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Drug Testing and Analysis

Akiko Asada, Takahiro Doi, Takaomi Tagami, Akihiro Takeda, Yoshiyuki Sawabe
N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APINACA) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (APICA) are carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids comprising indazole/indole-3-carboxylic acid and adamantan-1-amine moieties. However, in the case of compounds like APINACA or APICA, adamantyl positional isomers exist, wherein either adamantan-1-amine or adamantan-2-amine is present. These adamantyl positional isomers have not been reported in previous studies, and no analytical data are available yet...
October 21, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jenny E Mullen, John-Olof Thörngren, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Nina Gårevik, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®)...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nicolas Leuenberger, Emanuele Bulla, Olivier Salamin, Raul Nicoli, Neil Robinson, Norbert Baume, Martial Saugy
The concentration of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is suppressed during periods of increased erythropoietic activity. The present study obtained blood samples from 109 elite athletes and examined the correlations between hepcidin and markers of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism (i.e., hemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, erythroferrone (ERFE), and iron concentration). Furthermore, an administration study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) delta (Dynepo™) on hepcidin concentrations in healthy male volunteers...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christian Brinch Mollerup, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Marie Mardal, Kristian Linnet
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is widely used for the drug screening of biological samples in clinical and forensic laboratories. With the continuous addition of new psychoactive substances (NPS), keeping such methods updated is challenging. HRMS allows for combined targeted and non-targeted screening; first, peaks are identified by software algorithms, and identifications are based on reference standard data. Remaining unknown peaks are attempted identified with in silico and literature data. However, several thousand peaks remain where most are unidentifiable or uninteresting in drug screening...
October 17, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Alessandro Casilli, Thomas Piper, Fábio Azamor de Oliveira, Monica Costa Padilha, Henrique Marcelo Pereira, Mario Thevis, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto
Measuring carbon isotope ratios (CIR) of urinary analytes represents a cornerstone of doping control analysis and has been particularly optimized for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of appropriate quality however necessitates adequate purities of the investigated steroids, which requires extensive pre-analytical sample clean-up steps due to both, the natural presence of the target analytes and the high complexity of the matrix. In order to accelerate the sample preparation and increase the automation of the process, the use of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) prior to IRMS experiments, was investigated...
October 14, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Daniel Jardines, Francesco Botrè, Cristiana Colamonici, Davide Curcio, Gemma Procida, Xavier de la Torre
The detection of the abuse of pseudo-endogenous steroids (testosterone and/or its precursors) is currently based on the application of the steroid module of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA), Athletes' Biological Passport (ABP), implemented through ADAMS. Diagnostic metabolites are monitored for every athlete and statistically evaluated with a predictive Bayesian approach. In the case of suspicious samples, the data of the ABP are confirmed and the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) test is activated. We have previously demonstrated that IRMS enables confirmation of the non-endogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids in otherwise non-suspicious samples, after a longitudinal evaluation of the ABP, even after the inclusion of additional long term diagnostic hydroxylated metabolites, and that the delta values of the parameters obtained during the IRMS confirmation process presented a much lesser variability compared to the parameters of the ABP...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marianne Hädener, Marie Martin Fabritius, Stefan König, Christian Giroud, Wolfgang Weinmann
Heavy cannabis consumption is considered incompatible with safe driving. In Swiss traffic policy, drivers suspected of regular cannabis use are therefore required to undergo medical assessment of their long-term fitness to drive. A whole blood concentration of the cannabis metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) of 40 µg/L is currently used by Swiss forensic experts as decision limit for regular cannabis consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of THCCOOH-glucuronide blood levels as an additional and/or better marker for the frequency of cannabis use...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christopher C Waller, Malcolm D McLeod
In recent years the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of "designer steroids". These compounds are readily accessible online in "dietary" or "nutritional" supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mario Thevis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dante Rojas, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Nora Cesbron, Mylène Penot, Alexandre Sydor, Stéphanie Prévost, Bruno Le Bizec
Besides their development for therapeutic purposes, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth associated pathways as ligands of androgenic receptors (AR). They present thus a potential for abuse in sports and food producing animals as an interesting alternative to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). These compounds are easily available and could therefore be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. To prevent such practices, dedicated analytical strategies have to be developed for specific and sensitive detection of these compounds in biological matrices...
