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Cancer Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158340/effects-of-black-raspberry-on-dibenzo-a-l-pyrene-diol-epoxide-induced-dna-adducts-mutagenesis-and-tumorigenesis-in-the-mouse-oral-cavity
#1
Kun-Ming Chen, Joseph B Guttenplan, Yuan-Wan Sun, Timothy Cooper, Nora Ae Shalaby, Wieslawa Kosinska, Gabrielle Benitez, Cesar Aliaga, Junjia Zhu, Jason Liao, Krishne Gowda, Shantu Amin, Gary Stoner, Karam El-Bayoumy
We previously showed that metabolic activation of the environmental and tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) to its active fjord region diol epoxide (DB[a,l]PDE) is required to induce DNA damage, mutagenesis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the mouse oral cavity. In contrast to procarcinogens which were employed previously to induce SCC, DB[a,l]PDE does not require metabolic activation to exert its biological effects and thus, this study was initiated to examine, for the first time, whether black raspberry powder (BRB) inhibits post-metabolic processes such as DNA damage, mutagenesis and tumorigenesis...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138137/the-next-frontier-head-and-neck-cancer-immunoprevention
#2
J Silvio Gutkind, Jack D Bui
Restoring T cell-mediated antitumor immunity by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) results in immunomodulation and durable remissions. However, the overall response rate to these immunotherapies in HNSCC is only approximately 20%. This raises the possibility that immunologic intervention earlier in the HNSCC continuum, such as in oral premalignant lesions (OPL) could elicit an increased therapeutic response. New experimental studies suggest that immune therapies can be used for HNSCC prevention rather than therapy...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133307/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-personalized-omega-3-fatty-acid-dosing-for-reducing-prostaglandin-e2-in-the-colonic-mucosa-is-attenuated-in-obesity
#3
Zora Djuric, D Kim Turgeon, Ananda Sen, Jianwei Ren, Kirk Herman, Devon Ramaswamy, Lili Zhao, Mack T Ruffin, Daniel P Normolle, William L Smith, Dean E Brenner
This clinical trial developed a personalized dosing model for reducing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colonic mucosa using ω-3 fatty acid supplementation. The model utilized serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ω-3):arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6) ratios as biomarkers of colonic mucosal PGE2 concentration. Normal human volunteers were given low and high ω-3 fatty acid test doses for 2 weeks. This established a slope and intercept of the line for dose versus serum EPA:AA ratio in each individual. The slope and intercept was utilized to calculate a personalized target dose that was given for 12 weeks...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118162/does-mutated-k-ras-oncogene-attenuate-the-effect-of-sulindac-in-colon-cancer-chemoprevention
#4
Photini F S Rice, Kevin G Ehrichs, Mykella S Jones, Hwudarw Chen, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Edward R Abril, Raymond B Nagle, David G Besselsen, Jennifer K Barton, Natalia A Ignatenko
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Sulindac has been successfully used alone or in combination with other agents to suppress colon tumorigenesis in patients with genetic predisposition, and also showed its efficacy in prevention of sporadic colon adenomas. At the same time, some experimental and clinical reports suggest that a mutant K-RAS oncogene may negate Sulindac anti-tumor efficacy. To directly assess Sulindac activity at suppressing premalignant lesions carrying K-RAS mutation, we utilized a novel mouse model with an inducible colon-specific expression of the mutant K-ras oncogene (K-ras G12D)...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118161/dietary-nutrient-intake-ethnicity-and-epigenetic-silencing-of-lung-cancer-genes-detected-in-sputum-in-new-mexican-smokers
#5
Shuguang Leng, Maria A Picchi, Huining Kang, Guodong Wu, Piotr T Filipczak, Daniel E Juri, Xiequn Zhang, W James Gauderman, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
