Read by QxMD icon Read

Drug Testing and Analysis

Alexandra K Grzechnik, Adrian V George, Linda Mitchell, Michael Collins, Helen Salouros
The use of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a profiling tool for methylamphetamine has evolved over the last decade. Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N) and hydrogen (δ2 H) of methylamphetamine are useful in determining the precursor used to manufacture methylamphetamine, and in many cases the synthetic origin of the methylamphetamine precursor. More recently samples of seized methylamphetamine show that a resolution step is being employed in the manufacturing process. We sought to determine whether the δ13 C, δ15 N and δ2 H values were affected by either a resolution performed on racemic methylamphetamine or a resolution on racemic ephedrine, a commonly used precursor to methylamphetamine...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Victor Carrer, Cristina Alonso, Marc Adrià Oliver, Luisa Coderch
Corticoids are actives widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. This work aims to study the penetration of three corticoids (betamethasone, clobetasol and flurandrenolide), their relationship with their Log D values and the effects of the vehicles. The three compounds were applied on a Franz-type diffusion cell in propylene glycol solution and their respective commercial creams and ointments. The active amounts found in the stratum corneum, epidermal and dermal layers of the skin were investigated. Their diffusions were greatly affected by the formulation, moreover higher amounts of substance in the epidermis and dermis were detected in ointments than in creams...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Heather K Knych, Dan S McKemie, Kelsey Seminoff, Petra Hartmann, Lynn Hovda, Dionne Benson
Ethylphenidate is a psychostimulant and analogue of the commonly prescribed compound, methylphenidate (Ritalin®). There are a limited number of studies describing the disposition and pharmacologic/toxicological effects of ethylphenidate in any species. The abuse potential in equine athletes along with the limited data available regarding administration in horses necessitates further study. The objectives of the current study were to describe drug concentrations, develop an analytical method that could be used to regulate its use and describe the pharmacodynamic effects of ethylphenidate in horses...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
S Münster-Müller, N Scheid, T Holdermann, S Schneiders, M Pütz
In this paper results of a pilot study on the profiling of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist 5F-PB-22 (5F-QUPIC, pentylfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid-8-quinolinyl ester) via isotope ratio mass spectrometry are presented. It is focused on δ13 C, δ15 N and δ2 H isotope ratios, which are determined using elemental analyser (EA) and high temperature elemental analyser (TC/EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). By means of a sample of pure material of 5F-PB-22 it is shown that the extraction of 5F-PB-22 from herbal material, a rapid clean-up procedure, or preparative column chromatography had no influences on the isotope ratios...
May 21, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Monica Mazzarino, Franziska L Khevenhüller-Metsch, Ilaria Fiacco, Maria Kristina Parr, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interactions on the excretion profile of the anabolic androgenic steroid methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) are discussed here. More specifically, we have evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments the effects of seven non-prohibited drugs (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, fluoxetine, paroxetine and nefazodone) on the main metabolic pathways of methandienone. These are selected among those most commonly used by the athletes...
May 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marjaana Viljanto, Catarina Horro Pita, James Scarth, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
The effective analysis of anabolic-androgenic steroids in urine usually requires a suitable deconjugation method for the analysis of phase II metabolites such as sulfates and glucuronides. Acid hydrolysis using methanolysis is one adopted method of deconjugation that efficiently and rapidly cleaves both sulfates and glucuronides contemporaneously. The formation of artefactual by-products is a known disadvantage of this harsh method. However, the possible promotion of deuterium-hydrogen exchange of isotopically labelled internal standards has received little attention in the literature...
May 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Eugenio Alladio, Giulia Biosa, Fabrizio Seganti, Daniele Di Corcia, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti, Markus R Baumgartner
The quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples is consistently used throughout the world to assess chronic excessive alcohol consumption. For administrative and legal purposes, the analytical results are compared with cut-off values recognized by regulatory authorities and scientific societies. However, it has been recently recognized that the analytical results depend on the hair sample pretreatment procedures, including the crumbling and extraction conditions. A systematic evaluation of the EtG extraction conditions from pulverized scalp hair was conducted by design of experiments (DoE) considering the extraction time, temperature, pH, and solvent composition as potential influencing factors...
May 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Bianca Olivieri, Mark Marić, Candice Bridge
The use of immunoassays for drug screening has increased due to their sensitivity towards target analytes, specifically the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Adulterant test strips are commonly used in conjunction with immunoassay tests to ensure that the integrity of the specimen has not been altered prior to drug screening. This research focuses on determining which adulterants can produce a false negative result, not only with one of the screening tests, but throughout the entire screening process...
