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Drug Testing and Analysis

Per Ole M Gundersen, Olav Spigset, Martin Josefsson
Synthetic cannabinoids are one of the most significant groups within the category new psychoactive substances and in recent years new compounds have continuously been introduced to the market of recreational drugs. A sensitive and quantitative screening method in urine with metabolites of frequently seized compounds in Norway (AB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, AB-CHMINACA, AM-2201, AKB48, 5F-AKB48, BB-22, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-250, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, RCS-4, THJ-2201 and UR-144) using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography quadropole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) has been developed...
July 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Madeleine Pettersson Bergstrand, Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Lea Wagmann, Markus R Meyer
Multiple new psychoactive substances (NPS) are released into the recreational drug market each year. One NPS drug class that has become more common in recent years is that of the benzodiazepines ("designer benzodiazepines", DBZ). Several metabolism studies have been performed to improve their bioanalytical detection via the best target. These studies have shown presence of parent glucuronides and as polymorphisms have been noted for the catalyzing enzymes (UDP-glucuronyltransferases) responsible for glucuronide conjugation reactions it is important to keep this in mind when interpreting DBZ cases in clinical and/or forensic toxicology...
July 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katarina Henning, Marek Dziadosz, Michael Klintschar, Birgit Piep, Jörg Teske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Pia Bräuer, Patricia Anielski, Stefan Schwaiger, Hermann Stuppner, Thi Van Anh Tran, Gunter Vollmer, Oliver Zierau, Detlef Thieme, Annekathrin Keiler
Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali, Simaroubaceae) is a medicinal plant endemic to South-East Asia. For centuries, different parts of the plant have been used as natural remedy to treat fever, hypertension or sexual insufficiency. Today, Eurycoma longifolia preparations are commercially available and advertised to enhance athletic performance and muscle strength. Several studies demonstrated a testosterone boosting effect that might be caused by the release of free testosterone from the sex hormone-binding globulin...
July 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Katja Stahl, Andreas Wilke, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
Numerous 2,5-dimethoxy-N-benzylphenethylamines (NBOMe), carrying a variety of lipophilic substituents at the 4-position, are potent agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT2A ) receptors and show hallucinogenic effects. The present study investigated the metabolism of 25D-NBOMe, 25E-NBOMe and 25N-NBOMe using the microsomal model of pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) and the microbial model of the fungi Cunninghamella elegans (C. elegans). Identification of metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) with a QqToF instrument...
July 3, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro, Juan Sánchez-González, Sara Odoardi, Ana María Bermejo, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Francesco Saverio Romolo, Sabina Strano-Rossi
Synthetic cathinones are a type of drugs belonging to group of "new psychoactive substances" (NPSs). The illicit market of these substances is characterized by the continuous introduction in the market of new analogs to evade legislation and to avoid be detected. New screening and confirmation assays are therefore needed, mainly in forensic/clinical samples. In the current development a porous membrane protected - micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) has been developed for the assessment of several cathinones in urine...
July 1, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Johanna Kluge, Linda Rentzsch, Daniela Remane, Frank T Peters, Dirk K Wissenbach
Urinalysis is well established for drug screening. Various methods of urine adulteration such dilution, addition of oxidative/reductive chemicals or detergents and handing over urine-like fluids were used to circumvent a positive screen. Validity parameters such as determination of pH, gravidity, urine temperature, or testing for oxidative/reductive chemicals are therefore used to uncover adulterated urine specimens. However, synthetic urine ("fake urine") has nowadays been used for manipulations, leading to inconspicuous results with common validity test systems...
June 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Delphine Cappelle, Foon Yin Lai, Adrian Covaci, Annemie Vermassen, Cleo L Crunelle, Hugo Neels, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) are 2 non-oxidative and direct metabolites of ethanol. EtG is known to accumulate in hair and has proved to be a reliable biomarker for detection of chronic alcohol consumption. EtS has been analysed in blood and urine but has never been reported in hair. This article presents the first analytical assay based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of EtS in hair. Sample preparation, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric parameters, such as solid-phase extraction, column type, and transitions were optimised...
June 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
L Gheddar, J-S Raul, P Kintz
An athlete contested an adverse analytical finding involving hydrochlorothiazide, and requested our laboratory for testing his hair. As there is no reference in the literature about identification of hydrochlorothiazide in hair, several volunteers were first enrolled (four after a single 25 mg administration and ten with daily therapeutic treatment). A specific method was developed by UPLC-MS/MS. Hair samples were decontaminated with dichloromethane and 30 mg were incubated in buffer at pH 7.0 during 15 h at 50°C...
June 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jean-Pierre Mufusama, Karine Ndjoko Ioset, Doris Feineis, Ludwig Hoellein, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Gerhard Bringmann
In the context of post-marketing surveillance supporting public-health authorities to take evidence-based decisions to fight the spread of poor-quality medicines, the quality of antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine (AL) medicines was assessed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). A total of 150 samples of AL containing products was collected from private pharmaceutical outlets in eight main cities: Goma, Kikwit, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Matadi, Mbandaka, and Mbuji-Mayi. All drug samples were successively analyzed by visual inspection, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following The International Pharmacopoeia...
