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Drug Testing and Analysis

Martina I Boxler, Tom D Schneider, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Over the past few years the interest in metabolomics has increased in various fields including forensic toxicology. Forensic analysis typically requires a high degree of accuracy, which is often a problem in metabolomics applications. We aimed for a systematic evaluation of different analytical considerations of a metabolomics workflow allowing a targeted approach within an untargeted setup. Samples with 69 metabolites from different chemical classes were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer coupled to liquid chromatography (UHPLC-QTOF)...
November 8, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andrea E Steuer, Dominique Kamber, Thomas Kraemer
Reliable detection of urine adulteration attempts to circumvent positive drug testing represents a critical step for laboratories in abstinence control settings. An ideal workflow for high-throughput testing would involve simultaneous detection of adulteration attempts in the very same run with drug detection. Monitoring of degraded or oxidized endogenous urinary compounds as indirect markers has been previously evaluated for that purpose exemplified for the adulterant potassium nitrite (KNO2 ). Fifteen, previously identified endogenous markers should now be evaluated for their general applicability to detect adulteration attempts for the following adulterants: hypochlorite-based bleach (NaOCl), peroxidase and peroxide (H2 O2 ), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and iodine (I2 )...
November 8, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Monica Mazzarino, Nikla Rizzato, Carlotta Stacchini, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
The reactions involved in the metabolic pathways of SR9009 were characterized by LC-MS to identify the most appropriate marker(s) of use. The effects of gender, genetic polymorphism and drug-drug interactions on the metabolic profile of SR9009 were also evaluated. In vitro approaches were based on the use of human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms. Sample preparation included an enzymatic hydrolysis (performed only for the phase II investigation) followed by liquid/liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a reverse-phase column; detection was performed by either a triple-quadrupole or a time-of-flight system in positive electrospray ionization and different acquisition modes...
November 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
N Fabresse, I A Larabi, T Stratton, R Mistrik, G Pfau, G Lorin de la Grandmaison, I Etting, S Grassin Delyle, J C Alvarez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mario Thevis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Alan D Brailsford, Wan Noor Mahirah Majidin, Nick Wojek, David A Cowan, Christopher Walker
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused class of drugs by athletes, and thus represent a significant problem to the anti-doping community. Confirmation of a doping violation for AAS cannot always be based on their presence alone due to the endogenous production of some steroids. Both testosterone (and its metabolites) and the major diagnostic metabolite of nandrolone (19-norandrosterone) are produced endogenously. Gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is used in such cases to differentiate between the administration of a synthetic preparation and endogenous steroid production, by measurement of their differing carbon isotope (13C/12C) ratio...
October 31, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lars Ambach, Eleanor Menzies, Mark C Parkin, Andrew Kicman, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Christophe Stove
Cocaine is a common illicit stimulant and is mainly metabolised by hydrolysis to benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), but also to minor metabolites like norcocaine, or hydroxy-BE. When ethanol is present, cocaethylene is formed. Dried blood spots (DBS) are a minimally invasive microsampling technique with possible advantages for analyte stability and ease of storage, making them an attractive matrix in forensic and clinical settings. We developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying cocaine, BE, EME, norcocaine, hydroxy-BE, and cocaethylene in DBS...
October 31, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Thomas Piper, Josef Dib, Marlen Putz, Gregor Fusshöller, Valentin Pop, Andreas Lagojda, Dirk Kuehne, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
A steroidal compound was recently detected in a seized black market product and was identified as (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene) bis (oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11). This compound is described to possess selective androgen receptor modulator- and myostatin inhibitor-like properties. As YK11 is an experimental drug candidate and a non-approved substance for humans, scientific data on its metabolism is scarce. Due to its steroidal backbone and the arguably labile orthoester-derived moiety positioned at the D-ring, substantial metabolic conversion in vivo was anticipated...
October 31, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Leibin Shen, Jun Wang, Yongdong Yi, Chenmin Ye, Rongrong Wang, Guojun Xia, Chengyang Yu, Fuyang Tu, Jingxuan Xu, Zhiqiang Zheng
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibile effect of orally administered isavuconazole, ketoconazole or voriconazol on the pharmacokinetics of methadone in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into four groups: Group A (control), Group B (5 mg/kg isavuconazole), Group C (5 mg/kg ketoconazole), Group D (5 mg/kg voriconazole). A single dose of methadone was administrated half an hour later. Methadone in plasma concentrations and its metabolite EDDP in microsomes were determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS version 3...
October 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shawn Stanley, Koos Van den Berg, Hsiao Ching Foo, Derek Deng
The metabolism of the masking agent tolcapone in the horse has been investigated. This substance was found to have undergone various chemical transformations that produced a large variety of phase I metabolites, as well as glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. Confirmation of the presence of tolcapone and the 3-O-methylated metabolite in the blood samples collected up to 240 minutes and in urine obtained up to 24 hours, was successfully conducted using both GC- and LC-MS/MS techniques. The 3-O-methyl tolcapone is the better marker to use in a screening method because, in comparison to tolcapone, we have found that this substance offers superior chromatographic performance that should potentially give a lower limit of detection...
October 27, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Philippe Desharnais, Jean-François Naud, Christiane Ayotte
The presence of Erythropoiesis Stimulating agents in the urine samples collected from athletes is detected using traditional Western blotting following either size-based separation (SDS/SAR-PAGE) or isoelectric focusing (IEF). Although there is an important testing effort, there is little doubt that ESAs are still abused in sports and that reducing the costs of the tests might increase the number of tests and improve deterrence. The capillary electrophoresis system developed by Protein Simple may be useful to this end...
