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Drug Testing and Analysis

Vincenzo Ferrone, Maura Carlucci, Roberto Cotellese, Paolo Raimondi, Annadomenica Cichella, Lorenzo Di Marco, Salvatore Genovese, Giuseppe Carlucci
This study developed a HPLC method involving dried blood spotting as sampling method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antimicrobial combination therapy with linezolid and ciprofloxacin. DBS for standards, quality control samples, and patient samples were excised and then extracted using a mixture of methanol/water/formic acid 80:20:0.1 (v/v/v), respectively. Linezolid (LZD) and ciprofloxacin (CPR) were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography using a Kinetex EVO C18 (100 x 4.6 mm I.D...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
John D Power, Pierce Kavanagh, Gavin McLaughlin, Michael Barry, Geraldine Dowling, Simon D Brandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Justin L Poklis, Carl E Wolf, Michelle R Peace
Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jenny K Y Wong, David K K Leung, Peter Curl, Peter J Schiff, Kenneth K H Lam, Terence S M Wan
The detection of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione in a urine sample collected from a gelding having been treated with testosterone (500 mg "Testosterone Suspension 100", single dose, injected intramuscularly) in 2009 led the authors' laboratory to suspect that these 'testicular' steroids could be minor metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Administration trials on six castrated horses with "Testosterone Suspension 100" confirmed that low levels of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione could indeed be detected and confirmed in the early post-administration urine samples from all six geldings...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marie-Agnes Popot, Emmie N M Ho, Natali Stojiljkovic, Florian Bagilet, Pierre Remy, Pascal Maciejewski, Benoit Loup, George H M Chan, Sabine Hargrave, Rick M Arthur, Charlie Russo, James White, Pamela Hincks, Clive Pearce, George Ganio, Paul Zahra, David Batty, Mark Jarrett, Lydia Brooks, Lise-Anne Prescott, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, Terence S M Wan
Cobalt is an essential mineral micronutrient and is regularly present in equine nutritional and feed supplements. Therefore, cobalt is naturally present at low concentrations in biological samples. The administration of cobalt chloride is considered to be blood doping and is thus prohibited. In order to control the misuse of cobalt, it was mandatory to establish an international threshold for cobalt in plasma and/or in urine. To achieve this goal an international collaboration, consisting of an interlaboratory comparison, between 5 laboratories for the urine study and 8 laboratories for the plasma study has been undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Fabio Vaiano, Francesco P Busardò, Jennifer Pascali, Alessia Fioravanti, Claudia Mortali, Francesco Mari, Elisabetta Bertol
Propofol is a short-acting intravenous hypnotic-amnesiac agent used in the general anesthesia. In recent years propofol has gained importance for recreational use (being able to give euphoria, relaxation, sexual hallucinations and disinhibition) and for suicidal purposes. For these reasons, forensic toxicology interest in this substance has increased as well, taking into account the chance of its detection in hair. In this study, a new method in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for hair detection of propofol was applied in two real cases for clinical and forensic purposes...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gian Luca Rosso, Cristina Montomoli, Luca Morini, Stefano M Candura
BACKGROUND: In Italy, Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) is compulsory by law for specific categories of workers since 2008, offering the opportunity to compare studies conducted within a single regulatory framework. AIMS: (i) To estimate the overall prevalence of WDT positivity (at screening survey) among Italian workers. (ii) To evaluate the percentage of true and false positives at confirmation analysis. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific literature on WDT in Italy from January 2008 to March 2015, according to the MOOSE Guidelines...
March 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shuang-Qing Zhang, Shi-Zhong Zhang
Icaritin (ICT) displays numerous pharmacological activities for the treatment of various cancers, osteoporosis, inflammation and angiocardiopathy. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of ICT still remain unknown. ICT was administered to rats at 2 mg/kg for intravenous injection or 40 mg/kg for oral route. Major metabolite of ICT was identified using Q-TOF, and ICT and its major metabolite were quantified in plasma, tissues, urine, feces and bile by UHPLC-MS/MS. A total of 24 metabolites of ICT in plasma were identified and mono C-7 glucuronide glucuronidated icaritin (GICT) was the major metabolite of ICT after oral administration...
