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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#1
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
June 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639212/surveillance-of-noroviruses-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-occurrence-of-new-giv-genotype-in-clinical-and-wastewater-samples
#2
Julia Monassa Fioretti, Tulio Machado Fumian, Mônica Simões Rocha, Ingrid de Arruda Lucena Dos Santos, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Janaina de Souza Rodrigues, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years...
June 21, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#3
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616833/use-of-preservative-agents-and-antibiotics-for-increased-poliovirus-survival-on-positively-charged-filters
#4
Christine Susan Fagnant, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Liliana Sánchez-Gonzalez, Jill Christin Falman, Erika Karen Keim, Yarrow Linden, Alana Scheibe, Kilala Sayisha Barnes, Nicola Koren Beck, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008)...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550646/distribution-of-naturally-occurring-norovirus-genogroups-i-ii-and-iv-in-oyster-tissues
#5
Taruta Lowmoung, Kannika Pombubpa, Teerapong Duangdee, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Leera Kittigul
This study evaluated different tissues of naturally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) for the presence of noroviruses. RNA from digestive tissues, gills, and mantle of the oysters was extracted and tested for norovirus genogroup (G) I, GII, and GIV using RT-nested PCR. In spiking experiments with a known norovirus, GII.4, the detection limits were 2.97 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of digestive tissues, 2.62 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of gills, and 1.61 × 10(3) RNA copies/g of mantle. A total of 85 oyster samples were collected from a fresh market in Bangkok, Thailand...
May 26, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497324/erratum-to-the-presence-of-norovirus-and-adenovirus-on-environmental-surfaces-in-relation-to-the-hygienic-level-in-food-service-operations-associated-with-a-suspected-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#6
Leena Maunula, M Rönnqvist, R Åberg, J Lunden, M Nevas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470455/potential-approaches-to-assess-the-infectivity-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-pork-products-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Nigel Cook, Martin D'Agostino, Reimar Johne
The zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an emerging issue. HEV appears common in pigs (although infected pigs do not show clinical signs), and evidence suggests that a number of hepatitis E cases have been associated with the consumption of undercooked pork meat and products. Little information is available on whether cooking can eliminate HEV, since there is currently no robust method for measuring its infectivity. HEV infectivity can be clearly demonstrated by monitoring for signs of infection (e...
May 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466464/mechanism-of-anti-rotavirus-synergistic-activity-by-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-a-proanthocyanidin-containing-nutraceutical
#8
S M Lipson, G Karalis, L Karthikeyan, F S Ozen, R E Gordon, S Ponnala, J Bao, W Samarrai, E Wolfe
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran(®)-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by ≤10%...
May 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455611/evaluation-of-virus-reduction-by-ultrafiltration-with-coagulation-sedimentation-in-water-reclamation
#9
Suntae Lee, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
April 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452010/occurrence-and-trend-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-bivalve-molluscs-production-areas-following-a-contamination-event
#10
Elisabetta Suffredini, Yolande Thérèse Rose Proroga, Simona Di Pasquale, Orlandina Di Maro, Maria Losardo, Loredana Cozzi, Federico Capuano, Dario De Medici
The aim of this study was to assess the trend of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a coastal zone impacted by a contamination event, providing data for the development of management strategies. A total of 352 samples, including four bivalve mollusc species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Solen vagina, Venus gallina and Donax trunculus), were taken over a period of 6 months from 27 production areas of the coast and analysis were performed according to ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. HAV presence was detected in 77 samples from 11 production areas and all positive results were related to samples collected in the first 3 months of the surveillance, during which HAV prevalence was 39...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452009/detection-of-potential-infectious-enteric-viruses-in-fresh-produce-by-rt-qpcr-preceded-by-nuclease-treatment
#11
Elisabet Marti, Monique Ferrary-Américo, Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Foodborne illnesses associated with contaminated fresh produce are a common public health problem and there is an upward trend of outbreaks caused by enteric viruses, especially human noroviruses (HNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). This study aimed to assess the use of DNase and RNase coupled to qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively, to detect intact particles of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), HNoV GI and GII and HAV in fresh produce. Different concentrations of DNase and RNase were tested to optimize the degradation of free DNA and RNA from inactivated HAdV and murine norovirus (MNV), respectively...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439785/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-norovirus-presence-in-mussels-harvested-in-montenegro
#12
Nevena Ilic, Branko Velebit, Vlado Teodorovic, Vesna Djordjevic, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Dragan Vasilev, Spomenka Djuric, Bojan Adzic, Mirjana Dimitrijevic
This study comprises the first systematic survey of the occurrence of Norovirus in Mediterranean mussels from harvesting areas in Montenegro coast of Adriatic Sea. Mussels may accumulate contaminants of public health concern, including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of harvesting areas is based on count of Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. It is assumed that E. coli does not reflect contamination with enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at six locations in Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors on the variability of E...
