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Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977343/the-meningeal-and-choroidal-infiltration-routes-for-leukocytes-in-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Corinne Benakis, Gemma Llovera, Arthur Liesz
Stroke is a major health burden as it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Blood flow restoration, through thrombolysis or endovascular thrombectomy, is the only effective treatment but is restricted to a limited proportion of patients due to time window constraint and accessibility to technology. Over the past two decades, research has investigated the basic mechanisms that lead to neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. However, the use of neuroprotective paradigms in stroke has been marked by failure in translation from experimental research to clinical practice...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977342/combined-walking-outcome-measures-identify-clinically-meaningful-response-to-prolonged-release-fampridine
#2
Núria Sola-Valls, Yolanda Blanco, María Sepúlveda, Sara Llufriu, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Irati Zubizarreta, Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, Carmen Montejo, Pablo Villoslada, Albert Saiz
Background: Gait impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and negatively impacts patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Prolonged-release fampridine (PR-fam) improves walking speed, but it is unclear which walking measures are the most suitable for identifying treatment response. Our aim was to assess the effect of PR-fam and the outcome measures that best identify short- and long-term clinically meaningful response. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in 32 MS patients treated with PR-fam for a year...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977341/mri-features-as-a-helpful-tool-to-predict-the-molecular-subgroups-of-medulloblastoma-state-of-the-art
#3
REVIEW
Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Ioan Paul Voicu, Chiara Carducci, Evelina Miele, Andrea Carai, Simona Di Loreto, Antonio Marrazzo, Antonella Cacchione, Valerio Cecinati, Assunta Tornesello, Angela Mastronuzzi
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Medulloblastoma should not be viewed as a single disease, but as a heterogeneous mixture of various subgroups with distinct characteristics. Based on genomic profiles, four distinct molecular subgroups are identified: Wingless (WNT), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. Each of these subgroups are associated with specific genetic aberrations, typical age of onset as well as survival prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed for all patients with brain tumors, and has a key role in the diagnosis, surgical guidance and follow up of patients with medulloblastoma...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872456/tryptophan-immunoadsorption-during-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-patients-with-acute-relapse-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica
#4
Frank Hoffmann, Andrea Kraft, Franz Heigl, Erich Mauch, Jürgen Koehler, Lutz Harms, Tania Kümpfel, Wolfgang Köhler, Sven Ehrlich, Antonios Bayas, Julia Weinmann-Menke, Carolin Beuker, Karl-Heinz Henn, Ilya Ayzenberg, Gisa Ellrichmann, Kerstin Hellwig, Reinhard Klingel, Cordula Marie Fassbender, Harald Fritz, Torsten Slowinski, Horst Weihprecht, Marcus Brand, Thomas Stiegler, Jan Galle, Sebastian Schimrigk
Background: Up to every fourth woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) suffers a clinically relevant relapse during pregnancy. High doses of steroids bear some serious risks, especially within the first trimester of pregnancy. Immunoadsorption (IA) is an effective and more selective treatment option in disabling MS relapse than plasma exchange. Data on the use of IA during pregnancy and breastfeeding are scarce. Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed the safety and efficacy of IA treatment in acute relapses during pregnancy or breastfeeding...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29854003/antisense-oligonucleotides-in-neurological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Claudia D Wurster, Albert C Ludolph
The introduction of genetics revolutionized the field of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases and has provided considerable insight into the underlying pathomechanisms. Nevertheless, effective treatment options have been limited. This changed recently when antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) could be translated from in vitro and experimental animal studies into clinical practice. In 2016, two ASOs were approved by the United States US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and demonstrated remarkable efficacy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29854002/danger-signals-in-stroke-and-their-role-on-microglia-activation-after-ischemia
#6
REVIEW
Eileen Gülke, Mathias Gelderblom, Tim Magnus
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death. Besides the direct damage resulting from oxygen and glucose deprivation, sterile inflammation plays a pivotal role in increasing cellular death. Damaged-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are passively released from dying cells and activate the innate immune system. Thus, they take part in the direct and rapid activation of the inflammatory response after stroke onset. In this review the role of the most important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1, heat and cold shock proteins, purines, and peroxiredoxins, are addressed...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844796/phase-iv-study-of-retention-on-fingolimod-versus-injectable-multiple-sclerosis-therapies-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Bruce A C Cree, Douglas L Arnold, Mark Cascione, Edward J Fox, Ian M Williams, Xiangyi Meng, Lesley Schofield, Nadia Tenenbaum
Objective: In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), suboptimal adherence to injectable disease-modifying therapies (iDMTs; interferon β-1a/b, glatiramer acetate) is common, reducing their effectiveness. Patient retention on oral fingolimod and iDMTs was evaluated in PREFER MS , a randomized, parallel-group, active-controlled, open-label, 48-week study. Methods: Patients were included if they had RRMS, were aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale score up to 6, enrolled at 117 US study sites, were treatment naïve or had received only one iDMT class...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774058/the-role-of-dopaminergic-immune-cell-signalling-in-poststroke-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Talhada, Monika Rabenstein, Karsten Ruscher
Upon ischaemic stroke, brain-resident and peripheral immune cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, these cells express pattern specific to neurotransmitter receptors and, therefore, seem to be susceptible to neurotransmitter stimulation, potentially modulating their properties and functions. One of the principal neurotransmitters in the CNS, dopamine, is involved in the regulation of processes of brain development, motor control and higher brain functions. It is constantly released in the brain and there is experimental and clinical evidence that dopaminergic signalling is involved in recovery of lost neurological function after stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774056/epigenetic-regulation-of-inflammation-in-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Gavin Yong-Quan Ng, Lim Yun-An, Christopher G Sobey, Thameem Dheen, David Yang-Wei Fann, Thiruma V Arumugam
