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Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774058/the-role-of-dopaminergic-immune-cell-signalling-in-poststroke-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Daniela Talhada, Monika Rabenstein, Karsten Ruscher
Upon ischaemic stroke, brain-resident and peripheral immune cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, these cells express pattern specific to neurotransmitter receptors and, therefore, seem to be susceptible to neurotransmitter stimulation, potentially modulating their properties and functions. One of the principal neurotransmitters in the CNS, dopamine, is involved in the regulation of processes of brain development, motor control and higher brain functions. It is constantly released in the brain and there is experimental and clinical evidence that dopaminergic signalling is involved in recovery of lost neurological function after stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774056/epigenetic-regulation-of-inflammation-in-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Gavin Yong-Quan Ng, Lim Yun-An, Christopher G Sobey, Thameem Dheen, David Yang-Wei Fann, Thiruma V Arumugam
Despite extensive research, treatments for clinical stroke are still limited only to the administration of tissue plasminogen activator and the recent introduction of mechanical thrombectomy, which can be used in only a limited proportion of patients due to time constraints. A plethora of inflammatory events occur during stroke, arising in part due to the body's immune response to brain injury. Neuroinflammation contributes significantly to neuronal cell death and the development of functional impairment and death in stroke patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774055/immunotherapy-of-experimental-and-human-stroke-with-agents-approved-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Mirjam Dreikorn, Zeljko Milacic, Vladimir Pavlovic, Sven G Meuth, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Peter Kraft
Background: 'Thromboinflammation' describes a novel concept in stroke pathophysiology that has opened up the possibility of immunotherapeutic approaches which could become promising strategies for targeted stroke therapies in the future. Methods: We reviewed current evidence for agents approved for multiple sclerosis in preclinical and clinical stroke studies. A systematic review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and reference lists of articles published until 16 October 2017...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774054/beta-adrenoceptor-blockade-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-alterations-of-the-cerebral-ceramide-metabolism-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Sebastian Luger, Annette Schwebler, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Sandra Labocha, Yannick Schreiber, Robert Brunkhorst, Helmuth Steinmetz, Josef Pfeilschifter, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Background: Sphingolipids are versatile signaling molecules derived from membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells. Ceramides regulate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and are involved in cellular stress responses. Experimental evidence suggests a pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. A neuroprotective effect has been shown for beta-adrenergic antagonists in rodent stroke models and supported by observational clinical data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774053/postherpes-simplex-encephalitis-a-case-series-of-viral-triggered-autoimmunity-synaptic-autoantibodies-and-response-to-therapy
#7
Harry Alexopoulos, Sofia Akrivou, Sotiria Mastroyanni, Maria Antonopoulou, Argirios Dinopoulos, Melpo Giorgi, Kostas Konstantinou, Evangelos Kouremenos, Maria Lariou, Dimitrios Naoumis, Efterpi Pavlidou, Evaggelos Pavlou, Konstantinos Voudris, Panayotis Vlachoyiannopoulos, Marinos C Dalakas
Background: Recent evidence suggests that patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis may relapse because of autoimmunity against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We present a case series of post-HSV relapsing encephalopathy associated with antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) synaptic antigens. Patient/Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from five patients with HSV encephalitis who relapsed after antiviral therapy were tested for anti-NMDAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid b receptor (GABAbR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti -contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DDPX) antibodies using cell-based assays...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707041/commentary-on-the-ectrims-ean-guideline-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
EDITORIAL
Alan J Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707040/incidence-and-mitigation-of-gastrointestinal-events-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-receiving-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate-a-german-phase-iv-study-tolerate
#9
Ralf Gold, Eugen Schlegel, Birte Elias-Hamp, Christian Albert, Stephan Schmidt, Björn Tackenberg, James Xiao, Tom Schaak, Hans Christian Salmen
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) events are common adverse events (AEs) associated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an approved treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of the TOLERATE study was to evaluate GI tolerability and GI mitigation via symptomatic therapies in patients initiating DMF in a real-world clinical setting in Germany. Methods: TOLERATE was a multicentre, open-label, single-arm study performed at 25 German sites...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623106/defining-distinct-features-of-anti-mog-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#10
REVIEW
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Brück
Extensive research over the last decades basically failed to identify a common cause of noninfectious inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. To a great extent, this may reflect that the group of inflammatory CNS demyelinating disorders likely contains multiple pathogenetically distinct disease entities. Indeed, the greatest success so far in deciphering the pathogenesis of a CNS demyelinating disorder resulted from the discovery of anti-aquaporin (AQP)-4 antibodies (ab), which allowed progressive delineation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly considered a variant of the most common CNS demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS), as a distinct disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595827/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/1756285617749134.].
