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Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

Marcos I Restrepo, Oriol Sibila, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent comorbid condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is the most common infectious disease condition. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the impact of pneumonia in patients with COPD. We will evaluate the epidemiology and factors associated with pneumonia. We are discussing the clinical characteristics of COPD that may favor the development of infections conditions such as pneumonia. Over the last 10 years, there is an increased evidence that COPD patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids are at increased risk to develp pneumonia...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Marc Miravitlles, Seungjae Baek, Vatsal Vithlani, Rahul Lad
Bronchodilators provide improvements in lung function and reductions in symptoms and exacerbations, and are the mainstay of pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy recommends the use of a combination of long-acting β₂-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LABA/LAMA) as the first-line treatment option in the majority of symptomatic patients with COPD. This review provides an indirect comparison of available LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) through discussion of important efficacy and safety data from the key literature, with the objective of providing physicians with a framework for informed decision-making...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Hun Gyu Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Cheol Kyu Park, In Jae Oh, Young Chul Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Won Young Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Eun Jung Jo, Jung Seop Eom, Jeongha Mok, Ki Uk Kim, Hye Kyung Park, Min Ki Lee, Kwangha Lee
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to tuberculous destroyed lung (TDL) have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present retrospective study was to develop a mortality prediction model for TDL patients who require mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Data from consecutive TDL patients who had received mechanical ventilation at a single university-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Korea were reviewed. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Saulius Diktanas, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Katazyna Polubenko, Edvardas Danila, Indre Celedinaite, Evelina Boreikaite, Kipras Misiunas
BACKGROUND: Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Ji Young Hong, Young Ae Kang
Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Since 2014, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) has assessed the overall quality of care among hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) provided by all medical institutions in Korea. A committee of the Korea Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases developed the hospital inpatient quality measures set for CAP consisting of eight core measures and five monitoring measures. The composite measure score was calculated...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Sungweon Ryoo, Jeongsoo Lee, Jee Youn Oh, Byeong Ki Kim, Young Kim, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
BACKGROUND: The number of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) increases each year in South Korea. Determining the transmission dynamics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cluster the strains has been challenging. METHODS: WGS, annotation refinement, and orthology assignment for the GenBank accession number acquisition were performed on two clinical isolates from Chinese immigrants. In addition, the genomes of the two isolates were compared with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from two native Korean and five native Chinese individuals using a phylogenetic topology tree based on the Multiple Alignment of Conserved Genomic Sequence with Rearrangements (Mauve) package...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Guanglin Shi, Qin Shen, Caixin Zhang, Jun Ma, Anaz Mohammed, Huan Zhao
Despite recent clinical guidelines, the optimal therapeutic strategy for the management of refractory chronic cough is still a challenge. The present systematic review was designed to assess the evidence for efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of chronic cough. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and publications cited in bibliographies was performed. Articles were searched by two reviewers with a priori criteria for study selection. Seven relevant articles were identified, including two randomized controlled trials, one prospective case-series designed with consecutive patients, one retrospective case series of consecutive patients, one retrospective case series with unknown consecutive status, and two case reports comprising six and two patients, respectively...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Sang Hoon Yoo, Jae Ha Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Ki Suck Jung, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate different pattern of COPD assessment test (CAT) score between CB and non-CB patients. METHODS: Patients were recruited from 45 centers in Korea, as part of the Korean COPD Subgroup Study cohort. CB was defined when sputum continued for at least 3 months. RESULTS: Total 958 patients with COPD were eligible for analysis...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Jae Kyoung Kim, Ina Jeong, Ji Yeon Lee, Jung Hyun Kim, Ah Yeon Han, So Yeon Kim, Joon Sung Joh
BACKGROUND: The "Tuberculosis Relief Belt Supporting Project (Tuberculosis Patient Management Project for Poverty Groups)" is a national program for socioeconomically vulnerable tuberculosis (TB) patients. We sought to evaluate the clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of poverty-stricken TB patients, and determined the need for relief. METHODS: We examined in-patients with TB, who were supported by this project at the National Medical Center from 2014 to 2015...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Yeo Jun Yun, Jong Seok Lee, Je Chul Yoo, Eunjin Cho, Dahee Park, Yoon Hoh Kook, Keun Hwa Lee