June 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Frederic Been, Jake O'Brien, Foon Yin Lai, Marie Morelato, Peter Vallely, Jenny McGowan, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F Mueller
The increased availability of high purity crystalline methamphetamine (MA) in Australia raised concerns because of high dosages and its potential consumption through inhalation. The present work investigates the possibility of using wastewater levels of N,N-dimethylamphetamine (DMA), a pyrolysis by-product formed during smoking, as an indirect indicator of MA smoking. A dedicated liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method was setup to detect and quantify DMA in the wastewater samples...
June 6, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gemma Reverter-Branchat, Rosa Ventura, Mohammed Ezzel Din, Julián Mateus, Carme Pedro, Jordi Segura
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for antidoping purposes would facilitate an increase in the number of blood samples because it eliminates the need of specialized personnel and involves minimal invasiveness, reduced costs, stability and easy transportation and storage. Here, the electrophoretic methodology established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to detect Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) has been adapted to evaluate their applicability to DBS. A qualitative procedure to detect recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO), novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) in one single DBS was optimized and validated...
June 6, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Thomas Franz, Gisela Skopp, Gerlinde Schwarz, Frank Musshoff
Testing hair for cannabis use has increasingly been scrutinized due to exposure to second hand smoke or environmental contamination. Confirmation of drug use involving detection of metabolites such as 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) having very rarely been considered. We developed a new, simplified procedure with regard to expenditure of time and material to determine delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, qualitatively), as well as THC-OH and THC-COOH (quantitatively) from 587 hair samples by LC-MS/MS which was compared to hitherto established methods (n=3)...
May 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich, Francisco Javier Egea-González
Homeopathic products are still a controversial issue in modern medicine, understood as complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). In this particular case, homeopathic products prepared from Atropa belladonna extracts may present specific problems due to the effects derived from its components. This article applies a simple, rapid, reliable method to the analysis of different homeopathic products obtained from Atropa belladonna; drugs containing high concentration of plant extracts; and Atropa belladonna seeds...
May 28, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shane Maher, Simon P Elliott, Steve George
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly being seen in forensic casework globally and encompass a number of types of drugs including "designer opioids", especially fentanyl analogues, which are of particular concern due to their high potency and significant risk of toxicity. They are often sold as heroin or mixed with other illicit drugs and therefore users may be unaware they are taking such hazardous compounds. Two fentanyl analogues that have recently been detected are cyclopropylfentanyl and crotonylfentanyl...
May 26, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Melissa F Fogarty, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
3-methylfentanyl (3-MF), N-(3-methyl-1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)-N-phenyl-propanamide, has reappeared on the US illicit drug market since its disappearance after a series of overdose deaths in 1988. 3-MF presents an analytical challenge, due to presence of cis and trans stereoisomers, each with different potencies, and ultimately very low concentrations in the blood after use. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of (±)-cis-3-MF and (±)-trans-3-MF in blood specimens after solid phase extraction...
May 25, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marjaana Viljanto, Pamela Hincks, Lynn Hillyer, Adam Cawley, Craig Suann, Glenys Noble, Christopher J Walker, Mark C Parkin, Andrew T Kicman, James Scarth
The use of testosterone and its pro-drugs, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is currently regulated in horseracing by the application of international testosterone thresholds. However, additional steroidomic approaches, such as steroid ratios, to distinguish overall adrenal stimulation from drug administrations and an equine biological passport for longitudinal steroid profiling of individual animals could be advantageous in equine doping testing. Thus, DHEA concentrations and related ratios (testosterone [T] to DHEA and DHEA to epitestosterone [E]) were assessed in the reference population by quantitative analysis of 200 post-race gelding urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
May 24, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Argitxu Esquivel, Élida Alechaga, Núria Monfort, Rosa Ventura
A method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the direct quantitation of endogenous steroid sulfates has been developed to be able to evaluate these metabolites as biomarkers to detect the misuse of endogenous androgenic anabolic steroids in sports. For sample preparation, a mixed-mode solid-phase extraction was optimized to eliminate the glucuronide fraction in the washing step thus obtaining only the sulfate fraction. Chromatographic separation was optimized to achieve adequate resolution between isomers...
May 24, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Alexandra K Grzechnik, Adrian V George, Linda Mitchell, Michael Collins, Helen Salouros
The use of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a profiling tool for methylamphetamine has evolved over the last decade. Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N) and hydrogen (δ2 H) of methylamphetamine are useful in determining the precursor used to manufacture methylamphetamine, and in many cases the synthetic origin of the methylamphetamine precursor. More recently samples of seized methylamphetamine show that a resolution step is being employed in the manufacturing process. We sought to determine whether the δ13 C, δ15 N and δ2 H values were affected by either a resolution performed on racemic methylamphetamine or a resolution on racemic ephedrine, a commonly used precursor to methylamphetamine...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Victor Carrer, Cristina Alonso, Marc Adrià Oliver, Luisa Coderch
Corticoids are actives widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. This work aims to study the penetration of 3 corticoids (betamethasone, clobetasol, and flurandrenolide), their relationship with their Log D values and the effects of the vehicles. The 3 compounds were applied on a Franz-type diffusion cell in propylene glycol solution and their respective commercial creams and ointments. The active amounts found in the stratum corneum, epidermal, and dermal layers of the skin were investigated. Their diffusions were greatly affected by the formulation; moreover higher amounts of substance in the epidermis and dermis were detected in ointments than in creams...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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