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Cancer Prevention Research

Heather Greenlee, Zaixing Shi, Hanina Hibshoosh, Dilip D Giri, Aqeel Ahmed, Samantha Williams, Domenick J Falcone, Lisle A Winston, Xi K Zhou, Clifford A Hudis, Dawn L Hershman, Andrew J Dannenberg, Neil M Iyengar
Breast white adipose tissue inflammation (BWATi) is associated with obesity and higher breast cancer (BC) risk among non-Hispanic white women. Obesity is prevalent in Hispanic/Latina BC patients, and the occurrence of BWATi in this population is not well-characterized. The association between BWATi and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in Hispanic/Latina BC patients who underwent mastectomy. BWATi was defined as the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B), detected by CD68 immunohistochemistry in non-tumor breast tissue...
November 7, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Adetunji T Toriola, Catherine M Appleton, Xiaoyu Zong, Jingqin Luo, Katherine Weilbaecher, Rulla M Tamimi, Graham A Colditz
The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) pathway plays essential roles in breast development. Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, especially in premenopausal women. We, therefore, investigated the associations of circulating RANK, and soluble RANK ligand (sRANKL) with mammographic density in premenopausal women. Mammographic density was measured as volumetric percent density in 365 cancer-free premenopausal women (mean age, 47.5 years) attending screening mammogram at the Washington University School of Medicine, St...
October 23, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Davide Serrano, Sara Gandini, Aliana Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Irene Feroce, Harriet Johansson, Debora Macis, Valentina Aristarco, Bernardo Bonanni, Andrea DeCensi
Menopausal symptoms are the main reason for withdrawal in tamoxifen prevention trials. Here we present Menopause Quality of Life (MenQoL) assessment within a randomized 2x2 phase II clinical trial of low-dose tamoxifen and the synthetic retinoid fenretinide. A total of 235 premenopausal women at higher risk for breast cancer were randomized to either tamoxifen 5 mg daily, fenretinide 200 mg daily, their combination or placebo. Climacteric symptoms were investigated using the MenQol questionnaire which was self-administered at each visit for two years of treatment and for one year of follow up...
October 23, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Renee N Carey, Lin Fritschi, Timothy R Driscoll, Susan Peters, Deborah C Glass, Geza Benke, Alison Reid
Exposure to diesel engine exhaust contributes appreciably to the burden of occupational cancer. This study aims to estimate the potential impact of a range of interventions on the future burden of cancer from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australia. The future excess fraction method, a novel method based on the lifetime risk approach, was used to model changes in the future burden of cancer among the Australian working age population exposed to diesel engine exhaust at work in 2012 under various intervention strategies...
October 22, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Alison M Mondul, Corinne E Joshu, John R Barber, Anna E Prizment, Nrupen A Bhavsar, Elizabeth Selvin, Aaron R Folsom, Elizabeth A Platz
Lipid-lowering medications, particularly statins, may protect against aggressive prostate cancer. Fatal prostate cancer, the most clinically relevant outcome, remains understudied for this association. We prospectively studied lipid-lowering medication use and both incident and fatal prostate cancer in black and white men in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. 6,518 men without cancer at visit 2 (1990-1992), the start of the statin era, were followed for prostate cancer incidence and death through 2012...
October 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Su Yon Jung, Nick Mancuso, Herbert Yu, Jeanette Papp, Eric M Sobel, Zuo-Feng Zhang
Insulin-resistance (IR)-related genetic variants are possibly associated with breast cancer, and the gene-phenotype-cancer association could be modified by lifestyle factors including obesity, physical inactivity, and high-fat diet. Using data from postmenopausal women, a population highly susceptible to obesity, IR, and increased risk of breast cancer, we implemented a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2 steps: 1) GWAS meta-analysis of gene-environmental (i.e., behavioral) interaction (G*E) for IR phenotypes (hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance); and 2) after the G*E GWAS meta-analysis, the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for their associations with breast cancer risk in overall or subgroup population, where the SNPs were identified at genome-wide significance...
