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Open Virology Journal

Tiantian Zhang, Yogesh R Suryawanshi, Helene M Woyczesczyk, Karim Essani
Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer with ever-increasing incidence. Despite the development in diagnostics and therapies, metastatic melanoma is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent a class of novel therapeutic agents for cancer by possessing two closely related properties for tumor reduction: virus-induced lysis of tumor cells and induction of host anti-tumor immune responses. A variety of viruses, either in "natural" or in genetically modified forms, have exhibited a remarkable therapeutic efficacy in regressing melanoma in experimental and/or clinical studies...
2017: Open Virology Journal
S Pasquereau, F Al Moussawi, W Karam, M Diab Assaf, A Kumar, G Herbein
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that is highly host specific, infects among others epithelial cells and macrophages, and has been recently mentioned as having oncomodulatory properties. HCMV is detected in the breast tumor tissue where macrophages, especially tumor associated macrophages, are associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we will discuss the potential implication of HCMV in breast cancer with emphasis on the role played by macrophages.
2017: Open Virology Journal
Nafees Ahmad, Aamir N Ahmad, Shahid N Ahmad
HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Malewe Kolou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Mounerou Salou, Komlan Selom Gozo-Akakpo, Sika Dossim, Alexander Kwarteng, Mireille Prince-David
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Linlin Gu, Mert Icyuz, Valentina Krendelchtchikova, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Alison E Johnston, Qiana L Matthews
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) achieved success as a conventional transgene vaccine vector in preclinical trials, however; achieved poor efficiency in some of the clinical trials, due to the major hurdle associated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) in the majority of the human population. OBJECTIVE: We sought to generate Ad5-based chimeras to assess their capabilities to bypass this bottleneck and to induce antigen-specific humoral immune response. METHODS: A His6 tag was incorporated into the hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) of hexon3 (H3) capsid protein using the "Antigen Capsid-Incorporation" strategy...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Fernando Cobo
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are diseases caused by viruses which belong to different families, many of them causing severe diseases. These viruses may produce different symptomatology together with a severe multisystem syndrome, and the final result might be the production of hemorrhages in several sites of the body. The majority of them have no other treatment than supportive therapy, although some antiviral drugs can be used in some circumstances. Transmission of VHF has been demonstrated through contact with animal vectors or person-to-person through the contact with body fluids...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Yuka Tanaka, Rieko Hirata, Kyohei Mashita, Stuart Mclean, Hiroshi Ikegaya
BACKGROUND: In the field of forensic medicine, it is very difficult to know prior to autopsy what kind of virus has infected a body. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the potential of the genome profiling (GP) method, which was developed in the field of bioengineering, to identify viruses belonging to one species. METHOD: Two species in the same family, JC and BK viruses, were used in this study. Using plasmid samples, we compared the findings of molecular phylogenetic analysis using conventional genome sequencing with the results of cluster analysis using the random PCR-based GP method and discussed whether the GP method can be used to determine viral species...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Maha G Ebrahim, Aisha S Ali, Mohamed O Mustafa, Dalal F Musa, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Isam M Elkhidir, Khalid A Enan
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection still represents the most common potentially serious viral complication in humans and is a major cause of congenital anomalies in infants. This study is aimed to detect HCMV in infants with congenital anomalies. Study subjects consisted of infants born with neural tube defect, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Fifty serum specimens (20 males, 30 females) were collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. The sera were investigated for cytomegalovirus specific immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for Cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Abdelwahid Saeed Ali, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Ahmed Musa Al-Hakami, Ian M Jones
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a member in the order herpesvirales, family herpesviridae, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae and the genus lymphocytovirus. The virus is an exclusively human pathogen and thus also termed as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4). It was the first oncogenic virus recognized and has been incriminated in the causation of tumors of both lymphatic and epithelial nature. It was reported in some previous studies that 95% of the population worldwide are serologically positive to the virus...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Satyender Hansra, Sujit Pujhari, Alexander N Zakhartchouk
Adenoviral vectors are now being explored as vaccine carriers to prevent infectious diseases in humans and animals. There are two strategies aimed at the expression of a vaccine antigen by adenoviral vectors. The first includes an insertion of the foreign gene expression cassette into the E1 region. The second strategy is antigen incorporation into the viral capsid proteins. To extend this methodology, we have searched for new sites at the human adenovirus serotype 5 major capsid protein hexon for a vaccine antigen insertion...
