruses were detected in only 6% of the samples...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214558/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-genotyping-in-a-cohort-of-wild-boars-in-southern-germany-and-eastern-alsace
#18
Kilian Weigand, Kurt Weigand, Mathias Schemmerer, Martina Müller, Juergen J Wenzel
In the last few years it has been realized that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in most industrialized countries and that it is a zoonotic disease. Potential reservoirs for HEV have been identified to be wild boars and deers, but HEV has also been found in domestic pigs and other animals. Due to the probable spread of the virus via contaminated food or contact to infected animals, HEV antibodies are present in more than 16% of the German adult population and rates are increasing with age. We collected blood from 104 wild boars in southern Germany and the border region of Alsace...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196954/prevalence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-and-noroviruses-genomes-on-office-fomites
#19
Agata Stobnicka, Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zając, Joanna Korczyńska-Smolec, Rafał L Górny
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of office fomites in respiratory (human parainfluenza virus 1-HPIV1, human parainfluenza virus 3-HPIV3) and enteric (norovirus GI-NoV GI, norovirus GII-NoV GII) viruses transmission by assessing the occurrence of these viruses on surfaces in office buildings. Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 130 surfaces from open-space and non-open-space rooms in office buildings located in one city were evaluated for HPIV1, HPIV3, NoV GI, and NoV GII viral RNA presence...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185203/genetic-diversity-among-genogroup-ii-noroviruses-and-progressive-emergence-of-gii-17-in-wastewaters-in-italy-2011-2016-revealed-by-next-generation-and-sanger-sequencing
#20
E Suffredini, M Iaconelli, M Equestre, B Valdazo-González, A R Ciccaglione, C Marcantonio, S Della Libera, F Bignami, G La Rosa
Noroviruses (NoV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been increasingly reported in NoV outbreaks in Asia, and has also been described in Europe and North America. In this study, sewage samples were investigated to study the occurrence and genetic diversity of NoV genogroup II (GII) along a 6-year period. Moreover, the spread of GII.17 strains (first appearance and occurrence along time) was specifically assessed...
June 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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