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Open Virology Journal

Najeeb Ullah Khan, Ali Zalan, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Iftikhar Ud Din, Fazle Haq, Yousaf Hayat
Background: Hepatitis B is considered the most dangerous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it is clinically asymptomatic. It can silently damage the liver over many years without being diagnosed. Hepatitis B is one of the top risks of liver complications in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), a province of Pakistan, with an average prevalence rate of 2.70%. Aims: We aimed to carefully review the previously published data on prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in KP-Pakistan and use the statistical approach to obtain more precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV in KP-Pakistan...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Arnolfo Petruzziello
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent primary malignant tumors and accounts for about 90% of all primary liver cancers. Its distribution varies greatly according to geographic location and it is more common in middle and low- income countries than in developed ones especially in Eastern Asia and Sub Saharan Africa (70% of all new HCCs worldwide), with incidence rates of over 20 per 100,000 individuals. Explanation: The most important risk factors for HCC are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, excessive consumption of alcohol and exposition to aflatoxin B1...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Claudia Pinacchio, Maura Statzu, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Vincenzo Vullo
Introduction: Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), with more than 4.6 million people in the United States and is associated with more than 15.000 deaths annually. Chronic infection can result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Explanation: Epidemiological studies have indicated that persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly through chronic inflammation, cell deaths, and proliferation...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Guest Editor S, Arnolfo Petruzziello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Open Virology Journal
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Richard B Pyles, Marc M Baum, John A Moss
Introduction: In the absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for the identification of effective agents that prevent HIV transmission in uninfected individuals. Non-vaccine Biomedical Prevention (nBP) methods, such as topical or systemic pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are promising strategies to slow down the spread of AIDS. Methods: In this study, we investigated the microbicidal efficacy of the viral membrane-disrupting amphipathic SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK peptide called C5A...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Marwan M Badawi, Alshaimaa A Mohammed, Mohammed S Mohammed, Mohammed M Saeed, Elmoez Y Ali, Ashraf Khalil
Background: Hepatitis B infection is an alarming public health problem. Almost two billion people of the population alive today, would have been infected at some time in their lives by hepatitis B. Hepatitis C virus is another life threatening condition, and about 425,000 deaths occur each year due to its complications.The current study was carried out to provide care givers and health planners basic epidemiological data regarding the frequency and distribution of HBV and HCV based on age and sex during a time period of more than 5 years...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Zhi Zhou, Jiajun Wu, Shuo Zhang, Bo Hou, Tao Han, Jing Wang, Qi Xu, Dongyue Wang, Yinyi Liu, Shengpeng Xin, Xinyan Zhai
BACKGROUND: NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus first appeared in Chinese swine herds in 2012. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To explore the possible genetic diversity of these strains, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of two NADC30-like strains. These isolates shared 95.4% homology with NADC30. RESULT: The two strains displayed a discontinuous deletion of 131 amino acids in NSP2, mutations of amino acids in GP3 and GP5, and a 3-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Sun Ming, Ma Yongying, Liu Bohua, Lu Huiying, Deng Xiaoyu, Liu Qiaorong, Qiao Mingming, Chen Xi, Yang Xinyan, Chen Xizhao
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen in pig that causes tremendous economic loss in the global swine industry. PRRSV is divided into the European and North American genotypes, with virulence ranging from apathogenic-moderately virulent to highly pathogenic. The emergence of new highly virulent type 1 strains and coexistence of the two genotypes complicate the differential diagnosis, disease prevention, and control of PRRSV. Although the emergence of a novel type 1 PRRSV strain in mainland China was first confirmed in 2011, there is no information available concerning the pathogenesis of this strain...
