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Drug Testing and Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421713/identification-isolation-and-synthesis-of-seven-novel-impurities-of-anti-diabetic-drug-repaglinide
#1
Prasad Kancherla, Srinivas Keesari, Pallavi Alegete, Mukkanti Khagga, Parthasarathi Das
Seven unknown impurities in Repaglinide bulk drug batches at below 0.1% (ranging from 0.05-0.10%) were detected by an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method. These impurities were isolated from the crude sample of Repaglinide using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC). Based on LC-ESI/MS study, the chemical structures of seven new impurities (8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16) were presumed and characterized as 4-(cyanomethyl)-2-ethoxybenzoic acid (8), 4-(cyanomethyl)-2-ethoxy-N-(3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl)benzamide (9), 4-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-2-ethoxy-N-(3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl) benzamide (10) and 2-(3-ethoxy-4-((3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl) carbamoyl) phenyl) acetic acid (11) and 4-(cyanomethyl)-N-cyclohexyl-2-ethoxybenzamide (13), 2-(4-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)-3-ethoxyphenyl) acetic acid (14) and N-cyclohexyl-4-(2-(cyclohexylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide (16)...
April 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407446/doping-control-study-of-aicar-in-postrace-urine-and-plasma-samples-from-horses
#2
Jenny K Y Wong, Wai Him Kwok, George H M Chan, Timmy L S Choi, Emmie N M Ho, Murielle Jaubert, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, Adam Cawley, H Ming Williams, John Keledjian, Lydia Brooks, Adam Chambers, Yuanyuan Lin, Terence S M Wan
Acadesine, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, commonly known as AICAR, is a naturally occurring adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator in many mammals including humans and horses. AICAR has attracted considerable attention recently in the field of doping control due to a study showing enhancement of endurance performance in unexercised or untrained mice, resulting in the term "exercise pill". Its use has been classified as gene doping by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), and since it is endogenous, it may only be possible to control deliberate administration of AICAR to racehorses after establishment of an appropriate threshold...
April 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407398/influence-of-bleaching-and-coloring-on-ethyl-glucuronide-content-in-human-hair
#3
Silvana Petzel-Witt, Werner Pogoda, Cora Wunder, Alexander Paulke, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with colored hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of coloring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13...
April 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382793/rna-sample-preparation-applied-to-gene-expression-profiling-for-the-horse-biological-passport
#4
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Florent Baudoin, Florence Cormant, Yohan Glavieux, Benoit Loup, Patrice Garcia, Marie-Agnès Popot, Yves Bonnaire
The improvement of doping control is an on-going race. Techniques to fight against doping are usually based on the direct detection of drugs or their metabolites by analytical methods such as chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry after ad hoc sample preparation. Nowadays, omic methods constitute an attractive development and advances have been achieved particularly by application of molecular biology tools for detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) or to control human growth hormone misuses...
April 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378533/flubromazolam-basic-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-a-highly-potent-designer-benzodiazepine
#5
Laura M Huppertz, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
Since their first appearance on the Internet in 2012, designer benzodiazepines established as an additional, quickly growing compound class among the new psychoactive substances. Data regarding pharmacokinetic parameters, metabolism and detectability for new compounds is limited or often not available. One of these compounds, flubromazolam (8-bromo-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine; the triazolo-analogue of flubromazepam), has been offered on the Internet from 2014 on...
April 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378453/lmplementation-of-the-prolyl-hydroxylase-inhibitor-roxadustat-fg-4592-and-its-main-metabolites-into-routine-doping-controls
#6
Daniel Eichner, Ryan M Van Wagoner, Mitch Brenner, James Chou, Scott Leigh, Lee R Wright, Lee A Flippin, Michael Martinelli, Oliver Krug, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
The utility of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors as therapeutic means for the treatment of patients suffering from anemia has been demonstrated for various different clinical settings. However, besides this intended use, HIF stabilizers can be the subject of misuse in amateur and elite sports due to their erythropoietic properties as recently proven by several cases of adverse analytical findings in doping control testing. Consequently, in order to allow for adequate and comprehensive test methods, knowledge about the drug candidates' metabolism and analytical options enabling appropriate detection windows in sports drug testing samples (i...
