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Cancer Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100469/immunohistochemical-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-during-25-year-follow-up-of-the-royal-marsden-tamoxifen-prevention-trial
#1
Simone Detre, Susan Ashley, Kabir Mohammed, Ian E Smith, Trevor Powles, Mitch Dowsett
Background The randomized double-blinded Royal Marsden Tamoxifen Breast Cancer Prevention Trial in healthy high-risk women started in 1986 and is still blinded. 2471 eligible participants were randomly assigned to tamoxifen (20mg/day) or placebo for 8 years. Analysis in 2006 showed a 30% risk reduction of ER-positive invasive breast cancer mostly in the post treatment period. Biomarker analysis in this population may identify any sub-group specific preventive effects tamoxifen. Methods After a median follow-up of 18...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096238/activation-of-trpa1-channel-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-induces-vegf-secretion-in-human-prostate-cancer-stromal-cells
#2
Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Eric Vancauwenberghe, Gabriel Bidaux, Pierre Gosset, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Christian Slomianny, Philippe Delcourt, Etienne Dewailly, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely impact human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumour growth...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#3
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096236/inhibitory-effects-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-tocopherols-on-estrogen-stimulated-breast-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Min Ji Bak, Soumyasri Das Gupta, Joseph Wahler, Hong Jin Lee, Xiaowei Li, Mao-Jung Lee, Chung S Yang, Nanjoo Suh
Estrogens have been implicated as complete carcinogens for breast and other tissues through mechanisms involving increased cell proliferation, oxidative stress and DNA damage. Because of their potent antioxidant activity and other effects, tocopherols have been shown to exert anti-tumor activities in various cancers. However, limited information is available on the effect of different forms of tocopherols in estrogen-mediated breast cancer. To address this, we examined the effects of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as well as a natural γ-tocopherol rich mixture of tocopherols, γ-TmT, on estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052934/fixed-dose-combinations-of-pioglitazone-and-metformin-for-lung-cancer-prevention
#5
Donna E Seabloom, Arthur R Galbraith, Anna M Haynes, Jennifer D Antonides, Beverly R Wuertz, Wendy A Miller, Kimberly A Miller, Vernon E Steele, Mark Steven Miller, Margie L Clapper, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Frank G Ondrey
Combination treatment with pioglitazone and metformin are utilized clinically in the treatment of type II diabetes. Treatment with this drug combination reduced the development of aerodigestive cancers in this patient population. Our goal is to expand this treatment into clinical lung cancer chemoprevention. We hypothesized that dietary delivery of metformin/pioglitazone would prevent lung adenoma formation in A/J mice in a B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis model while modulating chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in residual adenomas...
January 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998883/unlocking-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-activity-role-of-irreversibly-inhibiting-platelet-cyclooxygenase-1
#6
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Dexing Fang, Roger J Bick, Brain J Poindexter, Tri Phan, Angela L Bergeron, Subhashree Pradhan, Elizabeth J Dial, K Vinod Vijayan
The mechanism by which aspirin consumption is linked to significant reductions in the incidence of multiple forms of cancer and metastatic spread to distant tissues, resulting in increased cancer patient survival is not well understood. In this study, using colon cancer as an example, we provide both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (chemically-induced mouse model of colon cancer) evidence that this profound anti-neoplastic action may be associated with aspirin's ability to irreversibly inhibit COX-1 mediated platelet activation, thereby blocking platelet-cancer cell interactions, which promote cancer cell number and invasive potential...
December 20, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993834/safety-and-preclinical-efficacy-of-aerosol-pioglitazone-on-lung-adenoma-prevention-in-a-j-mice
#7
Donna E Seabloom, Arthur R Galbraith, Anna M Haynes, Jennifer D Antonides, Beverly R Wuertz, Wendy A Miller, Kimberly A Miller, Vernon E Steele, Chen Suen, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Frank G Ondrey
Pioglitazone is a PPARγ agonist commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of diabetes. We sought to expand its use to lung cancer prevention in a benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) mouse model with direct lung delivery via inhalation. Initially we conducted inhalational toxicity experiments with 0, 15, 50, 150, and 450 μg/kg body weight/day pioglitazone in 40 A/J mice. We examined the animals for any physical toxicity and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for inflammatory and cytotoxicity markers. Doses up to and including 450 μg/kg bw/day failed to demonstrate toxicity with aerosol pioglitazone...
