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Drug Testing and Analysis

Andreas Thomas, Andre Knoop, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
With an increasing number of prohibited substances in doping controls, knowledge about their metabolism is crucial for efficient analysis. While for low molecular mass molecules, standard protocols for in-vitro metabolism experiments are well established, the situation with peptidic drugs has been shown to be substantially more heterogeneous and complex. Two principle strategies aiming at simulating the metabolism of lower molecular mass peptides in-vitro are presented within this study. The prohibited peptides ARA-290, GHRP-3 and Peforelin, with a to date unknown metabolism, were chosen as model compounds for these experiments and metabolism after incubation with different blood specimens (EDTA-, heparin-, citrate-plasma and serum) and exposure to recombinant amidase were investigated...
September 22, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Steven Janvier, Elke Wattijn, Nadine Botteldoorn, Bart De Spiegeleer, Eric Deconinck, Celine Vanhee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Silvana Petzel-Witt, Sylvia I Meier, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
Hair analysis for the assessment of alcohol or drug abstinence became a routine procedure in forensic toxicology. Hair coloration leading to loss of incorporated xenobiotics and to false negative results turned out to be a major problem. Currently only colored extracts provide hints of manipulations but not bleaching. A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MSMS) method was developed and validated to determine 1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA), a major oxidation product of melanin. PTCA was determined in natural hair samples (n=21) after treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 30 or 40 min with concentrations up to 12% for 40 min...
September 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, e.g. altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n=34) undertaking 3-weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1) , 3000m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing two weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
September 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christian Reichel, G Gmeiner, Mario Thevis
Luspatercept (ACE-536, ACVR2B-Fc), a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of ActRIIB receptor and the Fc-part of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), is currently under clinical development (Phase III). It stimulates the formation of red blood cells and hence may be misused by athletes for doping purposes in the future. Several antibody-based strategies for the detection of Luspatercept and other ACVR2B-Fc fusion proteins in human serum were evaluated (ELISA; IEF-, SDS-, and SAR-PAGE followed by Western blotting; immunoprecipitation)...
September 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Morgan Philp, Shanlin Fu
Chemical 'spot' tests are a presumptive illicit drug identification technique commonly used by law enforcement, border security personnel, and forensic laboratories. The simplicity, low cost and rapid results afforded by these tests make them particularly attractive for presumptive identification globally. In this paper, we review the development of these long-established methods and discuss color test recommendations and guidelines. A search of the scientific literature revealed the chemical reactions occurring in many color tests are either not actively investigated or reported as unknown...
September 15, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
M Lehtihet, A Andersson, A Börjesson, J Schulze, A Rane, M Ericsson, L Ekström
Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an athlete biological passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the co-administration with testosterone. The study was designed as an open study with the subjects being their own control...
September 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sandra N Staeheli, Michael Poetzsch, Veronica P Veloso, Michael Bovens, Christian Bissig, Andrea E Steuer, Thomas Kraemer
Synthetic cannabinoid consumption trends underlie fast changes and provide several challenges to clinical and forensic toxicologists. Due to extensive metabolism parent compounds are hardly detectable in urine. Therefore, knowledge on the metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids is essential to allow their detection in biological matrices. The aim of the present study was the elucidation of the metabolism of CUMYL-PINACA, 5F-CUMYL-PINACA, CUMYL-4CN-BINACA, 5F-CUMYL-P7AICA, CUMYL-4CN-B7AICA with focus on the analytical and interpretational differentiation of the compounds...
September 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Markus Siegert, Andreas Kranawetvogl, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
The vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent. Although, SM was used in combat since WWI there is still no causal therapy currently available. Accordingly, development and investigation of antidotes and scavengers targeting SM are of high clinical relevance. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was shown to mitigate symptoms of SM intoxications in vitro and in vivo. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of NAC are only due to physiological processes or also due to chemical scavenging of SM...
September 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Timothy P Rohrig, Christine M Moore, Kimberly Stephens, Kelsey Cooper, Cynthia Coulter, Tyson Baird, Margaux Garnier, Samuel Miller, James Tuyay, Kei Osawa, Joshua Chou, Carson Nuss, Jeff Collier, Karen Cudlin Wittman
The number of drivers using drugs has increased over the last few years, and is likely to continue its upward trend. Testing drivers for alcohol use is routine and standardized, but the same is not true for the identification of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The Drug Evaluation and Classification Program (DECP) was developed to train police officers to recognize the signs and symptoms of recent drug use and remains an invaluable program; however there are insufficient numbers of these highly trained drug recognition experts (DRE's) who are available to attend every potential drug involved traffic incident...
September 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Frank M Hauser, Thorsten Rößler, Janneke W Hulshof, Diana Weigel, Ralf Zimmermann, Michael Pütz
α-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) is one of the most important pre-precursors for the amphetamine production in recent years. This assumption is based on seizure data but up to now there is little analytical data available showing how much amphetamine really originated from APAAN. In this study several syntheses of amphetamine following the Leuckart route were performed starting from different organic compounds including APAAN. The organic phases were analysed using GC/MS to search for signals caused by possible APAAN markers...
