Read by QxMD icon Read

Cancer Prevention Research

Krishna B Singh, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Lora H Rigatti, Daniel P Normolle, Jian-Min Yuan, Shivendra V Singh
We have shown previously that dietary administration of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a small molecule from edible cruciferous vegetables, significantly decreases the incidence of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc-regulated glycolysis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC. Exposure of LNCaP (androgen-responsive) and 22Rv1 (castration-resistant) human prostate cancer cells to PEITC resulted in suppression of expression as well as transcriptional activity of c-Myc...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Stephen Safe, James L Abbruzzese, Maen Abdelrahim, Erik Hedrick
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) such as Sp1 are critical for early development but their expression decreases with age and there is evidence that transformation of normal cells to cancer cells is associated with upregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 which are highly expressed in cancer cells and tumors. Sp1 is a negative prognostic factor for pancreatic, colon, glioma, gastric, breast, prostate, and lung cancer patients. Functional studies also demonstrate that Sp TFs regulate genes responsible for cancer cell growth, survival, migration/invasion, inflammation and drug resistance, and Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are also non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and important drug targets...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Graham A Colditz, Karen M Emmons
As a nation, we underinvest in prevention and fail to implement strategies that ensure all population groups equitably share in the return on investment in prevention research and the benefits of prevention effectiveness. There is significant evidence indicating that by applying knowledge that we already have to reduce tobacco, inactivity, and obesity (known modifiable causes of cancer), we can prevent more than 50% of cancers. Vaccination against HPV, aspirin and selective estrogen receptor modulators, and screening programs further reduce risk...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Sun Ha Jee, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Hyungyoon Kim, Keum Ji Jung, Seri Hong, Jong Ho Lee
In the prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II), we investigated the application of metabolomics to differentiate subjects with incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC group) from subjects who remained free of cancer (control group) during a mean follow-up period of 7 years with the aim of identifying valuable metabolic biomarkers for HCC. We used baseline serum samples from 75 subjects with incident HCC and 134 age- and gender-matched cancer-free subjects. Serum metabolic profiles associated with HCC incidence were investigated via metabolomics analysis...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Aliya Alimujiang, Kellie R Imm, Catherine M Appleton, Graham A Colditz, Catherine S Berkey, Adetunji T Toriola
Although childhood adiposity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, the association of childhood adiposity with mammographic density in premenopausal women has not been adequately studied. We analyzed data from 365 premenopausal women who came in for screening mammography at Washington University in St. Louis from 2015 to 2016. Body size at age 10 was self-reported using Somatotype pictogram. Body mass index (BMI) at age 10 was imputed using data from Growing Up Today Study. Volpara software was used to evaluate volumetric percent density (VPD), dense volume (DV) and non-dense volume (NDV)...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Rhonda Arthur, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, JoAnn E Manson, Juhua Luo, Linda Snetselaar, Theresa Hastert, Bette Caan, Lihong Qi, Thomas Rohan
Although several modifiable risk factors have been independently associated with risk of breast cancer, few studies have investigated their joint association with breast cancer risk. Using a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score, we assessed the association of a combination of selected modifiable risk factors (diet, alcohol, physical activity, BMI and smoking) with risk of invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). This study comprised 131,833 postmenopausal women, of whom 8168 had breast cancer, who were enrolled in the WHI Observational Study or the WHI clinical trials...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Nathan A Berger, Peter C Scacheri
Epigenetic changes in DNA and associated chromatin proteins are increasingly being considered as important mediators of the linkage between obesity and cancer. Although multiple agents, targeted at epigenetic changes, are being tested for therapy of established cancers, this issue of Cancer Prevention Research carries two articles demonstrating that the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET-762 can attenuate adipose tissue-promoted cancers. Although I-BET-762 significantly delayed, rather than completely prevented, the onset of adiposity-promoted transformation and malignancy, these experiments provide important proof of principle for the strategies of targeting epigenetic changes to disrupt the obesity-cancer linkage...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ryota Niikura, Yoku Hayakawa, Yoshihiro Hirata, Mitsuru Konishi, Nobumi Suzuki, Sozaburo Ihara, Atsuo Yamada, Tetsuo Ushiku, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Masashi Fukayama, Kazuhiko Koike
