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Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214486/short-term-disability-progression-in-two-multiethnic-multiple-sclerosis-centers-in-the-treatment-era
#1
Ilya Kister, Tamar E Bacon, Gary R Cutter
Background: Short-term disease progression is well documented in clinical trials, but there are limited published data on disease course in real-life practice. Methods: Patient-derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (PMSSS), a disease severity rank score, was computed at each visit for consecutive MS patients attending two large, ethnically diverse MS centers in New York metropolitan area. Disability was assessed via Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS). Clinicians recorded disease subtype and relapse status at each visit, but did not rate disability...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210582/comparable-efficacy-and-safety-of-dimethyl-fumarate-and-teriflunomide-treatment-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-an-italian-real-word-multicenter-experience
#2
Emanuele D'Amico, Aurora Zanghì, Graziella Callari, Giovanna Borriello, Antonio Gallo, Giusi Graziano, Paola Valentino, Maria Buccafusca, Salvatore Cottone, Giuseppe Salemi, Paolo Ragonese, Roberto Bruno Bossio, Renato Docimo, Luigi Maria Edoardo Grimaldi, Carlo Pozzilli, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Mario Zappia, Francesco Patti
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the achievement of 'no evidence of disease activity' (NEDA) over a 12-month period in a large multicenter population with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and teriflunomide (TRF) using a propensity-score adjustment. Methods: A time-to-event method was used to determine the percentages of patients with RRMS (pwRRMS) in both groups achieving NEDA 3 (no relapses, no 12-week confirmed disability progression, and no new T2/gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181780/peginterferon-%C3%AE-1a-every-2-weeks-increased-achievement-of-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-over-4-years-in-the-advance-and-attain-studies-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Douglas L Arnold, Shulian Shang, Qunming Dong, Matthias Meergans, Maria L Naylor
Background: No evidence of disease activity (NEDA) is a composite measurement, incorporating clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) elements of disease activity to sensitively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Objective: To assess the NEDA status of patients treated with peginterferon β-1a in the ADVANCE and ATTAIN studies and explore its predictive value on longer-term clinical outcomes. Methods: ATTAIN was a 2-year extension of the pivotal 2-year ADVANCE study of peginterferon β-1a for RRMS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181779/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-stroke-impact-of-the-brain-barriers-and-brain-immune-privilege-on-neutrophil-function
#4
REVIEW
Gaby Enzmann, Soghra Kargaran, Britta Engelhardt
Reperfusion injury following ischemic stroke is a complex pathophysiological process involving numerous mechanisms ranging from the release of excitatory amino acids and ion disequilibrium to the induction of apoptosis and necrosis, to oxidative stress and inflammation. The migration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma and release of their abundant proteases are generally considered the main cause of neuronal cell death and acute reperfusion injury following ischemic stroke. Recent findings in experimental and human stroke have challenged this view, as the majority of neutrophils were rather found to accumulate within the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the subarachnoid space (SAS) where they remain separated from the brain parenchyma by the glia limitans ...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181778/long-term-outcomes-of-peginterferon-beta-1a-in-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-the-advance-extension-study-attain
#5
Scott D Newsome, Thomas F Scott, Douglas L Arnold, Gereon Nelles, Serena Hung, Yue Cui, Shulian Shang, Maria L Naylor, Marcelo Kremenchutzky
Background: ADVANCE was a phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 µg every 2 or 4 weeks in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). ATTAIN was a 2-year extension study of ADVANCE. The aim was to evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a 125 µg every 2 or 4 weeks in ATTAIN. Methods: ADVANCE dosing schedules were maintained in ATTAIN, except that every-4-weeks dosing patients were switched to every-2-weeks dosing after conversion of the study to an open-label protocol...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147750/application-of-immunotherapy-for-neurological-manifestations-in-hypermobile-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#6
Manabu Araki, Youwei Lin, Hirohiko Ono, Wakiro Sato, Takashi Yamamura
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder with various neurological manifestations, including chronic pain. The neurological manifestations in EDS are often regarded as being caused by the associated musculoskeletal disorders or polyneuropathy. Here, we present two patients with hypermobile EDS (hEDS), presenting with relapsing central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Although the two patients showed relapsing signs of CNS manifestations like multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), they were unique in that they had widespread opioid-dependent chronic pain, which is not consistent with the symptoms of MS/NMOSD...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116300/can-inflammation-be-resolved-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mingqin Zhu, Xiuzhe Wang, Li Sun, Marianne Schultzberg, Erik Hjorth