Lung cancer (LC) gene methylation detected in sputum assesses field cancerization and predicts LC incidence. Hispanic smokers have higher LC susceptibility compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We aimed to identify novel dietary nutrients affecting LC gene methylation and determine the degree of ethnic disparity in methylation explained by diet. Dietary intakes of 139 nutrients were assessed using a validated Harvard food frequency questionnaire in 327 Hispanics and 1502 NHWs from the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC)...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109117/chemoprevention-with-cyclooxygenase-and-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-in-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-patients-mrna-signatures-of-duodenal-neoplasia
#6
Don A Delker, Austin C Wood, Angela K Snow, N Jewel Samadder, Wade S Samowitz, Kajsa E Affolter, Kenneth M Boucher, Lisa M Pappas, Inge J Stijleman, Priyanka Kanth, Kathryn R Byrne, Randall W Burt, Philip S Bernard, Deborah W Neklason
To identify gene expression biomarkers and pathways targeted by sulindac and erlotinib given in a chemoprevention trial with a significant decrease in duodenal polyp burden at 6 months (P < 0.001) in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, we biopsied normal and polyp duodenal tissues from patients on drug versus placebo and analyzed the RNA expression. RNA sequencing was performed on biopsies from the duodenum of FAP patients obtained at baseline and 6-month endpoint endoscopy. Ten FAP patients on placebo and 10 on sulindac and erlotinib were selected for analysis...
November 6, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101208/nf-kappab-at-the-crossroads-of-normal-mammary-gland-biology-and-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-brca1-mutated-breast-cancer
#7
M A Christine Pratt, Andrea Sau, Miguel A Cabrita
Recent studies have shown that progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing cells respond to progesterone in part through the induction of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in which acts in a paracrine manner to induce expansion of a RANK-expressing luminal progenitor cell population. The RANK+ population in human breast tissue from carriers of BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1mut/+) as well as the luminal progenitor population in Brca1-deficient mouse mammary glands is abnormally amplified. Remarkably, mouse Brca1+/- and human BRCA1mut/+ progenitor cells are able to form colonies in vitro in the absence of progesterone demonstrating a hormone-independent proliferative capacity...
November 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089332/chemopreventive-and-antitumor-efficacy-of-curcumin-in-a-spontaneously-developing-hen-ovarian-cancer-model
#8
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Hakki Tastan, Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan, Osman Guler, Nermin Kahraman, Omer Kucuk, Bulent Ozpolat
We investigated the effect of daily dietary curcumin intake on the development and progression of spontaneous ovarian cancer in a galline (hen) model, as the chicken is the only nonhuman animal in which ovarian cancer spontaneously develops with a high prevalence. At the end of 12 months, ovarian cancer had spontaneously developed in 39% (35/90) of control hens not fed curcumin (n = 90). In comparison, it spontaneously developed in 27% (24/90) and 17% (15/90) of hens given curcumin at 25.8 (n=90) and 53.0 mg/day (n=90), respectively (P = 0...
October 31, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089331/prevalence-of-aflatoxin-associated-tp53r249s-mutation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hispanics-in-south-texas
#9
Jingjing Jiao, Weibo Niu, Ying Wang, Keith A Baggerly, Yuanqing Ye, Xifeng Wu, Dewitt Davenport, Jose Luis Almeda, Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, R Armour Forse, Heather L Stevenson, Gordon P Watt, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch, Laura Beretta
We aimed to determine whether aflatoxin dietary exposure plays a role in the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) observed among Hispanics in South Texas.We measured TP53R249S somatic mutation, hallmark of aflatoxin etiology in HCC, using droplet digital PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. TP53R249S mutation was detected in 3 out of 41 HCC tumors from Hispanics in South Texas (7.3%). We also measured TP53R249S mutation in plasma cell free DNA (cfDNA) from 218 HCC patients and 96 Hispanic subjects with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, from South Texas...
