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Open Neurology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399213/successful-nonoperative-treatment-of-a-lumbar-spine-extension-injury-with-disruption-of-all-three-bony-columns-in-a-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-case-report
#1
Ali Faqeeh, David Yen
Study Design: A case report. Background: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis have altered spinal biomechanics putting them at increased risk of spinal fractures that are unstable. As a result there is an increasing trend to treat these fractures with surgical stabilization. We hypothesize that the fracture pattern is also an important factor in patients with this disease and that those with an extension injury in the lumbar spine can be treated with brace immobilization...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387280/omega-3-hastens-and-omega-6-delays-the-progression-of-neuropathology-in-a-murine-model-of-familial-als
#2
Edward F Boumil, Rishel Brenna Vohnoutka, Yuguan Liu, Sangmook Lee, Thomas B Shea
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of motor neurons that has no cure or effective treatment. Any approach that could sustain minor motor function during terminal stages would improve quality of life. Objective: We examined the impact of omega-3 (Ω-3) and Ω-6, on motor neuron function in mice expressing mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), which dominantly confers familial ALS and induces a similar sequence of motor neuron decline and eventual death when expressed in mice...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290837/clinical-outcomes-of-repeated-intraventricular-transplantation-of-autologous-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-chronic-haemorrhagic-stroke-a-one-year-follow-up
#3
Asra Al Fauzi, Purwati Sumorejo, Nur Setiawan Suroto, Muhammad Arifin Parenrengi, Joni Wahyuhadi, Agus Turchan, Ferdiansyah Mahyudin, Heri Suroto, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Mochammad Hasan Machfoed, Abdul Hafid Bajamal, Christianto Benjamin Lumenta
Object: Stroke, one of the most devastating diseases, is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world and is also associated with emotional and economic problems. The main goal of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of the intraventricular transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in post-haemorrhagic stroke patients. Method: This study was done consisting of eight patients with supratentorial haemorrhagic stroke, who had undergone 24 weeks of standard treatment of stroke with stable neurological deficits...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290836/do-cannabinoids-confer-neuroprotection-against-epilepsy-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Anna Capasso
Objective: Cannabinoid-based medications provide not only relief for specific symptoms, but also arrest or delay of disease progression in patients with pain, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions. Although they also seem to hold potential as anticonvulsant agents, evidence of their efficacy in epilepsy is supported by several evidences. Method: The data reviewed herein lend support to the notion that the endocannabinoid signalling system plays a key modulation role in the activities subserved by the hippocampus, which is directly or indirectly affected in epilepsy patients...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290835/enhanced-phosphorylation-of-bax-and-its-translocation-into-mitochondria-in-the-brains-of-individuals-affiliated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
L E Henderson, M A Abdelmegeed, S H Yoo, S G Rhee, X Zhu, M A Smith, R Q Nguyen, G Perry, B J Song
Background: Despite increased neuronal death, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD), the detailed mechanism of cell death in AD is still poorly understood. Method: We hypothesized that p38 kinase activates and then phosphorylates Bax, leading to its translocation to mitochondria in AD brains compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of p38 kinase in phosphorylation and sub-cellular localization of pro-apoptotic Bax in the frontal cortex of the brains from AD and control subjects...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151990/robot-embodied-neuronal-networks-as-an-interactive-model-of-learning
#6
Abraham M Shultz, Sangmook Lee, Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea, Holly C Yanco
Background and Objective: The reductionist approach of neuronal cell culture has been useful for analyses of synaptic signaling. Murine cortical neurons in culture spontaneously form an ex vivo network capable of transmitting complex signals, and have been useful for analyses of several fundamental aspects of neuronal development hitherto difficult to clarify in situ. However, these networks lack the ability to receive and respond to sensory input from the environment as do neurons in vivo...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151989/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-the-modelling-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-human-brain-outside-the-dish
#7
REVIEW
Godwin Tong, Pablo Izquierdo, Rana Arham Raashid