December 19, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965287/clinical-challenges-associated-with-universal-screening-for-lynch-syndrome-associated-endometrial-cancer
#8
Amanda S Bruegl, Kari L Ring, Molly Daniels, Bryan M Fellman, Diana L Urbauer, Russell R Broaddus
Universal testing for Lynch syndrome is now a routine component of the diagnostic work-up of endometrial cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to identify prospectively the barriers to universal screening based on a tissue testing approach [microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, IHC for DNA mismatch repair proteins, and MLH1 methylation analysis]. Endometrial carcinoma patients (n = 213) prospectively underwent microsatellite instability and IHC testing for expression of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins...
December 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965286/identifying-and-creating-the-next-generation-of-community-based-cancer-prevention-studies-summary-of-a-national-cancer-institute-think-tank
#9
Worta McCaskill-Stevens, Deborah Pearson, Barnett S Kramer, Leslie Ford, Scott M Lippman
In late 2015, The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention convened cancer prevention research experts and stakeholders to discuss the current state of cancer prevention research, identify key prevention research priorities for the NCI, and identify studies that could be conducted within the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). Goals included identifying cancer prevention research opportunities offering the highest return on investment, exploring the concept of precision prevention and what is needed to advance this area of research, and identifying possible targets for prevention...
December 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923802/xanthohumol-prevents-dna-damage-by-dietary-carcinogens-results-of-a-human-intervention-trial
#10
Christoph Pichler, Franziska Ferk, Halh Al-Serori, Wolfgang Huber, Walter Jäger, Monika Waldherr, Miroslav Mišík, Michael Kundi, Armen Nersesyan, Irene Herbacek, Siegfried Knasmueller
Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop flavonoid contained in beers and soft drinks. In vitro and animal studies indicated that XN has DNA and cancer protective properties. To find out if it causes DNA protective effects in humans, an intervention trial was conducted in which the participants (n = 22) consumed a XN containing drink (12 mg XN/P/d). We monitored prevention of DNA damage induced by representatives of major groups of dietary carcinogens [i.e., nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)]...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849557/honokiol-decreases-lung-cancer-metastasis-through-inhibition-of-the-stat3-signaling-pathway
#11
Jing Pan, Yongik Lee, Qi Zhang, Donghai Xiong, Tina C Wan, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Metastasis to lymph nodes and distal organs, especially brain, leads to severe complications and death. Preventing lung cancer development and metastases is an important strategy to reduce lung cancer mortality. Honokiol (HNK), a natural compound present in the extracts of magnolia bark, has a favorable bioavailability profile and recently has been shown to readily cross the blood-brain barrier. In the current study, we evaluated the antimetastatic effects of HNK in both the lymph node and brain mouse models of lung tumor metastasis...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807077/%C3%AE-carotene-9-10-oxygenase-modulates-the-anticancer-activity-of-dietary-tomato-or-lycopene-on-prostate-carcinogenesis-in-the-tramp-model
#12
Hsueh-Li Tan, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Nancy E Moran, Jessica L Cooperstone, John W Erdman, Gregory S Young, Steven K Clinton
The hypothesis that dietary tomato consumption or the intake of the carotenoid lycopene inhibits prostate cancer arose from epidemiologic studies and is supported by preclinical rodent experiments and in vitro mechanistic studies. We hypothesize that variation in activity of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, such as β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2), may alter the impact of dietary tomato and lycopene on prostate carcinogenesis and therefore examined this relationship in the TRAMP model. Starting at 3 weeks of age, TRAMP:Bco2(+/+) and TRAMP:Bco2(-/-) mice were fed either AIN-93G control, or semipurified diets containing 10% tomato powder or 0...