October 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
John P Pierce, Yuyan Shi, Sara B McMenamin, Tarik Benmarhnia, Dennis R Trinidad, David R Strong, Martha M White, Sheila Kealey, Erik M Hendrickson, Matthew D Stone, Adriana Villasenor, Sandy Kwong, Xueying Zhang, Karen Messer
Three cigarette smoking behaviors influence lung cancer rates: how many people start, the amount they smoke, and the age they quit. California has reduced smoking faster than the rest of the US and trends in these 3 smoking behaviors should inform lung cancer trends. We examined trends in smoking behavior (initiation, intensity, and quitting) in California and the rest of US by regression models using the 1974-2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=962,174). Lung cancer mortality data for 1970-2013 was obtained from the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shuai Wang, Tareisha L Dunlap, Lingyi Huang, Yang Liu, Charlotte Simmler, Daniel D Lantvit, Jenna Crosby, Caitlin E Howell, Huali Dong, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli, Richard B van Breemen, Birgit M Dietz, Judy L Bolton
Women are increasingly using botanical dietary supplements (BDS) to reduce menopausal hot flashes. While licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp.) is one of the frequently used ingredients in BDSs, the exact plant species is often not identified. We previously showed that in breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and G. inflata (GI), and their compounds differentially modulated P450 1A1 and P450 1B1 gene expression, which are responsible for estrogen detoxification and genotoxicity, respectively. GG and isoliquiritigenin (LigC) increased CYP1A1, whereas GI and its marker compound, licochalcone A (LicA), decreased CYP1A1 and CYP1B1...
October 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
J Athene Lane, Vanessa Er, Kerry N L Avery, Jeremy Horwood, Marie Cantwell, Gema P Caro, Alan Crozier, George Davey Smith, Jenny L Donovan, Liz Down, Freddie C Hamdy, David Gillatt, Jeff Holly, Rhiannon Macefield, Hilary Moody, David E Neal, Eleanor Walsh, Richard M Martin, Chris Metcalfe
Epidemiologic studies suggest that diet can alter prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of dietary modification in men at increased risk of prostate cancer. Men were invited with a PSA level of 2.0-2.95 ng/mL or 3.0-19.95 ng/mL with negative prostate biopsies. Randomization (3 × 3 factorial design) to daily green tea and lycopene: green tea drink (3 cups, unblinded) or capsules [blinded, 600 mg flavan-3-ol ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo] and lycopene-rich foods (unblinded) or capsules (blinded, 15 mg lycopene or placebo) for 6 months...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Sarah A Bannon, Maria F Montiel, Jennifer B Goldstein, Wenli Dong, Maureen E Mork, Ester Borras, Merve Hasanov, Gauri R Varadhachary, Anirban Maitra, Matthew H Katz, Lei Feng, Andrew Futreal, David R Fogelman, Eduardo Vilar, Florencia McAllister
Introduction: We aimed to determine the prevalence and landscape of germline mutations among patients with young-onset pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) as well as their influence in prognosis. Methods: Patients from two cohorts were studied, the high-risk cohort (HRC), which included 584 PDAC patients who received genetic counseling at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and a general cohort (GC) with 233 metastatic PDAC patients. We defined germline DNA sequencing on 13 known pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Laurie Grieshober, Stefan Graw, Matt J Barnett, Mark D Thornquist, Gary E Goodman, Chu Chen, Devin C Koestler, Carmen J Marsit, Jennifer A Doherty
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a biomarker that indicates systemic inflammation and can be estimated using array-based DNA methylation data as methylation-derived NLR (mdNLR). We assessed the relationship between prediagnosis mdNLR and lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) of individuals at high risk for lung cancer due to heavy smoking or substantial occupational asbestos exposure. We matched 319 incident lung cancer cases to controls based on age at blood draw, smoking, sex, race, asbestos, enrollment year, and time at risk...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kala Visvanathan, Patricia Shaw, Betty J May, Asli Bahadirli-Talbott, Alpana Kaushiva, Harvey Risch, Steven Narod, Tian-Li Wang, Vinita Parkash, Russell Vang, Douglas A Levine, Robert Soslow, Robert Kurman, Ie-Ming Shih
The prognosis of women diagnosed with invasive high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is poor. More information about serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STIL), putative precursor lesions of HGSC, could inform prevention efforts. We conducted a multicenter study to identify risk/protective factors associated with STIC/STILs and characterize p53 signatures in the fallopian tube. The fallopian tubes and ovaries of 479 high-risk women ≥30 years of age who underwent bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy were reviewed for invasive cancer/STICs/STILs...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Si Wu, Yang Zhang, Lian Zhang, Jun-Ling Ma, Tong Zhou, Zhe-Xuan Li, Wei-Dong Liu, Wen-Qing Li, Wei-Cheng You, Kai-Feng Pan
Nonclustered protocadherins (PCDH) family is a group of cell-cell adhesion molecules. We have found differentially methylated genes in the nonclustered PCDHs family associated with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection in prior genome-wide methylation analysis. To further investigate the methylation and expression of nonclustered PCDHs encoding genes in H. pylori- -related gastric carcinogenesis process, four candidate genes including PCDH7, PCDH10, PCDH17, and PCDH20 were selected, which were reported to be tumor suppressors for digestive cancers...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Rebecca Hodge, Hannah B Mandle, Stephen Ray, Sonia Tandon, Meaghan Peterson, Abigail Henry, Ferdous A Jahan, Roberd M Bostick, John A Baron, Elizabeth L Barry, Rami Yacoub, Robin E Rutherford, March E Seabrook, Veronika Fedirko
Chronic inflammation in the colorectum, a significant contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis, can be triggered by the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways such as those initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Although experimental evidence supports calcium and vitamin D potentially modifying these proinflammatory pathways in the colorectum, human data in these regards are scarce. We investigated supplemental calcium (1,200 mg daily) and/or vitamin D3 (1,000 IU daily) effects on inflammatory signaling pathway-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial...