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are a global health issue primarily in the elderly. Although AD has been investigated using primary cultures, animal models and post-mortem human brain tissues, there are currently no effective treatments. Summary: With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from fully differentiated adult cells such as skin fibroblasts, newer opportunities have arisen to study the pathophysiology of many diseases in more depth...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151988/lumbar-spinal-angiolipoma-with-expanding-left-neural-foramen-mimicking-lumbar-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Yener Akyuva, Aylin Gonultas, Numan Karaaslan, Zehra Gulciftci Dagci, Semih Saglik, Mehmet Isyar, Mahir Mahirogullari
Aim: To describe a patient with lumbar angiolipoma mimicking schwannoma in the posterolateral side of the spinal canal with expansion of the left lumbar foramen and to discuss the clinical, radiologic, and surgical features of these lesions with literature. Methods: Without language restriction in this paper, the electronic databases; The Cochrane Collaboration the Cochrane, The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 of 12, Feb. 2011), ProQuest, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NLM) and PubMed dating from 1966 September to January Week 2 2017, were searched for comparative experimental studies using the terms: "OR", "AND"...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567135/specific-effects-of-anti-hypertensive-treatment-in-an-older-patient-with-dementia
#9
Jadwiga Attier Zmudka, Jean Marie Sérot, Salif Dao, Claire Sorel, Anne-Sophie Macaret, Olivier Balédent
Dementia is one of the most common health problems in the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The presence of vascular risk factors such as hypertension (HT) may increase the risk of AD [1,2]. The relation between blood pressure (BP) and dementia has been the subject of numerous epidemiological studies, midlife HT is a risk factor for dementia and AD [3-7] but the association between HT and risk of dementia is lower in the older population [8]. A fair modulation of an antihypertensive treatment, based on the cognitive status of the elderly, can avoid multiple complications...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567134/-doctor-i-hear-music-a-brief-review-about-musical-hallucinations
#10
REVIEW
Purificacion Alvarez Perez, Maria Jose Garcia-Antelo, Eduardo Rubio-Nazabal
Auditory hallucinations are defined as the abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. Musical hallucinations constitute a complex type of auditory hallucination characterized by perception of melodies, music, or songs. Musical hallucinations are infrequent and have been described in 0.16% of a general hospital population. The auditory hallucinations are popularly associated with psychiatric disorders or degenerative neurological diseases but there may be other causes in which the patient evolves favorably with treatment...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567133/case-series-using-montelukast-in-patients-with-memory-loss-and-dementia
#11
Spencer I Rozin
Cognitive decline and dementia are a growing problem as the population ages. Effective therapies to prevent and treat these problems are limited. Neuro-inflammation has been suggested as a cause of dementia [1]. Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat seasonal allergies and asthma. It acts as a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT1) receptor antagonist blocking the action of leukotrienes and decreasing inflammation [2]. Animal studies have shown that administering Montelukast improves memory function [3]...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217183/affection-of-the-respiratory-muscles-in-combined-complex-i-and-iv-deficiency
#12
Josef Finsterer, Helmut Rauschka, Liane Segal, Gabor G Kovacs, Boris Rolinski
OBJECTIVES: Combined complex I+IV deficiency has rarely been reported to manifest with the involvement of the respiratory muscles. CASE REPORT: A 45y male was admitted for hypercapnia due to muscular respiratory insufficiency. He required intubation and mechanical ventilation. He had a previous history of ophthalmoparesis since age 6y, ptosis since age 23y, and anterocollis since at least age 40y. Muscle biopsy from the right deltoid muscle at age 41y was indicative of mitochondrial myopathy...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217182/beta-blockade-and-clinical-outcomes-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Melody M Chang, Ronak N Raval, Jessie J Southerland, Dare A Adewumi, Khaled A Bahjri, Rajeev K Samuel, Rafeek O Woods, Olaide O Ajayi, Bryan S Lee, Frank P K Hsu, Richard L Applegate Ii, Ihab R Dorotta
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages are frequently complicated by hypertension and neurogenic myocardial stunning. Beta blockers may be used for management of these complications. We sought to investigate sympathetic nervous system modulation by beta blockers and their effect on radiographic vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 218 adults admitted to the ICU between 8/2004 and 9/2010 was performed...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217181/an-emerging-natural-history-in-the-development-mechanisms-and-worldwide-prevalence-of-major-mental-disorders
#14
Nicholas Pediaditakis