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593838/b-cell-based-therapies-in-cns-autoimmunity-differentiating-cd19-and-cd20-as-therapeutic-targets
#12
REVIEW
Thomas G Forsthuber, Daniel M Cimbora, John Nolan Ratchford, Eliezer Katz, Olaf Stüve
Increasing recognition of the role of B cells in the adaptive immune response makes B cells an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. Numerous current and developmental immunotherapies target B cells for elimination through recognition of cell-surface proteins expressed specifically on B cells, in particular CD19 and CD20. Similarities and differences in the function and expression of these two molecules predict some shared, and some distinct, pharmacological effects of agents targeting CD19 versus CD20, potentially leading to differences in the clinical safety and efficacy of such agents...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568329/differential-immunological-profiles-herald-magnetic-resonance-imaging-defined-perioperative-cerebral-infarction
#13
Jonathon P Fanning, Louise E See Hoe, Margaret R Passmore, Adrian G Barnett, Barbara E Rolfe, Jonathan E Millar, Allan J Wesley, Jacky Suen, John F Fraser
Background: The perioperative period is associated with a high risk for human ischaemic stroke. Although inflammatory mechanisms are known to have an important role in cerebral infarction in the nonoperative setting, their role in modulating perioperative risk remains unclear. Methods: In this prospective case-control study, we compared 10 patients (cases) who developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of cerebral infarction following transcatheter aortic valve implantation with 10 patients (controls) who underwent the same procedure without neurological complication...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568328/nusinersen-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#14
EDITORIAL
Claudia D Wurster, Albert C Ludolph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552093/high-resolution-nerve-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-neurography-as-complementary-neuroimaging-tools-for-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#15
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Moritz Kronlage, Philip Bäumer, Daniel Schwarz, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552092/rescue-therapy-with-alemtuzumab-in-b-cell-antibody-mediated-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Katja Akgün, Imke Metz, Hagen H Kitzler, Wolfgang Brück, Tjalf Ziemssen
Alemtuzumab exerts its clinical efficacy by its specific pattern of depletion and repopulation of different immune cell subsets. Recently, single cases of multiple sclerosis patients who developed severe exacerbation after the first alemtuzumab application, accompanied by re-appearance of peripheral B cells, were reported. Here we present a case with underlying B cell-driven multiple sclerosis that impressively improves after alemtuzumab, although peripheral B cell repopulation took place. Our detailed clinical, histopathological, imaging and immunological data suggest that alemtuzumab can act as an effective rescue treatment in highly active B cell-driven and antibody/complement-mediated multiple sclerosis type II patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552091/mechanical-thrombectomy-in-a-young-stroke-patient-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Charlotte Spicher, Ruth Schneider, Peter Mönnings, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Dennis Kallenberg, Bilal Cevik, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christos Krogias
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive skeletal muscle myopathy which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Lack of dystrophin also results to cardiomyopathy, which raises significantly the stroke risk in DMD-patients. However, data about therapeutic opportunities in the acute setting are scarce in literature. So far, only two cases receiving IV thrombolysis are described, one of them with fatal outcome. Method: Case report of a case of successful mechanical thrombectomy (MTE) in an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patient with DMD and associated dilatative cardiomyopathy...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535794/neoplastic-meningitis-in-solid-tumors-from-diagnosis-to-personalized-treatments
#18
REVIEW
Alessia Pellerino, Luca Bertero, Roberta Rudà, Riccardo Soffietti
Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a devastating complication of solid tumors with poor outcome. Some randomized clinical trials have been conducted with heterogeneous inclusion criteria, diagnostic parameters, response evaluation and primary endpoints. Recently, the Leptomeningeal Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (LANO) Group and the European Society for Medical Oncology/European Association for Neuro-Oncology have proposed some recommendations in order to provide diagnostic criteria and response evaluation scores for NM...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511386/clinical-and-electrophysiological-impact-of-repetitive-low-frequency-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-sensory-motor-network-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome
#19
Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Debora Aricò, Bartolo Lanuzza, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Domenico Paci, Maurizio Papotto, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Walter Paulus, Raffaele Ferri
Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511385/imaging-in-neuro-oncology
#20
REVIEW
Hari Nandu, Patrick Y Wen, Raymond Y Huang
Imaging plays several key roles in managing brain tumors, including diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Ongoing challenges remain as new therapies emerge and there are urgent needs to find accurate and clinically feasible methods to noninvasively evaluate brain tumors before and after treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of several advanced imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET), including advances in new PET agents, and summarize several key areas of their applications, including improving the accuracy of diagnosis and addressing the challenging clinical problems such as evaluation of pseudoprogression and anti-angiogenic therapy, and rising challenges of imaging with immunotherapy...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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