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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442296/first-report-of-the-presence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-scottish-harvested-shellfish-purchased-at-retail-level
#1
Zoe O'Hara, Claire Crossan, John Craft, Linda Scobie
Shellfish samples (n = 310) purchased from local supermarkets were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by nested RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, 2.9% of samples tested positive for the presence of HEV. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV sequences revealed all as being genotype 3 HEV. This is the first report of the detection of HEV in commercially sold shellfish in Scotland. These findings may encourage further research that will help address the gaps in the knowledge in respect to foodborne transmission of HEV in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom...
February 13, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417429/effect-of-the-shellfish-proteinase-k-digestion-method-on-norovirus-capsid-integrity
#2
Jérémie Langlet, Laetitia Kaas, Dawn Croucher, Joanne Hewitt
Norovirus outbreaks are associated with the consumption of contaminated shellfish, and so efficient methods to recover and detect infectious norovirus in shellfish are important. The Proteinase K digestion method used to recover norovirus from shellfish, as described in the ISO 15216, would be a good candidate but its impact on the virus capsid integrity and thus infectivity was never examined. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Proteinase K digestion method, and of the heat treatment component of the method alone, on norovirus (genogroups I and II) and MS2 bacteriophage capsid integrity...
February 7, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#3
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
January 19, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299861/human-bocavirus-detection-quantification-and-molecular-characterization-in-sewage-and-surface-waters-in-uruguay
#4
Matías Salvo, Andrés Lizasoain, Matías Castells, Viviana Bortagaray, Sebastián Castro, Rodney Colina, Fernando Lopez Tort, Matías Victoria
Human bocavirus (HBoV) infections are related to respiratory and gastroenteric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HBoV in both sewage and surface waters in Uruguay. Sixty-eight sewage samples from the cities of Salto, Paysandú, Bella Unión, Fray Bentos, Treinta y Tres and Melo and 36 surface water samples from the cities of Salto, Florida and Santa Lucía were studied. HBoV was screened by multiplex qPCR for the detection of the four subtypes, followed by monoplex qPCRs for the independent quantification of each subtype...
January 3, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248990/large-scale-survey-of-human-enteroviruses-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-of-a-metropolitan-area-of-southern-italy
#5
Francesca Pennino, Antonio Nardone, Paolo Montuori, Sara Aurino, Ida Torre, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Concetta Amato, Maria Triassi
Human enteroviruses (HEVs) occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters, constituting a major cause of acute waterborne disease worldwide. In this study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Naples, Southern Italy, from January 2010 to December 2014. Influent and effluent samples from the three WWTPs were collected monthly. One hundred and sixty-one of the 731 wastewater samples collected (22...
December 16, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243126/efficiency-of-reovirus-concentration-from-water-with-positively-charged-filters
#6
Walter Q Betancourt, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Charles P Gerba
This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.
December 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214559/virus-type-specific-removal-in-a-full-scale-membrane-bioreactor-treatment-process
#7
Takayuki Miura, Julien Schaeffer, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Françoise S Le Guyader
We investigated removal of noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant by monitoring virus concentrations in wastewater samples during two gastroenteritis seasons and evaluating the adsorption of viruses to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Sapoviruses and rotaviruses were detected in 25% of MBR effluent samples with log reduction values of 3- and 2-logs in geometric mean concentrations, respectively, while noroviruses were detected in only 6% of the samples...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214558/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-genotyping-in-a-cohort-of-wild-boars-in-southern-germany-and-eastern-alsace
#8
Kilian Weigand, Kurt Weigand, Mathias Schemmerer, Martina Müller, Juergen J Wenzel
In the last few years it has been realized that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in most industrialized countries and that it is a zoonotic disease. Potential reservoirs for HEV have been identified to be wild boars and deers, but HEV has also been found in domestic pigs and other animals. Due to the probable spread of the virus via contaminated food or contact to infected animals, HEV antibodies are present in more than 16% of the German adult population and rates are increasing with age. We collected blood from 104 wild boars in southern Germany and the border region of Alsace...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196954/prevalence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-and-noroviruses-genomes-on-office-fomites
#9
Agata Stobnicka, Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zając, Joanna Korczyńska-Smolec, Rafał L Górny
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of office fomites in respiratory (human parainfluenza virus 1-HPIV1, human parainfluenza virus 3-HPIV3) and enteric (norovirus GI-NoV GI, norovirus GII-NoV GII) viruses transmission by assessing the occurrence of these viruses on surfaces in office buildings. Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 130 surfaces from open-space and non-open-space rooms in office buildings located in one city were evaluated for HPIV1, HPIV3, NoV GI, and NoV GII viral RNA presence...