March 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ulf Meier, Thomas Briellmann, Eva Scheurer, Franz Dussy
The distribution of analyte concentrations in hair across the scalp has not been thoroughly investigated. Differences in concentrations depending on sampling location are problematic, especially when measuring a second strand to confirm the result of the first measurement. Aiming at a better understanding of the concentration differences, the distribution of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and caffeine concentrations in hair across the entire head of one test subject was investigated by dividing the scalp completely into regions of ca...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
A Marchand, C Buisson, L Martin, J-A Martin, A Molina, D Ressiot
Anti-doping controls in non-major events are relatively infrequent and athletes that compete only in these events are less likely to be controlled. The French Anti-Doping Agency carried out an anti-doping operation during a regional cycling competition in Guadeloupe. The urine and serum samples were analyzed by the French anti-doping laboratory. Out of 42 athletes, 7 were positive for one or more substances prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Four serum samples contained continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) and one a recombinant erythropoietin...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, Lore Geldof, Koen Deventer, Peter Van Eenoo
The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in for example toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long term steroid metabolites of which the existence was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Benoit Loup, Marie-Agnès Popot, Marie-Laure Dreau, Patrice Garcia, Jean-François Bruyas, Yves Bonnaire
Since the availability on the European market of the vaccine Improvac® dedicated to male pig immunological castration, the risk of misuse of this product to horses is now considered as a threat for the horseracing industry. The immunological castration is not allowed by the racing codes (immune system, Article 6). Indeed, this vaccination against the hypothalamic hormone "Luteinising Hormone Releasing Hormone" (LHRH) or "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone" (GnRH) will prevent the release from the anterior pituitary of the Luteinising Hormone (LH) and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), which are required for the development and activity of gonads in males (testes) and female (ovaries) and therefore all their subsequent physiological functions...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Taskinen Sanna, Beck Olof, Bosch Tessa, Brcak Michaela, Carmichael Duncan, Fucci Nadia, George Claire, Piper Mark, Salomone Alberto, Schielen Wim, Steinmeyer Stefan, Weinmann Wolfgang
These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. During these years the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014 EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published new version of the urine guidelines in 2015...
March 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
D Fabregat-Safont, I Fornís, M Ventura, C Gil, N Calzada, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nicolas Leuenberger, Céline Schobinger, Olivier Salamin, Martial Saugy, Tiia Kuuranne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Adam T Cawley, John Keledjian
The move towards personalised medicine derived from individually-focused clinical chemistry measurements has been translated by the human anti-doping movement over the past decade into developing the athlete biological passport (ABP). There is considerable potential for animal sports to adapt this model to facilitate an intelligence-based anti-doping system.
March 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Qian Zhou, Hong Wang, Kuanzheng Zhu, Lihua Zhu, Shengyin Zhou, Jin Peng, Xiya Lu
The widespread use of tetracyclines (TCs) in food animals has led to concerns regarding unsafe residue levels in feed, food and manure. The determination of TCs in such matrices was always interfered by the interactions between protein and TCs. Three deproteination methods were compared in this study. In contrast with acid deproteination, which caused a large loss of TCs due to the strong adsorption of TCs on protein precipitates, a normal enzymatic hydrolysis was confirmed to take a merit of effectively releasing TCs from protein matrices, but required treatment time as long as 16 h...
March 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sylvia I Meier, Sarah C Koelzer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive...
February 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Brad Clark, Sarah M Woolford, Annette Eastwood, Ken Sharpe, Peter G Barnes, Christopher J Gore
There is evidence to suggest athletes have adopted recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dosing regimens that diminish the likelihood they will be caught by direct detection techniques. However, the temporal response in physiology, performance and athlete biological passport (ABP) parameters to such regimens is not clearly understood. Participants were assigned to a high dose only group (HIGH, n = 8, six rHuEPO doses of 250 IU/kg over two weeks), a combined high micro-dose group (COMB, n = 8, high dose plus nine rHuEPO micro-doses over a further three weeks), or one of two placebo control groups who received saline in the same pattern as the HIGH (HIGH-PLACEBO, n = 4) or COMB (COMB-PLACEBO, n = 4) groups...
February 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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