Conciliating recent findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, and clinical observations together point to new understandings regarding the mechanism, development and the persistent worldwide prevalence of major mental disorders (MMDs), which should be considered the result of an evolutionary downside trade off. Temperamental/trait variability, by facilitating choices for individual and group responses, confers robustness flexibility and resilience crucial to success of our species. Extreme temperamental variants, originating evolutionarily from the asocial aspect of human nature, also constitute the premorbid personality of the disorders...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990183/functional-and-genomic-features-of-human-genes-mutated-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#15
Diego A Forero, Carlos F Prada, George Perry
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of studies around the world have led to the identification of causal genes for hereditary types of common and rare neurological and psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To explore the functional and genomic features of known human genes mutated in neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was used to develop a comprehensive catalog of genes mutated in neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD)...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857815/the-role-of-the-iron-stain-in-assessing-intracranial-hemorrhage
#16
Rudy J Castellani, Gruschenka Mojica, George Perry
The timing of the breakdown of red blood cells and organization of hemorrhage has significance in the catabolism of heme and the processing of iron, but also has a practical application in terms of assigning, or attempting to assign, a time course with respect to traumatic events (e.g. contusions and hemorrhages). Attempts to date contusions, however, have generally been unsuccessful by macroscopic observation, whereas the microscopic observations provide broad data but are also anatomically imprecise as a function of time...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843504/relationship-between-patients-with-clinical-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-and-mutations-in-gjb2-gene
#17
Guilherme M de Carvalho, Priscila Z Ramos, Arthur M Castilho, Alexandre C Guimarães, Edi L Sartorato
The auditory neuropathy is a condition which there is a dyssynchrony in the nerve conduction of the auditory nerve fibers. There is no evidence about the relationship between patients with clinical auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and mutations in GJB2 gene. There are only two studies about this topic in the medical literature. Connexin 26 (GJB2 gene) mutations are common causes of genetic deafness in many populations and we also being reported in subjects with auditory neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pattern of clinical relationship between patients with clinical diagnosis with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and GJB2 gene...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843503/review-cav2-3-r-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-functional-implications-in-convulsive-and-non-convulsive-seizure-activity
#18
Carola Wormuth, Andreas Lundt, Christina Henseler, Ralf Müller, Karl Broich, Anna Papazoglou, Marco Weiergräber
BACKGROUND: Researchers have gained substantial insight into mechanisms of synaptic transmission, hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration within the last decades. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are of central relevance in these processes. In particular, they are key elements in the etiopathogenesis of numerous seizure types and epilepsies. Earlier studies predominantly targeted on Cav2.1 P/Q-type and Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels relevant for absence epileptogenesis. Recent findings bring other channels entities more into focus such as the Cav2...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843502/molecular-mapping-alzheimer-s-disease-maldi-imaging-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-human-hippocampal-tissue
#19
Andrea R Kelley, George Perry, Chloe Bethea, Rudolph J Castellani, Stephan B H Bach
A method for the molecular mapping of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human hippocampal tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is presented. This approach utilizes imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The usefulness of this technique in comparing diseased versus nor mal tissue at the molecular level while continuing to maintain topological and morphological integrity is evident in the preliminary findings. The critical correlation of the deparaffination, washing, matrix deposition, and analysis steps in handling the tissue sections and how these steps impact the successful mapping of human hippocampal tissue is clearly demonstrated...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651846/oxidative-stress-induces-senescence-in-cultured-rpe-cells
#20
Nona Aryan, Brandi S Betts-Obregon, George Perry, Andrew T Tsin
The aim of this research is to determine whether oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cultured ARPE19 cells were subjected to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. Cells were seeded into 24-well plates with hydrogen peroxide added to cell medium and incubated at 37°C + 5% CO2 for a 90-minute period [at 0, 300, 400 and 800 micromolar (MCM) hydrogen peroxide]. The number of viable ARPE19 cells were recorded using the Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion Method and cell senescence was measured by positive staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) protein...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
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