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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022248/coxsackievirus-b4-as-a-causative-agent-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-is-there-a-role-of-inefficiently-treated-drinking-water-and-sewage-in-virus-spreading
#1
Waled M El-Senousy, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Rehab G Khalil
This study proposed to detect the enterovirus (EV) infection in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to assess the role of insufficiently treated water and sewage as sources of viral spreading. Three hundred and eighty-two serum specimens of children with T1D, one hundred serum specimens of children who did not suffer from T1D as control, and forty-eight water and sewage samples were screened for EV RNA using nested RT-PCR. The number of genome copies and infectious units of EVs in raw and treated sewage and water samples were investigated using real-time (RT)-PCR and plaque assay, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022247/persistent-norovirus-contamination-of-groundwater-supplies-in-two-waterborne-outbreaks
#2
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019092/rapid-detection-of-human-norovirus-in-frozen-raspberries
#3
Maija Summa, Leena Maunula
Raspberries have lately caused several human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we developed and evaluated for HuNoV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection in frozen raspberries extraction methods that have equal sensitivity but are less time-consuming than widely used methods based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. One method was applied to stored frozen raspberries linked to previous HuNoV outbreaks and berries on sale. In the virus elution-based Method 1, sparkling water eluted viruses most efficiently from the berries...
October 10, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956272/first-detection-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-shellfish-and-in-seawater-from-production-areas-in-southern-italy
#4
G La Rosa, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, F Capuano, M Iaconelli, S Della Libera, E Suffredini
Shellfish samples (n = 384) from production areas, water samples from the same areas (n = 39) and from nearby sewage discharge points (n = 29) were analyzed for hepatitis E virus (HEV) by real-time and nested RT-PCR. Ten shellfish samples (2.6%) and five seawater samples (12.8%) tested positive for HEV; all characterized strains were G3 and showed high degree of sequence identity. An integrated surveillance in seafood and waters is relevant to reduce the risk of shellfish-associated illnesses.
September 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856596/estimation-of-human-norovirus-infectivity-from-environmental-water-samples-by-in-situ-capture-rt-qpcr-method
#5
Peng Tian, David Yang, Lei Shan, Qianqian Li, Danlei Liu, Dapeng Wang
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are highly infectious viruses for which water is an important medium of transmission. In this study, we explored a new in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) methodology to estimate the infectivity of HuNoV in environmental water samples. This assay was based on capturing encapsidated HuNoV by viral receptors, followed by in situ amplification of the captured viral genomes by RT-qPCR. We demonstrated that the ISC-RT-qPCR did not capture and enable signal amplification of heat-denatured Tulane Virus (TV) and HuNoVs...
August 30, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840537/environmental-surveillance-of-enteroviruses-in-central-argentina-first-detection-and-evolutionary-analyses-of-e14
#6
Adrian A Farías, Laura N Mojsiejczuk, María B Pisano, Fernando S Flores, Juan J Aguilar, Ana N Jean, Laura A Yanes, Gisela Masachessi, Veronica E Prez, María B Isa, Rodolfo H Campos, Viviana E Ré, Silvia V Nates
Environmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses in the population. Enteroviruses E14, CVA9, E-6, E16, E20, E25, E13, and CVA24 were detected in sewage and a watercourse in central Argentina. E14 was the most frequent serotype and was found for the first time in environmental samples in our region. Phylogenetic and coalescence analyses showed at least two recent introduction events.
August 24, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831665/persistence-of-ms-2-bacteriophage-within-eastern-oysters
#7
David H Kingsley, Haiqiang Chen, Gloria K Meade
Male-specific bacteriophages have been proposed as human enteric virus indicators for shellfish. In this study, Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were individually exposed to 5.6 × 10(10) PFU of MS-2 for 48 h at 15 °C followed by collective maintenance in continuously UV-sterilized seawater for 0-6 weeks at either 7, 15, or 24 °C. Initial contamination levels of MS-2 were >6 log PFU. Assessment of weekly declines of viable MS-2 indicated that cooler temperatures dramatically enhanced the persistence of MS-2 within oyster tissues...
August 22, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779481/environmental-surveillance-for-noroviruses-in-selected-south-african-wastewaters-2015-2016-emergence-of-the-novel-gii-17
#8
V V Mabasa, K D Meno, M B Taylor, Janet Mans
Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the predominant genotype associated with gastroenteritis pandemics and new strains emerge every 2-3 years. Between 2008 and 2011, environmental studies in South Africa (SA) reported NoVs in 63% of the sewage-polluted river water samples. The aim of this study was to assess whether wastewater samples could be used for routine surveillance of NoVs, including GII.4 variants. From April 2015 to March 2016, raw sewage and effluent water samples were collected monthly from five wastewater treatment plants in SA...