INTRODUCTION: Although aspirin/NSAIDs may have potential preventive effects on several cancers, it remains unclear on gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of developing gastric cancer and the histological changes of intestinal metaplasia and neutrophil infiltration, between aspirin/NSAIDs users and non-users. METHODS: Using an electronic endoscopy database in two hospitals from 1996 to 2017, we analyzed the data from patients with chronic gastritis who received aspirin or NSAIDs prior to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ayca Gucalp, Xi K Zhou, Elise D Cook, Judy E Garber, Katherine D Crew, Julie R Nangia, Priya Bhardwaj, Dilip D Giri, Olivier Elemento, Akanksha Verma, Hanhan Wang, J Jack Lee, Lana A Vornik, Carrie Mays, Diane Weber, Valerie Sepeda, Holly O'Kane, Margaret Krasne, Samantha Williams, Patrick G Morris, Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Barbara K Dunn, Clifford A Hudis, Powel H Brown, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity, a cause of subclinical inflammation, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) and is associated with poorer cancer outcomes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that treatment with DHA would reduce the expression of proinflammatory genes and aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, in benign breast tissue of overweight/obese women. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II study of DHA given for 12 weeks to overweight/obese women with a history of stage I-III BC, DCIS/LCIS, Paget's disease, or proliferative benign breast disease was carried out...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Michelle I Silver, Julia C Gage, Mark Schiffman, Barbara Fetterman, Nancy E Poitras, Thomas Lorey, Li C Cheung, Hormuzd A Katki, Alexander Locke, Walter K Kinney, Philip E Castle
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) frequently regresses, is typically slow-growing, and rarely progresses to cancer. Some women forgo immediate treatment, opting for conservative management (heightened surveillance with cytology and colposcopy), to minimize overtreatment and increased risk of obstetric complications; however, there are limited data examining clinical outcomes in these women. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of younger women diagnosed with initially untreated CIN1/2, CIN2 and CIN2/3 lesions at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2003-2015...
February 5, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Karen Blohm-Mangone, Nichole B Burkett, Shekha Tahsin, Paul B Myrdal, Alhassan Aodah, Brenda Ho, Jaroslav Janda, Michelle McComas, Kathylynn Saboda, Denise J Roe, Zigang Dong, Ann M Bode, Emanuel F Petricoin, Valerie S Calvert, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, David S Alberts, Georg T Wondrak, Sally E Dickinson
An urgent need exists for the development of more efficacious molecular strategies targeting non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common malignancy worldwide. Inflammatory signaling downstream of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in several forms of tumorigenesis, yet its role in solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis remains undefined. We have previously shown in keratinocyte cell culture and SKH-1 mouse epidermis that topical application of the specific TLR4 antagonist resatorvid (TAK-242) blocks acute UV-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling, associated with downregulation of inflammatory mediators and MAP Kinase phosphorylation...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Jacob Kantrowitz, Ansam Sinjab, Li Xu, Tina L McDowell, Smruthy Sivakumar, Wenhua Lang, Sayuri Nunomura-Nakamura, Junya Fukuoka, Georges Nemer, Nadine Darwiche, Hassan Chami, Arafat Tfayli, Ignacio Ivan Wistuba, Paul Scheet, Junya Fujimoto, Avrum E Spira, Humam Kadara
Smoking perpetuates in cytologically-normal airways a molecular "field of injury" that is pertinent to lung cancer and early detection. The evolution of airway field changes prior to lung oncogenesis is poorly understood largely due to the long latency of lung cancer in smokers. Here we studied airway expression changes prior to lung cancer onset in mice with knockout of the Gprc5a gene (Gprc5a-/-) and tobacco carcinogen (NNK) exposure and that develop the most common type of lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), within six months following exposure...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Nagendra Singh, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Wonsuk Yoo, Darren D Browning
The cGMP signaling axis has been implicated in the suppression of intestinal cancers but the inhibitory mechanism and the extent to which this pathway can be targeted remains poorly understood. The present study has tested the effect of cGMP-elevating agents on tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal cancer. Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice with the receptor guanylyl-cyclase C (GCC) agonist linaclotide, or the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil, significantly reduced the number of polyps per mouse (67% and 50% respectively)...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Jingjing Jiao, Weibo Niu, Ying Wang, Keith Baggerly, Yuanqing Ye, Xifeng Wu, Dewitt Davenport, Jose Luis Almeda, Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, R Armour Forse, Heather L Stevenson, Gordon P Watt, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch, Laura Beretta
We aimed to determine whether aflatoxin dietary exposure plays a role in the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) observed among Hispanics in South Texas. We measured TP53R249S somatic mutation, hallmark of aflatoxin etiology in HCC, using droplet digital PCR and RFLP. TP53R249S mutation was detected in 3 of 41 HCC tumors from Hispanics in South Texas (7.3%). We also measured TP53R249S mutation in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from 218 HCC patients and 96 Hispanic subjects with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, from South Texas...
