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Cancer Prevention Research

Christine M Friedenreich, Anne McTiernan
Examining joint exposures of modifiable breast cancer risk factors may provide advantages over individual exposure-disease association analyses. Using the Healthy Lifestyle Index, Arthur and colleagues analyzed the joint impacts of diet, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and obesity on breast cancer risk, and subtypes, in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. The analysis provides data for population-attributable risk estimations and future prevention trials to target multiple risk factors...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Tami Yap, Kendrick Koo, Lesley Cheng, Laura J Vella, Andrew F Hill, Eric C Reynolds, Alf L Nastri, Nicola Cirillo, Christine A Seers, Michael McCullough
Oral swirls are a noninvasive, rapidly collected source of salivary microRNA potentially useful in the early detection of disease states, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to predict the presence of oral squamous cell carcinoma using a panel of OSCC-related dysregulated microRNA found in oral swirls, identified jointly in data from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and fresh frozen specimens. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to determine microRNA fold changes in FFPE OSCC specimens relative to histologically normal epithelium...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Shizhao Li, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. An important risk factor for breast cancer is individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life; for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Bioactive dietary components such as sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables including broccoli sprouts (BSp), cabbage and kale, has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many common cancers through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Kenneth Rosenzweig
Sildenafil is a small molecule that inhibits PDE5. The study of Islam et al validates PDE5 as a colon cancer chemoprevention target in mice (2), as did a second mouse study (3). Our analysis of TCGA data corroborates this finding in humans. Further studies are needed to determine whether sildenafil or other PDE5 inhibitors might be colon cancer preventives or treatments.
May 3, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Melinda S Yates, Adriana M Coletta, Qian Zhang, Rosemarie E Schmandt, Meena Medepalli, Denise R Nebgen, Beth Soletsky, Andrea Milbourne, Erma Levy, Bryan M Fellman, Diana L Urbauer, Ying Yuan, Russell R Broaddus, Karen Basen-Engquist, Karen Lu
Obesity increases risk of endometrial cancer through dysregulation of estrogen and insulin signaling. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of metformin or lifestyle intervention on endometrial proliferation in postmenopausal obese women. Secondary aims included evaluating obesity-related biomarkers and adverse events experienced. Obese, postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes were randomized into four groups for a 16-week intervention using a 2 (metformin 1700 mg/day vs placebo) x 2 (lifestyle intervention vs no lifestyle intervention) factorial design...
May 1, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shawn Tahata, Shivendra V Singh, Yan Lin, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Jan H Beumer, Susan M Christner, Uma N Rao, Cindy Sander, Ahmad A Tarhini, Hussein Tawbi, Laura K Ferris, Melissa Wilson, Amy Rose, Catherine M Dietz, Ellen K Hughes, Jed W Fahey, Sancy A Leachman, Pamela B Cassidy, Lisa H Butterfield, Hassane M Zarour, John M Kirkwood
Broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSE-SFN) has been shown to inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced damage and tumor progression in skin. This study evaluated the toxicity and potential effects of oral BSE-SFN at three dosages. Seventeen patients who each had at least 2 atypical nevi and a prior history of melanoma were randomly allocated to 50, 100, or 200 µmol oral BSE-SFN daily for 28 days. Atypical nevi were photographed on days 1 and 28, and plasma and nevus samples were taken on days 1, 2, and 28...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Beatriz Carvalho, Begona Diosdado, Jochim S Terhaar Sive Droste, Anne S Bolijn, Malgorzata A Komor, Meike de Wit, Linda J W Bosch, Myrthe van Burink, Evelien Dekker, Ernst J Kuipers, Veerle M H Coupe, Nicole C T van Grieken, Remond J A Fijneman, Gerrit A Meijer
About 5% of colorectal adenomas are estimated to progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is important to identify which adenomas actually carry a high-risk of progression, because these serve as intermediate endpoints for e.g. screening programs. In clinical practice, adenomas with a size of ≥10 mm, villous component and/or high-grade dysplasia, called advanced adenomas, are considered high-risk, although solid evidence for this classification is lacking. Specific DNA copy number changes are associated with adenoma-to-carcinoma progression...
April 23, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Nour Makarem, Elisa V Bandera, Yong Lin, Paul Jacques, Richard B Hayes, Niyati Parekh
BACKGROUND: Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars(fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers. METHODS: The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26-84y, from the Framingham Offspring cohort...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Karen S Sfanos
There is a pressing need for the development of new prevention strategies for the most common worldwide malignancy, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), as sun protection efforts have not proven to be completely effective. Interestingly, despite the known circumstance that individuals undergoing chronic immunosuppression are at a substantially increased risk for developing NMSC, in this issue of Cancer Prevention Research , Blohm-Mangone and colleagues provide new evidence that topical application of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist resatorvid may be efficacious as a chemopreventive agent in NMSC specifically via blocking UV-induced inflammatory signaling...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Signe Borgquist, Per Hall, Isaac Lipkus, Judy E Garber
The dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence compels a paradigm shift in our preventive efforts. There are several barriers to overcome before prevention becomes an established part of breast cancer management. The objective of this review is to identify the clinical challenges for improved breast cancer prevention and discuss current knowledge on breast cancer risk assessment methods, risk communication, ethics, and interventional efforts with the aim of covering the aspects relevant for a breast cancer prevention trial...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kaitlin J Flynn, Mack T Ruffin, D Kim Turgeon, Patrick D Schloss
The microbiome has been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. The specific traits of these diseases vary along the axis of the digestive tract. Further, variation in the structure of the gut microbiota has been associated with both diseases. We profiled the microbiota of the healthy proximal and distal mucosa and lumen to better understand how bacterial populations vary along the colon. We used a two-colonoscope approach to sample proximal and distal mucosal and luminal contents from the colons of 20 healthy subjects that had not undergone any bowel preparation procedure...