November 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
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October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Jamie Michael, Lauren E Howard, Sarah C Markt, Amanda De Hoedt, Charlotte Bailey, Lorelei A Mucci, Stephen J Freedland, Emma H Allott
Epidemiologic evidence for an association between alcohol and prostate cancer is mixed. Moreover, there is a lack of research investigating early-life alcohol intake as a risk factor for either overall or high-grade prostate cancer. We examined lifetime alcohol intake in association with prostate cancer diagnosis in an equal-access, racially diverse prostate biopsy cohort. Men undergoing prostate biopsy at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 2007 to 2018 completed a survey indicating average number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week [categorized as none (ref), 1-6, ≥7] during each decade of life...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Heidi Coia, Ning Ma, Yanqi Hou, Marcin D Dyba, Ying Fu, M Idalia Cruz, Carlos Benitez, Garrett T Graham, Justine N McCutcheon, Yun-Ling Zheng, Bing Sun, Bhaskar V Kallakury, Junfeng Ma, Hong-Bin Fang, Deborah L Berry, Vinona Muralidaran, Fung-Lung Chung
Obesity is associated with cancer risk and its link with liver cancer is particularly strong. Obesity causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that could progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic inflammation likely plays a key role. We carried out a bioassay in the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice to provide insight into the mechanisms of obesity-related HCC by studying γ-OHPdG, a mutagenic DNA adduct derived from lipid peroxidation. In an 80-week bioassay, mice received a low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD with 2% Theaphenon E (TE) (HFD+TE)...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Xia Wang, Roope A Kallionpää, Patrick R Gonzales, Dhananjay A Chitale, Renee N Tousignant, Jacob P Crowley, Zhihua Chen, Sean J Yoder, Jaishri O Blakeley, Maria T Acosta, Bruce R Korf, Ludwine M Messiaen, Michael A Tainsky
NF1 germline mutation predisposes to breast cancer. NF1 mutations have also been proposed as oncogenic drivers in sporadic breast cancers. To understand the genomic and histologic characteristics of these breast cancers, we analyzed the tumors with NF1 germline mutations and also examined the genomic and proteomic profiles of unselected tumors. Among 14 breast cancer specimens from 13 women affected with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), 9 samples (NF + BrCa) underwent genomic copy number (CN) and targeted sequencing analysis...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Melissa L New, Collin M White, Polly McGonigle, Debbie G McArthur, Lori D Dwyer-Nield, Daniel T Merrick, Robert L Keith, Meredith A Tennis
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and global burden could be reduced through targeted application of chemoprevention. The development of squamous lung carcinoma has been linked with persistent, high-grade bronchial dysplasia. Bronchial histology improved in former smokers in a chemoprevention trial with the prostacyclin analogue iloprost. Prostacyclin acts through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to reverse epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote anticancer signaling...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ronald A Lubet, Vernon E Steele, Robert H Shoemaker, Clinton J Grubbs
Because of the importance of testing reproducibility of results, we present our findings regarding screening agents in preclinical chemoprevention studies in rodent models performed by the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group (CADRG) of the Division of Cancer Prevention of the NCI. These studies were performed via contracts to various commercial and academic laboratories. Primarily, results with positive agents are reported because positive agents may progress to the clinics. In testing reproducibility, a limited number of direct repeats of our standard screening assays were performed; which entailed initiating treatment shortly after carcinogen administration or in young transgenic mice and continuing treatment until the end of the study...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
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