2017: Open Virology Journal
X Li, A Galliher-Beckley, L Wang, J Nietfeld, W Feng, J Shi
INTRODUCTION: Chinese HP-PRRSV characterized by high morbidity and mortality of all ages of pigs emerged since 2006 in China. The immune response of HP-PRRSV was never compared with conventional low pathogenic PRRSV strain. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the immune responses elicited by a Chinese HP-PRRSV strain HV and a North American RRSV strain NADC20 infections. RESULT: Pigs infected with NADC-20 showed significantly higher Ab titers than HV-PRRSV infected pigs at 9 DPI...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Yanlin Li, Guobiao Ji, Xiaodong Xu, Juan Wang, Yingying Li, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li
BACKGROUND: PRRSV features with genetic diversity and high mutation which leads to the emergence of a multiple of circulating virus strains with different virulence. North American (genotype 2) PRRSV (NA-PRRSV) can be divided into classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV), highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and NADC30-like PRRSV (NL-PRRSV) according to their genomic characteristics and pathogenicity. So far, the above three subtypes of NA-PRRSV are now circulating in China. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: In this study, a reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established to simultaneously differentiate three subtypes of NA-PRRSV...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Kegong Tian
NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has widely spread in China and become locally dominant virus strain in some provinces. Although they are not pathogenic as highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-RRRSV) that outbreaks since 2006, NADC30-like PRRSVs distinguished themselves by high incidence of recombination with other virus strains which lead to change of virulence. The outbreaks of NADC30-like PRRSV in the vaccinated pig herds suggested that current commercial PRRSV vaccines cannot provide complete protection to the infection...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Nanhua Chen, Ranjni J Chand, Raymond R R Rowland
BACKGROUND: Recombination is an important contributor to the genetic diversity of most viruses. A reverse genetics system using green fluorescence protein (GFP)- and enhanced GFP (EGFP)-expressing infectious clones was developed to study the requirements for recombination. However, it is still unclear what types of cross-over events occurred to produce the viable offspring. OBJECTIVE: We utilized 454 sequencing to infer recombination events in this system. METHOD: Two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infectious clones, P129-EGFP-97C and P129-GFPm-d (2-6), were co-transfected into HEK-293T cells...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Kegong Tian, Xiangdong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Open Virology Journal
Tiantian Zhang, Yogesh R Suryawanshi, Helene M Woyczesczyk, Karim Essani
Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer with ever-increasing incidence. Despite the development in diagnostics and therapies, metastatic melanoma is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent a class of novel therapeutic agents for cancer by possessing two closely related properties for tumor reduction: virus-induced lysis of tumor cells and induction of host anti-tumor immune responses. A variety of viruses, either in "natural" or in genetically modified forms, have exhibited a remarkable therapeutic efficacy in regressing melanoma in experimental and/or clinical studies...
2017: Open Virology Journal
S Pasquereau, F Al Moussawi, W Karam, M Diab Assaf, A Kumar, G Herbein
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that is highly host specific, infects among others epithelial cells and macrophages, and has been recently mentioned as having oncomodulatory properties. HCMV is detected in the breast tumor tissue where macrophages, especially tumor associated macrophages, are associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we will discuss the potential implication of HCMV in breast cancer with emphasis on the role played by macrophages.
2017: Open Virology Journal
Nafees Ahmad, Aamir N Ahmad, Shahid N Ahmad
HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Malewe Kolou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Mounerou Salou, Komlan Selom Gozo-Akakpo, Sika Dossim, Alexander Kwarteng, Mireille Prince-David
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo...
2017: Open Virology Journal
Linlin Gu, Mert Icyuz, Valentina Krendelchtchikova, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Alison E Johnston, Qiana L Matthews
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) achieved success as a conventional transgene vaccine vector in preclinical trials, however; achieved poor efficiency in some of the clinical trials, due to the major hurdle associated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) in the majority of the human population. OBJECTIVE: We sought to generate Ad5-based chimeras to assess their capabilities to bypass this bottleneck and to induce antigen-specific humoral immune response. METHODS: A His6 tag was incorporated into the hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) of hexon3 (H3) capsid protein using the "Antigen Capsid-Incorporation" strategy...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Fernando Cobo
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are diseases caused by viruses which belong to different families, many of them causing severe diseases. These viruses may produce different symptomatology together with a severe multisystem syndrome, and the final result might be the production of hemorrhages in several sites of the body. The majority of them have no other treatment than supportive therapy, although some antiviral drugs can be used in some circumstances. Transmission of VHF has been demonstrated through contact with animal vectors or person-to-person through the contact with body fluids...
2016: Open Virology Journal
Yuka Tanaka, Rieko Hirata, Kyohei Mashita, Stuart Mclean, Hiroshi Ikegaya
BACKGROUND: In the field of forensic medicine, it is very difficult to know prior to autopsy what kind of virus has infected a body. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the potential of the genome profiling (GP) method, which was developed in the field of bioengineering, to identify viruses belonging to one species. METHOD: Two species in the same family, JC and BK viruses, were used in this study. Using plasmid samples, we compared the findings of molecular phylogenetic analysis using conventional genome sequencing with the results of cluster analysis using the random PCR-based GP method and discussed whether the GP method can be used to determine viral species...
2015: Open Virology Journal
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