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Food and Environmental Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243126/efficiency-of-reovirus-concentration-from-water-with-positively-charged-filters
#1
Walter Q Betancourt, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Charles P Gerba
This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.
December 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214559/virus-type-specific-removal-in-a-full-scale-membrane-bioreactor-treatment-process
#2
Takayuki Miura, Julien Schaeffer, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Françoise S Le Guyader
We investigated removal of noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant by monitoring virus concentrations in wastewater samples during two gastroenteritis seasons and evaluating the adsorption of viruses to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Sapoviruses and rotaviruses were detected in 25% of MBR effluent samples with log reduction values of 3- and 2-logs in geometric mean concentrations, respectively, while noroviruses were detected in only 6% of the samples...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214558/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-genotyping-in-a-cohort-of-wild-boars-in-southern-germany-and-eastern-alsace
#3
Kilian Weigand, Kurt Weigand, Mathias Schemmerer, Martina Müller, Juergen J Wenzel
In the last few years it has been realized that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in most industrialized countries and that it is a zoonotic disease. Potential reservoirs for HEV have been identified to be wild boars and deers, but HEV has also been found in domestic pigs and other animals. Due to the probable spread of the virus via contaminated food or contact to infected animals, HEV antibodies are present in more than 16% of the German adult population and rates are increasing with age. We collected blood from 104 wild boars in southern Germany and the border region of Alsace...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196954/prevalence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-and-noroviruses-genomes-on-office-fomites
#4
Agata Stobnicka, Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zając, Joanna Korczyńska-Smolec, Rafał L Górny
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of office fomites in respiratory (human parainfluenza virus 1-HPIV1, human parainfluenza virus 3-HPIV3) and enteric (norovirus GI-NoV GI, norovirus GII-NoV GII) viruses transmission by assessing the occurrence of these viruses on surfaces in office buildings. Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 130 surfaces from open-space and non-open-space rooms in office buildings located in one city were evaluated for HPIV1, HPIV3, NoV GI, and NoV GII viral RNA presence...
December 1, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185203/genetic-diversity-among-genogroup-ii-noroviruses-and-progressive-emergence-of-gii-17-in-wastewaters-in-italy-2011-2016-revealed-by-next-generation-and-sanger-sequencing
#5
E Suffredini, M Iaconelli, M Equestre, B Valdazo-González, A R Ciccaglione, C Marcantonio, S Della Libera, F Bignami, G La Rosa
Noroviruses (NoV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been increasingly reported in NoV outbreaks in Asia, and has also been described in Europe and North America. In this study, sewage samples were investigated to study the occurrence and genetic diversity of NoV genogroup II (GII) along a 6-year period. Moreover, the spread of GII.17 strains (first appearance and occurrence along time) was specifically assessed...
November 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150772/norovirus-gii-17-associated-with-a-foodborne-acute-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-brazil-2016
#6
Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Tulio Machado Fumian, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Alexandre Madi Fialho, Sergio Mouta, Cristiane Mendes Pereira Santiago, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Foodborne transmission gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak occurred during a celebration lunch in July, 2016, Brazil. All stool samples tested were positive for noroviruses (NoV) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains were genetically close to GII.17 Kawasaki_2014. These findings indicated circulation of NoV GII.17 Kawasaki_2014 in the Brazilian population, associated with AGE outbreak.
November 17, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230695/oyster-contamination-with-human-noroviruses-impacted-by-urban-drainage-and-seasonal-flooding-in-vietnam
#7
Gia Thanh Nguyen, Jian Pu, Takayuki Miura, Hiroaki Ito, Shinobu Kazama, Yoshimitsu Konta, An Van Le, Toru Watanabe
This study investigated the level of norovirus contamination in oysters collected at a lagoon receiving urban drainage from Hue City for 17 months (August 2015-December 2016). We also investigated the genetic diversity of norovirus GI and GII in oyster and wastewater samples by using pyrosequencing to evaluate the effect of urban drainage on norovirus contamination of oysters. A total of 34 oyster samples were collected at two sampling sites (stations A and B) in a lagoon. Norovirus GI was more frequently detected than GII (positive rate 79 vs...
November 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098656/virological-quality-of-irrigation-water-sources-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-index-of-pathogenic-virus-contamination-level
#8
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086390/morphological-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-avian-faecal-droppings-and-their-impact-on-survival-of-avian-influenza-virus
#9
Shailesh D Pawar, Satish A Pande, Deeksha S Tare, Sachin S Keng, Sadhana S Kode, Dinesh K Singh, Jayati Mullick
Environmental specimens such as faecal droppings are considered important for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV). In view of lower rates of AIV isolation from avian faecal droppings, characterization of droppings is imperative to elucidate contributing factors. However, there are no reports on morphological and biochemical characteristics of droppings. The objective of the present study was the characterization of droppings from different avian species and their impact on the AIV detection and isolation...