Despite extensive research, treatments for clinical stroke are still limited only to the administration of tissue plasminogen activator and the recent introduction of mechanical thrombectomy, which can be used in only a limited proportion of patients due to time constraints. A plethora of inflammatory events occur during stroke, arising in part due to the body's immune response to brain injury. Neuroinflammation contributes significantly to neuronal cell death and the development of functional impairment and death in stroke patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774055/immunotherapy-of-experimental-and-human-stroke-with-agents-approved-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mirjam Dreikorn, Zeljko Milacic, Vladimir Pavlovic, Sven G Meuth, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Peter Kraft
Background: 'Thromboinflammation' describes a novel concept in stroke pathophysiology that has opened up the possibility of immunotherapeutic approaches which could become promising strategies for targeted stroke therapies in the future. Methods: We reviewed current evidence for agents approved for multiple sclerosis in preclinical and clinical stroke studies. A systematic review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and reference lists of articles published until 16 October 2017...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774054/beta-adrenoceptor-blockade-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-alterations-of-the-cerebral-ceramide-metabolism-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#13
Sebastian Luger, Annette Schwebler, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Sandra Labocha, Yannick Schreiber, Robert Brunkhorst, Helmuth Steinmetz, Josef Pfeilschifter, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Background: Sphingolipids are versatile signaling molecules derived from membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells. Ceramides regulate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and are involved in cellular stress responses. Experimental evidence suggests a pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. A neuroprotective effect has been shown for beta-adrenergic antagonists in rodent stroke models and supported by observational clinical data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774053/postherpes-simplex-encephalitis-a-case-series-of-viral-triggered-autoimmunity-synaptic-autoantibodies-and-response-to-therapy
#14
Harry Alexopoulos, Sofia Akrivou, Sotiria Mastroyanni, Maria Antonopoulou, Argirios Dinopoulos, Melpo Giorgi, Kostas Konstantinou, Evangelos Kouremenos, Maria Lariou, Dimitrios Naoumis, Efterpi Pavlidou, Evaggelos Pavlou, Konstantinos Voudris, Panayotis Vlachoyiannopoulos, Marinos C Dalakas
Background: Recent evidence suggests that patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis may relapse because of autoimmunity against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We present a case series of post-HSV relapsing encephalopathy associated with antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) synaptic antigens. Patient/Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from five patients with HSV encephalitis who relapsed after antiviral therapy were tested for anti-NMDAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid b receptor (GABAbR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti -contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DDPX) antibodies using cell-based assays...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707041/commentary-on-the-ectrims-ean-guideline-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
EDITORIAL
Alan J Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707040/incidence-and-mitigation-of-gastrointestinal-events-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-receiving-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate-a-german-phase-iv-study-tolerate
#16
Ralf Gold, Eugen Schlegel, Birte Elias-Hamp, Christian Albert, Stephan Schmidt, Björn Tackenberg, James Xiao, Tom Schaak, Hans Christian Salmen
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) events are common adverse events (AEs) associated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an approved treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of the TOLERATE study was to evaluate GI tolerability and GI mitigation via symptomatic therapies in patients initiating DMF in a real-world clinical setting in Germany. Methods: TOLERATE was a multicentre, open-label, single-arm study performed at 25 German sites...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623106/defining-distinct-features-of-anti-mog-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#17
REVIEW
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Brück
Extensive research over the last decades basically failed to identify a common cause of noninfectious inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. To a great extent, this may reflect that the group of inflammatory CNS demyelinating disorders likely contains multiple pathogenetically distinct disease entities. Indeed, the greatest success so far in deciphering the pathogenesis of a CNS demyelinating disorder resulted from the discovery of anti-aquaporin (AQP)-4 antibodies (ab), which allowed progressive delineation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly considered a variant of the most common CNS demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS), as a distinct disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595827/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/1756285617749134.].
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593838/b-cell-based-therapies-in-cns-autoimmunity-differentiating-cd19-and-cd20-as-therapeutic-targets
#19
REVIEW
Thomas G Forsthuber, Daniel M Cimbora, John Nolan Ratchford, Eliezer Katz, Olaf Stüve
Increasing recognition of the role of B cells in the adaptive immune response makes B cells an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. Numerous current and developmental immunotherapies target B cells for elimination through recognition of cell-surface proteins expressed specifically on B cells, in particular CD19 and CD20. Similarities and differences in the function and expression of these two molecules predict some shared, and some distinct, pharmacological effects of agents targeting CD19 versus CD20, potentially leading to differences in the clinical safety and efficacy of such agents...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568329/differential-immunological-profiles-herald-magnetic-resonance-imaging-defined-perioperative-cerebral-infarction
#20
Jonathon P Fanning, Louise E See Hoe, Margaret R Passmore, Adrian G Barnett, Barbara E Rolfe, Jonathan E Millar, Allan J Wesley, Jacky Suen, John F Fraser
Background: The perioperative period is associated with a high risk for human ischaemic stroke. Although inflammatory mechanisms are known to have an important role in cerebral infarction in the nonoperative setting, their role in modulating perioperative risk remains unclear. Methods: In this prospective case-control study, we compared 10 patients (cases) who developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of cerebral infarction following transcatheter aortic valve implantation with 10 patients (controls) who underwent the same procedure without neurological complication...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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