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Journal of Optometry

Bruce J W Evans, Peter M Allen, Arnold J Wilkins
PURPOSE: Visual stress (VS) is characterised by symptoms of visual perceptual distortions and eyestrain when viewing text, symptoms that are alleviated by individually prescribed coloured filters. A recent review supports the existence of VS and its treatment, but noted that controversy remains, in part due to inconsistencies in the diagnosis of the condition. The present paper reviews the diagnostic criteria for VS in the literature and reports a Delphi analysis of the criteria currently used in clinical practice...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Javier Ruiz-Alcocer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Andrew Carkeet, Joanne M Wood, Kylie M McNeill, Hamish J McNeill, Joanna A James, Leigh S Holder
PURPOSE: The Enright phenomenon describes the distortion in speed perception experienced by an observer looking sideways from a moving vehicle when viewing with interocular differences in retinal image brightness, usually induced by neutral density filters. We investigated whether the Enright phenomenon could be induced with monocular pupil dilation using tropicamide. METHODS: We tested 17 visually normal young adults on a closed road driving circuit. Participants were asked to travel at Goal Speeds of 40km/h and 60km/h while looking sideways from the vehicle with: (i) both eyes with undilated pupils; (ii) both eyes with dilated pupils; (iii) with the leading eye only dilated; and (iv) the trailing eye only dilated...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Pilar S Merino, Rebeca E Vera, Laura G Mariñas, Pilar S Gómez de Liaño, Jose V Escribano
PURPOSE: To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin. METHODS: We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. RESULTS: We included 27 cases (mean age, 61...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Juan Gros-Otero, Montserrat Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A Teus, MariLuz Iglesias-Iglesias, Carlos Gimenez-Vallejo
PURPOSE: To compare femtosecond laser-assisted sub-Bowman keratomileusis (FSBK) versus laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) to correct moderate to high myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional, comparative case series. A total of eight hundred and fifty-two eyes with myopic astigmatism of -1.5 diopters (D) or higher were included in the study. We compared 427 eyes treated with FSBK versus 425 eyes treated with LASEK with or without mitomycin C...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Laura Remón, Juan A Monsoriu, Walter D Furlan
PURPOSE: To investigate the change in visual acuity (VA) produced by different types of astigmatism (on the basis of the refractive power and position of the principal meridians) on normal accommodating eyes. METHODS: The lens induced method was employed to simulate a set of 28 astigmatic blur conditions on different healthy emmetropic eyes. Additionally, 24 values of spherical defocus were also simulated on the same eyes for comparison. VA was measured in each case and the results, expressed in logMAR units, were represented against of the modulus of the dioptric power vector (blur strength)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Optometry
David P Piñero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Bruce J W Evans, Peter M Allen
Claims that coloured filters aid reading date back 200 years and remain controversial. Some claims, for example, that more than 10% of the general population and 50% of people with dyslexia would benefit from coloured filters lack sound evidence and face validity. Publications with such claims typically cite research using methods that have not been described in the scientific literature and lack a sound aetiological framework. Notwithstanding these criticisms, some researchers have used more rigorous selection criteria and methods of prescribing coloured filters that were developed at a UK Medical Research Council unit and which have been fully described in the scientific literature...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Vanessa Fimreite, Kevin T Willeford, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: Spectral filters have been used clinically in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, they have not been formally assessed using objective techniques in this population. Thus, the aim of the present pilot study was to determine the effect of spectral filters on reading performance and visuo-cortical responsivity in adults with mTBI. METHODS: 12 adults with mTBI/concussion were tested. All reported photosensitivity and reading problems...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Revathy Mani, Archayeeta Rakshit, Srikanth Ramasubramanian, Smitha Vittal Praveen
The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process.
