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Cancer Prevention Research

Susan R Mallery, Daren Wang, Brian Santiago, Ping Pei, Steven Schwendeman, Kari Nieto, Richard Spinney, Meng Tong, George Koutras, Byungdo B Han, Andrew S Holpuch, James C Lang
Over 1/3 of patients who have undergone oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) surgical resections develop life-threatening and often untreatable recurrences. A variety of drugs, intended for management of recurrent or disseminated cancers, were designed to exploit cancer cells' reliance upon overexpressed receptors and gratuitous signaling. Despite their conceptual promise, clinical trials showed these agents lacked efficacy and were often toxic. These findings are consistent with evasion of pathway-targeted treatments via extensive signaling redundancies and compensatory mechanisms common to cancers...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, Samir Gupta
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of mucosal inflammation. This chronic mucosal inflammation has several potential consequences, one of which is the occurrence of colitis associated colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past decade our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and overall approach to diagnosing and managing colitis associated CRC, has grown considerably. In the current review article, we outline these advancements and highlight areas in need of further research...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Blanca L Valle, Anne Jedlicka, Nitesh Turaga, Oluwasina Folawiyo, Francesca Pirini, Fahcina Lawson, Angelo Vergura, Maartje G Noordhuis, Amanda Dziedzic, Gabriela Perez, Marisa Renehan, Carolina Guerrero-Diaz, Edgardo De Jesus-Rodriguez, Teresa Díaz-Montes, Jose Rodriguez-Orengo, Keimari Méndez, Josefina Romaguera, Bruce J Trock, Liliana Florea, David Sidransky
Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2+) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV (HPV+). We tested a biomarker panel in cervical epithelium DNA obtained from 211 women evaluated in a cervical cancer clinic in Chile from 2006 to 2008. Results were verified in a prospective cohort of 107 women evaluated in a high risk clinic in Puerto Rico from 2013 to 2015...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Vassiliki L Tsikitis, Aimee Potter, Motomi Mori, Julie A Buckmeier, Christina R Preece, Chris A Harrington, Angela N Bartley, Achyut Bhattacharyya, Stanley R Hamilton, Peter Lance, Patricia A Thompson
Colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma adjacent to cancer exhibit distinct microRNA (miR) alterations in an apparent mucosa-to-adenocarcinoma sequence. The pattern of microRNAs in screen-detected polyps in relation to histologic features and cancer risk has not been investigated. miR expression analysis was performed on normal mucosa (NM), hyperplastic polyps (HPs), tubular adenomas (TAs), tubulovillous adenomas or high-grade dysplasia (TVHGs), and serrated polyps (sessile serrated adenoma/polyps, SSA/Ps, and traditional serrated adenomas, TSAs) in biopsy specimens from 109 patients undergoing screening/surveillance colonoscopy...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Stephen Lam, Sumithra J Mandrekar, Yaron Gesthalter, Katie L Allen Ziegler, Drew K Seisler, David E Midthun, Jenny T Mao, Marie Christine Aubry, Annette McWilliams, Don D Sin, Tawimas Shaipanich, Gang Liu, Evan Johnson, Andrea H Bild, Marc E Lenburg, Diana N Ionescu, John Mayo, Eunhee S Yi, Henry Tazelaar, William S Harmsen, Judith J Smith, Avrum E Spira, Jennifer Beane, Paul J Limburg, Eva Szabo
Previous preclinical studies and a phase I clinical trial suggested myo-inositol may be a safe and effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent. We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, phase IIb study to determine the chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol in smokers with bronchial dysplasia. Smokers with >/= 1 site of dysplasia identified by autofluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or myo-inositol, 9 g once/day for two weeks, and then twice/day for 6 months...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Jenny T Mao, Jane Smoake, Heesung Park, Qing-Yi Lu, Bingye Xue
Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) has been reported to exert antineoplastic properties via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) eicosanoid pathways. In addition, ample data link carcinogenesis to inflammatory events involving other major eicosanoid metabolic pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We therefore evaluated the effects of GSE on prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS)/PGI2 and 15-lipoxigenase-2 (15-LOX-2)/15-HETE productions by human lung premalignant and malignant cells and correlated the findings with anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic effects of GSE...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Kathryn M Wilson, Lorelei A Mucci, Bettina F Drake, Mark A Preston, Meir J Stampfer, Edward L Giovannucci, Adam S Kibel
Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003-2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high grade or advanced stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression (N=94 events, mainly PSA recurrence)...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
John Maret-Ouda, Hashem El-Serag, Jesper Lagergren
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in incidence in many Western societies, requires demanding treatment and is associated with a poor prognosis, therefore preventive measures are highly warranted. To assess the opportunities for prevention, we reviewed the available literature and identified seven main potentially preventive targets. Preventive effects were found based on medium level observational evidence following treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (both using medication and surgery) and tobacco smoking cessation, which should be clinically recommended among exposed patients...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Anita R Iskandar, Benchun Miao, Xinli Li, Kang-Quan Hu, Chun Liu, Xiang-Dong Wang
Despite the consistent association between a higher intake of the provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin (BCX) and a lower risk of lung cancer among smokers, potential mechanisms supporting BCX as a chemopreventive agent are needed. We first examined the effects of BCX on 4-[methyl nitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. BCX supplementation was given daily to the mice starting two-weeks prior to the injection of NNK and continued 16 weeks post NNK injection. BCX supplementation resulted in a dose-dependent increase of BCX concentration in both serum and lungs of the mice without a significant alteration of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) concentration...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Robert L Owens, Kathryn Gold, David Gozal, Paul E Peppard, Jonathan Jun, Scott M Lippman, Atul Malhotra
Sleep, like eating and breathing, is an essential part of the daily life cycle. Although the science is still emerging, sleep plays an important role in immune, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive function. Despite its great importance, nearly 40% of US Adults experience problems with sleep ranging from insufficient total sleep time, trouble initiating or maintaining sleep (Insomnia), Circadian Rhythm Disorders, Sleep-Related Movement Disorders, and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
September 7, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Erikka Loftfield, Neal D Freedman, Gabriel Y Lai, Stephanie J Weinstein, Katherine A McGlynn, Philip R Taylor, Satu Mannisto, Demetrius Albanes, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
Insulin resistance likely increases the risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver cancer, but long-term prospective studies with measured fasting glucose and insulin are lacking. We evaluated the associations of pre-diagnostic fasting glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with liver cancer and CLD mortality in a prospective study of Finnish male smokers with extended follow-up time ({less than or equal to}22 years) and information on known risk factors using data from 138 incident primary liver cancer cases 216 CLD deaths and 681 matched controls...
August 29, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Olivier Boutaud, I Romina Sosa, Taneem Amin, Denise Oram, David Adler, Hyun S Hwang, Brenda Crews, Ginger L Milne, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Bjorn C Knowllmann, Philip E Lammers, Lawrence J Marnett, Pierre P Massion, John A Oates
Meta-analyses show that low dose aspirin reduces the risk of developing adenocarcinoma metastasis; when colon cancer is detected during aspirin treatment, there is a remarkable 83% reduction in risk of metastasis. As platelets participate in the metastatic process, the anti-platelet action of low dose aspirin likely contributes to its anti-metastatic effect. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also contributes to metastasis, and we addressed the hypothesis that low dose aspirin also inhibits PGE2 biosynthesis. We show that low dose aspirin inhibits systemic PGE2 biosynthesis by 45% in healthy volunteers (p <0...
August 23, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Ramesh K Wali, Navneet Momi, Mart Dela Cruz, Audrey H Calderwood, Yolanda Stypula, Luay M Almassalha, Anuj Chhaparia, Christopher R Weber, Andrew Radosevich, Ashish K Tiwari, Bilal Latif, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
Alterations in high-order chromatin, with concomitant modulation in gene expression, are one of the earliest events in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cohesins are a family of proteins that modulate high-order chromatin, although the role in CRC remains incompletely understood. We, therefore, assessed the role of cohesin SA1 in CRC biology and as a biomarker focusing in particular on the increased incidence/mortality of CRC among African-Americans (AAs). Immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays revealed dramatically decreased SA1 expression in both adenomas (62%; p=0...
