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Open Neuroimaging Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867436/putamen-activation-represents-an-intrinsic-positive-prediction-error-signal-for-visual-search-in-repeated-configurations
#1
Susanne Sommer, Stefan Pollmann
We investigated fMRI responses to visual search targets appearing at locations that were predicted by the search context. Based on previous work in visual category learning we expected an intrinsic reward prediction error signal in the putamen whenever the target appeared at a location that was predicted with some degree of uncertainty. Comparing target appearance at locations predicted with 50% probability to either locations predicted with 100% probability or unpredicted locations, increased activation was observed in left posterior putamen and adjacent left posterior insula...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867435/neuroimaging-genetics-edited-by-bigos-et-al-oxford-university-press
#2
REVIEW
Klaus Mathiak, Martin Klasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867434/exploring-the-neurocircuitry-underpinning-predictability-of-threat-in-soldiers-with-ptsd-compared-to-deployment-exposed-controls
#3
Michael N Dretsch, Kimberly H Wood, Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Adam M Goodman, Muriah D Wheelock, Kayli B Wood, Thomas S Denney, Stephanie Traynham, David C Knight
BACKGROUND: Prior work examining emotional dysregulation observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has primarily been limited to fear-learning processes specific to anticipation, habituation, and extinction of threat. In contrast, the response to threat itself has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential disruption in fear conditioning neurocircuitry in service members with PTSD, specifically in response to predictable versus unpredictable threats...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843514/attentional-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-an-fmri-investigation
#4
Elizabeth C Hames, Ravi Rajmohan, Dan Fang, Ronald Anderson, Mary Baker, David M Richman, Michael O'Boyle
BACKGROUND: Attentional deficits in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often noted, but their specific nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study used the child Attentional Network Task (Child ANT) in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if the consistently cited deficits of orienting attention are truly due to dysfunctions of orienting-based networks. We hypothesized that these observations are, in fact, a reflection of executive dysfunctions...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708745/sex-differences-in-gamma-band-functional-connectivity-between-the-frontal-lobe-and-cortical-areas-during-an-auditory-oddball-task-as-revealed-by-imaginary-coherence-assessment
#5
Toshiro Fujimoto, Eiichi Okumura, Atsushi Kodabashi, Kouzou Takeuchi, Toshiaki Otsubo, Katsumi Nakamura, Kazutaka Yatsushiro, Masaki Sekine, Shinichiro Kamiya, Susumu Shimooki, Toshiyo Tamura
We studied sex-related differences in gamma oscillation during an auditory oddball task, using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography assessment of imaginary coherence (IC). We obtained a statistical source map of event-related desynchronization (ERD) / event-related synchronization (ERS), and compared females and males regarding ERD / ERS. Based on the results, we chose respectively seed regions for IC determinations in low (30-50 Hz), mid (50-100 Hz) and high gamma (100-150 Hz) bands. In males, ERD was increased in the left posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) at 500 ms in the low gamma band, and in the right caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) at 125 ms in the mid-gamma band...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499824/primary-intracranial-choriocarcinoma-located-in-the-suprasellar-region
#6
Xiuli Li, Kazuhiro Murayama, Ayumi Watanabe, Masato Abe, Hiroshi Toyama
A 10 year old girl was admitted to our hospital due to headache, nausea, and weight loss for about half a year. She also had visual field disorders. Suprasellar tumor was found by X-ray computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-like lobulated enhanced mass with hemorrhage and necrosis. Biopsy of this lesion showed primary intracranial choriocarcinoma on histopathological examination. The serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was measured after the biopsy and was elevated at 71,298...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347266/long-term-six-years-clinical-outcome-discrimination-of-patients-in-the-vegetative-state-could-be-achieved-based-on-the-operational-architectonics-eeg-analysis-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#7
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Giuseppe Galardi
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347265/the-role-of-neuroimaging-techniques-in-establishing-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapy-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#8
Olivia Gosseries, Francesca Pistoia, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Antonio Carolei, Simona Sacco, Steven Laureys
Non-communicative brain damaged patients raise important clinical and scientific issues. Here, we review three major pathological disorders of consciousness: coma, the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state. A number of clinical studies highlight the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness based only on behavioral examinations. The increasing use of neuroimaging techniques allows improving clinical characterization of these patients. Recent neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation can help assess diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347264/the-chief-role-of-frontal-operational-module-of-the-brain-default-mode-network-in-the-potential-recovery-of-consciousness-from-the-vegetative-state-a-preliminary-comparison-of-three-case-reports
#9
Alexander A Fingelkurts, Andrew A Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Giuseppe Galardi
It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of 'I' experience (including autobiographical memories) through embodiment and localization within bodily space, we have tested in this study the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the operational synchrony strength within the frontal DMN OM among patients who are in a vegetative state (VS) could inform about a stable self-consciousness recovery later in the course of disease (up to six years post-injury)...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347263/disembodied-mind-cortical-changes-following-brainstem-injury-in-patients-with-locked-in-syndrome
#10
Francesca Pistoia, Riccardo Cornia, Massimiliano Conson, Olivia Gosseries, Antonio Carolei, Simona Sacco, Carlo C Quattrocchi, Carlo A Mallio, Cristina Iani, Debora Di Mambro, Marco Sarà
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) following ventral brainstem damage is the most severe form of motor disability. Patients are completely entrapped in an unresponsive body despite consciousness is preserved. Although the main feature of LIS is this extreme motor impairment, minor non-motor dysfunctions such as motor imagery defects and impaired emotional recognition have been reported suggesting an alteration of embodied cognition, defined as the effects that the body and its performances may have on cognitive domains...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347262/challenges-and-pitfalls-associated-with-diagnostic-and-prognostic-applications-of-functional-neuroimaging-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#11
