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Drug Testing and Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087984/challenges-in-detecting-substances-for-equine-anti-doping
#1
REVIEW
A G Fragkaki, N Kioukia-Fougia, P Kiousi, M Kioussi, M Tsivou
The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which generally are based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087978/identification-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-metabolites-in-greyhound-urine
#2
David Palmer, Katie Rademaker, Ingrid Martin, Joan Hessell, Rob Howitt
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a 10-residue peptide hormone that induces secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood from the pituitary gland. In males, LH acts on the testes to produce testosterone. The performance enhancing potential of testosterone makes administration of exogenous GnRH a concern in sports doping control. Detection of GnRH abuse is challenging owing to its rapid clearance from the body and degradation in urine. Following recent investigations of GnRH abuse in racing greyhounds in New Zealand, we carried out a GnRH administration study in greyhounds in an attempt to identify GnRH metabolites that might provide more facile detection of GnRH abuse; little information is available on in vivo metabolites of exogenous GnRH in any species and none in dogs...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087976/the-role-of-diode-array-ultraviolet-detection-for-the-identification-of-synthetic-cathinones
#3
Walter F Rowe, Ioan Marginean, Stephanie Carnes, Ira S Lurie
The utility of diode array UV detection for aiding in the identification of synthetic cathinones, including different sub classes and positional isomers is presented. For 35 synthetic cathinones' unique UV spectra are obtained for seven sub classes including mostly beta ketones, where position and type of substitution on benzene rings give rise to differences in UV maxima and relative intensity of the spectral bands. This aspect is key to distinguishing positional isomers which contain differences in R substitution (mono and di) around the benzene ring, which provides complementary information to electron ionization mass spectrometry, where the latter technique cannot distinguish between these types of positional isomers...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067464/analysis-of-six-neuro-enhancing-phenidate-analogs
#4
Helge Klare, Jörg M Neudörfl, Simon D Brandt, Elisabeth Mischler, Sigrid Meier-Giebing, Kathrin Deluweit, Folker Westphal, Tim Laussmann
Six collected phenidates, i.e. 4-methylmethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate, ethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloroethylphenidate, ethylnaphthidate and N-benzyl-ethylphenidate were fully characterized by means of X-ray, NMR, GC-MS, ESI-MS(2) , ATR-FT-IR and GC solid-state IR analysis. Crystallography revealed the exclusive presence of the threo-configuration. Steric crowding induced by N-benzyl substitution at the piperidine moiety prompted an adoption of an unexpected axial positioning of substituents on the piperidine moiety in the crystal state as opposed to the exclusive equatorial positioning encountered in N-unsubstituted phenidate analogs...
January 9, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063270/identification-and-analytical-characterization-of-six-synthetic-cannabinoids-nnl-3-5%C3%A2-f-npb-22-7%C3%A2-n-5%C3%A2-f-akb-48-7%C3%A2-n-5%C3%A2-f-edmb-pinaca-emb-fubinaca-and-eg-018
#5
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Zhendong Hua, Zhenhua Qian
Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are continuously confronted by analytical challenges when dealing with the new psychoactive substances phenomenon. The number of synthetic cannabinoids, the chemical diversity, and the speed of emergence make this group of compounds particularly challenging in terms of detection, monitoring, and responding. Three indazole 7 N positional isomer synthetic cannabinoids, two ethyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate-type synthetic cannabinoids, and one 9H-carbazole substituted synthetic cannabinoid were identified in seized materials...
January 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054457/doping-control-analysis-of-lithium-in-horse-urine-and-plasma-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#6
Timmy L S Choi, Jenny K Y Wong, Emmie N M Ho, Wai Him Kwok, Gary N W Leung, Peter Curl, Terence S M Wan
Lithium salts are commonly prescribed to treat bipolar disorder in humans. They are effective for the treatment of acute mania and the prophylaxis of manic relapses through long-term use. Although there is no reported legitimate therapeutic use of lithium in horses, its potential mood stabilizing effect, low cost and being readily available make lithium salt a potential agent of abuse in equine sports, especially for equestrian competition horses. Lithium can be found in soil, plants and water, as such it is naturally present in the equine body, thus a threshold is necessary to control its misuse in horses...
January 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054434/in-vitro-phase-i-metabolism-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-in-horse-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#7
Karen Y Kwok, George H M Chan, Wai Him Kwok, Jenny K Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are chemicals that possess the anti-oestrogenic activities that are banned "in" and "out" of competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in human sports, and by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in horseracing. SERMs can be used as performance enhancing drugs to boost the level of androgens or to compensate for the adverse effects as a result of extensive use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs). SERMs have indeed been abused in human sports; hence, a similar threat can be envisaged in horseracing...
January 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052590/intracerebral-microdialysis-coupled-to-lc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-tramadol-and-its-major-pharmacologically-active-metabolite-o-desmethyltramadol-in-rat-brain-microdialysates
#8
Mingzhou Liu, Peng Wang, Xuming Yu, Guicheng Dong, Jiang Yue
A rapid and sensitive method involving liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled to an intracerebral microdialysis technique was developed for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of tramadol and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) in rat brain. The microdialysis samples were separated on a C18 column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (50 : 50 : 0.1; v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS spectra were performed in electrospray positive ion mode, and the analytes were detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions m/z [M + H](+) 264...
January 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042917/profiling-and-identification-of-epicatechin-metabolites-in-rats-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-linear-trap-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer
#9
Zhanpeng Shang, Fei Wang, Shengyun Dai, Jianqiu Lu, Xiaodan Wu, Jiayu Zhang
(-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, feces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS(1) to ESI-MS(n) stage...