May 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Philippe J Eugster, Christina N Boyle, Sylvain Prod'hom, Erika Tarasco, Thierry Buclin, Thomas A Lutz, Alan G Harris, Eric Grouzmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
I Athanasiadou, S Kraiem, S Al-Sowaidi, H Al-Mohammed, N Dbes, S Al-Yazedi, W Samsam, V Mohamed-Ali, A Dokoumetzidis, M Alsayrafi, G Valsami, C Georgakopoulos
The urinary 'steroid profile' in doping control analysis is a powerful tool aiming to detect intra-individual deviations related to the abuse of endogenous steroids. Factors altering the 'steroid profile' include among others the excessive fluid intake leading to low endogenous steroids concentrations compared to an individual`s normal values. Cases report the use of hyperhydration by athletes as a masking method during anti-doping urine sample collection. Seven healthy physically active non-smoking Caucasian males were examined for a 72-h period using water and a commercial sports drink as hyperhydration agents (20 mL/kg body weight)...
May 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mario Thevis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Matteo Moretti, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Francesca Freni, Ilaria Tomaciello, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Luca Tajana, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Morini
The aims of this study were: a) to identify and quantify cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and cocaethylene (CE) in DBS; b) to compare DBSs analytical results with the routine blood analyses; c) to monitor analytes stability on DBS within a 3-month period. 85 μL of blood from postmortem cases were put on a card for DBS analysis and kept in the dark, at room temperature. Samples were extracted through SPE cartridges and injected in the LC-MS/MS system. The analytical procedure is simple, sensitive and specific...
May 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lukas Mogler, Florian Franz, Maurice Wilde, Laura M Huppertz, Sebastian Halter, Verena Angerer, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a structurally diverse class of new psychoactive substances. Most SCs used for recreational purposes are based on indole or indazole core structures. EG-018 (naphthalen-1-yl(9-pentyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)methanone), EG-2201 ((9-(5-fluoropentyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone) and MDMB-CHMCZCA (methyl 2-(9-(cyclohexylmethyl)-9H-carbazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) are three representatives of a structural subclass of SCs, characterized by a carbazole core system...
May 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andreas Kimergård, Jacklyn Dunne, Anette Bøgen, Peter Hindersson, Torben Breindahl
The increase in opioid prescribing in many European countries over the last decade has raised concerns about associated diversion, overdose, and mortality. Fentanyl is one of these synthetic opioids that is typically prescribed as a transdermal patch for pain that requires continuous pain relief and has been the focus of investigation due to reports of overdose and death. We report a case series of 14 drug addiction treatment entrants, who entered treatment in a service located in the region of Southern Denmark from August 2015 to December 2015 for smoking fentanyl patches...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Kiyotaka Usui, Tasuku Murata, Yuji Fujita, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomoki Hanazawa, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Masato Funayama
Analyses of drugs and poisons in tissue samples are essential in forensic toxicology and pharmacology. However, current procedures for tissue analysis are laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, we assessed the utility of a newly devised probe electrospray ionization (PESI) technique with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for easy, ultra-rapid drug detection in human tissue samples. Using this system, typical pre-treatment procedures, such as solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, deproteinization, or homogenization, can be avoided...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Frank M Hauser, Janneke W Hulshof, Thorsten Rößler, Ralf Zimmermann, Michael Pütz
Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands and Poland were characterised to increase the knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Camila de Paula, Marina Jurisch, Evandro Piccin, Rodinei Augusti
A novel methodology using liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) and paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) was developed to identify and quantify benzodiazepines in beverages. Four types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed in parties and bars were spiked with five distinct benzodiazepines (diazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam and cloxazolam) simulating a drug facilitated crime occurrence. The direct PS-MS analysis of the spiked beverages revealed a remarkable matrix effect with an unclear detection of protonated benzodiazepines...
April 16, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sergi Coll, Xavier Matabosch, Lorena Garrostas, Nuria Monfort, Clara Perez-Maña, Nieves Pizarro, Julián A Mateus, Mohammed Ezzel, Rafael de la Torre, Rosa Ventura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katharina Koch, Volker Auwärter, Maren Hermanns-Clausen, Maurice Wilde, Merja A Neukamm
Novel synthetic opioids and benzodiazepines are an emerging trend on the narcotic drugs market. We present a lethal case of U-47700 and flubromazepam poisoning. A 24-year-old man suffered apnoea after the consumption of the synthetic opioid U-47700 in combination with the benzodiazepine flubromazepam. After reanimation and hospital admission, hypoxic cerebral damage and severe brain oedema were stated. Six days after admission, mechanical ventilation was discontinued, and the patient died. Seven blood serum samples and one urine sample collected during the hospitalisation were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"