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Drug Testing and Analysis

Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in ADAMS. However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Islam Amine Larabi, Marie Martin, Isabelle Etting, Pauline Penot, Nicolas Fabresse, Jean Claude Alvarez
Recently, the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to their wide use among clubbers and men who have sex with men (MSM) for their stimulant effects. However, their use in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has rarely been described. Herein we report a case of a 44 years-old man who was assaulted after a party. Due to late reporting of the offense, only hair (black) was sampled 15 days later and a segmental analysis was achieved to look for most DFSA agents and NPS. Twenty mg of each segment (A:0-1cm, B:1-3cm and C:3-5cm) were incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lucía Paniagua-González, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is associated with obstetric and fetal complications. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) in placenta (PL) and umbilical cord (UC). Specimens were homogenized in water, followed by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis® HILIC Silica column. Detection was accomplished in electrospray in positive mode. Method validation included: linearity (5 to 1000 ng/g), accuracy (86...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Vincent Di Fazio, Sarah M R Wille, Stefan W Toennes, Janelle H P van Wel, Johannes G Ramaekers, Nele Samyn
Using the Belgian Drugs and Driving procedure, 36% of the cocaine positive oral fluid (OF) screening results were not confirmed in plasma. This study investigates the impact of the choice of screening devices and confirmation matrix on the detection of cocaine use. An UPLC-MS/MS method quantifying cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and other basic drugs in OF was developed and validated. This method monitored OF samples obtained either from a roadside (n =12) or a double-blind controlled study with cocaine users (n=10) who were given either a capsule containing 300 mg of cocaine-HCl or a placebo...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
L Martin, N Zouhiri, M Audran, A Marchand
New therapeutic proteins that trap circulating members of the TGF beta superfamily (activins and growth differentiation factors) show promising effects on erythropoiesis and muscular growth. They are dimeric recombinant fusion proteins composed of the extracellular domain of a human activin receptor (ActRIIA or IIB) linked to the Fc part of human IgG1. Sotatercept (ActRIIA-Fc) and Luspatercept (a modified ActRIIB-Fc) in particular are now in phase 2/3 of clinical trials against anemia and included in the prohibited list established by the World Anti-Doping Agency...
March 2, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Yu Han, Zhendong Hua
Some methamphetamine (MA) crystals contain pharmaceutical impurities resulting from the co-ingredients of medicines used for extracting ephedrine/pseudoephedrine. These pharmaceutical impurities and their related byproducts can reflect the trends in precursor chemicals and manufacturing sources. In this research, one pharmaceutical impurity related byproduct was detected in several seized MA samples synthesized by I/P (Nagai, Moscow, or Hypo) method. Its structure was postulated through the analysis of fragment ions in EI mass spectrum...
March 1, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael F Santillo, Mapa S T Mapa
Products marketed as dietary supplements for sexual enhancement are frequently adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, which are erectile dysfunction drugs or their analogs that can cause adverse health effects. Due to widespread adulteration, a rapid screening assay was developed to detect PDE5 inhibitors in adulterated products. The assay employs fluorescence detection and is based upon measuring inhibition of PDE5 activity, which is the pharmacological mechanism shared among the adulterants...
February 28, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Louisa M Lobigs, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21 night simulated live high: train low protocol (14h.d-1 at 3000m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude, at days 3, 8 and 15 at altitude and 1, 7, 21 and 42 days post-altitude...
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Christina Grumann, Volker Auwärter
Synthesis of positional isomers of designer drugs is a common way of bypassing legal restrictions. For forensic case work, and especially for legal assessment of cases, there is a need for screening methods capable of the unequivocal identification of positional isomers. The presented LC-ESI-MS/MS method is capable of separating positional isomers of nine 2-phenetylamine-derived designer drugs in different matrices including seized materials, hair, serum, and urine specimens. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a biphenyl phase using gradient elution with a total runtime of 26 minutes...
February 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
David J Potter, Kathy Hammond, Shaun Tuffnell, Christopher Walker, Marta Di Forti
BACKGROUND: In 2005 and 2008, studies reported that cannabis in England had become dominated by the sinsemilla (unseeded female) form. The average potency (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] content) of this material had doubled over the previous decade. Cannabis resin then circulating contained approximately equal ratios of THC and cannabidiol (CBD), whereas sinsemilla was almost devoid of CBD. Despite raised health concerns regarding sinsemilla use and the development of psychotic disorders, no update on street cannabis potency has been published since 2008...