August 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Naomi Fujioka, Benjamin W Ransom, Steven G Carmella, Pramod Upadhyaya, Bruce R Lindgren, Astia Roper-Batker, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Vincent A Fritz, Charles Rohwer, Stephen S Hecht
Glucobrassicin in Brassica vegetables gives rise to indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a compound with potent anticancer effects in preclinical models. We previously showed that the urinary metabolite 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) could discriminate between volunteers fed high and low doses of Brassica vegetables. However, the quantitative relationship between glucobrassicin exposure and urinary DIM level is unclear. We conducted a clinical trial to examine the hypotheses that a range of glucobrassicin exposure from Brassica vegetables is reflected in urinary DIM and that this effect plateaus...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Matthew P Hanley, Krishna Kadaveru, Christine Perret, Charles Giardina, Daniel W Rosenberg
The role of folate one-carbon metabolism in colorectal cancer development is controversial, with nutritional intervention studies producing conflicting results. It has been reported that Apc(Min/+) mice maintained on a diet deficient in the methyl donors folic acid, methionine, choline, and vitamin B12, and supplemented with homocysteine, show a greater than 95% reduction in intestinal tumor development. The present study extends these findings and shows that tumor protection afforded by dietary methyl donor deficiency (MDD) is long-lasting...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Chong-Zhi Wang, Chunhao Yu, Xiao-Dong Wen, Lina Chen, Chun-Feng Zhang, Tyler Calway, Yunping Qiu, Yunwei Wang, Zhiyu Zhang, Samantha Anderson, Yitao Wang, Wei Jia, Chun-Su Yuan
Inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for colorectal cancer initiation and development. In this study, the effects of American ginseng on chemically induced colitis and colon carcinogenesis were evaluated using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. During the acute phase on day 15, the oral administration of ginseng (15 and 30 mg/kg/day) significantly suppressed AOM/DSS-induced colitis, as demonstrated by the disease activity index and colon tissue histology. During the chronic phase in week 13, AOM/DSS-induced tumor multiplicity was significantly suppressed by ginseng...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Robert Noble, Oliver Kaltz, Leonard Nunney, Michael E Hochberg
In a recent article, Wu and colleagues (Nature 2016;529:43-47) review previous studies and present new estimates for the contribution of extrinsic factors to cancer development. The new estimates are generally close to 100%, even for bone and brain cancers that have no known associations with lifestyle and are typically not considered to be preventable. We find that the results of Wu and colleagues are incompatible with previous estimates derived from epidemiological and genetic data. We further argue that their methods are fundamentally flawed because they overlook important effects of tissue type on cancer risk...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Erica T Warner, Rong Hu, Laura C Collins, Andrew H Beck, Stuart Schnitt, Bernard Rosner, A Heather Eliassen, Karin B Michels, Walter C Willett, Rulla M Tamimi
Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
September 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
David C Montrose, Xi Kathy Zhou, Erin M McNally, Erika Sue, Rhonda K Yantiss, Steven S Gross, Nitai D Leve, Edward D Karoly, Chen S Suen, Lilan Ling, Robert Benezra, Eric G Pamer, Andrew J Dannenberg
Treatment with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduces formation of premalignant adenomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and mice. In addition to its chemopreventive activity, celecoxib can exhibit antimicrobial activity. Differing bacterial profiles have been found in feces from colon cancer patients compared with those of normal subjects. Moreover, preclinical studies suggest that bacteria can modulate intestinal tumorigenesis by secreting specific metabolites. In the current study, we determined whether celecoxib treatment altered the luminal microbiota and metabolome in association with reducing intestinal polyp burden in mice...
September 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Alba Lucía Cómbita, Tarik Gheit, Paula González, Devi Puerto, Raúl Hernando Murillo, Luisa Montoya, Alex Vorsters, Severien Van Keer, Pierre Van Damme, Massimo Tommasino, Gustavo Hernández-Suárez, Laura Sánchez, Rolando Herrero, Carolina Wiesner
Urine sampling for HPV DNA detection has been proposed as an effective method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination programs; however, conflicting results have been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of optimized urine HPV DNA testing in women aged 19 to 25 years. Optimization process included the use of first void urine, immediate mixing of urine with DNA preservative, and the concentration of all HPV DNA, including cell-free DNA fragments. Urine and cervical samples were collected from 535 young women attending cervical screening at health centers from two Colombian cities...
September 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
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