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Open Respiratory Medicine Journal

Shoaib Faruqi, Dejene Shiferaw, Alyn H Morice
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cough is a major symptom in cystic fibrosis. Ivacaftor is a novel drug which targets the G551D mutation and has been demonstrated to improve lung function and weight in the long term. It also improves symptoms of extra-oesophageal reflux. We wanted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on cough in cystic fibrosis. METHODS: In two patients with cystic fibrosis the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was completed and objective cough counts were measured prior to and within 4 weeks after initiation of treatment with ivacaftor...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Ryuhei Sato, Peijun Gui, Kumiko Ito, Masahiro Kohzuki, Satoru Ebihara
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a relationship between particulate air pollution and respiratory symptoms or decline in lung function, but information about acute effects of short-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on cough and pulmonary function is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of short-term exposure to high concentrations of PM on the cough reflex threshold, urge-to-cough, pulmonary function, and cough-related quality of life in a group of healthy non-resident volunteers visiting Beijing, China...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Andre Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND: Restrictive spirometric pattern is a risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prevalence of restrictive pattern and investigated its determinants in a major sub-Saharan Africa city. METHODS: Participants were adults (≥ 19 years) who took part in a population-based survey in Yaounde (Cameroon) between December 2013 and April 2014. Restrictive pattern was based on a FVC below the lower limit of the normal (LLN) and a ratio forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FVC ≥ LLN (LLN-based restrictive pattern) or a FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN (fixed cut-off based restrictive pattern)...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Krystelle Godbout, Simon Martel, Mathieu Simon, Noël Lampron, Antoine Delage
BACKGROUND: Sampling of peripheral pulmonary nodules with radial endobronchial ultrasound (p-EBUS) increases diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy. However, diagnostic yield is influenced by numerous factors. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of SpyGlass, a one millimeter diameter optic fiber, to obtain images of the distal mucosa and of pulmonary lesions detected with p-EBUS to determine if visual aspect of the distal mucosa was predictive of diagnosis. METHODS: We prospectively recruited subjects investigated for peripheral nodules...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Bruno Sposato
BACKGROUND: Asthma may show an accelerated lung function decline. Asthmatics, although having FEV1 and FEV1/VC (and z-scores) higher than the lower limit of normality, may show a significant FEV1 decline when compared to previous measurements. We assessed how many asymptomatic long-standing asthmatics (LSA) with normal lung function showed a significant FEV1 decline when an older FEV1 was taken as reference point. METHODS: 46 well-controlled LSA (age: 48.8±12.1; 23 females) with normal FEV1 and FEV1/VC according to GLI2012 references (FEV1: 94...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Mihkel Pindus, Hans Orru, Marek Maasikmets, Marko Kaasik, Rain Jõgi
BACKGROUND: Traffic and residential heating are the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in Northern Europe. Wood is widely used for residential heating and vehicle numbers are increasing. Besides traffic exhaust, studded tires produce road dust that is the main source of traffic-related PM10. Several studies have associated total PM mass with health symptoms; however there has been little research on the effects of PM from specific sources. OBJECTIVE: To study the health effects resulting from traffic and local heating PM...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Sveinung Berntsen, Solvor B Stølevik, Petter Mowinckel, Wenche Nystad, Trine Stensrud
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between devices and repeatability within devices of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) values measured using the four spirometers included in the study. METHODS: 50 (24 women) participants (20-64 years of age) completed maximum forced expiratory flow manoeuvres and measurements were performed using the following devices: MasterScreen, SensorMedics, Oxycon Pro and SpiroUSB...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Leyla Sahebi, Khalil Ansarin, Parviz Mohajeri, Majid Khalili, Amir Monfaredan, Safar Farajnia, Simin Khayyat Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among chronic infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this cross-sectional study (2011-2013;2013) was to examine the patterns of TB drug resistance among HIV-negative pulmonary TB patients in regions near the Iranian border. METHOD: To this end, MTB isolates were harvested from 300 HIV-negative, pulmonary smear-positive TB patients from the northwest and west Iranian border provinces...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Mohammed El Ibrahimi, Mounir Laabouri
BACKGROUND: Prefabricated adjustable thermoplastic mandibular advancement devices (PAT-MADs) are a practical short-term treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) in patients who have failed or refused continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a new professionally-fitted PAT-MAD in patients with OSAHS in Morocco. METHOD: Twenty-four adults with mild, moderate or severe OSAHS were fitted with the PAT-MAD (BluePro(®); BlueSom, France)...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Seo W Kim, Hunam Kim, Yon J Ryu, Jin H Lee, Sung S Shim, Yoo K Kim, Jung H Chang