April 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371476/detection-of-the-recently-emerged-synthetic-cannabinoid-5%C3%A2-f-mdmb-pica-in-legal-high-products-and-human-urine-samples
#7
Lukas Mogler, Florian Franz, Daniel Rentsch, Verena Angerer, Georg Weinfurtner, Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
Indole or indazole based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) bearing substituents derived from valine or tert-leucine are frequently abused new psychoactive substances (NPS). The emergence of 5 F-MDMB-PICA (methyl N-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}-3-methylvalinate) on the German drug market is a further example of a substance synthesized in the context of scientific research being misused by clandestine laboratories by adding it to 'legal high' products. In this work we present the detection of 5 F-MDMB-PICA in several 'legal high' products by GC-MS analysis...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371432/determination-of-cannabinoid-and-synthetic-cannabinoid-metabolites-in-wastewater-by-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-ultrahigh-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Iria González-Mariño, Kevin V Thomas, Malcolm J Reid
For the first time, ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been used to determine cannabinoid and synthetic cannabinoid residues in wastewater. Combined with a downscaled version of the classical liquid-liquid extraction, the proposed method allows for the quantification of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, three of its major metabolites (the monohydroxylated, the dihydroxylated and the carboxylated species) and four synthetic cannabinoid metabolites (from the JWH-series) at low ng L(-1) levels...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371351/identification-of-pyrolysis-products-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-2-amino-1-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-ethanone-hydrochloride-bk-2c-b-and-its-iodo-analog-bk-2c-i
#9
Kelly B Texter, Rachel Waymach, Pierce V Kavanagh, John E O'Brien, Brian Talbot, Simon D Brandt, Elizabeth A Gardner
2-Amino-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone hydrochloride (bk-2C-B) has recently emerged as a new psychoactive substance (NPS). It is most commonly consumed orally although there are indications that it might also be ingested by inhalation or 'smoking'. Information about the stability of bk-2C-B when exposed to heat is unavailable and the potential for pyrolytic degradation and formation of unknown substances available for inhalation prompted an investigation using a simulated 'meth pipe' scenario. Twelve products following pyrolysis of bk-2C-B were detected and verified by organic synthesis of the corresponding standards...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349656/equine-performance-genes-and-the-future-of-doping-in-horseracing
#10
Tessa Wilkin, Anna Baoutina, Natasha Hamilton
A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses...
March 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342193/metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-derived-new-psychoactive-substances-5-meo-2-me-dalt-5-meo-2-me-alcht-and-5-meo-2-me-dipt-and-their-detectability-in-urine-studied-by-gc-ms-lc-ms-n-and-lc-hr-ms-ms
#11
Achim T Caspar, Jonas B Gaab, Julian A Michely, Simon D Brandt, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Many N,N-dialkylated tryptamines show psychoactive properties and were encountered as new psychoactive substances. The aims of the presented work were to study the phase I and II metabolism and the detectability in standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) of 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DALT), 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N-allyl-N-cyclohexyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT), and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n) , and LC-HR-MS/MS. For metabolism studies, urine was collected over a 24-h period after administration of the compounds to male Wistar rats at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW)...
March 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342178/return-of-the-lysergamides-part-iii-analytical-characterization-of-n-6-ethyl-6-norlysergic-acid-diethylamide-eth-lad-and-1-propionyl-eth-lad-1p-eth-lad
#12
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Alexander Stratford, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
The psychoactive properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have fascinated scientists across disciplines and the exploration of other analogs and derivatives has been motivated by deepening the understanding of ligand-receptor interactions at the molecular level as well as by the search for new therapeutics. Several LSD congeners have appeared on the new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in the form of blotters or powders. Examples include 1-propionyl-LSD (1P-LSD), AL-LAD and LSZ. The absence of analytical data for novel compounds is a frequent challenge encountered in clinical and toxicological investigations...