February 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Hakkı Tastan, İbrahim Hanifi Özercan, Osman Güler, Nermin Kahraman, Omer Kucuk, Bulent Ozpolat
We investigated the effect of daily dietary curcumin intake on the development and progression of spontaneous ovarian cancer in a galline (hen) model, as the chicken is the only nonhuman animal in which ovarian cancer spontaneously develops with a high prevalence. At the end of 12 months, ovarian cancer had spontaneously developed in 39% (35/90) of control hens not fed curcumin ( n = 90). In comparison, it spontaneously developed in 27% (24/90) and 17% (15/90) of hens given curcumin at 25.8 ( n = 90) and 53...
January 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Su Yon Jung, Jeanette C Papp, Eric M Sobel, Zuo-Feng Zhang
Genetic variants in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/insulin resistance axis may interact with lifestyle factors, influencing postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but these interrelated pathways are not fully understood. In this study, we examined 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes related to IGF-I/insulin phenotypes and signaling pathways and lifestyle factors in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer, using data from 6,567 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Harmonized and Imputed Genome-Wide Association Studies...
January 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ronald C Eldridge, Michael Goodman, Roberd M Bostick, Veronika Fedirko, Myron Gross, Bharat Thyagarajan, W Dana Flanders
In vitro evidence implicates oxidative stress in many adverse health conditions, including colorectal neoplasia. In human studies, however, oxidative stress is measured by imperfect biomarkers, which are inconsistently associated with health outcomes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) offers one possible solution by modeling a latent (unobserved) construct from multiple biomarkers. Our goal was to investigate the association of a latent oxidative stress variable with colorectal adenoma. Using SEM, we analyzed pooled data from two cross-sectional studies of colorectal adenoma ( n = 526) that measured five plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation that comprised the latent oxidative stress variable: F2 -isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products (FOP), mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shireen Chikara, Sujan Mamidi, Avinash Sreedasyam, Kishore Chittem, Ralph Pietrofesa, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Neil Dyer, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Katie M Reindl
Flaxseed consumption is associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in lung injury models and has shown anticancer effects for breast and prostate tissues. However, the chemopreventive potential of flaxseed remains unexplored for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of flaxseed on tobacco smoke carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in an A/J mouse model. Mice exposed to NNK were fed a control diet or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet for 26 weeks. Flaxseed-fed mice showed reduced lung tumor incidence (78%) and multiplicity, with an average of 2...
January 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Silvia Noonan, Ambra Pasa, Vincenzo Fontana, Silvia Caviglia, Bernardo Bonanni, Alberto Costa, Samuel G Smith, Fedro Peccatori, Andrea DeCensi
With this survey, we aimed to address the reasons why physicians are reluctant to prescribe breast cancer-preventive therapy with the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) tamoxifen or raloxifene despite a strong evidence of efficacy. A self-administered 5-point Likert questionnaire was given during breast cancer meetings in Europe or sent via email to rank the importance of 10 predefined reasons for low uptake of SERMs for breast cancer therapeutic prevention. Analyses tested the associations between the stated reasons and physician characteristics such as gender, age, country of work, and specialty...
January 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Imad Shureiqi
Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have an increased risk of developing duodenal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In previous trials, sulindac (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) alone failed to significantly suppress duodenal tumorigenesis in FAP patients, but sulindac plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib significantly reduced duodenal polyp burden. Delker and colleagues report in this issue (beginning on page 4) on transcriptome analyses that aimed to identify the molecular targets mediating the response to sulindac-erlotinib...
December 19, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"