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Cancer Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507039/do-aspirin-and-other-nsaids-confer-a-survival-benefit-in-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-nih-aarp-and-plco-cohorts
#1
Cindy Ke Zhou, Sarah E Daugherty, Linda M Liao, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Ruth Pfeiffer, Michael B Cook
<span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'New times rome',serif;">Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in US men. There is an unmet need to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer survival. Experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may improve prostate cancer survival through anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammation mechanisms. Results from previous observational studies have been equivocal, and few have assessed whether an etiologically relevant time window of exposure exists...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487295/statin-use-serum-lipids-and-prostate-inflammation-in-men-with-a-negative-prostate-biopsy-results-from-the-reduce-trial
#2
Emma H Allott, Lauren E Howard, Adriana C Vidal, Daniel M Moreira, Ramiro Castro-Santamaria, Gerald L Andriole, Stephen J Freedland
Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk. In addition to cholesterol lowering, statins have systemic anti-inflammatory properties. However, their effect on histologic prostate inflammation is not well understood, particularly among men at increased prostate cancer risk but with a negative prostate biopsy. We examined associations between serum lipid levels, statin use, and histologic prostate inflammation using data from 6,655 men with a negative baseline prostate biopsy in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial...
May 9, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483840/fusobacterium-nucleatum-subspecies-animalis-influences-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-and-monocyte-activation-in-human-colorectal-tumors
#3
Xiangcang Ye, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Delphine Boulbes, Fan Fan, Ling Xia, Harish Adoni, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Daniel P Smith, Joseph F Petrosino, Susan Venable, Wei Qiao, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Dipen M Maru, Lee M Ellis
Chronic infection and associated inflammation have long been suspected to promote human<br />carcinogenesis. Recently, certain gut bacteria, including some in the Fusobacterium genus, have been implicated in playing a role in human colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the Fusobacterium species and subspecies involved and their oncogenic mechanisms remain to be determined. We sought to identify the specific Fusobacterium spp. and ssp. in clinical CRC specimens by targeted sequencing of Fusobacterium 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468928/sildenafil-suppresses-inflammation-driven-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#4
Bianca N Islam, Sarah K Sharman, Yali Hou, Allison E Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Sangmi Kim, Ravindra Kolhe, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo C Rodriguez, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Darren D Browning
Intestinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling regulates epithelial homeostasis and has been implicated in the suppression of colitis and colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the cGMP-elevating ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil to prevent disease in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) inflammation-driven colorectal cancer model. Treatment of mice with sildenafil activated cGMP signaling in the colon mucosa and protected against DSS-induced barrier dysfunction...
May 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465362/bitter-melon-enhances-natural-killer-mediated-toxicity-against-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#5
Sourav Bhattacharya, Naoshad Muhammd, Robert Steele, Jacki Kornbluth, Ratna B Ray
Natural Killer (NK) cells are one of the major components of innate immunity, with the ability to mediate antitumor activity. Understanding the role of NK cell mediated tumor killing in controling of solid tumor growth is still in the developmental stage. We have shown recently that bitter melon extract (BME) modulates the regulatory T cell (Treg) population in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the role of BME in NK cell modulation against HNSCC remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether BME can enhance the NK cell killing activity against HNSCC cells...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400480/combined-genetic-biomarkers-and-betel-quid-chewing-for-identifying-high-risk-group-for-oral-cancer-occurrence
#6
Chia-Min Chung, Chien-Hung Lee, Mu-Kuan Chen, Ka-Wo Lee, Cheng-Che E Lan, Aij-Lie Kwan, Ming-Hsui Tsai, Ying-Chin Ko
We integrated genetic risk scores (GRS) and environmental factors for identifying high-risk subjects for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurrence by using case-control study. A total of 447 patients diagnosed with OSCC and 580 unrelated subjects were recruited from two medical centers in Taiwan. A multinomial logistic regression model was conducted to access interaction between GRS and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed ROC curve to compare the accuracy of OSCC occurrence. Four tag SNPs were found in NOTCH1, BRCA1, COL9A1, and HSPA13 genes that were significantly associated with OSCC occurrence...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400479/a-presurgical-study-of-lecithin-formulation-of-green-tea-extract-in-women-with-early-breast-cancer
#7
Matteo Lazzeroni, Aliana Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Sara Gandini, Harriet Johansson, Davide Serrano, Massimiliano Cazzaniga, Valentina Aristarco, Debora Macis, Serena Mora, Pietro Caldarella, Gianmatteo Pagani, Giancarlo Pruneri, Antonella Riva, Giovanna Petrangolini, Paolo Morazzoni, Andrea DeCensi, Bernardo Bonanni
Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk. Greenselect Phytosome (GSP) is a lecithin formulation of a caffeine-free green tea catechin extract. The purpose of the study was to determine the tissue distribution of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its effect on cell proliferation and circulating biomarkers in breast cancer patients. Twelve early breast cancer patients received GSP 300 mg, equivalent to 44.9 mg of EGCG, daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396341/bioactivity-of-oral-linaclotide-in-human-colorectum-for-cancer-chemoprevention
#8
David S Weinberg, Jieru E Lin, Nathan R Foster, Gary Della'Zanna, Asad Umar, Drew Seisler, Walter K Kraft, David M Kastenberg, Leo C Katz, Paul J Limburg, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a tumor-suppressing receptor silenced by loss of expression of its luminocrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin early in colorectal carcinogenesis. This observation suggests oral replacement with a GUCY2C agonist may be an effective targeted chemoprevention agent. Linaclotide is an FDA-approved oral GUCY2C agonist formulated for gastric release, inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel to treat chronic idiopathic constipation. The ability of oral linaclotide to induce a pharmacodynamic response in epithelial cells of the colorectum in humans remains undefined...