January 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039926/quantification-of-highly-selective-sigma-1-receptor-antagonist-cm304-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-pre-clinical-pharmacokinetic-study
#10
Bonnie A Avery, Pradeep K Vuppala, Seshulatha Jamalapuram, Abhisheak Sharma, Christophe Mesangeau, Frederick T Chin, Christopher R McCurdy
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification CM304, a novel and highly selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist that has recently entered into human clinical trials. A structural analogue of CM304, SN56, was used as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC(TM) BEH C18 (1.7 µm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) column using a mobile phase [water : methanol (0.1 %v/v formic acid; 50 : 50, %v/v)] at a flow rate of 0...
December 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035764/alpha-pvp-as-an-active-component-of-herbal-highs-in-poland-between-2013-2015
#11
Bogumiła Byrska, Roman Stanaszek, Dariusz Zuba
Alpha-PVP (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP) is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It has been one of the most frequently detected new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the drug market in recent years in Poland. The usual routes of administration of the drug include oral, insufflation, injection. Unexpectedly, we dealt with a great number of herbal samples that turned out to contain α-PVP. A total number of 352 herbal samples from 19 cases, in which we detected synthetic cathinones, were investigated in the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) from 2013 to 2015...
December 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035768/detection-and-in-vitro-metabolism-of-the-confiscated-peptides-bpc-157-and-mgf-r23h
#12
H D Cox, G D Miller, D Eichner
A new peptide, body protecting compound (BPC), BPC 157, and a variant of mechano-growth factor (MGF), MGF R23H, were identified in confiscated vials. BPC 157 has the amino acid sequence, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, and is currently under investigation for the promotion of healing and recovery in a variety of tissues. In vitro metabolism experiments in plasma demonstrate that MGF R23H has good stability and should be detectable in urine, while BPC 157 forms a stable metabolite that should be detectable in urine. A weak cation exchange solid phase extraction method was validated for detection of BPC 157 in urine...
December 29, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035756/response-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-reply-to-restolho-et-al-contactless-decontamination-of-hair-samples-cannabinoids-by-moosmann-and-auw%C3%A3-rter
#13
LETTER
José Restolho, Mário Barroso, Benilde Saramago, Mário Dias, Carlos A M Afonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#14
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024167/a-sensitive-assay-for-urinary-cocaine-metabolite-benzoylecgonine-shows-more-positive-results-and-longer-half-lives-than-those-using-traditional-cutoffs
#15
Joyce Nickley, Amadeo J Pesce, Kevin Krock
Cocaine is a common drug of abuse. To detect its use, a screening detection concentration for the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine is commonly set at 150 ng/mL and its confirmatory cutoff is set at 100 ng/mL [1]. Studies have suggested that these cutoffs may be set too high, allowing some patients with this substance abuse problem to be missed [2,3] or improperly monitored. With the advent of LC-MS/MS technology it is possible to reliably detect and quantify lower concentrations of its metabolite benzoylecgonine [4] as part of a larger drug panel...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992663/persistence-of-alprazolam-in-river-water-according-to-forced-and-non-forced-degradation-assays-adsorption-to-sediment-and-long-term-degradation-products
#16
Juan J Jiménez, María I Sánchez, Beatriz E Muñoz, Rafael Pardo
Alprazolam is a pharmaceutical compound that it is detected in surface waters. Some degradation studies in aqueous solutions and pharmaceutical products are available, but there is not reliable information about its stability in river water. Here, assays have been conducted under forced biological, photochemical and thermal conditions, and non-forced conditions, to estimate the fate of alprazolam in river water and know its degradation products. The forced assays indicated that the biological and photochemical degradation of alprazolam was negligible, only the heating at 70 °C for a long time affected it scarcely...
December 19, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977911/rapid-classification-and-quantification-of-cocaine-in-seized-powders-with-atr-ftir-and-chemometrics
#17
Joy Eliaerts, Pierre Dardenne, Natalie Meert, Filip Van Durme, Nele Samyn, Koen Janssens, Karolien De Wael
Traditionally, fast screening for the presence of cocaine in unknown powders is performed by means of colour tests. The major drawbacks of these tests are subjective colour evaluation depending on the operator ("50 shades of blue") and a lack of selectivity. An alternative fast screening technique is fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectrometry. This technique provides spectra that are difficult to interpret without specialized expertise and showing a lack of sensitivity for the detection of cocaine in mixtures...
December 15, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976521/racing-chemistry-a-century-of-challenges-and-progress
#18
Christopher Kremmer
Horseracing has been called "one of the first quintessentially modern sports". Its urge towards standardization, its mathematically-set odds, concern with weights, and pioneering embrace of drug-testing reflect an empirical temperament crucial to its transformation from gentleman's pastime to global industry funded by wagering. Ironically, in the late 19th century, it was modern science itself, and in particular the purification and synthesis of the drugs of nature, that turned the doping of racing animals- a practice recorded in antiquity-into an organized criminal enterprise...
December 15, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943582/evaluation-of-nicotine-in-tobacco-free-nicotine-commercial-products
#19
Garrett Hellinghausen, Jauh T Lee, Choyce A Weatherly, Diego A Lopez, Daniel W Armstrong
Recently, a variety of new tobacco free nicotine, TFN, products were commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles...
December 11, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935260/in-vitro-studies-on-flubromazolam-metabolism-and-detection-of-its-metabolites-in-authentic-forensic-samples
#20
Carolina Noble, Marie Mardal, Niels Bjerre Holm, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
Flubromazolam is a triazole benzodiazepine with high potency and long-lasting central nervous system depressant effects; however, limited data about its pharmacokinetics are available. Here, we report in vitro studies of the human flubromazolam metabolism analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). In vitro investigations were carried out in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) and recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP)-enzymes. To confirm those metabolites detected in vitro, authentic samples obtained from two forensic cases were also analyzed by LC-HRMS...
December 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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