October 26, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Argitxu Esquivel, Élida Alechaga, Nuria Monfort, Rosa Ventura
The detection of testosterone (T) misuse is performed using the steroid profile that includes concentrations of T and related metabolites excreted free and glucuronoconjugated, and ratios between them. In this work, the usefulness of fourteen endogenous steroid sulfates to improve the detection capabilities of oral T administration has been evaluated. Quantitation of the sulfate metabolites was performed using solid-phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Urine samples were collected up to 144 h after a single oral dose of T undecanoate (120 mg) to five Caucasian male volunteers...
October 25, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dorota Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Grucza, Mirosław Szutowski, Ewa Bulska, Mariola Wicka
2-(Ethylthio) benzimidazole is an active ingredient of Antihot - a dietary supplement sold in Ukraine. The substance, available also under names of Bemitil, Metaprot, and Bemaktor, was developed in the USSR in 1970s, and after tests on Soviet cosmonauts and soldiers, several studies on its influence on athletes' performances were conducted. The research showed that bemitil is a synthetic adaptogen which is capable to significantly increase physical performance and reduce the time of regeneration. Moreover, according to supplement's distributor the substance improves both physical performance and resistance to stress...
October 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cameron S Johnson, Brent R Copp, Aaron Lewis
In recent years there has been a significant increase in the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on a global scale. In New Zealand, a similar increase in the detection of NPS has been observed, particularly for border seizures. From 2014 to 2018, there were over 6300 border seizures analysed at the New Zealand Customs - ESR Screening Laboratory, 18% of which were identified as NPS. In total, 134 different NPS were identified, the majority being synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines and cannabinoids...
October 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Neil Robinson, Jonas Saugy, Frédéric Schütz, Raphael Faiss, Norbert Baume, Sylvain Giraud, Martial Saugy
For the first time, blood samples were collected in all athletes participating in a major sporting event of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) (Athletics World Championships 2011, Daegu, Korea). All variables obtained from blood analyses were incorporated into the individual blood profiles of each athlete for the so-called "Athlete Biological Passport" (ABP). This unprecedented data collection highlighted differences for a few blood biomarkers commonly measured and reported for the ABP on some group of athletes...
October 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
J Czerwinska, M C Parkin, P I Dargan, C George, A T Kicman, V Abbate
Mephedrone is a new psychoactive substance known to be unstable in biological matrices stored at room temperature or refrigerated. While the instability of mephedrone has been investigated before, there is currently no data regarding the stability of mephedrone metabolites. In this study, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of mephedrone and five of its phase I metabolites (dihydro-mephedrone, nor-mephedrone, hydroxytolyl-mephedrone, 4-carboxy-mephedrone and dihydro-nor-mephedrone) in human whole blood has been developed and validated...
October 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Carina de Souza Anselmo, Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes, Gabriel Reis Alves Carneiro, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso Dos Santos, Aline Reis de Carvalho, Bruna de Jesus Labanca, Daniely Silva, William Dias Ribeiro, Amanda Lessa Dutra de Araujo, Monica Costa Padilha, Cleverton Kleiton Freitas de Lima, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) water tank (ZWT) approach was investigated as an alternative model for metabolism studies based on six different experiments with four model compounds. Sibutramine was applied for the multivariate optimization of ZWT conditions, also for the comparison of the metabolism among ZWT, humans, and mice, and for the role of CYP2B6 in ZWT. After the optimization, 18 fish and 168 hours of experiments is the minimum requirement for a relevant panel of biotransformation products. A comparison among the species resulted in the observation of the same hydroxylated metabolites, with differences in metabolites' concentration ratio...
October 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ako Sasao, Michiyo Takaki, Hee-Jin Jeong, Kosei Yonemitsu, Yuki Ohtsu, Hiroshi Tsutsumi, Shota Furukawa, Hiroshi Morioka, Hiroshi Ueda, Yoko Nishitani
The misuse of psychotropic drugs intended for medical treatment represents a recent worldwide public health concern. Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluoroimmunosensor that can detect an antigen immediately without additional reagents or washing steps. Here, we describe creating Q-bodies for the detection of the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FLV) and determining optimal conditions to achieve the highest fluorescence intensity (FI). We prepared five Q-bodies with the fluorophore labeled at either the N- or C- terminus and with different linker lengths...
October 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Olivier Rabin, Vladimir Uiba, Yulia Miroshnikova, Maksim Zabelin, Aleksander Samoylov, Vladislav Karkischenko, Sergey Semyonov, Tatiana Astrelina, Sergey Razinkin
Meldonium is a metabolic drug whose inclusion in the 2016 List of Prohibited Substances and Methods followed the analysis of data collected under the 2015 World Anti-Doping Agency Monitoring Program. In the early months of 2016, anti-doping laboratories reported an unusually high number of cases in which urine samples contained high concentrations of meldonium. Consequently, the meldonium excretion period in healthy athletes and the substance's long-term urine and blood (plasma) pharmacokinetics became central questions for the anti-doping community to address, to ensure appropriate assessment of the scientific and medical situation, and also fair treatment of athletes from a result management and legal standpoint...
October 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Corinne Buisson, Claire Frelat, Kévin Privat, Nicolas Martinat, Michel Audran, Katia Collomp
The impact of DHEA administration has been widely studied for anti-doping purposes in men, whereas only a few studies have been performed in women. In the present study, the impact of DHEA on the steroid profile parameters and their carbon isotopic ratios was explored. Eleven healthy young women and 10 healthy young men received two treatments: one with 100 mg/day of DHEA for 28 days and one with placebo according to a double-blind crossover protocol. Urine and saliva (only in females) samples were collected before and for 72 hours after each short-term treatment...
October 13, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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