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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401478/improved-detection-of-norovirus-and-hepatitis-a-virus-in-surface-water-by-applying-pre-pcr-processing
#1
Emmy Borgmästars, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Sofia Persson, Linda Jansson, Peter Rådström, Magnus Simonsson, Johannes Hedman, Ronnie Eriksson
Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of waterborne RNA viruses generally requires concentration of large water volumes due to low virus levels. A common approach is to use dead-end ultrafiltration followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. However, this procedure often leads to the co-concentration of PCR inhibitors that impairs the limit of detection and causes false-negative results. Here, we applied the concept of pre-PCR processing to optimize RT-qPCR detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI), genogroup II (GII), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in challenging water matrices...
April 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396977/dna-heat-treatment-for-improving-qpcr-analysis-of-human-adenovirus-in-wastewater
#2
Emily Rames, Anne Roiko, Helen Stratton, Joanne Macdonald
PCR inhibitory substances in complex sample matrices can cause false negatives or under-estimation of target concentration. This study assessed DNA heat treatment for reducing inhibition during qPCR analysis of human adenovirus (HAdV) in wastewater samples. Inhibition was reduced by heat treating DNA, where mean HAdV concentration was increased by 0.71 log10 GC/L (and up to 3.04 log10 GC/L in one case), and replicate variability and false negatives were reduced. DNA heat treatment should be further investigated for improving reliability of HAdV concentration estimates in water, which can support more accurate assessment of health risks associated with viral pathogen exposure...
April 10, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391510/evaluation-of-two-triplex-one-step-qrt-pcr-assays-for-the-quantification-of-human-enteric-viruses-in-environmental-samples
#3
Kata Farkas, Dafydd E Peters, James E McDonald, Alexis de Rougemont, Shelagh K Malham, Davey L Jones
Human enteric viruses are responsible for waterborne and shellfish-associated disease outbreaks worldwide. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is often used to assess the health risks associated with shellfish and environmental water, but viral titres in sediments are less commonly investigated. In this study, we developed and validated two multiplex qRT-PCR assays for aquatic sediment and shellfish samples targeting viruses that are a common cause of gastroenteritis (norovirus GI, GII and hepatitis A virus), two emerging viruses (sapovirus and hepatitis E virus), along with mengovirus (MgV), which is often used as a sample process control for the assessment of RNA extraction efficiency...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391509/changes-in-environmental-conditions-modify-infection-kinetics-of-dairy-phages
#4
Delfina Zaburlin, Andrea Quiberoni, Diego Mercanti
Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349492/risk-analysis-and-occurrence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-in-domestic-swine-in-northeast-brazil
#5
Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Kennya G S Lopes, Deivson S Cunha, Virginia S Silva, Clara N Barbosa, Daniel F Brandespim, José Wilton Pinheiro Junior, Giovani R Bertani, Laura H V G Gil
Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in animals from abattoir and in farms from northeast Brazil. Our results suggest that HEV is highly disseminated in the swine population and might present a great risk to animal handlers and for consumption of raw or undercooked meat and meat products in northeast Brazil.
March 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299601/the-presence-of-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-in-relation-to-the-hygienic-level-in-food-service-operations-associated-with-a-suspected-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#6
Leena Maunula, M Rönnqvist, R Åberg, J Lunden, M Nevas
Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks appear frequently in food service operations (FSOs), such as in restaurants and canteens. In this study the presence of NoV and adenovirus (AdV) genomes was investigated on the surfaces of premises, especially in kitchens, of 30 FSOs where foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks were suspected. The objective was to establish a possible association between the presence of virus genomes on surfaces and a visual hygienic status of the FSOs. NoV genome was found in 11 and AdV genome in 8 out of 30 FSOs...
March 15, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271397/erratum-to-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-4-sequences-detected-in-sewage-from-treatment-plants-of-china
#7
Heng Li, Wei Li, Ruiping She, Liang Yu, Qiaoxing Wu, Jingling Yang, Fengjiao Hu, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Yue Zhao, Jingjing Mao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258477/detection-of-norovirus-gii-17-kawasaki-2014-in-shellfish-marine-water-and-underwater-sewage-discharges-in-italy
#8
G La Rosa, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, V Martella, E Suffredini
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the variants of genotype GII.4 are currently the predominant human strains. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been reported as the cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. The GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 variant has also been reported sporadically in patients with gastroenteritis outside of Asia, including Italy. In this study, 384 shellfish samples were subjected to screening for human NoVs using real-time PCR and 259 (67...
March 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238030/evaluation-of-assays-to-quantify-infectious-human-norovirus-for-heat-and-high-pressure-inactivation-studies-using-tulane-virus
#9
Xinhui Li, Runze Huang, Haiqiang Chen
We compared the heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation results of Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate, obtained by plaque assay, direct quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), porcine gastric mucin magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) binding assay followed by RT-qPCR (PGM/PCR), and propidium monoazide (PMA) assay followed by RT-qPCR (PMA/PCR). Heat and HHP inactivation of a HuNoV genotype I.1 (GI.1) strain and a genotype II.4 (GII.4) strain was also evaluated using those molecular assays...