August 30, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Benjamín Velasco-Bejarano, Jahir Bautista, Ma Olivia Noguez, Evangelina Camacho, Martha E Rodríguez, Leonardo Rodríguez
Several banned substances are illegally used by athletes in racemic mixtures for performance enhancement. These include clenbuterol, methyl hexaneamine, methamphetamines, amphetamines. Clenbuterol is present in a large number of doping samples from Olympic and non-Olympic athletes that have adverse analytical findings. In some cases, the presence of these substance could be the result of consumption of meat contaminated with clenbuterol. In other cases, the origin is not clear. In this study, 27 products with racemic clenbuterol were evaluated using a new analytical methodology for the resolution of R-(-) and S-(+)-enantiomers of clenbuterol by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry LC-MS/MS using a chiral column in 15 minutes with good separation...
August 30, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marc Luginbühl, Susanne Nussbaumer, Wolfgang Weinmann
The direct alcohol marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used for the assessment of alcohol consumption behavior and abstinence monitoring by hair analysis. We investigated the influence of chlorinated swimming pool water on EtG concentrations in hair in comparison to deionized water (Milli-Q) containing no chlorine. EtG concentrations were measured with a validated online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. EtG positive hair samples were obtained from three regular drinkers and incubated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours at room temperature...
August 30, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cuimei Liu, Tao Li, Yu Han, Zhendong Hua, Wei Jia, Zhenhua Qian
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have expanded their distribution and become widely available in the global market in recent years. The illicit use of fentanyl and its analogues has become an important worldwide concern linked to their high potency and risk of fatal overdose. This study describes the analytical characterization of a new fentanyl derivative N-(1-(2-fluorophenethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-(2-fluorophenyl)propionamide (2,2'-difluorofentanyl). Identification was based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
August 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Torsten Passie, Udo Benzenhöfer
This article describes the broader context in which 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and other mescaline-like compounds were explored as hallucinogens for military and intelligence purposes during the 1940s to the 1960s. Germans first tested mescaline as a "truth drug" in a military context. Since the 1940s, the United States military tested hallucinogenic drugs as "truth drugs" for the purpose of interrogation and behavior manipulation. After tests carried out using mescaline and other drugs in 1950, some derivatives of mescaline were synthesized by the Army for the exploration of possible "speech-inducing" effects...
August 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Yu Zhang, Rui Zhang
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of immunosuppressive drugs (ISD) with a narrow therapeutic index is an increasingly popular tool for minimizing drug toxicity while maximizing the prevention of graft loss and organ rejection. This review focuses on the trends regarding analytical methods for the TDM of ISDs since 2011. The five most commonly prescribed immunosuppressive medications are critically reviewed, including cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, sirolimus (rapamycin), everolimus, and mycophenolic acid. This review introduces the general background of TDM and ISDs and presents the recent developments in using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassays for the TDM of ISDs...
August 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jingzhu Wang, Yi He, Xin Liu, Zhiyong Yang, Wenning Yang
Musk, the dried secretion of the musk pod (sac) of adult male musk deer, has been used as traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and south-east Asian countries for thousands of years. Due to the anabolic steroid component in this TCM, musk preparations have been included in the list of medical products containing prohibited substances employed for doping by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The application of musk pod formulation was claimed to be responsible for some adverse analytical findings (AAF) in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup...
August 25, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Thomas Piper, Marlen Putz, Wilhelm Schänzer, Valentin Pop, Malcolm D McLeod, Dimanthi R Uduwela, Bradley J Stevenson, Mario Thevis
In the course of investigations into the metabolism of testosterone (T) by means of deuterated T and hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry, a pronounced influence of the oral administration of T on sulfoconjugated steroid metabolites was observed. Especially in case of epiandrosterone sulfate (EPIA_S), the contribution of exogenous T to the urinary metabolite was traceable up to 8 days after a single oral dose of 40 mg of T. These findings initiated follow-up studies on the capability of EPIA_S to extend the detection of T and T analogue misuse by carbon isotope ratio (CIR) mass spectrometry in sports drug testing...
August 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Carolina Noble, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
The steady appearance of new fentanyl analogues and the associated overdose deaths require the development of sensitive screening approaches to detect these compounds in biological samples and seizures. We developed a targeted screening method to detect 50 4-anilidopiperidine-related fentanyl analogues in whole blood using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode. Sample preparation was performed using protein precipitation on a fully automated robotic setup...
August 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Richard C Kevin, Timothy W Lefever, Rodney W Snyder, Purvi R Patel, Thomas F Gamage, Timothy R Fennell, Jenny L Wiley, Iain S McGregor, Brian F Thomas
In 2014 and 2015, synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists NNEI (N-1-naphthalenyl-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide) and MN-18 (N-1-naphthalenyl-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) were detected in recreationally used and abused products in multiple countries, and were implicated in episodes of poisoning and toxicity. Despite this, the pharmacokinetic profiles of NNEI and MN-18 have not been characterized. In the present study NNEI and MN-18 were incubated in rat and human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, to estimate kinetic parameters and to identify potential metabolic pathways, respectively...
August 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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