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Open Virology Journal

Marwan M Badawi, Alshaimaa A Mohammed, Mohammed S Mohammed, Mohammed M Saeed, Elmoez Y Ali, Ashraf Khalil
Background: Hepatitis B infection is an alarming public health problem. Almost two billion people of the population alive today, would have been infected at some time in their lives by hepatitis B. Hepatitis C virus is another life threatening condition, and about 425,000 deaths occur each year due to its complications.The current study was carried out to provide care givers and health planners basic epidemiological data regarding the frequency and distribution of HBV and HCV based on age and sex during a time period of more than 5 years...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Zhi Zhou, Jiajun Wu, Shuo Zhang, Bo Hou, Tao Han, Jing Wang, Qi Xu, Dongyue Wang, Yinyi Liu, Shengpeng Xin, Xinyan Zhai
BACKGROUND: NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus first appeared in Chinese swine herds in 2012. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To explore the possible genetic diversity of these strains, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of two NADC30-like strains. These isolates shared 95.4% homology with NADC30. RESULT: The two strains displayed a discontinuous deletion of 131 amino acids in NSP2, mutations of amino acids in GP3 and GP5, and a 3-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Sun Ming, Ma Yongying, Liu Bohua, Lu Huiying, Deng Xiaoyu, Liu Qiaorong, Qiao Mingming, Chen Xi, Yang Xinyan, Chen Xizhao
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen in pig that causes tremendous economic loss in the global swine industry. PRRSV is divided into the European and North American genotypes, with virulence ranging from apathogenic-moderately virulent to highly pathogenic. The emergence of new highly virulent type 1 strains and coexistence of the two genotypes complicate the differential diagnosis, disease prevention, and control of PRRSV. Although the emergence of a novel type 1 PRRSV strain in mainland China was first confirmed in 2011, there is no information available concerning the pathogenesis of this strain...
2017: Open Virology Journal
X Li, A Galliher-Beckley, L Wang, J Nietfeld, W Feng, J Shi
INTRODUCTION: Chinese HP-PRRSV characterized by high morbidity and mortality of all ages of pigs emerged since 2006 in China. The immune response of HP-PRRSV was never compared with conventional low pathogenic PRRSV strain. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the immune responses elicited by a Chinese HP-PRRSV strain HV and a North American RRSV strain NADC20 infections. RESULT: Pigs infected with NADC-20 showed significantly higher Ab titers than HV-PRRSV infected pigs at 9 DPI...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Yanlin Li, Guobiao Ji, Xiaodong Xu, Juan Wang, Yingying Li, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li
BACKGROUND: PRRSV features with genetic diversity and high mutation which leads to the emergence of a multiple of circulating virus strains with different virulence. North American (genotype 2) PRRSV (NA-PRRSV) can be divided into classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV), highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and NADC30-like PRRSV (NL-PRRSV) according to their genomic characteristics and pathogenicity. So far, the above three subtypes of NA-PRRSV are now circulating in China. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: In this study, a reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established to simultaneously differentiate three subtypes of NA-PRRSV...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Kegong Tian
NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has widely spread in China and become locally dominant virus strain in some provinces. Although they are not pathogenic as highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-RRRSV) that outbreaks since 2006, NADC30-like PRRSVs distinguished themselves by high incidence of recombination with other virus strains which lead to change of virulence. The outbreaks of NADC30-like PRRSV in the vaccinated pig herds suggested that current commercial PRRSV vaccines cannot provide complete protection to the infection...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Nanhua Chen, Ranjni J Chand, Raymond R R Rowland
BACKGROUND: Recombination is an important contributor to the genetic diversity of most viruses. A reverse genetics system using green fluorescence protein (GFP)- and enhanced GFP (EGFP)-expressing infectious clones was developed to study the requirements for recombination. However, it is still unclear what types of cross-over events occurred to produce the viable offspring. OBJECTIVE: We utilized 454 sequencing to infer recombination events in this system. METHOD: Two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infectious clones, P129-EGFP-97C and P129-GFPm-d (2-6), were co-transfected into HEK-293T cells...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Kegong Tian, Xiangdong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Open Virology Journal
Tiantian Zhang, Yogesh R Suryawanshi, Helene M Woyczesczyk, Karim Essani
Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer with ever-increasing incidence. Despite the development in diagnostics and therapies, metastatic melanoma is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent a class of novel therapeutic agents for cancer by possessing two closely related properties for tumor reduction: virus-induced lysis of tumor cells and induction of host anti-tumor immune responses. A variety of viruses, either in "natural" or in genetically modified forms, have exhibited a remarkable therapeutic efficacy in regressing melanoma in experimental and/or clinical studies...