February 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
B Gray, M Viljanto, E Menzies, L Vanhaecke
The detection of drugs in human hair samples has been performed by laboratories around the world for many years and the matrix is popular in disciplines such as workplace drug testing. To date, however, hair has not become a routinely utilised matrix in sports drug detection. The analysis of hair samples offers a number of potential advantages to doping control laboratories, not least of which are the greatly extended detection window and the ease of sample collection and storage. This paper describes the development, validation and utilisation of a sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the detection of 50 compounds...
February 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andreas Carlsson, Veronica Sandgren, Stefan Svensson, Peter Konradsson, Simon Dunne, Martin Josefsson, Johan Dahlén
The use of hyphenated analytical techniques in forensic drug screening enables simultaneous identification of a wide range of different compounds. However, the appearance of drug seizures containing new substances, mainly new psychoactive substances (NPS), is steadily increasing. These new and other already known substances often possess structural similarities and consequently they exhibit spectral data with small differences. This situation has made the criteria that ensure indubitable identification of compounds increasingly important...
February 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková, Věra Králová, Kateřina Lněničková, Tomáš Zárybnický, Petra Matoušková, Veronika Hanušová, Martin Ambrož, Zdeněk Šubrt, Lenka Skálová
Flubendazole (FLU), a benzimidazole anthelmintic drug widely used in veterinary medicine, has been approved for the treatment of gut-residing nematodes in humans. In addition, FLU is now considered a promising anticancer agent. Despite this, information about biotransformation of this compound in human is lacking. Moreover, there is no information regarding whether cancer cells are able to metabolize FLU in order to deactivate it. For these reasons, the present study was designed to identify all metabolites of Phase I and Phase II of FLU in human liver and in various cancer cells using UHPLC/MS/MS analysis...
February 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Yufei He, Yazhuo Li, Zihong Wei, Xingyan Zhang, Jing Gao, Xiaojie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Weidang Wu, Wei Li, Xiulin Yi, Yong Zeng, Changxiao Liu
As one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, FGF-21 has been extensivelyinvestigated for its functions and roles since its discovery. It has been demonstrated to be one of key regulators for glucose, and lipid metabolism, and exhibit beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. However, studies focusing on its pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo as a novel therapeutic agent has not been reported. In the present study, rapid and sensitive analytical approaches including radioactivity assay and assay after precipitation/separation by HPLC were established to determine the content of FGF-21 tagged with 125 I in plasma, tissue and excrement...
February 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
J Eliaerts, N Meert, F Van Durme, N Samyn, K De Wael, P Dardenne
Large quantities of illicit drugs are frequently seized by law enforcement. In such cases, a representative number of samples needs to be quickly examined prior to destruction. No procedure has yet been set up which rapidly provides information regarding the homogeneity of the samples, the presence of controlled substances and the degree of purity. This study establishes a protocol for fast analysis of cocaine and its most common cutting agent, levamisole, in large seizures. The protocol is based on a hypergeometric sampling approach combined with FTIR spectrometry and Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithms as analysis methods...
February 2, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael Collins, Ananta Bhattarai, Helen Salouros
In July/August 2017, postal consignments from China each containing 1 kilogram bags described as "Nourishing Whitening Powder" were seized by the Australian Border Force (ABF). The total weight of the consignments exceeded 24 kilograms and initial testing revealed nothing of an illicit nature. However, the nature of the consignments including the labels were suspicious and samples were transferred to the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA). Using NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy the substance was identified as the p-tosyl derivative of methylamphetamine...
January 31, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Xue Gao, Hao Guo, Junwei Wang, Qingbiao Zhao
In this study, a sensitive and fast procedure of ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the determination of major pyrethroid pesticides (permethrin, tetramethrin, bifenthrin, fenvalerate, flucythrinate, fluvalinate, fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin) in blood samples was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD) and ANOVA function were used to optimize key factors affecting the extraction efficiency of UADLLME procedure...
January 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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