April 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Anastasia M Makarova, Flora Frascari, Parastoo Davari, Farzam Gorouhi, Phillip L Dutt, Lynn Wang, Akash Dhawan, Grace Y Wang, Jeffrey E Green, Ervin H Epstein
Three decades ago the Garlands postulated that vitamin D3 produced in the skin by ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre-D3 has anti-cancer effects, thus triggering more than 9500 publications on D3 and cancer. Here we report that UVR treatment of transgenic mice of the well-established C3(1)/SV40 Tag mammary cancer model significantly inhibits both autochthonous carcinogenesis and allograft tumor growth, but in contrast neither dietary nor topical D3 influences mammary carcinogenesis in this specific mouse model...
April 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shannon D McClintock, Justin A Colacino, Durga Attili, Michael K Dame, Aliah Richter, Anusha Reddy, Venkatesha Basrur, Areeba H Rizvi, D Kim Turgeon, James Varani, Muhammad Nadeem Aslam
Previous murine studies have demonstrated that dietary Aquamin®, a calcium-rich, multi-mineral natural product, suppressed colon polyp formation and transition to invasive tumors more effectively than calcium alone when provided over the lifespan of the animals. In the present study, we compared calcium alone to Aquamin® for modulation of growth and differentiation in human colon adenomas in colonoid culture. Colonoids established from normal colonic tissue were examined in parallel. Both calcium alone at 1...
April 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Samantha Puvanesarajah, Sarah J Nyante, Cherie M Kuzmiak, Mengjie Chen, Chiu-Kit Tse, Xuezheng Sun, Emma H Allott, Erin L Kirk, Lisa A Carey, Charles M Perou, Andrew F Olshan, Louise M Henderson, Melissa A Troester
Breast cancers detected after a negative breast screening examination and prior to the next screening are referred to as interval cancers. These cancers generally have poor clinical characteristics compared to screen-detected cancers, but associations between interval cancer and genomic cancer characteristics are not well understood. Mammographically-screened women diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer from 1993-2013 (n=370) were identified by linking the Carolina Breast Cancer Study and the Carolina Mammography Registry...
April 5, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Abenaa M Brewster, Priya Thomas, Powel Brown, Robin Coyne, Yuanqing Yan, Cristina Checka, Lavinia Middleton, Kim-Anh Do, Therese Bevers
Background: The low uptake of antiestrogen preventive therapy among women at high risk of developing breast cancer remains a challenge. We implemented a performance improvement program to increase the uptake of preventive therapy among women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) and lobular cancer in situ (LCIS). Methods: A performance improvement program was implemented at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX), November 2015 to February 2017, for patients with a new (<6 months) or existing (≥6 months) diagnosis of AH/LCIS...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Brady Hunt, Jose Humberto Tavares Fregnani, Richard A Schwarz, Naitielle Pantano, Suelen Tesoni, Julio Cesar Possati-Resende, Marcio Antoniazzi, Bruno de Oliveira Fonseca, Graziela de Macedo Matsushita, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Ligia Kerr, Philip E Castle, Kathleen Schmeler, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in underserved areas of Brazil. This prospective randomized trial involved 200 women in southern/central Brazil with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Participants were randomized by geographic cluster and referred for diagnostic evaluation either at a mobile van upon its scheduled visit to their local community, or at a central hospital. Participants in both arms underwent colposcopy, in vivo microscopy, and cervical biopsies. We compared rates of diagnostic follow-up completion between study arms, and also evaluated the diagnostic performance of in vivo microscopy compared to colposcopy...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kyle Crooker, Rana Aliani, Megha Ananth, Levi Arnold, Shrikant Anant, Sufi Mary Thomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for 300,000 deaths per year worldwide and overall survival rates have shown little improvement over the past three decades. Current treatment methods including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy leave patients with secondary morbidities. Thus, treatment of HNSCC may benefit from exploration of natural compounds as chemopreventive agents. With excellent safety profiles, reduced toxicities, antioxidant properties, and general acceptance for use as dietary supplements, natural compounds are viewed as a desirable area of investigation for chemoprevention...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Chinthalapally V Rao
In recent times, bitter melon extract (BME) has gained significant attention for its anticancer efficacy against various malignancies. In this issue, Sur and colleagues show that BME prevents the development of 4-nitronitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in an immunocompetent mouse model. Importantly, gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed an elevated expression of s100a9, IL23a, IL1β, and PDCD1/PD1 of immune system during oral cancer development, which was significantly suppressed by BME...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Carol J Fabian, Bruce F Kimler
Marine omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution of inflammation and have potential to reduce risk of obesity-related breast cancer. For prevention trials in obese women, inflammatory cytokines, aromatase, and measures of breast immune cell infiltration are logical, as are biomarkers of growth factor, adipokine, and estrogen signaling. Where best to look for marker change: in the circulation (easiest), in benign breast tissue (most relevant), or in visceral adipose (inflammation often most marked)? A null biomarker modulation trial may reflect limitations in design, source and dose of fatty acids, or biomarkers and should not lead to premature abandonment of marine omega-3 fatty acids for cancer prevention...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Krishna B Singh, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Lora H Rigatti, Daniel P Normolle, Jian-Min Yuan, Shivendra V Singh
We have shown previously that dietary administration of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a small molecule from edible cruciferous vegetables, significantly decreases the incidence of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc-regulated glycolysis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC. Exposure of LNCaP (androgen-responsive) and 22Rv1 (castration-resistant) human prostate cancer cells to PEITC resulted in suppression of expression as well as transcriptional activity of c-Myc...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
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