2015: Open Virology Journal
Che-Liang Lin, Shou-Chien Chen, Shyun-Yeu Liu, Kow-Tong Chen
Although rotavirus vaccines are available, rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide. The Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Rixensart, Belgium) and RotaTeq (Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA) vaccines are effective for reducing the morbidity and mortality of rotavirus infection. This article aims to assess the epidemiology of rotaviral gastroenteritis and the efficacy and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines. This review concludes by presenting challenges in the field that require further exploration by and perspectives from basic and translational research in the future...
2014: Open Virology Journal
Emilio E Espínola, Alberto A Amarilla, Magaly Martínez, Víctor H Aquino, Graciela Russomando
Influenza virus is associated with upper respiratory tract infections. The fourth influenza pandemic was declared in 2009. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus circulating in Paraguay. Nasal swabs were collected from 181 patients with flu symptoms managed at the Hospital of the Medical School in Asunción, Paraguay, between August and October 2009. Virus detection was carried out by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, and phylogenetic analysis...
2014: Open Virology Journal
Michael Bobardt, Udayan Chatterji, Precious Lim, Katarzyna Gawlik, Philippe Gallay
We and others demonstrated that the contact between NS5A and the host factor CypA is critical for HCV replication. CypI, by disrupting NS5A-CypA complexes, block HCV replication both in vitro and in patients. Since NS5A also binds to PKR, a central component of the IFN response, we investigated the possibility of a relationship between CypA, NS5A and PKR in the IFN response to HCV. HCV-infected cells treated with CypI, DAAs or IFN were analyzed for the expression and activation of various components of the innate response...
2014: Open Virology Journal
Nyasha Chin'ombe, Vurayai Ruhanya
HIV/AIDS is an important public health problem globally. An affordable, easy-to-deliver and protective HIV vaccine is therefore required to curb the pandemic from spreading further. Recombinant Salmonella bacteria can be harnessed to vector HIV antigens or DNA vaccines to the immune system for induction of specific protective immunity. These are capable of activating the innate, humoral and cellular immune responses at both mucosal and systemic compartments. Several studies have already demonstrated the utility of live recombinant Salmonella in delivering expressed foreign antigens as well as DNA vaccines to the host immune system...
2013: Open Virology Journal
Rebecca Vogel, Michael Seyffert, Bruna de Andrade Pereira, Cornel Fraefel
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection...
2013: Open Virology Journal
A Bal, C Zandotti, A Nougairede, L Ninove, B Roquelaure, R N Charrel
We describe a case of a severe neonatal infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 acquired postnatally from his father. The delivery and the first days of life were normal. He developed liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation when he was 19 days old. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir and the outcome was favorable. This case underlines that prevention of post-natal transmission of HSV merits to be considered in educational pregnancy programs directed at mothers and fathers.
2013: Open Virology Journal
Elsa Herraez-Hernandez, Ovidiu Preda, Sonia Alonso, Rosario Serrano Pardo, Asuncion Olmo
The novel HPV Direct Flow CHIP commercial system for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is based on rapid PCR and automatic reverse dot blot hybridization to genotype-specific probes, allowing the detection of 36 HPV genotypes. This study examined the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (n= 99). Each sample was analyzed both by Direct PCR, using crude cell extracts without DNA purification, and by conventional PCR, using purified DNA. Pair-wise analysis of the results demonstrated strong concordance between the results obtained with the two protocols, although a slightly higher rate of multiple infections was detected by conventional PCR...
2013: Open Virology Journal
Fernando Cobo
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a diagnostic tool of microbial identification and characterization based on the detection of the mass of molecules. In the majority of clinical laboratories, this technology is currently being used mainly for bacterial diagnosis, but several approaches in the field of virology have been investigated. The introduction of this technology in clinical virology will improve the diagnosis of infections produced by viruses but also the discovery of mutations and variants of these microorganisms as well as the detection of antiviral resistance...
2013: Open Virology Journal
Ehsan Mostafavi, Sadegh Chinikar, Maryam Moradi, Neda Bayat, Mohsen Meshkat, Mohammad Khalili Fard, Seyyed Mojtaba Ghiasi
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce viruses and can also play the role of a mechanical vector, by transporting infected ticks without becoming ill. In March 2007, three butchers and one worker in an ostrich farm were infected with CCHF in central part of Iran...
2013: Open Virology Journal
Wasim Abbas, Georges Herbein
HIV exploits the T-cell signaling network to gain access to downstream cellular components, which serves as effective tools to break the cellular barriers. Multiple host factors and their interaction with viral proteins contribute to the complexity of HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression. HIV-1 proteins gp120, Nef, Tat and Vpr alter the T-cell signaling pathways by activating multiple transcription factors including NF-ĸB, Sp1 and AP-1. HIV-1 evades the immune system by developing a multi-pronged strategy...
2013: Open Virology Journal
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