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Drug Testing and Analysis

Jose Luiz Costa, Kelly Francisco Cunha, Rafael Lanaro, Ricardo Leal Cunha, Donna Walther, Michael H Baumann
Synthetic cathinones continue to proliferate in clandestine drug markets worldwide. N-ethylnorpentylone (also known as N-ethylpentylone or ephylone) is a popular emergent cathinone, yet little information is available about its toxicology and pharmacology. Here we characterize the analytical quantification, clinical presentation and pharmacological mechanism of action for N-ethylnorpentylone. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to quantify N-ethylnorpentylone in blood obtained from human cases...
September 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christian Reichel, Günter Gmeiner, Katja Walpurgis, Mario Thevis
We recently published two protocols for the detection of Sotatercept (ACE-011, ACVR2A-Fc) and Luspatercept (ACE-536, ACVR2B-Fc) in human serum. Both methods used covalently immobilized antibodies on agarose beads for immunoprecipitation and SAR-PAGE/Western blotting for detection. Disadvantages were the relatively high amount of antibody required per sample (10 μg) and the need of a secondary antibody for the final detection. The updated protocols overcome these limitations by antigen-antibody complex formation in solution followed by capture of the complex with anti-antibody coated magnetic beads...
September 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mats Larsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ben Desbrow, Susan Hall, Helen O'Connor, Gary Slater, Katelyn Barnes, Gary Grant
The stimulant properties of caffeine are often promoted in 'pre-workout' supplements (PWS) to assist with training, reduce the perception of fatigue, and for some brands, assist body fat loss. While manufacturers of PWS often indicate the inclusion of significant amounts of caffeine, no independent verification of the caffeine content of these products exists. The aim of this investigation was to independently assess the caffeine content of popular PWS in Australia and compare these values to nutrition information panel data...
September 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Donata Favretto, Sindi Visentin, Salvatore Scrivano, Emanuele Roselli, Fabio Mattiazzi, Roberto Pertile, Susanna Vogliardi, Marianna Tucci, Massimo Montisci
Diuretic agents are prohibited in sports in- and out-of-competition according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) because of their possible masking effects on other doping agents in urine samples, and their ability to produce fast acute weight losses. Despite previous studies reported adverse analytical findings (AAFs) resulting from contaminations at ppm level (μg/g) of medicinal products, and recommended to introduce reporting limits for diuretics in doping controls, these are not adopted in analyses performed by WADA-accredited laboratories...
September 8, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Victor J Kim, Catherine K Okano, Caroline R Osborne, Deanna M Frank, Christopher T Meana, Marisol S Castaneto
Synthetic urine (SU), which was primarily utilized by drug testing laboratories as matrix for quality control preparations, are now commercially sold and can be used to "fool" a positive drug test. To determine if SU can pass as authentic urine, we challenged Army urine drug testing collection and testing procedures using eight different commercial SU products. Adulteration (Sciteck AdultaCheck® 6) and Onsite SU (Synthetic UrineCheckTM ) test strips were also evaluated. Five of the eight SU were identified by physical observation...
September 7, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
B Zinka, S Epple, S Schick, G Skopp, M Graw, F Musshoff
A 100 μg/L or higher concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in blood serum is generally assumed to be associated with regular and/or heavy use of cannabis. At present, determination of the extent of cannabis use by means of the concentration of THC-COOH in hair has not been assessed. Therefore, we aimed at establishing a threshold for THC-COOH concentrations in hair to prove frequent consumption by comparing THC-COOH concentrations in 129 corresponding serum and hair samples, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Boyoung Han, Hophil Min, Mijin Jeon, Byeori Kang, Junghyun Son
Target analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry is applied for rapidly detecting various prohibited doping substances. Frequent modification is required as additional substances are prohibited. We had developed and validated a non-target screening method requiring no further modification because it analyzes the full spectrum of data in fixed m/z ranges. Urine samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by employing a method that combines full scan and variable data independent acquisition using high-resolution mass spectrometry; and all prohibited substances in the urine samples were successfully detected using our screening method...
September 6, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lea Wagmann, Simon D Brandt, Alexander Stratford, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Psychoactive substances of the 2C-series (2Cs) are phenethylamine-derived designer drugs that can induce psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Chemically, the classic 2Cs contain two methoxy groups in positions 2 and 5 of the phenyl ring, whereas substances of the so-called FLY series contain rigidified methoxy groups integrated in a 2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran core. One of the pharmacological features that has not been investigated in detail includes the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO)...
September 6, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
New psychoactive substances an important issue in clinical/forensic toxicology. 4'N-5F-ADB, a synthetic cannabinoid derived from 5F-ADB, appeared recently on the market. Up to now, no data about its mass spectral fragmentation pattern, metabolism, and thus suitable targets for toxicological urine screenings is available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the metabolic fate of 4'N-5F-ADB in rat, human, and pooled human S9 (pS9). Main human urinary excretion products, which can be used as targets for toxicological screening procedures, were identified by Orbitrap (OT)-based liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS)...
August 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Peter D Maskell, Nathan E Wilson, L Nitin Seetohul, Megan L Crichton, Lewis J Beer, Gail Drummond, Giorgia De Paoli
The abuse of heroin (diamorphine) and heroin deaths are growing around the world. The interpretation of the toxicological results from suspected heroin deaths is notoriously difficult especially in cases where there may be limited samples. In order to help forensic practitioners with heroin interpretation we determined the concentration of morphine (M), morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in blood (femoral and cardiac), brain (thalamus), liver (deep right lobe), bone marrow (sternum), skeletal muscle (psoas) and vitreous humor in 44 heroin related deaths...