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Epidemiological studies suggest that use of anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a lower incidence of AD. However, clinical trials with anti-inflammatory drugs have not been successful. Recent studies have shown that inflammation is resolved by a process that is mediated by a group of lipid mediators, so called specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116299/long-term-evaluation-of-neda-3-status-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-after-switching-from-natalizumab-to-fingolimod
#8
Lara Diem, Krassen Nedeltchev, Timo Kahles, Lutz Achtnichts, Oliver Findling
Background: Natalizumab significantly reduces the disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis but due to the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy it is often discontinued. Fingolimod is seen as an alternative, but there are no long-term analyses of the efficacy of fingolimod in this setting using the no evidence of disease activity (NEDA)-3 criteria. We provide an assessment of patients who discontinued natalizumab and switched to fingolimod or other treatments by evaluating the proportion of patients who fulfil NEDA-3 criteria after prolonged follow-up periods...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093920/inflammatory-molecules-might-become-both-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-stroke-management
#9
REVIEW
Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Joan Montaner
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the most frequent cause of disability worldwide. Currently, stroke diagnosis is based on neuroimaging; therefore, the lack of a rapid tool to diagnose stroke is still a major concern. In addition, therapeutic approaches to combat ischemic stroke are still scarce, since the only approved therapies are directed toward restoring blood flow to the affected brain area. However, due to the reduced time window during which these therapies are effective, few patients benefit from them; therefore, alternative treatments are urgently needed to reduce stroke brain damage in order to improve patients' outcome...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083233/treatment-of-glioblastoma-in-adults
#10
REVIEW
Wolfgang Wick, Matthias Osswald, Antje Wick, Frank Winkler
The diagnosis of a glioblastoma is mainly made on the basis of their microscopic appearance with the additional determination of epigenetic as well as mutational analyses as deemed appropriate and taken into account in different centers. How far the recent discovery of tumor networks will stimulate novel treatments is a subject of intensive research. A tissue diagnosis is the mainstay. Regardless of age, patients should undergo a maximal safe resection. Magnetic resonance imaging is the surrogate parameter of choice for follow up...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083232/anti-inflammatory-treatments-for-stroke-from-bench-to-bedside
#11
REVIEW
Antoine Drieu, Damien Levard, Denis Vivien, Marina Rubio
So far, intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and mechanical removal of arterial blood clot (thrombectomy) are the only available treatments for acute ischemic stroke. However, the short therapeutic window and the lack of specialized stroke unit care make the overall availability of both treatments limited. Additional agents to combine with tPA administration or thrombectomy to enhance efficacy and improve outcomes associated with stroke are needed. Stroke-induced inflammatory processes are a response to the tissue damage due to the absence of blood supply but have been proposed also as key contributors to all the stages of the ischemic stroke pathophysiology...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083231/immunological-and-non-immunological-effects-of-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-the-ischaemic-brain
#12
REVIEW
Thorsten R Doeppner, Mathias Bähr, Bernd Giebel, Dirk M Hermann
Following the implementation of thrombolysis and endovascular recanalization strategies, stroke therapy has profoundly changed in recent years. In spite of these advancements, a considerable proportion of stroke patients still exhibit functional impairment in the long run, increasing the need for adjuvant therapies that promote neurological recovery. Stem cell therapies have initially attracted great interest in the stroke field, since there were hopes that transplanted cells may allow for the replacement of lost cells...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038666/prospects-of-siponimod-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#13
EDITORIAL
Marisa McGinley, Robert J Fox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034538/new-developments-in-brain-metastases
#14
REVIEW
Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser
Patients with brain metastases (BM) are a population of high clinical need for new therapeutic approaches due to, as yet, very impaired survival prognosis. However, only few clinical trials have specifically addressed this prognostically highly heterogeneous patient population. New developments in the treatment of BM patients aim to reduce the side effects of local therapies, for example, by redefining the indications for stereotactic radiosurgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or introducing new applications like hippocampal sparing WBRT...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034537/clinical-trials-in-multiple-sclerosis-milestones
