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Open Microbiology Journal

Blessing Ike, Malachy C Ugwu, Moses N Ikegbunam, David Nwobodo, Chika Ejikeugwu, Thaddeus Gugu, Charles O Esimone
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prevalence, antibiogram and molecular features of CA-MRSA in Awka, Nigeria. METHODS: Confirmation of MRSA was done by testing resistance to oxacillin (1µg), cloxacillin (5µg) and cefoxitin (30µg) on sterile Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 4% sodium chloride. The MRSA strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using agar dilution method...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Mishar Kelishadi, Mandana Kelishadi, Alijan Tabarraei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Marisa Almuzara, Claudia Barberis, Viviana Rojas Velázquez, Maria Soledad Ramirez, Angela Famiglietti, Carlos Vay
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using 190 Catalase-negative Gram-Positive Cocci (GPC) clinical isolates. METHODS: All isolates were identified by conventional phenotypic tests following the proposed scheme by Ruoff and Christensen and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, BD, Bremen, Germany). Two different extraction methods (direct transfer formic acid method on spot and ethanol formic acid extraction method) and different cut-offs for genus/specie level identification were used...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Ensieh Zibafar, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Abolfazl Amini, Farhad Niknejad
Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Seyed Mohammad Javad Hosseini, Niloofar Shoaee Naeini, Azad Khaledi, Seyede Fatemeh Daymad, Davoud Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates is increasing and it is considered as one of the major public health concerns in the world. The association between integrons and drug resistance has been proven and evidences suggest that integrons are coding and responsible for dissemination of antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates. OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship between class 1 integrons and drug resistance genes in clinical isolates of P...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Tina Bennett Bonavent, Xiaohui Chen Nielsen, Kjeld Skødebjerg Kristensen, Nikolaj Ihlemann, Claus Moser, Jens Jørgen Christensen
INTRODUCTION: Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum are well known, though rare, etiologic agents of infective endocarditis. Cardiac devices are increasingly implanted. CASE REPORTS: Two cases of infective episodes in pacemaker (PM) treated patients with respectively C. hominis and C. valvarum are presented. In one case blood-culture bottles yielded growth of C. hominis at two episodes with two years apart. At the second episode a vegetation was recognized at the PM lead and the PM device and lead was removed...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Reza Ranjbar, Payam Behzadi, Caterina Mammina
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) is the etiological microorganism for tularemia. There are different forms of tularemia such as respiratory tularemia. Respiratory tularemia is the most severe form of tularemia with a high rate of mortality; if not treated. Therefore, traditional microbiological tools and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are not useful for a rapid, reliable, accurate, sensitive and specific diagnosis. But, DNA microarray technology does. DNA microarray technology needs to appropriate microarray probe designing...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Yulia A Desheva, Galina F Leontieva, Tatiana A Kramskaya, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kornelia B Grabovskaya, Irina V Kiseleva, Larisa G Rudenko, Alexander N Suvorov
BACKGROUND: Secondary bacterial influenza complications are a common cause of excesses morbidity and mortality, which determines the need to develop means for specific prophylaxis. Group B streptococcal infection is especially common cause of pneumonia among children and the elderly with underlying conditions. Here we investigate in a mouse model the effects of combined intranasal immunization using live attenuated influenza vaccine and recombinant polypeptides based on group B Streptococcus surface proteins...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Mahdi Mosayebi, Latif Moini, Reza Hajihossein, Mojtaba Didehdar, Zahra Eslamirad
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Humans act as an intermediate host for Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Toxocara may be an important risk factor for asthma in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Toxocara canis antibody, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in asthmatic patients (aged 5-15 years), referring to a clinic of pulmonary diseases in Arak, Iran. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this bi-group cross sectional study, serum samples were collected from 110 children with confirmed asthma and 70 children without asthma within one year...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Arun K Mishra, Pragya Yadav, Amrita Mishra
The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfoliation of skin surface, erythematous cellulitis occurs. The SSSS may be confined to few blisters localized to the infection site and spread to severe exfoliation affecting complete body. The specific antibodies to exotoxins and increased clearence of exotoxins decrease the frequency of SSSS in adults. Immediate medication with parenteral anti-staphylococcal antibiotics is mandatory...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Maria J Rodriguez-Mora, Virginia P Edgcomb, Craig Taylor, Mary I Scranton, Gordon T Taylor, Andrei Y Chistoserdov
Qualitative expression of dissimilative sulfite reductase (dsrA), a key gene in sulfate reduction, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (sqr), a key gene in sulfide oxidation was investigated. Neither of the two could be amplified from mRNA retrieved with Niskin bottles but were amplified from mRNA retrieved by the Deep SID. The sqr and sqr-like genes retrieved from the Cariaco Basin were related to the sqr genes from a Bradyrhizobium sp., Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum, Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, Sulfurimonas autotrophica, Thiorhodospira sibirica and Chlorobium tepidum...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Bernhard Resch, Renoldner B, Hofer N