March 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334502/development-of-a-dried-blood-spot-hplc-pda-method-for-the-analysis-of-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#13
Vincenzo Ferrone, Maura Carlucci, Roberto Cotellese, Paolo Raimondi, Annadomenica Cichella, Lorenzo Di Marco, Salvatore Genovese, Giuseppe Carlucci
This study developed a HPLC method involving dried blood spotting as sampling method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antimicrobial combination therapy with linezolid and ciprofloxacin. DBS for standards, quality control samples, and patient samples were excised and then extracted using a mixture of methanol/water/formic acid 80:20:0.1 (v/v/v), respectively. Linezolid (LZD) and ciprofloxacin (CPR) were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography using a Kinetex EVO C18 (100 x 4.6 mm I.D...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332334/-apaan-in-the-neck-a-reflection-on-some-novel-impurities-found-in-seized-materials-containing-amphetamine-in-ireland-during-routine-forensic-analysis
#14
John D Power, Pierce Kavanagh, Gavin McLaughlin, Michael Barry, Geraldine Dowling, Simon D Brandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332307/ethanol-concentration-in-56-refillable-electronic-cigarettes-liquid-formulations-determined-by-headspace-gas-chromatography-with-flame-ionization-detector-hs-gc-fid
#15
Justin L Poklis, Carl E Wolf, Michelle R Peace
Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322013/evidence-of-boldenone-nandrolone-5-10-estrene-3%C3%AE-17%C3%AE-diol-and-4-estrene-3-17-dione-as-minor-metabolites-of-testosterone-in-equine
#16
Jenny K Y Wong, David K K Leung, Peter Curl, Peter J Schiff, Kenneth K H Lam, Terence S M Wan
The detection of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione in a urine sample collected from a gelding having been treated with testosterone (500 mg "Testosterone Suspension 100", single dose, injected intramuscularly) in 2009 led the authors' laboratory to suspect that these 'testicular' steroids could be minor metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Administration trials on six castrated horses with "Testosterone Suspension 100" confirmed that low levels of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione could indeed be detected and confirmed in the early post-administration urine samples from all six geldings...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320080/interlaboratory-trial-for-the-measurement-of-total-cobalt-in-equine-urine-and-plasma-by-icp-ms
#17
Marie-Agnes Popot, Emmie N M Ho, Natali Stojiljkovic, Florian Bagilet, Pierre Remy, Pascal Maciejewski, Benoit Loup, George H M Chan, Sabine Hargrave, Rick M Arthur, Charlie Russo, James White, Pamela Hincks, Clive Pearce, George Ganio, Paul Zahra, David Batty, Mark Jarrett, Lydia Brooks, Lise-Anne Prescott, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, Terence S M Wan
Cobalt is an essential mineral micronutrient and is regularly present in equine nutritional and feed supplements. Therefore, cobalt is naturally present at low concentrations in biological samples. The administration of cobalt chloride is considered to be blood doping and is thus prohibited. In order to control the misuse of cobalt, it was mandatory to establish an international threshold for cobalt in plasma and/or in urine. To achieve this goal an international collaboration, consisting of an interlaboratory comparison, between 5 laboratories for the urine study and 8 laboratories for the plasma study has been undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317273/hair-testing-of-propofol-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-azo-coupling-derivatization
#18
LETTER
Fabio Vaiano, Francesco P Busardò, Jennifer Pascali, Alessia Fioravanti, Claudia Mortali, Francesco Mari, Elisabetta Bertol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304140/seven-years-of-workplace-drug-testing-in-italy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Gian Luca Rosso, Cristina Montomoli, Luca Morini, Stefano M Candura
BACKGROUND: In Italy, Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) is compulsory by law for specific categories of workers since 2008, offering the opportunity to compare studies conducted within a single regulatory framework. AIMS: (i) To estimate the overall prevalence of WDT positivity (at screening survey) among Italian workers. (ii) To evaluate the percentage of true and false positives at confirmation analysis. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific literature on WDT in Italy from January 2008 to March 2015, according to the MOOSE Guidelines...
March 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303675/oral-absorption-distribution-metabolism-and-excretion-of-icaritin-in-rats-by-q-tof-and-uhplc-ms-ms
#20
Shuang-Qing Zhang, Shi-Zhong Zhang
Icaritin (ICT) displays numerous pharmacological activities for the treatment of various cancers, osteoporosis, inflammation and angiocardiopathy. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of ICT still remain unknown. ICT was administered to rats at 2 mg/kg for intravenous injection or 40 mg/kg for oral route. Major metabolite of ICT was identified using Q-TOF, and ICT and its major metabolite were quantified in plasma, tissues, urine, feces and bile by UHPLC-MS/MS. A total of 24 metabolites of ICT in plasma were identified and mono C-7 glucuronide glucuronidated icaritin (GICT) was the major metabolite of ICT after oral administration...
March 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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