April 10, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377487/sleep-duration-across-the-adult-lifecourse-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-a-cohort-study-in-xuanwei-china
#9
Jason Y Wong, Bryan A Bassig, Roel Vermeulen, Wei Hu, Bofu Ning, Wei Jie Seow, Bu-Tian Ji, George Downward, Hormuzd A Katki, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Nathaniel Rothman, Robert Chapman, Qing Lan
Sufficient sleep duration is crucial for maintaining normal physiological function and has been linked to cancer risk; however, its contribution to lung cancer mortality is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between average sleep duration in various age-periods across the adult lifecourse, and risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. An ambidirectional cohort study was conducted in 42,422 farmers from Xuanwei, China. Participants or their surrogates were interviewed in 1992 to assess average sleep hours in the age-periods of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥71 years, which were categorized as ≤7, 8 (reference), 9, and ≥10 hours/day...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325828/the-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-is-a-novel-target-of-6-7-4-trihydroxyisoflavone-for-suppressing-esophageal-cancer-growth
#10
Tae-Gyu Lim, Sung-Young Lee, Zhaoheng Duan, Mee-Hyun Lee, Hanyong Chen, Fangfang Liu, Kangdong Liu, Sung Keun Jung, Dong Joon Kim, Ann M Bode, Ki Won Lee, Zigang Dong
Intake of soy isoflavones is inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. Numerous experimental results have supported the anticancer activity of soy isoflavones. This study aimed to determine the anti-esophageal cancer activity of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6,7,4'-THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, which is readily metabolized in the human body. Notably, 6,7,4'-THIF inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. On the basis of a virtual screening analysis, Pin1 was identified as a target protein of 6,7,4'-THIF...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325826/a-phase-ii-randomized-double-blind-presurgical-trial-of-polyphenon-e-in-bladder-cancer-patients-to-evaluate-pharmacodynamics-and-bladder-tissue-biomarkers
#11
Jason R Gee, Daniel R Saltzstein, KyungMann Kim, Jill Kolesar, Wei Huang, Thomas C Havighurst, Barbara W Wollmer, Jeanne Stublaski, Tracy Downs, Hasan Mukhtar, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
We performed a phase II pharmacodynamic prevention trial of Polyphenon E [a green tea polyphenol formulation primarily consisting of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)] in patients prior to bladder cancer surgery. Patients with a bladder tumor were randomized to receive Polyphenon E containing either 800 or 1,200 mg of EGCG or placebo for 14 to 28 days prior to transurethral resection of bladder tumor or cystectomy. The primary objective was to compare the postintervention EGCG tissue levels in patients receiving Polyphenon E as compared with placebo...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274936/no-decreased-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-in-users-of-metformin-in-the-netherlands-a-time-varying-analysis-of-metformin-exposure
#12
Roy G de Jong, Andrea M Burden, Sander de Kort, Myrthe P van Herk-Sukel, Pauline A Vissers, Paddy K Janssen, Harm R Haak, Ad A Masclee, Frank de Vries, Maryska L Janssen-Heijnen
Previous studies on metformin use and gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk have yielded inconclusive results on metformin's chemoprotective effects. We aimed to evaluate GI cancer risk in users of metformin in The Netherlands using a time-varying approach in a large population-based database. A cohort study was performed using the NCR-PHARMO database. Patients using ≥1 non-insulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) during 1998 to 2011 were included (N = 57,621). Exposure to NIADs was modeled time-varyingly. Cox regression analysis estimated HRs of GI cancers in current metformin users versus current users of other NIADs...