October 11, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
M Schönfelder, H Hofmann, T Schulz, T Engl, D Kemper, B Mayr, C Rautenberg, R Oberhoffer, D Thieme
Administration of low amounts of endogenous hormones - so called micro-dosages - are supposed to represent a major challenge in doping analysis. To model such a situation, we have studied transdermal administrations of 2.4 mg/24 h testosterone patches and examined various steroid concentrations in blood, urine and saliva of 11 volunteers. Multiple samples were collected at t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 48 and 72 h in four different phases, i.e. all combinations with/without physical exercise and with/without testosterone...
October 10, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
P Ferro, R Ventura, C Pérez-Mañá, M Farré, J Segura
Since the appearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the 80's, its expansion and acquisition through the black market has increased, so the detection of its abuse continues to be a challenge at present. New biomarkers that are more reliable and sensitive, allowing a larger detection window, are still needed. In this line, Fibronectin 1 (FN1) has been proposed as potential genetic and protein biomarker of rhGH abuse in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum and plasma. However, logistic problems associated with current blood collection in sports drug testing points towards potential new alternative matrices that could be good candidates to be evaluated...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marjaana Viljanto, James Scarth, Pamela Hincks, Lynn Hillyer, Adam Cawley, Craig Suann, Glenys Noble, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
Detection of testosterone and/or its pro-drugs in the gelding is currently regulated by the application of an international threshold for urinary testosterone of 20 ng/mL. The use of steroid ratios may provide a useful supplementary approach to aid in differentiating between the administration of these steroids and unusual physiological conditions that may result in atypically high testosterone concentrations. In the current study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E)...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Geoffrey D Miller, Vinod Nair, M Scott Morrison, Maggie Summers, Stuart E Willick, Daniel Eichner
The laboratory profile of intranasal testosterone gel has not been previously reported from an anti-doping perspective. Because intranasal testosterone gel is newly available as a commercial product, we sought to examine the laboratory parameters following administration of this formulation, with particular attention to anti-doping guidelines. Five healthy and active male subjects were administered testosterone intranasal gel three times daily for four weeks, using a five consecutive days on, two days off, pattern...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Evaggelos Kiriazopoulos, Sabina Zaharaki, Ariadni Vonaparti, Panagiota Vourna, Eirini Panteri-Petratou, Dimitra Gennimata, Kara Lombardo, Irene Panderi
The use of cephalosporins during breast feeding raises several issues, including the risk of drug exposure through breast milk for the infant. In this article a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/ positive ion electrospray mass spectrometric assay (HILIC/ESI-MS) was developed for the quantitation of cefuroxime, cefoxitin and cefazolin in breast milk and human plasma. The assay was based on the use of small sample size, 25 μL of biological samples, following acetonitrile precipitation of proteins and filtration that enabled injection into the HILIC/ESI-MS system...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christiane Ayotte, Alexandre Sylvestre, Alain Charlebois, Donald Poirier
Two steroids were identified in a supplement named "D-2" following the detection of unknown compounds during the routine testing of an athlete's sample. The main glucuroconjugated metabolites were isolated from this urine by HPLC following enzymatic hydrolysis and identified by GC-MS and NMR analyses as being 2α-hydroxy-5α-androst-3-en-17-one (M1) and 2β,3α-dihydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (M2). A third metabolite, 3α,4β-dihydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (M3) was also detected, however in lower amounts. The precursor steroids, 5α-androst-2-en-17-one (1) and 5α-androst-3-en-17-one (2) were present in the first "D-2" products offered on the internet...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Georgina Balcells, Xavier Matabosch, Rosa Ventura
Stanozolol (STAN) is one of the most frequently detected anabolic androgenic steroids in sports drug testing. STAN misuse is commonly detected by monitoring metabolites excreted conjugated with glucuronic acid after enzymatic hydrolysis or using direct detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It is well known that some of the previously described metabolites are the result of the formation of sulfate conjugates in C17, which are converted to their 17-epimers in urine. Therefore, sulfation is an important phase II metabolic pathway of STAN that has not been comprehensively studied...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Eva Choong, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Lena Ekström
The UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism is known to correlate to urinary concentration of testosterone-glucuronide and hence this genotype exerts a large impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, a biomarker for testosterone doping. The objective of this study was to assess if DNA isolated from athletes urine samples (n = 713) obtained in routine doping controls could be targeted for genotyping analysis for future integration in the athlete's passport. A control population (n = 21) including both urine and blood DNA was used for genotyping concordance test...
October 5, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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