2017: Open Virology Journal
S Pasquereau, F Al Moussawi, W Karam, M Diab Assaf, A Kumar, G Herbein
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that is highly host specific, infects among others epithelial cells and macrophages, and has been recently mentioned as having oncomodulatory properties. HCMV is detected in the breast tumor tissue where macrophages, especially tumor associated macrophages, are associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we will discuss the potential implication of HCMV in breast cancer with emphasis on the role played by macrophages.
2017: Open Virology Journal
Nafees Ahmad, Aamir N Ahmad, Shahid N Ahmad
HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Malewe Kolou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Mounerou Salou, Komlan Selom Gozo-Akakpo, Sika Dossim, Alexander Kwarteng, Mireille Prince-David
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Linlin Gu, Mert Icyuz, Valentina Krendelchtchikova, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Alison E Johnston, Qiana L Matthews
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) achieved success as a conventional transgene vaccine vector in preclinical trials, however; achieved poor efficiency in some of the clinical trials, due to the major hurdle associated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) in the majority of the human population. OBJECTIVE: We sought to generate Ad5-based chimeras to assess their capabilities to bypass this bottleneck and to induce antigen-specific humoral immune response. METHODS: A His6 tag was incorporated into the hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) of hexon3 (H3) capsid protein using the "Antigen Capsid-Incorporation" strategy...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Fernando Cobo
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are diseases caused by viruses which belong to different families, many of them causing severe diseases. These viruses may produce different symptomatology together with a severe multisystem syndrome, and the final result might be the production of hemorrhages in several sites of the body. The majority of them have no other treatment than supportive therapy, although some antiviral drugs can be used in some circumstances. Transmission of VHF has been demonstrated through contact with animal vectors or person-to-person through the contact with body fluids...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Yuka Tanaka, Rieko Hirata, Kyohei Mashita, Stuart Mclean, Hiroshi Ikegaya
BACKGROUND: In the field of forensic medicine, it is very difficult to know prior to autopsy what kind of virus has infected a body. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the potential of the genome profiling (GP) method, which was developed in the field of bioengineering, to identify viruses belonging to one species. METHOD: Two species in the same family, JC and BK viruses, were used in this study. Using plasmid samples, we compared the findings of molecular phylogenetic analysis using conventional genome sequencing with the results of cluster analysis using the random PCR-based GP method and discussed whether the GP method can be used to determine viral species...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Maha G Ebrahim, Aisha S Ali, Mohamed O Mustafa, Dalal F Musa, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Isam M Elkhidir, Khalid A Enan
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection still represents the most common potentially serious viral complication in humans and is a major cause of congenital anomalies in infants. This study is aimed to detect HCMV in infants with congenital anomalies. Study subjects consisted of infants born with neural tube defect, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Fifty serum specimens (20 males, 30 females) were collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. The sera were investigated for cytomegalovirus specific immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for Cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Abdelwahid Saeed Ali, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Ahmed Musa Al-Hakami, Ian M Jones
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a member in the order herpesvirales, family herpesviridae, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae and the genus lymphocytovirus. The virus is an exclusively human pathogen and thus also termed as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4). It was the first oncogenic virus recognized and has been incriminated in the causation of tumors of both lymphatic and epithelial nature. It was reported in some previous studies that 95% of the population worldwide are serologically positive to the virus...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Satyender Hansra, Sujit Pujhari, Alexander N Zakhartchouk
Adenoviral vectors are now being explored as vaccine carriers to prevent infectious diseases in humans and animals. There are two strategies aimed at the expression of a vaccine antigen by adenoviral vectors. The first includes an insertion of the foreign gene expression cassette into the E1 region. The second strategy is antigen incorporation into the viral capsid proteins. To extend this methodology, we have searched for new sites at the human adenovirus serotype 5 major capsid protein hexon for a vaccine antigen insertion...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Che-Liang Lin, Shou-Chien Chen, Shyun-Yeu Liu, Kow-Tong Chen
Although rotavirus vaccines are available, rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide. The Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Rixensart, Belgium) and RotaTeq (Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA) vaccines are effective for reducing the morbidity and mortality of rotavirus infection. This article aims to assess the epidemiology of rotaviral gastroenteritis and the efficacy and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines. This review concludes by presenting challenges in the field that require further exploration by and perspectives from basic and translational research in the future...
2014: Open Virology Journal
Emilio E Espínola, Alberto A Amarilla, Magaly Martínez, Víctor H Aquino, Graciela Russomando
Influenza virus is associated with upper respiratory tract infections. The fourth influenza pandemic was declared in 2009. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus circulating in Paraguay. Nasal swabs were collected from 181 patients with flu symptoms managed at the Hospital of the Medical School in Asunción, Paraguay, between August and October 2009. Virus detection was carried out by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, and phylogenetic analysis...
2014: Open Virology Journal
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