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Food and Environmental Virology

N Cook, I Bertrand, C Gantzer, R M Pinto, A Bosch
Although information is limited, it is evident that prolonged persistence of infectious Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a factor in the transmission of the virus via fresh produce. Consequently, data on persistence of the virus on produce, and in environments relevant to production, such as soils, water and surfaces, are required to fully understand the dynamics of transmission of HAV via foods. Furthermore, information on effective disinfection procedures is necessary to implement effective post-harvest control measures...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Tae-Hee Han, Sang-Hun Park, Ju-Young Chung, Hyo-Won Jeong, Jihun Jung, Jae-In Lee, Young-Ok Hwang, Il-Young Kim, Jip-Ho Lee, Kweon Jung
The possible transport of pathogenic microorganisms during Asian dust events could be an important concern for health workers; however, this is still uncertain owing to a lack of supporting evidence. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in air samples collected during the Asian and non-Asian dust periods. Between March and September 2016, air samples were collected at three weather observation stations in Seoul using a high-volume air sampler. Multiplex PCR was performed using the Allplex™ respiratory and gastrointestinal panel assay kits to detect 46 microorganisms...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Madelief Mollers, Ingeborg L A Boxman, Harry Vennema, Ife A Slegers-Fitz-James, Diederik Brandwagt, Ingrid H Friesema, Jenny S Batstra, Margreet J M Te Wierik
This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case-control study was initiated using a questionnaire and a list of pictures of soft fruit available at the supermarket chain involved. Twelve out of 13 cases consumed a specific frozen raspberry/blueberry product shown on the list (OR 46...
May 4, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
E Suffredini, M Iaconelli, M Equestre, B Valdazo-González, A R Ciccaglione, C Marcantonio, S Della Libera, F Bignami, G La Rosa
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of Table 1 was incorrect. The corrected table is given below. The original article has been corrected.
May 4, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Agnieszka Rupnik, Sinéad Keaveney, Leon Devilly, Francis Butler, William Doré
Oysters contaminated with norovirus present a significant public health risk when consumed raw. In this study, norovirus genome copy concentrations were determined in Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) harvested from a sewage-impacted production site and then subjected to site-specific management procedures. These procedures consisted of relocation of oysters to an alternative production area during the norovirus high-risk winter periods (November to March) followed by an extended depuration (self-purification) under controlled temperature conditions...
May 3, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
May 2, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Petros Kokkinos, Hera Karayanni, Alexandra Meziti, Ria Feidaki, Spyros Paparrodopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis
The virological quality of surface marine and running water samples collected from Igoumenitsa gulf and Kalamas river (NW Greece) was assessed from October 2012 to September 2013. Sampling sites were exposed to different land and/or anthropogenic effects. Seawater samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations (new harbor, old harbor, wastewater treatment plant outlet, protected Natura area, Drepano beach). Viral targets included human adenoviruses (hAdVs), as index human viruses, while noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were also studied...
April 25, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Hannah P Sassi, Koiya D Tuttle, Walter Q Betancourt, Masaaki Kitajima, Charles P Gerba
This study was designed to determine the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) signal persistence of viruses in three effluent-dominated streams. Samples were collected from the effluent outfall of three wastewater treatment plants in the Western United States and downstream at different locations. All samples were tested for the presence of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), adenoviruses, norovirus GI and GII, Aichi virus, and enteroviruses using qPCR. PMMoV was detected most frequently in 54/57 (94...
April 20, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Nicola J King, Joanne Hewitt, Anne-Marie Perchec-Merien
Historically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ("autochthonous") cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus...
April 5, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
P Gamazo, M Victoria, J F Schijven, E Alvareda, L F L Tort, J Ramos, L Burutaran, M Olivera, A Lizasoain, G Sapriza, M Castells, R Colina
In Uruguay, groundwater is frequently used for agricultural activities, as well as for human consumption in urban and rural areas. As in many countries worldwide, drinking water microbiological quality is evaluated only according to bacteriological standards and virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In this work, the incidence of human viral (Rotavirus A, Norovirus GII, and human Adenovirus) and bacterial (total and thermotolerant coliform and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) contamination in groundwater in the Salto district, Uruguay, as well as the possible correlation between these groups of microorganisms, was studied...