INTRODUCTION: Pranlukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) that is used as an additional controller of mild to moderate asthma. This study compared the efficacy and side effects of two bioequivalent preparations of pranlukast: original pranlukast (Onon(®); Ono Pharmaceutical, Japan) and a modified formulation of pranlukast (Prakanon(®); Yuhan Co, Korea) in patients with mild to moderate asthma. METHODS: Of the 34 subjects screened, 30 patients who were using standard medication to control asthma and scored less than 20 points on the Asthma Control Test(™) (ACT) were assigned randomly to one of the two groups in a prospective, open label, crossover study: group 1 received Prakanon(®) (150 mg/day) and group 2 received Onon(®) (450 mg/day) for 8 weeks each; after a 1-week rest period, the groups were switched to the alternative medication for further 8 weeks and monitored for 2 more weeks without study medication...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Atsuhisa Tamura, Akira Hebisawa, Kei Kusaka, Takashi Hirose, Junko Suzuki, Akira Yamane, Hideaki Nagai, Takeshi Fukami, Ken Ohta, Fumiaki Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-positive respiratory specimen cultures and MAC lung disease (MACLD) is increasing worldwide. This retrospective study aimed to assess the association between MAC culture-positive bronchoscopy specimens and lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 1382 untreated lung cancer patients between 2003 and 2011 were collected using our hospital database. Of them, records for 1258 that had undergone bronchoscopy together with sampling for mycobacterial culture were reviewed...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Janos Varga, Attila Palinkas, Imre Lajko, Ildikó Horváth, Krisztina Boda, Attila Somfay
BACKGROUND: The non-invasive assessment of pulmonary haemodynamics during exercise provides complementary data for the evaluation of exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. METHODS: Exercise echocardiography in the semi-supine position was performed in 27 patients with COPD (C) with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 36±12% predicted and 13 age and gender-matched non-COPD subjects (NC). COPD patients also underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with gas exchange detection (CPET)...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Guilherme Medeiros de Alvarenga, Humberto Remigio Gamba, Lilian Elisa Hellman, Vanusa Ganzert Ferrari, Rafael Michel de Macedo
BACKGROUND: The progressive and chronic course of COPD, characterized by difficulty in breathing, can be aggravated by periods of increased symptoms (exacerbation). The treatment often involves in-hospital care and among the interventions applied in COPD patients, physical therapy prompts good results. However the most used techniques are not properly pinpointed and there is no consensus in the literature regarding its effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify which physical therapy treatment was applied in these cases...
2016: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Ventura Rabell-Santacana, Rafael Panadès-Valls, Rosa Vila-Rigat, Enric Hernandez-Huet, Joan Sivecas-Maristany, Xavier Blanché-Prat, Gemma Prieto, Laura Muñoz, Pere Torán
BACKGROUND: Occupational Asthma (OA) is the most frequent origin of occupational respiratory diseases in industrialized countries and accounts for between 5% and 25% of asthmatic patients. The correct and early diagnosis of OA is of great preventive and socio-economic importance. However, few studies exist on OA's prevalence in Catalonia and in Spain and those affected are mainly treated by the public health services and not by the occupational health services, which are private. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of OA in patients diagnosed with asthma in the Primary Healthcare system and to evaluate the socio-economic impact of OA in the Primary Healthcare system...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
V Hidalgo, C Giugliano-Jaramillo, R Pérez, F Cerpa, H Budini, D Cáceres, T Gutiérrez, J Molina, J Keymer, C Romero-Dapueto
Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatment in acute respiratory failure, and the standard of care in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and in immunosuppressed patients with high levels of evidence that support the work of physiotherapist...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
R Carrasco Loza, G Villamizar Rodríguez, N Medel Fernández
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
F Cerpa, D Cáceres, C Romero-Dapueto, C Giugliano-Jaramillo, R Pérez, H Budini, V Hidalgo, T Gutiérrez, J Molina, J Keymer
The normal physiology of conditioning of inspired gases is altered when the patient requires an artificial airway access and an invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The endotracheal tube (ETT) removes the natural mechanisms of filtration, humidification and warming of inspired air. Despite the noninvasive ventilation (NIMV) in the upper airways, humidification of inspired gas may not be optimal mainly due to the high flow that is being created by the leakage compensation, among other aspects. Any moisture and heating deficit is compensated by the large airways of the tracheobronchial tree, these are poorly suited for this task, which alters mucociliary function, quality of secretions, and homeostasis gas exchange system...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
C Romero-Dapueto, H Budini, F Cerpa, D Caceres, V Hidalgo, T Gutiérrez, J Keymer, R Pérez, J Molina, C Giugliano-Jaramillo
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs)...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
P Álvarez, R Carrasco, C Romero-Dapueto, R L Castillo
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
R L Castillo, R Carrasco Loza, C Romero-Dapueto
Experimental approaches have been implemented to research the lung damage related-mechanism. These models show in animals pathophysiological events for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), such as neutrophil activation, reactive oxygen species burst, pulmonary vascular hypertension, exudative edema, and other events associated with organ dysfunction. Moreover, these approaches have not reproduced the clinical features of lung damage. Lung inflammation is a relevant event in the develop of ARDS as component of the host immune response to various stimuli, such as cytokines, antigens and endotoxins...
2015: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
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