April 24, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401478/improved-detection-of-norovirus-and-hepatitis-a-virus-in-surface-water-by-applying-pre-pcr-processing
#13
Emmy Borgmästars, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Sofia Persson, Linda Jansson, Peter Rådström, Magnus Simonsson, Johannes Hedman, Ronnie Eriksson
Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of waterborne RNA viruses generally requires concentration of large water volumes due to low virus levels. A common approach is to use dead-end ultrafiltration followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. However, this procedure often leads to the co-concentration of PCR inhibitors that impairs the limit of detection and causes false-negative results. Here, we applied the concept of pre-PCR processing to optimize RT-qPCR detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI), genogroup II (GII), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in challenging water matrices...
April 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396977/dna-heat-treatment-for-improving-qpcr-analysis-of-human-adenovirus-in-wastewater
#14
Emily Rames, Anne Roiko, Helen Stratton, Joanne Macdonald
PCR inhibitory substances in complex sample matrices can cause false negatives or under-estimation of target concentration. This study assessed DNA heat treatment for reducing inhibition during qPCR analysis of human adenovirus (HAdV) in wastewater samples. Inhibition was reduced by heat treating DNA, where mean HAdV concentration was increased by 0.71 log10 GC/L (and up to 3.04 log10 GC/L in one case), and replicate variability and false negatives were reduced. DNA heat treatment should be further investigated for improving reliability of HAdV concentration estimates in water, which can support more accurate assessment of health risks associated with viral pathogen exposure...
April 10, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391510/evaluation-of-two-triplex-one-step-qrt-pcr-assays-for-the-quantification-of-human-enteric-viruses-in-environmental-samples
#15
Kata Farkas, Dafydd E Peters, James E McDonald, Alexis de Rougemont, Shelagh K Malham, Davey L Jones
Human enteric viruses are responsible for waterborne and shellfish-associated disease outbreaks worldwide. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is often used to assess the health risks associated with shellfish and environmental water, but viral titres in sediments are less commonly investigated. In this study, we developed and validated two multiplex qRT-PCR assays for aquatic sediment and shellfish samples targeting viruses that are a common cause of gastroenteritis (norovirus GI, GII and hepatitis A virus), two emerging viruses (sapovirus and hepatitis E virus), along with mengovirus (MgV), which is often used as a sample process control for the assessment of RNA extraction efficiency...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391509/changes-in-environmental-conditions-modify-infection-kinetics-of-dairy-phages
#16
Delfina Zaburlin, Andrea Quiberoni, Diego Mercanti
Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197972/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-retail-pork-products-marketed-in-canada
#17
Oksana Mykytczuk, Jennifer Harlow, Sabah Bidawid, Nathalie Corneau, Neda Nasheri
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176295/critical-review-on-the-public-health-impact-of-norovirus-contamination-in-shellfish-and-the-environment-a-uk-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Francis Hassard, Jasmine H Sharp, Helen Taft, Lewis LeVay, John P Harris, James E McDonald, Karen Tuson, James Wilson, David L Jones, Shelagh K Malham
We review the risk of norovirus (NoV) infection to the human population from consumption of contaminated shellfish. From a UK perspective, risk is apportioned for different vectors of NoV infection within the population. NoV spreads mainly by person-to-person contact or via unsanitary food handling. NoV also enters the coastal zone via wastewater discharges resulting in contamination of shellfish waters. Typically, NoV persists in the marine environment for several days, with its presence strongly linked to human population density, wastewater discharge rate, and efficacy of wastewater treatment...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110375/hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-4-sequences-detected-in-sewage-from-treatment-plants-of-china
#19
Heng Li, Wei Li, Ruiping She, Liang Yu, Qiaoxing Wu, Jingling Yang, Fengjiao Hu, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Yue Zhao, Jingjing Mao
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage samples in Shen Zhen, China. Sewage samples were collected from 152 sewage plants including livestock sewage, domestic sewage and treated sewage from May to July of 2015. Two of 152 samples were HEV positive (1.32%) from the livestock sewage plants. Partial ORF2 fragments of HEV were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5.1. Blast and phylogenetic analyses showed that both of these two sequences belonged to HEV Genotype 4...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040848/new-proof-of-concept-in-viral-inactivation-virucidal-efficacy-of-405%C3%A2-nm-light-against-feline-calicivirus-as-a-model-for-norovirus-decontamination
#20
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Elizabeth Graham, Michael McDonald, Chintamani D Atreya, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS-generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting, and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV)...
June 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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