August 4, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497324/erratum-to-the-presence-of-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-in-relation-to-the-hygienic-level-in-food-service-operations-associated-with-a-suspected-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#9
Leena Maunula, M Rönnqvist, R Åberg, J Lunden, M Nevas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687986/insights-from-a-systematic-search-for-information-on-designs-costs-and-effectiveness-of-poliovirus-environmental-surveillance-systems
#10
REVIEW
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Marita Zimmermann, Mark A Pallansch, Kimberly M Thompson
Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies...
July 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685229/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-norovirus-and-e-coli-in-sydney-rock-oysters-following-a-sewage-overflow-into-an-estuary
#11
Felicity Brake, Andreas Kiermeier, Tom Ross, Geoffrey Holds, Lina Landinez, Catherine McLeod
This paper reports a study of norovirus (NoV) GII distribution and persistence in Sydney rock oysters (SRO) (Saccostrea glomerata) located in an estuary after a pump station sewage overflow. SRO were strategically placed at six sites spanning the length of the estuary from the pump station to the sea. The spatial and temporal distribution of NoV, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in oysters was mapped after the contamination event. NoV GI and GII, HAV and E. coli were quantified for up to 48 days in oysters placed at six sites ranging from 0...
July 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674934/improvement-of-the-bag-mediated-filtration-system-for-sampling-wastewater-and-wastewater-impacted-waters
#12
Christine Susan Fagnant, Liliana Margarita Sánchez-Gonzalez, Nicolette A Zhou, Jill Christin Falman, Michael Eisenstein, Dylan Guelig, Byron Ockerman, Yifei Guan, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Yarrow S Linden, Nicola Koren Beck, Robyn Wilmouth, Evans Komen, Benlick Mwangi, James Nyangao, Jeffry H Shirai, Igor Novosselov, Peter Borus, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) plays an important role in the global program for eradication of wild PV. The bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) was first developed in 2014 and enhances PV surveillance when compared to the two-phase grab method currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the BMFS design was improved and tested for its usability in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface waters in Nairobi, Kenya. Modifications made to the BMFS included the size, color, and shape of the collection bags, the filter housing used, and the device used to elute the samples from the filters...
July 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674933/challenging-investigation-of-a-norovirus-foodborne-disease-outbreak-during-a-military-deployment-in-central-african-republic
#13
Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, M Boni, C Tong, P-A Renoult, A Fournier, L Joie, A Mérens, A Chesnay, S Perelle, A Fraisse, K Ambert-Balay, D Chal, S Larréché, R Michel, V Pommier de Santi
In January 2016, a large-scale outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among French armed forces deployed in the Central African Republic. Challenging investigations, conducted from France, made it possible to identify a norovirus genogroup II in both stool and food samples, confirming a norovirus foodborne disease outbreak. Infected food handler management is discussed.
July 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660425/the-fate-of-mengovirus-on-fiberglass-filter-of-air-handling-units
#14
Victor Bandaly, Aurélie Joubert, Pierre Le Cann, Yves Andres
One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective...
June 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#15
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
June 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639212/surveillance-of-noroviruses-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-occurrence-of-new-giv-genotype-in-clinical-and-wastewater-samples
#16
Julia Monassa Fioretti, Tulio Machado Fumian, Mônica Simões Rocha, Ingrid de Arruda Lucena Dos Santos, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Janaina de Souza Rodrigues, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years...
June 21, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#17
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616833/use-of-preservative-agents-and-antibiotics-for-increased-poliovirus-survival-on-positively-charged-filters
#18
Christine Susan Fagnant, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Liliana Sánchez-Gonzalez, Jill Christin Falman, Erika Karen Keim, Yarrow Linden, Alana Scheibe, Kilala Sayisha Barnes, Nicola Koren Beck, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008)...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197972/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-retail-pork-products-marketed-in-canada
#19
Oksana Mykytczuk, Jennifer Harlow, Sabah Bidawid, Nathalie Corneau, Neda Nasheri
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181155/genetic-analysis-of-norovirus-strains-that-caused-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-among-river-rafters-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona
#20
Masaaki Kitajima, Brandon C Iker, Anne Magill-Collins, Marlene Gaither, James D Stoehr, Charles P Gerba
Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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