October 31, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074537/genetic-variants-in-metabolic-signaling-pathways-and-their-interaction-with-lifestyle-factors-on-breast-cancer-risk-a-random-survival-forest-analysis
#10
Su Yon Jung, Jeanette C Papp, Eric M Sobel, Zuo-Feng Zhang
Genetic variants in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/insulin resistance axis may interact with lifestyle factors, influencing postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but these interrelated pathways are not fully understood. In this study, we examined 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to IGF-I/insulin phenotypes and signaling pathways and lifestyle factors in relation to post-menopausal breast cancer, using data from 6,567 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Harmonized and Imputed Genome-Wide Association Studies...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074536/a-novel-application-of-structural-equation-modeling-estimates-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-colorectal-adenoma
#11
Ronald C Eldridge, Michael Goodman, Roberd M Bostick, Veronika Fedirko, Myron Gross, Bharat Thyagarajan, W Dana Flanders
In vitro evidence implicates oxidative stress in many adverse health conditions, including colorectal neoplasia. In human studies, however, oxidative stress is measured by imperfect biomarkers, which are inconsistently associated with health outcomes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) offers one possible solution by modeling a latent (unobserved) construct from multiple biomarkers. Our goal was to investigate the association of a latent oxidative stress variable with colorectal adenoma. Using SEM, we analyzed pooled data from two cross-sectional studies of colorectal adenoma (n=526) that measured five plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation that comprised the latent oxidative stress variable: F2-isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products (FOP), mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074535/flaxseed-consumption-inhibits-chemically-induced-lung-tumorigenesis-and-modulates-expression-of-phase-ii-enzymes-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-j-mice
#12
Shireen Chikara, Sujan Mamidi, Avinash Sreedasyam, Kishore Chittem, Ralph Pietrofesa, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Neil Dyer, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Katie M Reindl
Flaxseed consumption is associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in lung injury models, and has shown anti-cancer effects for breast and prostate tissues. However, the chemopreventive potential of flaxseed remains unexplored for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of flaxseed on tobacco smoke carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in an A/J mouse model. Mice exposed to NNK were fed a control diet or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet for 26 weeks. Flaxseed-fed mice showed reduced lung tumor incidence (78%) and multiplicity, with an average of 2...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061560/bitter-melon-prevents-the-development-of-4-nqo-induced-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-by-modulating-immune-signalling
#13
Ratna B Ray, Subhayan Sur, Robert Steele, Rajeev Aurora, Mark Vavares, Katherine E Schwetye
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and tobacco is one of the most common factors for HNSCC of the oral cavity. We have previously observed that bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract (BME) exerts anti-proliferative activity against several cancers including HNSCC. In this study, we investigated the preventive role of BME in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) carcinogen-induced HNSCC. We observed that BME feeding significantly reduced the incidence of 4-NQO induced oral cancer in a mouse model...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061559/a-survey-among-breast-cancer-specialists-on-the-low-uptake-of-therapeutic-prevention-with-tamoxifen-or-raloxifene
#14
Silvia Noonan, Ambra Pasa, Vincenzo Fontana, Silvia Caviglia, Bernardo Bonanni, Alberto Costa, Samuel G Smith, Fedro Peccatori, Andrea DeCensi
With this survey, we aimed to address the reasons why physicians are reluctant to prescribe breast cancer preventive therapy with the selective oestrogens receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen or raloxifene despite a strong evidence of efficacy. A self-administered 5-point Likert questionnaire was given during breast cancer meetings in Europe or sent via email to rank the importance of 10 pre-defined reasons for low uptake of SERMs for breast cancer therapeutic prevention. Analyses tested the associations between the stated reasons and physician characteristics such as gender, age, country of work and specialty...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018057/pd-1-blockade-prevents-the-development-and-progression-of-carcinogen-induced-oral-premalignant-lesions
#15
Jin Wang, Tongxin Xie, Bingbing Wang, William N William, John V Heymach, Adel K El-Naggar, Jeffrey N Myers, Carlos Caulin
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is preceded by progressive oral premalignant lesions (OPL). Therefore, therapeutic strategies that prevent malignant progression of OPLs are expected to reduce the incidence of OSCC development. Immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the interaction of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) on T cells with the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 on cancer cells have been shown to extend the survival of patients with advanced OSCC. Here, we used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) mouse model of oral carcinogenesis to test the hypothesis that PD-1 blockade may control the progression of OPLs...