December 1, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185203/genetic-diversity-among-genogroup-ii-noroviruses-and-progressive-emergence-of-gii-17-in-wastewaters-in-italy-2011-2016-revealed-by-next-generation-and-sanger-sequencing
#10
E Suffredini, M Iaconelli, M Equestre, B Valdazo-González, A R Ciccaglione, C Marcantonio, S Della Libera, F Bignami, G La Rosa
Noroviruses (NoV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been increasingly reported in NoV outbreaks in Asia, and has also been described in Europe and North America. In this study, sewage samples were investigated to study the occurrence and genetic diversity of NoV genogroup II (GII) along a 6-year period. Moreover, the spread of GII.17 strains (first appearance and occurrence along time) was specifically assessed...
November 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687986/insights-from-a-systematic-search-for-information-on-designs-costs-and-effectiveness-of-poliovirus-environmental-surveillance-systems
#11
REVIEW
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Marita Zimmermann, Mark A Pallansch, Kimberly M Thompson
Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674933/challenging-investigation-of-a-norovirus-foodborne-disease-outbreak-during-a-military-deployment-in-central-african-republic
#12
Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, M Boni, C Tong, P-A Renoult, A Fournier, L Joie, A Mérens, A Chesnay, S Perelle, A Fraisse, K Ambert-Balay, D Chal, S Larréché, R Michel, V Pommier de Santi
In January 2016, a large-scale outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among French armed forces deployed in the Central African Republic. Challenging investigations, conducted from France, made it possible to identify a norovirus genogroup II in both stool and food samples, confirming a norovirus foodborne disease outbreak. Infected food handler management is discussed.
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660425/the-fate-of-mengovirus-on-fiberglass-filter-of-air-handling-units
#13
Victor Bandaly, Aurélie Joubert, Pierre Le Cann, Yves Andres
One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#14
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#15
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616833/use-of-preservative-agents-and-antibiotics-for-increased-poliovirus-survival-on-positively-charged-filters
#16
Christine Susan Fagnant, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Liliana Sánchez-Gonzalez, Jill Christin Falman, Erika Karen Keim, Yarrow Linden, Alana Scheibe, Kilala Sayisha Barnes, Nicola Koren Beck, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008)...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550646/distribution-of-naturally-occurring-norovirus-genogroups-i-ii-and-iv-in-oyster-tissues
#17
Taruta Lowmoung, Kannika Pombubpa, Teerapong Duangdee, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Leera Kittigul
This study evaluated different tissues of naturally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) for the presence of noroviruses. RNA from digestive tissues, gills, and mantle of the oysters was extracted and tested for norovirus genogroup (G) I, GII, and GIV using RT-nested PCR. In spiking experiments with a known norovirus, GII.4, the detection limits were 2.97 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of digestive tissues, 2.62 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of gills, and 1.61 × 10(3) RNA copies/g of mantle. A total of 85 oyster samples were collected from a fresh market in Bangkok, Thailand...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466464/mechanism-of-anti-rotavirus-synergistic-activity-by-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-a-proanthocyanidin-containing-nutraceutical
#18
S M Lipson, G Karalis, L Karthikeyan, F S Ozen, R E Gordon, S Ponnala, J Bao, W Samarrai, E Wolfe
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran(®)-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by ≤10%...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455611/evaluation-of-virus-reduction-by-ultrafiltration-with-coagulation-sedimentation-in-water-reclamation
#19
Suntae Lee, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452010/occurrence-and-trend-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-bivalve-molluscs-production-areas-following-a-contamination-event
#20
Elisabetta Suffredini, Yolande Thérèse Rose Proroga, Simona Di Pasquale, Orlandina Di Maro, Maria Losardo, Loredana Cozzi, Federico Capuano, Dario De Medici
The aim of this study was to assess the trend of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a coastal zone impacted by a contamination event, providing data for the development of management strategies. A total of 352 samples, including four bivalve mollusc species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Solen vagina, Venus gallina and Donax trunculus), were taken over a period of 6 months from 27 production areas of the coast and analysis were performed according to ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. HAV presence was detected in 77 samples from 11 production areas and all positive results were related to samples collected in the first 3 months of the surveillance, during which HAV prevalence was 39...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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