#15
REVIEW
Yinan Zhang, Amber Salter, Gary Cutter, Olaf Stϋve
The achievements in multiple sclerosis (MS) therapeutics are founded on the outcomes of clinical trials that demonstrate quantifiable results in treating a disease with an unpredictable course. Much has changed since the early trials in MS from the mid-20th century that compared a potential therapeutic agent with a placebo and measured outcomes based on patients' subjective reports. Advancements over the past decades have simplified diagnosis of the disease and allowed for more quantitative monitoring of its progression alongside support from paraclinical studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034536/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Carolin Beuker, Antje Schmidt, Daniel Strunk, Peter B Sporns, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Jens Minnerup
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) represents a rare inflammatory disease affecting the brain and spinal cord. Stroke, encephalopathy, headache and seizures are major clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of PACNS is based on the combination of clinical presentation, imaging findings (magnetic resonance imaging and angiography), brain biopsy, and laboratory and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) values. PACNS can either be confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)/conventional angiography or tissue biopsy showing the presence of typical histopathological patterns...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034535/intravenous-thrombolysis-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-greece-the-safe-implementation-of-thrombolysis-in-stroke-registry-15-year-experience
#17
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Odysseas Kargiotis, Jobst Rudolf, Apostolos Komnos, Antonios Tavernarakis, Theodoros Karapanayiotides, John Ellul, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Maria Gryllia, Apostolos Safouris, Panagiotis Papamichalis, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Panayiotis Mitsias, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou
Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) remains the only approved systemic reperfusion treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however there are scarce data regarding outcomes and complications of IVT in Greece. We evaluated safety and efficacy outcomes of IVT for AIS in Greece using the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke: International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR) dataset. Methods: All AIS patients treated with IVT in Greece between December 2002 and July 2017 and recorded in the SITS-ISTR were evaluated...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977343/the-meningeal-and-choroidal-infiltration-routes-for-leukocytes-in-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Corinne Benakis, Gemma Llovera, Arthur Liesz
Stroke is a major health burden as it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Blood flow restoration, through thrombolysis or endovascular thrombectomy, is the only effective treatment but is restricted to a limited proportion of patients due to time window constraint and accessibility to technology. Over the past two decades, research has investigated the basic mechanisms that lead to neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. However, the use of neuroprotective paradigms in stroke has been marked by failure in translation from experimental research to clinical practice...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977342/combined-walking-outcome-measures-identify-clinically-meaningful-response-to-prolonged-release-fampridine
#19
Núria Sola-Valls, Yolanda Blanco, María Sepúlveda, Sara Llufriu, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Irati Zubizarreta, Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, Carmen Montejo, Pablo Villoslada, Albert Saiz
Background: Gait impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and negatively impacts patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Prolonged-release fampridine (PR-fam) improves walking speed, but it is unclear which walking measures are the most suitable for identifying treatment response. Our aim was to assess the effect of PR-fam and the outcome measures that best identify short- and long-term clinically meaningful response. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in 32 MS patients treated with PR-fam for a year...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977341/mri-features-as-a-helpful-tool-to-predict-the-molecular-subgroups-of-medulloblastoma-state-of-the-art
#20
REVIEW
Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Ioan Paul Voicu, Chiara Carducci, Evelina Miele, Andrea Carai, Simona Di Loreto, Antonio Marrazzo, Antonella Cacchione, Valerio Cecinati, Assunta Tornesello, Angela Mastronuzzi
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Medulloblastoma should not be viewed as a single disease, but as a heterogeneous mixture of various subgroups with distinct characteristics. Based on genomic profiles, four distinct molecular subgroups are identified: Wingless (WNT), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. Each of these subgroups are associated with specific genetic aberrations, typical age of onset as well as survival prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed for all patients with brain tumors, and has a key role in the diagnosis, surgical guidance and follow up of patients with medulloblastoma...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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