November 2, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062488/correction-sleep-and-breathing-%C3%A2-and-cancer
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965288/identifying-high-risk-women-for-endometrial-cancer-prevention-strategies-proposal-of-an-endometrial-cancer-risk-prediction-model
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Kitson, D Gareth Evans, Emma J Crosbie
Already the fourth most common cancer in women in the developed world, the incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing rapidly, in line with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Relatively few studies have been undertaken of risk-reducing interventions aimed at limiting the impact of the disease on both individuals and the health service. Those that have been performed have demonstrated only modest results due to their application in relatively unselected populations. A validated risk prediction model is therefore urgently required to identify individuals at particularly high risk of endometrial cancer who may benefit from targeted primary prevention strategies and to guide trial eligibility...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923803/whole-exome-sequencing-validates-a-preclinical-mouse-model-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Elena V Knatko, Brandon Praslicka, Maureen Higgins, Alan Evans, Karin J Purdie, Catherine A Harwood, Charlotte M Proby, Aikseng Ooi, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) are among the most common and highly mutated human malignancies. Solar UV radiation is the major factor in the etiology of cSCC. Whole-exome sequencing of 18 microdissected tumor samples (cases) derived from SKH-1 hairless mice that had been chronically exposed to solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation showed a median point mutation (SNP) rate of 155 per Mb. The majority (78.6%) of the SNPs are C.G>T.A transitions, a characteristic UVR-induced mutational signature. Direct comparison with human cSCC cases showed high overlap in terms of both frequency and type of SNP mutations...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920018/a-phase-ii-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-n-acetylcysteine-for-protection-of-melanocytic-nevi-against-uv-induced-oxidative-stress-in-vivo
#16
Pamela B Cassidy, Tong Liu, Scott R Florell, Matthew Honeggar, Sancy A Leachman, Kenneth M Boucher, Douglas Grossman
Oxidative stress plays a role in UV-induced melanoma, which may arise from melanocytic nevi. We investigated whether oral administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could protect nevi from oxidative stress in vivo in the setting of acute UV exposure. The minimal erythemal dose (MED) was determined for 100 patients at increased risk for melanoma. Patients were randomized to receive a single dose (1,200 mg) of NAC or placebo, in double-blind fashion, and then one nevus was irradiated (1-2 MED) using a solar simulator...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807078/goblet-cell-ratio-in-combination-with-differentiation-and-stem-cell-markers-in-barrett-esophagus-allow-distinction-of-patients-with-and-without-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Raphael Schellnegger, Anne Quante, Susanne Rospleszcz, Martina Schernhammer, Bettina Höhl, Moritz Tobiasch, Agnieszka Pastula, Anna Brandtner, Julian A Abrams, Konstantin Strauch, Roland M Schmid, Michael Vieth, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is mirrored by the increasing prevalence of Barrett esophagus, a precursor lesion resulting in a large number of individuals "at risk" for this lethal malignancy. Among patients with Barrett esophagus, only about 0.3% annually will develop EAC. Because large numbers of patients are followed in endoscopic surveillance, there is a need for risk prediction among a growing population of patients with Barrett esophagus. We identified four potential biomarkers from an inflammation (IL1β)-dependent mouse model of Barrett esophagus and tested them in 189 patients with Barrett esophagus with and without high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/early cancer (T1)...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789587/expression-of-mir-18a-and-mir-210-in-normal-breast-tissue-as-candidate-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-risk
#18
Ali Shidfar, Fabricio F Costa, Denise Scholtens, Jared M Bischof, Megan E Sullivan, David Z Ivancic, Elio F Vanin, Marcelo B Soares, Jun Wang, Seema A Khan
miRNAs are noncoding RNAs with abnormal expression in breast cancer; their expression in high-risk benign breast tissue may relate to breast cancer risk. We examined miRNA profiles in contralateral unaffected breasts (CUB) of patients with breast cancer and validated resulting candidates in two additional sample sets. Expression profiles of 754 mature miRNAs were examined using TaqMan Low Density Arrays in 30 breast cancer samples [15 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 15 ER-negative] and paired CUBs and 15 reduction mammoplasty controls...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780807/a-way-forward-for-cancer-chemoprevention-think-local
#19
REVIEW
Luai Al Rabadi, Raymond Bergan
As cells progress through carcinogenesis, the associated exponential expansion of genetic and molecular aberrations and resultant heterogeneity make therapeutic success increasingly unattainable. Therapeutic intervention at early stages of carcinogenesis that occurs within the primary organ and in the face of a lower burden of molecular aberrations, constitutes a basic tenet of cancer chemoprevention, and provides a situation that favors a greater degree of therapeutic efficacy compared with that of advanced cancer...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777235/colorectal-adenomas-in-participants-of-the-select-randomized-trial-of-selenium-and-vitamin-e-for-prostate-cancer-prevention
#20
Peter Lance, David S Alberts, Patricia A Thompson, Liane Fales, Fang Wang, Jerilyn San Jose, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Phyllis J Goodman, Amy K Darke, Monica Yee, Lori Minasian, Ian M Thompson, Denise J Roe
Selenium and vitamin E micronutrients have been advocated for the prevention of colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenoma occurrence was used as a surrogate for colorectal cancer in an ancillary study to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) for prostate cancer prevention. The primary objective was to measure the effect of selenium (as selenomethionine) on colorectal adenomas occurrence, with the effect of vitamin E (as α-tocopherol) supplementation on colorectal adenoma occurrence considered as a secondary objective...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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