OBJECTIVES: To identify laboratory and clinical characteristics of different pathogens associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) of the newborn. METHODS: Newborns with EOS were retrospectively analyzed regarding laboratory and clinical parameters associated with the identified pathogen. RESULTS: We identified 125 newborns having diagnosis of culture proven EOS between 1993 and 2011. One hundred cases had diagnosis of group B streptococci (GBS) infection (80%), 11 had Escherichia coli (8...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Edwin D Morales-Álvarez, Claudia M Rivera-Hoyos, Patricia Landázuri, Raúl A Poutou-Piñales, Aura M Pedroza-Rodríguez
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II is a human recessive disease linked to the X chromosome caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzyme Iduronate 2-Sulfate Sulfatase (IDS), which leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in tissues and organs. The human enzyme has been expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris in attempt to develop more successful expression systems that allow the production of recombinant IDS for Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT). However, the preservation of native signal peptide in the sequence has caused conflicts in processing and recognition in the past, which led to problems in expression and enzyme activity...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Nyasha Chin'ombe, Boniface Muzividzi, Ellen Munemo, Pasipanodya Nziramasanga
BACKGROUND: Several nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were previously isolated from diverse environments such as water, soil, sewage, food and animals. Some of these NTM are now known to be opportunistic pathogens of humans. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the study was to identify NTM isolates stored at the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) and were previously isolated from humans during a national tuberculosis (TB) survey. METHODS: Pure NTM cultures already isolated from human sputum samples during the national TB survey were retrieved from the NMRL and used for this study...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Nazanin Mohammad, Mehrnaz Taghipour Karsabet, Jafar Amani, Abolfazl Ardjmand, Mohsen Razavi Zadeh, Mohammad Khalifeh Gholi, Mahmood Saffari, Amir Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is a global health problem which has encouraged scientists to find new ways to diagnose, immunize and eradicate the H. pylori infection. In silico studies are a promising approach to design new chimeric antigen having the immunogenic potential of several antigens. In order to obtain such benefit in H. pylori vaccine study, a chimeric gene containing four fragments of FliD sequence (1-600 bp), UreB (327-334 bp),VacA (744-805 bp) and CagL(51-100 bp) which have a high density of B- and T-cell epitopes was designed...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Vassiliki Tsata, Aristea Velegraki, Anastasios Ioannidis, Cornelia Poulopoulou, Pantelis Bagos, Maria Magana, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Commensals of the human body can shift to a pathogenic phase when the host immune system is impaired. This study aims to investigate the effect of seven yeast and two bacterial commensals and opportunistic pathogens isolated from blood and the female genital tract on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of human cervical epithelial cell cultures (HeLa). The pathogens Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, caused a significant decrease in TER as compared to the controls; Lactobacillus spp caused a significant increase in TER versus the controls and Escherichia coli had no effect on the TER of the cell monolayers...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Haifeng Chen, Yuan Hu
Human noroviruses are a group of viral agents that afflict people of all age groups. The viruses are now recognized as the most common causative agent of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis and foodborne viral illness worldwide. However, they have been considered to play insignificant roles in the disease burden of acute gastroenteritis for the past decades until the recent advent of new and more sensitive molecular diagnostic methods. The availability and application of the molecular diagnostic methods have led to enhanced detection of noroviruses in clinical, food and environmental samples, significantly increasing the recognition of noroviruses as an etiologic agent of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Xin-He Lai, Long-Fei Zhao, Xiao-Ming Chen, Yi Ren
Francisella tularensis is the causative pathogen of tularemia and a Tier 1 bioterror agent on the CDC list. Considering the fact that some subpopulation of the F. tularensis strains is more virulent, more significantly associated with mortality, and therefore poses more threat to humans, rapid identification and characterization of this subpopulation strains is of invaluable importance. This review summarizes the up-to-date developments of assays for mainly detecting and characterizing F. tularensis and a touch of caveats of some of the assays...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Payam Fathi, Shaoguang Wu
Bacteroides fragilis is an extensively studied anaerobic bacterium comprising the normal flora of the human gut. B. fragilis is known to be one of the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples and has been shown to cause a wide range of pathologies in humans [1, 2]. As an opportunistic pathogen B. fragilis can cause abscess formation and bacteremia [2]. Additionally in its enterotoxigenic form, B. fragilis is a known cause of diarrheal illness, is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and has been recently characterized in patients with colon cancer [3 - 5]...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Ying Liu, Jiang Zhang, Yinduo Ji
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that can cause a variety of infections, including superficial and systematic infections, in humans and animals. The persistent emergence of multidrug resistant S. aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus, has caused dramatically economic burden and concerns in the public health due to limited options of treatment of MRSA infections. In order to make a correct choice of treatment for physicians and understand the prevalence of MRSA, it is extremely critical to precisely and timely diagnose the pathogen that induces a specific infection of patients and to reveal the antibiotic resistant profile of the pathogen...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
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