October 10, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978567/what-factors-influence-decision-making-about-breast-cancer-chemoprevention-among-high-risk-women
#16
EDITORIAL
Katherine D Crew
Estrogen exposure is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer development. Chemoprevention with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, has been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce breast cancer incidence by up to 50% among high-risk women. Despite the strength of this evidence, there is significant underutilization of chemoprevention. Given the relatively few modifiable breast cancer risk factors, SERM use provides an important strategy for the primary prevention of this disease...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978566/nrg-oncology-national-surgical-adjuvant-breast-and-bowel-project-decision-making-project-1-results-decision-making-in-breast-cancer-risk-reduction
#17
Christine Holmberg, Hanna Bandos, Angela Fagerlin, Therese B Bevers, Tracy A Battaglia, D Lawrence Wickerham, Worta J McCaskill-Stevens
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer risk. Adoption of SERMs as prevention medication remains low. This is the first study to quantify social, cultural, and psychologic factors driving decision making regarding SERM use in women counseled on breast cancer prevention options. A survey study was conducted with women counseled by a health care provider (HCP) about SERMs. A statistical comparison of responses was performed between those who decided to use and those who decided not to use SERMs...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972008/differential-gene-regulation-and-tumor-inhibitory-activities-of-alpha-delta-and-gamma-tocopherols-in-estrogen-mediated-mammary-carcinogenesis
#18
Soumyasri Das Gupta, Misaal Patel, Joseph Wahler, Min Ji Bak, Brian A Wall, Mao-Jung Lee, Yong Lin, Weichung Joe Shih, Li Cai, Chung S Yang, Nanjoo Suh
Despite experimental evidence elucidating the anti-tumor activities of tocopherols, clinical trials with α-tocopherol (α-T) have failed to demonstrate its beneficial effects in cancer prevention. This study compared the chemopreventive efficacy of individual tocopherols (α-, δ-, γ-T) and a γ-T rich tocopherol mixture (γ-TmT) in the August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rat model of estrogen-mediated mammary cancer. Female ACI rats receiving 17β-estradiol (E2) implants were administered with 0.2% α-T, δ-T, γ-T or γ-TmT for 30 weeks...
September 28, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972007/association-between-cigar-or-pipe-smoking-and-cancer-risk-in-men-a-pooled-analysis-of-five-cohort-studies
#19
Jyoti Malhotra, Claire Borron, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Piet A van den Brandt, Emily White, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles, Paolo Boffetta
INTRODUCTION: Use of non-cigarette tobacco products such as cigars and pipe has been increasing even though these products entail exposure to similar carcinogens to those in cigarettes. More research is needed to explore the risk of these products to guide cancer prevention efforts. METHODS: To measure the association between cigars and/or pipe smoking, and cancer incidence in men, we performed meta-analyses of data from five prospective cohorts. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between different aspects of cigars and pipe smoking and risk of each smoking-related cancer (head & neck, esophagus, lung, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder) for each study...
September 28, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951483/voluntary-wheel-running-reduces-the-acute-inflammatory-response-to-liver-carcinogen-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#20
Marie Lund Bay, Julie Gehl, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Pernille Hojman
Inflammation contributes to the development of cancer, yet acute inflammatory responses are also needed to eradicate tumorigenic cells and activate adaptive immune responses to combat cancer. Physical exercise has direct immunomodulatory effects, and in line with this exercise has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth, including diethylnitrosamine-(DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma. Having observed a sex-dependent development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise and sex on the acute inflammatory response to DEN...
September 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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