October 31, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022248/coxsackievirus-b4-as-a-causative-agent-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-is-there-a-role-of-inefficiently-treated-drinking-water-and-sewage-in-virus-spreading
#10
Waled M El-Senousy, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Rehab G Khalil
This study proposed to detect the enterovirus (EV) infection in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to assess the role of insufficiently treated water and sewage as sources of viral spreading. Three hundred and eighty-two serum specimens of children with T1D, one hundred serum specimens of children who did not suffer from T1D as control, and forty-eight water and sewage samples were screened for EV RNA using nested RT-PCR. The number of genome copies and infectious units of EVs in raw and treated sewage and water samples were investigated using real-time (RT)-PCR and plaque assay, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022247/persistent-norovirus-contamination-of-groundwater-supplies-in-two-waterborne-outbreaks
#11
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019092/rapid-detection-of-human-norovirus-in-frozen-raspberries
#12
Maija Summa, Leena Maunula
Raspberries have lately caused several human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we developed and evaluated for HuNoV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection in frozen raspberries extraction methods that have equal sensitivity but are less time-consuming than widely used methods based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. One method was applied to stored frozen raspberries linked to previous HuNoV outbreaks and berries on sale. In the virus elution-based Method 1, sparkling water eluted viruses most efficiently from the berries...
October 10, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956272/first-detection-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-shellfish-and-in-seawater-from-production-areas-in-southern-italy
#13
G La Rosa, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, F Capuano, M Iaconelli, S Della Libera, E Suffredini
Shellfish samples (n = 384) from production areas, water samples from the same areas (n = 39) and from nearby sewage discharge points (n = 29) were analyzed for hepatitis E virus (HEV) by real-time and nested RT-PCR. Ten shellfish samples (2.6%) and five seawater samples (12.8%) tested positive for HEV; all characterized strains were G3 and showed high degree of sequence identity. An integrated surveillance in seafood and waters is relevant to reduce the risk of shellfish-associated illnesses.
September 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687986/insights-from-a-systematic-search-for-information-on-designs-costs-and-effectiveness-of-poliovirus-environmental-surveillance-systems
#14
REVIEW
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Marita Zimmermann, Mark A Pallansch, Kimberly M Thompson
Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674933/challenging-investigation-of-a-norovirus-foodborne-disease-outbreak-during-a-military-deployment-in-central-african-republic
#15
Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, M Boni, C Tong, P-A Renoult, A Fournier, L Joie, A Mérens, A Chesnay, S Perelle, A Fraisse, K Ambert-Balay, D Chal, S Larréché, R Michel, V Pommier de Santi
In January 2016, a large-scale outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among French armed forces deployed in the Central African Republic. Challenging investigations, conducted from France, made it possible to identify a norovirus genogroup II in both stool and food samples, confirming a norovirus foodborne disease outbreak. Infected food handler management is discussed.
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660425/the-fate-of-mengovirus-on-fiberglass-filter-of-air-handling-units
#16
Victor Bandaly, Aurélie Joubert, Pierre Le Cann, Yves Andres
One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#17
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#18
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616833/use-of-preservative-agents-and-antibiotics-for-increased-poliovirus-survival-on-positively-charged-filters
#19
Christine Susan Fagnant, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Liliana Sánchez-Gonzalez, Jill Christin Falman, Erika Karen Keim, Yarrow Linden, Alana Scheibe, Kilala Sayisha Barnes, Nicola Koren Beck, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008)...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550646/distribution-of-naturally-occurring-norovirus-genogroups-i-ii-and-iv-in-oyster-tissues
#20
Taruta Lowmoung, Kannika Pombubpa, Teerapong Duangdee, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Leera Kittigul
This study evaluated different tissues of naturally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) for the presence of noroviruses. RNA from digestive tissues, gills, and mantle of the oysters was extracted and tested for norovirus genogroup (G) I, GII, and GIV using RT-nested PCR. In spiking experiments with a known norovirus, GII.4, the detection limits were 2.97 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of digestive tissues, 2.62 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of gills, and 1.61 × 10(3) RNA copies/g of mantle. A total of 85 oyster samples were collected from a fresh market in Bangkok, Thailand...
December 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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