February 25, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233174/relative-abundance-of-human-bocaviruses-in-urban-sewage-in-greater-cairo-egypt
#10
Hazem Hamza, Mats Leifels, Michael Wilhelm, Ibrahim Ahmed Hamza
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is predominantly found in the respiratory tract infections and in the stool of patients with gastroenteritis symptoms. However, data on the prevalence of HBoV genotypes in environmental samples are limited. Here we addressed the prevalence of HBoV in sewage collected from three different wastewater treatment plants in Egypt. HBoV-1, HBoV-2, and HBoV-3 were detected, whereas none of the samples were positive for HBoV-4. The median concentration of HBoV in influent samples was 8.5 × 10(3) GC/l for HBoV-1, 3...
February 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210987/antiviral-activity-of-ctn-15-34-a-cathelicidin-derived-eicosapeptide-against-infectious-myonecrosis-virus-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-primary-hemocyte-cultures
#11
P R N Vieira-Girão, C B Falcão, I R C B Rocha, H M R Lucena, F H F Costa, G Rádis-Baptista
The shrimp farming has been converted into a mature aquaculture industry dealing with over millions of metric tonnes of processed commodities. Nevertheless, the global shrimp productions are constantly threatened by disease outbreaks, mainly triggered by rapidly disseminating viruses. Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is one of these epizootic agents affecting shrimp production in Brazil, of which no treatment exists. Herein, the antiviral activity against IMNV of an eicosapeptide, named Ctn[15-34], derived from a member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, was demonstrated...
February 16, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205130/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacillus-cereus-bacteriophages-from-foods-and-soil
#12
Hyejin Oh, Dong Joo Seo, Su Been Jeon, Hyunkyung Park, Suntak Jeong, Hyang Sook Chun, Mihwa Oh, Changsun Choi
The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize Bacillus cereus bacteriophages of various origins. Twenty-seven bacteriophages against B. cereus were isolated from various Korean traditional fermented foods and soils. Plaque size, transmission electron microscopy, virulence profile, and in vitro lytic activity of bacteriophage isolates were examined. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed B. cereus bacteriophages belonging to the family Siphoviridae. Among B. cereus bacteriophages with broad host range, 18 isolates (66...
February 15, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197973/assessment-and-evaluation-of-an-integrated-hybrid-anaerobic-aerobic-sewage-treatment-system-for-the-removal-of-enteric-viruses
#13
Waled Morsy El-Senousy, Sohair Imam Abou-Elela
The capability of a cost-effective and a small size decentralized pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to remove enteric viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GGI), norovirus genogroup II (GGII), Hepatitis E virus (HEV), and adenovirus was studied. This pilot plant is an integrated hybrid anaerobic/aerobic setup which consisted of anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), biological aerated filter (BAF), and inclined plate settler (IPS). Both the UASB and BAF are packed with a non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF)...
February 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197972/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-retail-pork-products-marketed-in-canada
#14
Oksana Mykytczuk, Jennifer Harlow, Sabah Bidawid, Nathalie Corneau, Neda Nasheri
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection...
February 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185207/quantification-and-genotyping-of-aichi-virus-1-in-water-samples-in-the-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#15
Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima
Aichi virus 1 genomes were detected by quantitative PCR in groundwater from shallow dug (10/22) and tube wells (1/15), river water (14/14), and sewage (1/1), with the maximum concentration of 4.0 × 10(9) copies/l. Nucleotide sequencing analysis demonstrated the prevalence of genotype B in the virus positive samples.
February 9, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181155/genetic-analysis-of-norovirus-strains-that-caused-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-among-river-rafters-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona
#16
Masaaki Kitajima, Brandon C Iker, Anne Magill-Collins, Marlene Gaither, James D Stoehr, Charles P Gerba
Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.
February 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176295/critical-review-on-the-public-health-impact-of-norovirus-contamination-in-shellfish-and-the-environment-a-uk-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Francis Hassard, Jasmine H Sharp, Helen Taft, Lewis LeVay, John P Harris, James E McDonald, Karen Tuson, James Wilson, David L Jones, Shelagh K Malham
We review the risk of norovirus (NoV) infection to the human population from consumption of contaminated shellfish. From a UK perspective, risk is apportioned for different vectors of NoV infection within the population. NoV spreads mainly by person-to-person contact or via unsanitary food handling. NoV also enters the coastal zone via wastewater discharges resulting in contamination of shellfish waters. Typically, NoV persists in the marine environment for several days, with its presence strongly linked to human population density, wastewater discharge rate, and efficacy of wastewater treatment...
February 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160215/the-impact-of-the-extreme-amazonian-flood-season-on-the-incidence-of-viral-gastroenteritis-cases
#18
Carmen Baur Vieira, Adriana de Abreu Corrêa, Michele Silva de Jesus, Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz, Peter Wyn-Jones, David Kay, Mônica Simões Rocha, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses...
February 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771874/in-situ-dynamics-of-f-specific-rna-bacteriophages-in-a-small-river-new-way-to-assess-viral-propagation-in-water-quality-studies
#19
Blandine Fauvel, Christophe Gantzer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Leslie Ogorzaly
The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays...
March 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696180/contamination-by-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-and-in-hands-of-conscripts-in-two-finnish-garrisons
#20
Satu Oristo, Maria Rönnqvist, Mika Aho, Ava Sovijärvi, Tuula Hannila-Handelberg, Ari Hörman, Simo Nikkari, Paula M Kinnunen, Leena Maunula
This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9...
March 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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