March 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274935/crown-like-structures-in-breast-adipose-tissue-from-normal-weight-women-important-impact
#13
EDITORIAL
Nathan A Berger
Crown-like structures (CLS), composed of macrophages surrounding dead or dying adipocytes, are a histologic hallmark of the proinflammatory process by which adipose tissue contributes to the increased risk and worse prognosis of breast cancer in obese, postmenopausal patients. In this issue of Cancer Prevention Research, Iyengar and colleagues report the intriguing finding that CLS can be identified in a significant proportion of normal-BMI women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or therapy...
March 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408379/-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-in-lean-women-metabolism-and-inflammation-as-critical-modifiers-of-risk
#14
EDITORIAL
Gerald V Denis, Julie R Palmer
Why is obesity only weakly associated with certain "obesity-driven" cancers? Recent population studies identify cohorts of high body mass index (BMI) subjects with unexpectedly reduced risk for breast and colon cancer, and normal BMI subjects with unexpectedly elevated risk for breast cancer, provoking hard thinking about cellular and molecular mechanisms that most strongly couple obesity to cancer occurrence or progression. Emerging work suggests that abnormal metabolism and its associated chronic inflammation make the difference...
May 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325827/sessile-serrated-polyps-and-colon-cancer-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Shahrooz Rashtak, Rafaela Rego, Seth R Sweetser, Frank A Sinicrope
Evidence suggests that up to one fifth of colorectal carcinomas develop from serrated polyps, named for their pattern of colonic crypts, and include the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) that has malignant potential. SSA/Ps are typically located in the proximal colon and have molecular features of hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoters and activating point mutations (V600E) in the BRAF oncogene. Both of these features are seen in sporadic colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability (MSI) which is potentially consistent with an origin of these cancers from precursor SSA/Ps...
May 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292742/fatty-acid-synthesis-intermediates-represent-novel-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate
#16
Krishna B Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly differentiated prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model...
May 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283467/responsiveness-of-brca1-and-trp53-deficiency-induced-mammary-preneoplasia-to-selective-estrogen-modulators-versus-an-aromatase-inhibitor-in-mus-musculus
#17
Sahar J Alothman, Weisheng Wang, David S Goerlitz, Md Islam, Xiaogang Zhong, Archana Kishore, Redha I Azhar, Bhaskar V Kallakury, Priscilla A Furth
An intervention study initiated at age 4 months compared the impact of tamoxifen (25 mg), raloxifene (22.5 mg), and letrozole (2.5 mg) administered by 60-day release subcutaneous pellet on mammary preneoplasia prevalence at age 6 months in conditional genetically engineered mouse models with different Breast cancer 1 (Brca1) gene dosages targeted to mammary epithelial cells and germline Tumor protein P53 (Trp53) haploinsufficiency (10-16/cohort). The proportion of unexposed control mice demonstrating mammary preneoplasia at age 6 months was highest in Brca1(fl11/fl11/Cre/p53-/+) (54%) mice followed by Brca1(WT/fl11/Cre/p53-/+) mice (30%)...
April 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270386/metabolic-obesity-adipose-inflammation-and-elevated-breast-aromatase-in-women-with-normal-body-mass-index
#18
Neil M Iyengar, Kristy A Brown, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Dilip D Giri, Heba Zahid, Priya Bhardwaj, Nils K Wendel, Domenick J Falcone, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Michael Pollak, Monica Morrow, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (<25 kg/m(2)) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment...
April 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264838/loss-of-brca1-in-the-cells-of-origin-of-ovarian-cancer-induces-glycolysis-a-window-of-opportunity-for-ovarian-cancer-chemoprevention
#19
Tatsuyuki Chiyoda, Peter C Hart, Mark A Eckert, Stephanie M McGregor, Ricardo R Lastra, Ryuji Hamamoto, Yusuke Nakamura, S Diane Yamada, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Ernst Lengyel, Iris L Romero
Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) are associated with an increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer. However, beyond the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, little is known about other mechanisms by which BRCA1 impairment promotes carcinogenesis. Given that altered metabolism is now recognized as important in the initiation and progression of cancer, we asked whether the loss of BRCA1 changes metabolism in the cells of origin of ovarian cancer. The findings show that silencing BRCA1 in ovarian surface epithelial and fallopian tube cells increased glycolysis...
April 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246081/the-4ps-of-breast-cancer-chemoprevention-putting-proven-principles-into-practice
#20
EDITORIAL
V Craig Jordan
The pioneering Royal Marsden Tamoxifen Prevention Trial recruited 2,471 eligible high-risk women to be randomized to either placebo or tamoxifen (20 mg daily) for 8 years. Breast cancer incidence was evaluated at a median of 18.4 years from the start of the study. There was a 32% reduction in estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR)-positive breast cancers after tamoxifen treatment finished. Translational research, to study "the good, the bad, and the ugly of tamoxifen" in the 1980s, subsequently ensured women's safety from possible increases in osteoperosis, coronary heart disease, and endometrial cancer...
April 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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