August 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Samuel D Banister, Axel Adams, Richard C Kevin, Christa Macdonald, Michelle Glass, Rochelle Boyd, Mark Connor, Iain S McGregor, Christopher M Havel, Stephen J Bright, Mireia Ventura, Cristina Gil, Monica J Barratt, Roy R Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are a dynamic class of new psychoactive substances (NPS), with novel chemotypes emerging each year. Following the putative detection of 5F-CUMYL-P7AICA in Australia in 2016, the scaffold hopping SCRAs 5F-CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PINACA, 5F-CUMYL-P7AICA were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS (LC-QTOF-MS). Since little is known of the pharmacology of 7-azaindole SCRAs like 5F-CUMYL-P7AICA, the binding affinities and functional activities of all compounds at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2 , respectively) were assessed using tritiated radioligand competition experiments and fluorescence-based plate reader membrane potential assays...
August 27, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Tobias Kieliba, Oliver Lerch, Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Markus A Rothschild, Justus Beike
The detection of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in hair, for the purpose of identifying cannabis consumption, is conducted in many forensic laboratories. Since external contamination of hair with these cannabis components cannot be excluded, even after hair decontamination, only the detection of THC metabolites such as 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) or 11-hydroxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC), is considered to prove cannabis consumption. At present, testing for THC metabolites is not standard practice due to its analytical complexity...
August 24, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Paulina Marta Gajda, Niels Bjerre Holm, Lars Jakobsen Hoej, Brian Schou Rasmussen, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Lotte Ask Reitzel, Kristian Linnet
A number of unknown pharmaceutical preparations seized by Danish customs authorities were submitted for liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. Comparison with reference standards unequivocally identified the content of the powders as analogs of the growth hormone secretagogues GHRP-2 (Pralmorelin), GHRP-6, Ipamorelin, and modified growth hormone releasing factor (modified GRF 1-29), which can be used as performance-enhancing substances in sports. In all cases, the detected modification involved the addition of an extra glycine amino acid at the N-terminus, and analytical methods targeting growth hormone secretagogues should hence be updated accordingly...
August 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Guro Forsdahl, Thomas Geisendorfer, Lorenz Göschl, Sandra Pfeffer, Peter Gärtner, Mario Thevis, Günter Gmeiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Stephen R Davies, Benjamin K H Chan, Michael Moawad, Taylor R Garrett, Lance Brooker, Rima Chakrabarty
Two human metabolites of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009, identified by researchers with an interest in sports doping control, have been synthesized and assessed for purity. The synthesis employed was a modification of published procedures for the parent SR9009, careful attention to the purification of intermediates and the final product ensuring materials of the highest purity were available for certification. For each candidate material impurities of related structure were identified and quantified as a relative mass fraction using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy...
August 21, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Wen Li, Jing Zhang, Yanping Wang, Fangdi Hu, Yinghua Zhang
Vesatolimod (GS-9620) is an agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR7) 7, which has been developing as an anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) agent. The focus of the present study was on the metabolic stability evaluation and metabolite identification of GS-9620 in rat, dog and human liver microsomes, as well as interspecies comparison. The average observed in vitro T1/2 values were 3.06, 13.06 and 15.56 min in rat, dog and human liver microsomes, respectively. The findings suggested that GS-9620 was rapidly metabolized in the presence of reductive nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) in rat liver microsomes (RLM), whereas moderately metabolized in dog liver microsomes (DLM) and human liver microsomes (HLM)...
August 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Richard Bade, Peter Stockham, Ben Painter, Alberto Celma, Lubertus Bijlsma, Felix Hernandez, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have increased in use and popularity worldwide. Wastewater analysis has been successfully applied to evaluate illicit drugs use within a population. However, for NPS, such an approach may be limited due to low doses of NPS combined with their ever-changing composition and usage. The dynamic nature of the NPS market means use may be opportunistic, infrequent, and with few users. Hence, the use of complementary information sources is recommended to improve the knowledge on NPS consumption...
August 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andrea E Steuer, Kim Arnold, Dominique Kamber, Thomas Kraemer
Urine adulteration to circumvent positive drug testing is a fundamental challenge for toxicological laboratories all over the world. Untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) methods used in metabolomics had previously revealed uric acid (UA), histidine, methylhistidine, and their oxidation products, for example 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) as potential biomarkers for urine adulteration using potassium nitrite (KNO2 ). These markers should be further evaluated for their reliability, stability, and routine applicability...
August 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michele Iannone, Francesco Botrè, Nicoletta Cardillo, Xavier de la Torre
Anectodical information suggests that flavonoids may be widely used among athletes for their multiple biochemical and pharmacological effects. We have evaluated in vitro the effects of two synthetic isoflavones, methoxyisoflavone and ipriflavone, on the catalytic activity of human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens (i.e. testosterone or androstenedione) to estrogens (i.e. estradiol and estrone). The potential inhibitory effect was evaluated by measuring the rate of aromatization of testosterone, monitored by GC-MS, both in the presence and in the absence of methoxyisoflavone or ipriflavone, comparing their effects with those of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (formestane, anastrozole and aminoglutethimide) presently included in the list of prohibited substances and methods, and of natural flavonoids (chrysin, quercetin and daidzein), that are known inhibitors of CYP19...
August 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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