March 21, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Dominik Moor, Marianne Liniger, Andreas Baumgartner, Richard Felleisen
Seroprevalence data for pig herds suggested that there must be a relevant reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Switzerland. To know more about the viral presence in ready-to-eat meat products, we screened pork liver sausages and raw meat sausages from the Swiss retail market for the presence of HEV. Testing was performed with a detection method where the virus extraction step was optimized. As for the performance of the improved method, the mean recovery rate for the mengovirus process control was 24.4%, whereas for HEV-inoculated sample matrices between 10...
February 28, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Gia Thanh Nguyen, Jian Pu, Takayuki Miura, Hiroaki Ito, Shinobu Kazama, Yoshimitsu Konta, An Van Le, Toru Watanabe
This study investigated the level of norovirus contamination in oysters collected at a lagoon receiving urban drainage from Hue City for 17 months (August 2015-December 2016). We also investigated the genetic diversity of norovirus GI and GII in oyster and wastewater samples by using pyrosequencing to evaluate the effect of urban drainage on norovirus contamination of oysters. A total of 34 oyster samples were collected at two sampling sites (stations A and B) in a lagoon. Norovirus GI was more frequently detected than GII (positive rate 79 vs...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Shailesh D Pawar, Satish A Pande, Deeksha S Tare, Sachin S Keng, Sadhana S Kode, Dinesh K Singh, Jayati Mullick
Environmental specimens such as faecal droppings are considered important for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV). In view of lower rates of AIV isolation from avian faecal droppings, characterization of droppings is imperative to elucidate contributing factors. However, there are no reports on morphological and biochemical characteristics of droppings. The objective of the present study was the characterization of droppings from different avian species and their impact on the AIV detection and isolation...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Waled M El-Senousy, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Rehab G Khalil
This study proposed to detect the enterovirus (EV) infection in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to assess the role of insufficiently treated water and sewage as sources of viral spreading. Three hundred and eighty-two serum specimens of children with T1D, one hundred serum specimens of children who did not suffer from T1D as control, and forty-eight water and sewage samples were screened for EV RNA using nested RT-PCR. The number of genome copies and infectious units of EVs in raw and treated sewage and water samples were investigated using real-time (RT)-PCR and plaque assay, respectively...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Maija Summa, Leena Maunula
Raspberries have lately caused several human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we developed and evaluated for HuNoV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection in frozen raspberries extraction methods that have equal sensitivity but are less time-consuming than widely used methods based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. One method was applied to stored frozen raspberries linked to previous HuNoV outbreaks and berries on sale. In the virus elution-based Method 1, sparkling water eluted viruses most efficiently from the berries...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
G La Rosa, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, F Capuano, M Iaconelli, S Della Libera, E Suffredini
Shellfish samples (n = 384) from production areas, water samples from the same areas (n = 39) and from nearby sewage discharge points (n = 29) were analyzed for hepatitis E virus (HEV) by real-time and nested RT-PCR. Ten shellfish samples (2.6%) and five seawater samples (12.8%) tested positive for HEV; all characterized strains were G3 and showed high degree of sequence identity. An integrated surveillance in seafood and waters is relevant to reduce the risk of shellfish-associated illnesses.
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Peng Tian, David Yang, Lei Shan, Qianqian Li, Danlei Liu, Dapeng Wang
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are highly infectious viruses for which water is an important medium of transmission. In this study, we explored a new in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) methodology to estimate the infectivity of HuNoV in environmental water samples. This assay was based on capturing encapsidated HuNoV by viral receptors, followed by in situ amplification of the captured viral genomes by RT-qPCR. We demonstrated that the ISC-RT-qPCR did not capture and enable signal amplification of heat-denatured Tulane Virus (TV) and HuNoVs...
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Adrian A Farías, Laura N Mojsiejczuk, María B Pisano, Fernando S Flores, Juan J Aguilar, Ana N Jean, Laura A Yanes, Gisela Masachessi, Veronica E Prez, María B Isa, Rodolfo H Campos, Viviana E Ré, Silvia V Nates
Environmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses in the population. Enteroviruses E14, CVA9, E-6, E16, E20, E25, E13, and CVA24 were detected in sewage and a watercourse in central Argentina. E14 was the most frequent serotype and was found for the first time in environmental samples in our region. Phylogenetic and coalescence analyses showed at least two recent introduction events.
March 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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