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Samuel Arba Mosquera, Shwetabh Verma
We analyze the role of bilateral symmetry in enhancing binocular visual ability in human eyes, and further explore how efficiently bilateral symmetry is preserved in different ocular surgical procedures. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. Enantiomorphism has been reported in lower order aberrations, higher order aberrations and cone directionality. When contrast differs in the two eyes, binocular acuity is better than monocular acuity of the eye that receives higher contrast...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Godwin O Ovenseri-Ogbomo, Ovigwe Peter Eguegu
PURPOSE: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of vergence dysfunctions among first year university students in Nigeria and to document the measures that define the vergence system of the visual system. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of first year students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, who presented for the mandatory eye examination as part of their medical examinations required for clearance was conducted. A battery of tests that defines the vergence system including near and far phoria, positive and negative fusional vergence amplitudes at far and near, near point of convergence (NPC) and AC/A ratio were measured using conventional clinical protocols...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Samuel Otabor Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
AIM: To study the prevalence of nearpoint vergence anomalies (convergence insufficiency, convergence excess and fusional vergence dysfunction) and association with gender, age groups, grade level and study site (suburban and rural). METHODS: The study design was cross sectional and data was analyzed for 1201 high school students aged 13-19 years who were randomly selected from 13 high schools in uMhlathuze municipality. Of the total sample, 476 (39.5%) were males and 725 (60...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Pilar Merino, Irene Blanco, Pilar Gómez de Liaño
PURPOSE: Describe surgical treatment and results in a group of patients diagnosed and operated on of fat adherence syndrome following inferior oblique surgery. PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 6 cases diagnosed and treated of fat adherence syndrome following inferior oblique surgery. Mean age was 24.67 years (range, 5-41), 3 males, 5 unilateral and 1 bilateral. Mean vertical deviation was 16.16pd (range, 4-25). Esotropia was associated in 4 cases, diplopia in other 2, and anomalous head posture in 3...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
J Antonio Aznar-Casanova, August Romeo, Aurora Torrents Gómez, Pedro Martin Enrile
PURPOSE: When observers focus their stereoscopic visual system for a long time (e.g., watching a 3D movie) they may experience visual discomfort or asthenopia. We tested two types of models for predicting visual fatigue in a task in which subjects were instructed to discriminate between 3D characters. One model was based on viewing distance (focal distance, vergence distance) and another in visual direction (oculomotor imbalance). METHOD: A 3D test was designed to assess binocular visual fatigue while looking at 3D stimuli located in different visual directions and viewed from two distances from the screen...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Manami Kuze, Takeshi Morita, Yumi Fukuda, Mineo Kondo, Kazuo Tsubota, Masahiko Ayaki
PURPOSE: To record electroretinograms (ERGs) from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) of glaucoma patients. METHODS: ERGs were recorded in 10 normal subjects and 15 patients with glaucoma. The ERG illumination system was built to achieve receptor-silent substitution, and comprised an optical diffuser and four-in-one light-emitting diodes. RESULTS: The ERG recordings of ipRGC from normal subjects showed an "on" response and an "off" response...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Albert Daxer
INTRODUCTION: Laser Vision Correction is not always possible for the treatment of myopia. The aim of this paper is to present results after MyoRing implantation in myopic eyes who in their majority were not eligible for LVC. Safety, effectivity and patient selection is discussed. The aim of the treatment was to be spectacle independent in everyday-life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 19 myopic eyes of 12 patients ranging from -2.25 to -16.5 dioptres (D) in sphere and from 0 to -4D in cylinder were analyzed...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Charles W Mcmonnies
Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Sangeetha Srinivasan, Nicola Pritchard, Geoff P Sampson, Katie Edwards, Dimitrios Vagenas, Anthony W Russell, Rayaz A Malik, Nathan Efron
PURPOSE: To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. METHODS: Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Jennifer A Ebeigbe, Chike Martin Emedike
PURPOSE: Most causes of childhood blindness are treatable or preventable. Knowledge of parents' awareness and perception of eye problems is important in helping to understand parents' eye care seeking behavior. This understanding becomes necessary as early detection and intervention can be effective when done at an early age. METHOD: Study was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria. Thirty-five parents aged 38-54 years with a mean age of 43(±2) years were recruited...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Optometry
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