Yelena G Bodien, Joseph T Giacino
The diagnostic assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness is currently based on clinical testing at the bedside and prone to a high error rate in the assessment of the degree of conscious awareness. Investigation of more objective assessment strategies, such as the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect conscious awareness, are becoming increasingly popular in the research community. However, inherent challenges to the use of fMRI threaten its validity as a diagnostic tool and will need to be resolved prior to its integration into the clinical setting...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347261/the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-prognosis-and-management-of-disorders-of-consciousness-and-locked-in-syndrome
#12
Francesca Pistoia, Antonio Carolei
Disorders of consciousness and locked-in syndrome are two completely different neurological conditions which share unresponsiveness or minimal responsiveness at an observable behavioral level. The key element of disorders of consciousness is the loss of self- and environmental awareness, while the main feature of locked-in syndrome is extreme motor entrapment despite preserved awareness. In both cases accurate diagnosis may come late and patients are at risk of being wrongly diagnosed and missing out on appropriate rehabilitative opportunities...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014392/does-congenital-deafness-affect-the-structural-and-functional-architecture-of-primary-visual-cortex
#13
C R Smittenaar, M MacSweeney, M I Sereno, D S Schwarzkopf
Deafness results in greater reliance on the remaining senses. It is unknown whether the cortical architecture of the intact senses is optimized to compensate for lost input. Here we performed widefield population receptive field (pRF) mapping of primary visual cortex (V1) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in hearing and congenitally deaf participants, all of whom had learnt sign language after the age of 10 years. We found larger pRFs encoding the peripheral visual field of deaf compared to hearing participants...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401174/arachnoiditis-ossificans-a-rare-cause-of-progressive-myelopathy
#14
Christopher J Steel, Erik L Abrames, William T O'Brien
Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement...
2015: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401173/experimental-fusion-of-contrast-enhanced-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-high-resolution-micro-computed-tomography-in-imaging-the-mouse-inner-ear
#15
S Allen Counter, Peter Damberg, Sahar Nikkhou Aski, Kálmán Nagy, Cecilia Engmér Berglin, Göran Laurell
OBJECTIVE: Imaging cochlear, vestibular, and 8th cranial nerve abnormalities remains a challenge. In this study, the membranous and osseous labyrinths of the wild type mouse inner ear were examined using volumetric data from ultra high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast at 9.4 Tesla and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT) to visualize the scalae and vestibular apparatus, and to establish imaging protocols and parameters for comparative analysis of the normal and mutant mouse inner ear...
2015: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25674191/hippocampal-morphology-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-the-effects-of-physical-activity
#16
Adam Sierakowiak, Anna Mattsson, Marta Gómez-Galán, Teresa Feminía, Lisette Graae, Sahar Nikkhou Aski, Peter Damberg, Mia Lindskog, Stefan Brené, Elin Åberg
Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining...
2014: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25646138/increasing-neuroradiology-exam-volumes-on-call-do-not-result-in-increased-major-discrepancies-in-primary-reads-performed-by-residents
#17
Jared T Verdoorn, Christopher H Hunt, Marianne T Luetmer, Christopher P Wood, Laurence J Eckel, Kara M Schwartz, Felix E Diehn, David F Kallmes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A common perception is that increased on-call workload leads to increased resident mistakes. To test this, we evaluated whether increased imaging volume has led to increased errors by residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was made of all overnight neuroradiology CT exams with a primary resident read from 2006-2010. All studies were over-read by staff neuroradiologists next morning. As the volume is higher on Friday through Sunday nights, weekend studies were examined separately...
2014: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25419254/enhanced-power-within-the-default-mode-network-in-normal-subjects-with-elevated-scores-on-an-egocentric-scale
#18
Mark W G Collins, Michael A Persinger
Integrated global power from the primary structures that composed the Default Mode Network (DMN) and from a random collection of other structures were measured by sLORETA (standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) for young university volunteers who had completed an inventory that contained a subscale by which egocentricity has been inferred. Subjects who exhibited higher scores for egocentricity displayed significantly more power within the DMN structures relative to comparison areas. This was not observed for individuals whose egocentricity scores were lowest where the power differences between the DMN and comparison structures were not significant statistically...
2014: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24653786/a-schizophrenia-like-psychotic-disorder-secondary-to-an-arachnoid-cyst-remitted-with-neurosurgical-treatment-of-the-cyst
#19
G A Baquero, P Molero, J Pla, F Ortuño
We describe a case of delusional psychosis that was terminated by neurosurgical removal of a large arachnoid cyst. The patient was suffering his first psychotic episode and had symptoms typical of schizophrenia. The case underscores the importance of considering that an arachnoid cyst can induce psychopathological symptoms, even those of schizophrenia. Indeed, such symptoms may be the cyst's only clinical manifestation. In addition, the case highlights the importance of doing a structural imaging test when confronted with a first episode of psychosis, especially if the episode is relatively late in appearance...
2014: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24478813/bottom-up-retinotopic-organization-supports-top-down-mental-imagery
#20
Ruey-Song Huang, Martin I Sereno
Finding a path between locations is a routine task in daily life. Mental navigation is often used to plan a route to a destination that is not visible from the current location. We first used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and surface-based averaging methods to find high-level brain regions involved in imagined navigation between locations in a building very familiar to each participant. This revealed a mental navigation network that includes the precuneus, retrosplenial cortex (RSC), parahippocampal place area (PPA), occipital place area (OPA), supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex, and areas along the medial and anterior intraparietal sulcus...
2013: Open Neuroimaging Journal
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