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Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790284/pulmonary-strongyloidiasis-masquerading-as-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Gourahari Pradhan, Priyadarshini Behera, Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Sourin Bhuniya, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Srujana Mohanty
Pulmonary strongyloidiasis is an uncommon presentation of Strongyloides infection, usually seen in immunocompromised hosts. The manifestations are similar to that of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the diagnosis of pulmonary strongyloidiasis could be challenging in a COPD patient, unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. Here, we present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in a COPD patient mimicking acute exacerbation, who was on chronic steroid therapy...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790283/pulmonary-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-as-an-initial-presentation-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#2
Seung Hyun Lee, Jae Hyung Kim, Sejin Park, Chang Youn Won, Joo-Hyun Lee, Seong Yoon Yi, Hye Kyeong Park, Sun Hee Chang, Hoon Jung, Sung-Soon Lee, Hyeon-Kyoung Koo
Systemic vasculitis involving the lung is a rare manifestation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and secondary vasculitis is considered to have poor prognosis. A 44-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnea of 1 month duration. A chest radiograph revealed bilateral multiple wedge shaped consolidations. In addition, the results of a percutaneous needle biopsy for non-resolving pneumonia were compatible with pulmonary vasculitis. Bone marrow biopsy was performed due to the persistence of unexplained anemia and the patient was diagnosed with MDS...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790282/association-of-specific-immunoglobulin-e-to-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-with-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-asthma-patients
#3
Seong Han Kim, Seo Yeon Yang, Jihong You, Sang Bae Lee, Jin You, Yoon Soo Chang, Hyung Jung Kim, Chul Min Ahn, Min Kwang Byun, Hye Jung Park, Jung-Won Park
BACKGROUND: Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) has been recently considered to be related to allergic disease, including asthma. Despite studies on specific IgE (sIgE) to SE and its relationship to asthma diagnosis and severity, the association of sIgE to SE with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) remains unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 81 asthma patients admitted to the Severance Hospital in Korea from March 1, 2013, to February 28, 2015 and retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of the enrolled subjects...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790281/the-prognostic-value-of-the-charlson-s-comorbidity-index-in-patients-with-prolonged-acute-mechanical-ventilation-a-single-center-experience
#4
Seung Eon Song, Sang Hee Lee, Eun-Jung Jo, Jung Seop Eom, Jeong Ha Mok, Mi-Hyun Kim, Ki Uk Kim, Min Ki Lee, Kwangha Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of Charlson's weighted index of comorbidities (WIC) in patients with prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV, ventilator care ≥96 hours). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 299 Korean PAMV patients who were admitted in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2013. Survivors were defined as patients who survived for 60 days after ICU admission...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790280/performance-of-the-bact-alert-3d-system-versus-solid-media-for-recovery-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-korea
#5
Seoung-Cheol Kim, Bo-Young Jeon, Jin-Sook Kim, In Hwan Choi, Jiro Kim, Jeongim Woo, Soojin Kim, Hyeong Woo Lee, Monoldorova Sezim, Sang-Nae Cho
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem, and accurate and rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant (XDR) TB is important for appropriate treatment. In this study, performances of solid and liquid culture methods were compared with respect to MDR- and XDR-TB isolate recovery and drug susceptibility testing. METHODS: Sputum specimens from 304 patients were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates were tested for recovery on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the BacT Alert 3D system...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790279/the-younger-patients-have-more-better-prognosis-in-limited-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Hye-Jin Kim, Chang-Min Choi, Seul-Gi Kim
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with the prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is relatively unknown, than of those with non-small cell lung cancer. This study was undertaken to identify the prognostic factors of SCLC. METHODS: The medical records of 333 patients diagnosed with SCLC at tertiary hospital from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized by age (≤65 years vs. >65 years) and by extent of disease (limited disease [LD] vs extensive disease [ED])...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790278/gender-differences-in-clinical-presentations-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-in-azeri-turkish-population
#7
Leila Vahedi, Morteza Jabarpoor-Bonyadi, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Amir Vahedi, Mandana Rafeey
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder with several clinical presentations. This study was undertaken in the Azeri Turkish population in Iran, to investigate gender differences in the age at onset and diagnosis, age of death, and duration of illness of CF. METHODS: The data of 331 CF patients from 2001 to 2015 was surveyed. Parameters including age, sex, ΔF508 mutation, age at onset, age at diagnosis, age of death and clinical presentations were evaluated for both sexes, using descriptive analysis...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790277/increased-cellular-nad-level-through-nqo1-enzymatic-action-has-protective-effects-on-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#8
Gi-Su Oh, Su-Bin Lee, Anjani Karna, Hyung-Jin Kim, AiHua Shen, Arpana Pandit, SeungHoon Lee, Sei-Hoon Yang, Hong-Seob So
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a common interstitial lung disease; it is a chronic, progressive, and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the last two decades, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis has improved markedly and facilitated the identification of potential targets for novel therapies. However, despite the large number of antifibrotic drugs being described in experimental pre-clinical studies, the translation of these findings into clinical practices has not been accomplished yet...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790276/mechanisms-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistance-and-strategies-to-overcome-resistance-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Yoon Soo Chang, Chang-Min Choi, Jae Cheol Lee