BACKGROUND: Rifampicin (RFP) is one of the principal first-line drugs used in combination chemotherapies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its use has greatly shortened the duration of chemotherapy for the successful treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Compensatory mutations have been identified in rpoC that restore the fitness of RFP-resistant M. tuberculosis strains with mutations in rpoB. To investigate rpoC mutation patterns, we analyzed 93 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from patients in South Korea...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Jongmin Lee, Young Kyoon Kim, Ye Young Seo, Eun Kyoung Choi, Dong Soo Lee, Yeon Sil Kim, Sook Hee Hong, Jin Hyoung Kang, Kyo Young Lee, Jae Kil Park, Sook Whan Sung, Hyun Bin Kim, Mi Sun Park, Hyeon Woo Yim, Seung Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a standard procedure to evaluate suspicious lymph node involvement of lung cancer because computed tomography (CT) and ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) have limitations in their sensitivity and specificity. There are a number of benign causes of false positive lymph node such as anthracosis or anthracofibrosis, pneumoconiosis, old or active tuberculosis, interstitial lung disease, and other infectious conditions including pneumonia...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Yong Bum Park, Chin Kook Rhee, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Yeon Mok Oh, Seong Yong Lim, Jin Hwa Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joong Hyun Ahn
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in high morbidity and mortality among patients nationally and globally. The Korean clinical practice guideline for COPD was revised in 2018. The guideline was drafted by the members of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases as well as the participating members of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Korean Physicians' Association, and Korea Respiration Trouble Association. The revised guideline encompasses a wide range of topics, including the epidemiology, diagnosis, assessment, monitoring, management, exacerbation, and comorbidities of COPD in Korea...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Hyonsoo Joo, Deokjae Han, Jae Ha Lee, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast is the only approved oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of frequent exacerbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of adverse effects associated with roflumilast treatment in a real-world setting. Further, we compared the incidence of adverse effects and the discontinuation rate among patients receiving different doses...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Seo Yun Kim, Jae Kyung Myung, Hye Ryoun Kim, Im Il Na, Jae Soo Koh, Hee Jong Baek, Cheol Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancers have emerged as key predictive biomarkers in EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, a few patients with wild-type EGFR also respond to EGFR TKIs. This study investigated the factors predicting successful EGFR TKI treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with wild-type EGFR. METHODS: We examined 66 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma carrying wide-type EGFR who were treated with EGFR TKIs...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Ho Cheol Kim, Chi Young Jung, Deog Gon Cho, Jae Hyun Jeon, Jeong Eun Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Seung Joon Kim, Yeongdae Kim, Young Chul Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Boram Lee, Young Joo Won, Chang Min Choi
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the incidence continues to rise. Although many prognostic factors have been identified, the clinical characteristics and outcomes in Korean lung cancer patients are not well defined. METHODS: Of the 23,254 new lung cancer cases registered at the Korea Central Cancer Registry in 2013, total 489 patients from 19 hospitals were abstracted by the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The clinical data retrospectively analyzed, patients were followed up until December 2015...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Soojin Jang, Se Min Ryu, Jooyeon Lee, Hanbyeol Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Kwon Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Eun Taek Han, Se Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Min Cheol Jeon, Ju Ock Kim, Sung Soo Jung, Hee Sun Park, Jeong Eun Lee, Jae Young Moon, Chae Uk Chung, Da Hyun Kang, Dong Il Park
BACKGROUND: We developed an additional laser guidance system to improve the efficacy and safety of conventional computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and we conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of our system. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 244 patients who underwent CT-guided PTNB using our additional laser guidance system from July 1, 2015, to January 20, 2016. RESULTS: There were nine false-negative results among the 238 total cases...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Eun Jin Kim, Chi Young Jung, Kyung Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a necessary procedure for diagnosis of various lung diseases. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen delivery was recently introduced. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of HFNC oxygen supply during BAL procedure in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: Patients who underwent BAL while using HFNC at a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO₂/FiO₂; PF) ratio of 300 or below among patients who had been admitted from March 2013 to May 2017 were retrospectively investigated...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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