Somatic mutations that lead to hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling are detected in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma in people from the Far East population and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are now the standard first line treatment for advanced disease. They have led to a doubling of progression-free survival and an increase in overall survival by more than 2 years. However, emergence of resistant clones has become the primary cause for treatment failure, and has created a new challenge in the daily management of patients with EGFR mutations...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790275/the-role-of-bronchodilators-in-preventing-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Kai M Beeh
Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. They are routinely recommended for symptom reduction, with a preference of long-acting over short-acting drugs. Bronchodilators are classified into two classes based on distinct modes of action, i.e., long-acting antimuscarinics (LAMA, once-daily and twice-daily), and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA, once-daily and twice-daily). In contrast to asthma management, evidence supports the efficacy of both classes of long-acting bronchodilators as monotherapy in preventing COPD exacerbations, with greater efficacy of LAMA drugs versus LABAs...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790274/tuberculosis-infection-control-in-health-care-facilities-environmental-control-and-personal-protection
#11
REVIEW
Ji Yeon Lee
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790273/clinical-practice-guideline-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Young-Jae Cho, Jae Young Moon, Ein-Soon Shin, Je Hyeong Kim, Hoon Jung, So Young Park, Ho Cheol Kim, Yun Su Sim, Chin Kook Rhee, Jaemin Lim, Seok Jeong Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Eun Kyeong Kang, Kyung Soo Chung, Won-Il Choi
There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790272/a-mitochondrial-perspective-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pathogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Min-Jong Kang, Gerald S Shadel
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) encompasses several clinical syndromes, most notably emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Most of the current treatments fail to attenuate severity and progression of the disease, thereby requiring better mechanistic understandings of pathogenesis to develop disease-modifying therapeutics. A number of theories on COPD pathogenesis have been promulgated wherein an increase in protease burden from chronic inflammation, exaggerated production of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidant injury, or superfluous cell death responses caused by enhanced cellular injury/damage were proposed as the culprit...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790271/tuberculosis-infection-and-latent-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Seung Heon Lee
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1-5 µm in diameter, containing 1-10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433181/erratum-outcome-of-inhaler-withdrawal-in-patients-receiving-triple-therapy-for-copd
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 22 in vol. 79, PMID: 26770231.].
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433180/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-as-the-initial-clinical-manifestation-of-an-antisynthetase-syndrome
#16
Seo-Hyun Kim, I-Nae Park
Antisynthetase syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of autoimmune inflammatory myopathy in a subset of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. It is associated with serum antibody to aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases and is characterized by a constellation of manifestations, including fever, myositis, interstitial lung disease, mechanic's hand-like cutaneous involvement, Raynaud phenomenon, and polyarthritis. Lung disease is the presenting feature in 50% of the cases. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which later proved to be an unexpected and initial manifestation of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive antisynthetase syndrome...
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433179/igg4-related-lung-disease-without-elevation-of-serum-igg4-level-a-case-report
#17
Min Kyu Kang, Yongseon Cho, Minsoo Han, Sun Young Jung, Kyoung Min Moon, Jinyoung Kim, Ju Ri Kim, Dong-Kyu Lee, Jun Hyung Park, So Hee Chung
Since IgG4-related pancreatitis was first reported in 2001, IgG4-related disease has been identified in other organs such as salivary gland, gallbladder, thyroid, retroperitoneum and kidney; but lung invasion is rare. A 63-year-old man presented with hemoptysis at the pulmonary clinic and chest computed tomography revealed about 4.1 cm irregular shaped mass with spiculated margin at the left upper lobe. Despite no elevation of serum IgG4 level, he was finally diagnosed as IgG4-related lung disease by transthoracic needle biopsy...
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433178/acute-respiratory-failure-caused-by-hepatopulmonary-fistula-in-a-patient-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Jungsil Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Hyung-Jun Kim, Jee-Min Kim, Young-Chan Kim, Sun Mi Choi
A 59-year-old man presented with acute dyspnea following sudden productive cough and expectoration of a full cup of "blood-tinged" sputum. He had been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and had received transarterial chemoembolization 5 years ago for a 20-cm hepatic mass; he denied any history of hematemesis and the last esophagogastroduodenoscopy from a year ago showed absence of varix. Chest computed tomography (CT) with angiography showed new appearance of right basal lung consolidation but no bleeding focus...
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433177/lung-microbiome-analysis-in-steroid-na%C3%B1-ve-asthma-patients-by-using-whole-sputum
#19
Jae-Woo Jung, Jae-Chol Choi, Jong-Wook Shin, Jae-Yeol Kim, In-Won Park, Byoung Whui Choi, Heung-Woo Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Kijeong Kim, Hye-Ryun Kang
BACKGROUND: Although recent metagenomic approaches have characterized the distinguished microbial compositions in airways of asthmatics, these results did not reach a consensus due to the small sample size, non-standardization of specimens and medication status. We conducted a metagenomics approach by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the induced whole sputum representing both the cellular and fluid phases in a relative large number of steroid naïve asthmatics...
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433176/characteristics-of-active-tuberculosis-patients-requiring-intensive-care-monitoring-and-factors-affecting-mortality
#20
Koşar A Filiz, Dalar Levent, Eryüksel Emel, Uysal Pelin, Akbaş Turkay, Kekeçoğlu Aybüke
BACKGROUND: One to three percent of cases of acute tuberculosis (TB) require monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study is to establish and determine the mortality rate and discuss the causes of high mortality in these cases, and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of TB patients admitted to the pulmonary ICU. METHODS: The data of patients admitted to the ICU of Yedikule Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital due to active TB were retrospectively evaluated...
July 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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