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Cancer Prevention Research

Jing Pan, Yongik Lee, Qi Zhang, Donghai Xiong, Wan C Tina, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Metastasis to lymph nodes (LN) and distal organs, especially brain, leads to severe complications and death. Preventing lung cancer development and metastases is important strategy to reduce lung cancer mortality. Honokiol (HNK), a natural compound presents in extracts of magnolia bark, has a favorable bioavailability profile and recently has been shown to readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the current study, we evaluated the anti-metastatic effects of HNK in both the LN and brain mouse models of lung tumor metastasis...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Raphael Schellnegger, Anne Quante, Susanne Rospleszcz, Martina Schernhammer, Bettina Höhl, Moritz Tobiasch, Agnieszka Pastula, Anna Brandtner, Julian A Abrams, Konstantin Strauch, Roland M Schmid, Michael Vieth, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is mirrored by the increasing prevalence of Barrett esophagus, a precursor lesion resulting in a large number of individuals "at risk" for this lethal malignancy. Among patients with Barrett esophagus, only about 0.3% annually will develop EAC. Because large numbers of patients are followed in endoscopic surveillance, there is a need for risk prediction among a growing population of patients with Barrett esophagus. We identified four potential biomarkers from an inflammation (IL1β)-dependent mouse model of Barrett esophagus and tested them in 189 patients with Barrett esophagus with and without high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/early cancer (T1)...
November 2, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Hsueh-Li Tan, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Nancy E Moran, Jessica L Cooperstone, John W Erdman, Gregory S Young, Steven K Clinton
The hypothesis that dietary tomato consumption or the intake of the carotenoid lycopene inhibits prostate cancer arose from epidemiologic studies and is supported by preclinical rodent experiments and in vitro mechanistic studies. We hypothesize that variation in activity of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, such as β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2), may alter the impact of dietary tomato and lycopene on prostate carcinogenesis and therefore examined this relationship in the TRAMP model. Starting at three weeks of age, TRAMP:Bco2+/+ and TRAMP:Bco2-/- mice were fed either AIN-93G control, or semi-purified diets containing 10% tomato powder or 0...
November 2, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Ali Shidfar, Fabricio F Costa, Denise M Scholtens, Jared M Bischof, Megan E Sullivan, David Ivancic, Elio F Vanin, Marcelo B Soares, Jun Wang, Seema A Khan
miRNAs are non-coding RNAs with abnormal expression in breast cancer (BC); their expression in high-risk benign breast tissue may relate to BC risk. We examined miRNA profiles in contralateral unaffected breasts (CUBs) of BC patients and validated resulting candidates in two additional sample sets. Expression profiles of 754 mature miRNAs were examined using TaqMan Low Density Arrays in 30 BC samples (15 ER-positive and 15 ER-negative) and paired CUBs; and 15 reduction mammoplasty (RM) controls. Pairwise comparisons identified miRNAs with significantly differential expression...
October 27, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Luai Al Rabadi, Raymond Bergan
As cells progress through carcinogenesis, the associated exponential expansion of genetic and molecular aberrations and resultant heterogeneity make therapeutic success increasingly unattainable. Therapeutic intervention at early stages of carcinogenesis that occurs within the primary organ and in the face of a lower burden of molecular aberrations, constitutes a basic tenet of cancer chemoprevention, and provides a situation that favors a greater degree of therapeutic efficacy compared with that of advanced cancer...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Peter Lance, David S Alberts, Patricia A Thompson, Liane Fales, Fang Wang, Jerilyn San Jose, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Phyllis J Goodman, Amy K Darke, Monica Yee, Lori Minasian, Ian M Thompson, Denise J Roe
Selenium and vitamin E micronutrients have been advocated for the prevention of colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenoma occurrence was used as a surrogate for colorectal cancer in an ancillary study to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) for prostate cancer prevention. The primary objective was to measure the effect of selenium (as selenomethionine) on colorectal adenomas occurrence, with the effect of vitamin E (as alpha tocopherol) supplementation on colorectal adenoma occurrence considered as a secondary objective...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Susan R Mallery, Daren Wang, Brian Santiago, Ping Pei, Steven Schwendeman, Kari Nieto, Richard Spinney, Meng Tong, George Koutras, Byungdo B Han, Andrew S Holpuch, James C Lang
Over 1/3 of patients who have undergone oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) surgical resections develop life-threatening and often untreatable recurrences. A variety of drugs, intended for management of recurrent or disseminated cancers, were designed to exploit cancer cells' reliance upon overexpressed receptors and gratuitous signaling. Despite their conceptual promise, clinical trials showed these agents lacked efficacy and were often toxic. These findings are consistent with evasion of pathway-targeted treatments via extensive signaling redundancies and compensatory mechanisms common to cancers...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
John Maret-Ouda, Hashem El-Serag, Jesper Lagergren
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in incidence in many Western societies, requires demanding treatment and is associated with a poor prognosis, therefore preventive measures are highly warranted. To assess the opportunities for prevention, we reviewed the available literature and identified seven main potentially preventive targets. Preventive effects were found based on medium level observational evidence following treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (both using medication and surgery) and tobacco smoking cessation, which should be clinically recommended among exposed patients...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, Samir Gupta
Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of mucosal inflammation. This chronic mucosal inflammation has several potential consequences, one of which is the occurrence of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Over the past decade, our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and overall approach to diagnosing and managing colitis-associated colorectal cancer has grown considerably. In the current review article, we outline these advancements and highlight areas in need of further research...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Blanca L Valle, Anne Jedlicka, Nitesh Turaga, Oluwasina Folawiyo, Francesca Pirini, Fahcina Lawson, Angelo Vergura, Maartje Noordhuis, Amanda Dziedzic, Gabriela Pérez, Marisa Renehan, Carolina Guerrero-Diaz, Edgar De Jesus Rodríguez, Teresa Diaz-Montes, José Rodríguez Orengo, Keimari Méndez, Josefina Romaguera, Bruce J Trock, Liliana Florea, David Sidransky
Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2(+)) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV (HPV(+)). We tested a biomarker panel in cervical epithelium DNA obtained from 211 women evaluated in a cervical cancer clinic in Chile from 2006 to 2008. Results were verified in a prospective cohort of 107 women evaluated in a high-risk clinic in Puerto Rico from 2013 to 2015...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Vassiliki L Tsikitis, Amiee Potter, Motomi Mori, Julie A Buckmeier, Christina R Preece, Christina A Harrington, Angela N Bartley, Achyut K Bhattacharyya, Stanley R Hamilton, M Peter Lance, Patricia A Thompson
Colorectal cancer and adenoma adjacent to cancer exhibit distinct microRNA (miRNA) alterations in an apparent mucosa-to-adenocarcinoma sequence. The pattern of microRNAs in screen-detected polyps in relation to histologic features and cancer risk has not been investigated. miRNA expression analysis was performed on normal mucosa (NM), hyperplastic polyps (HP), tubular adenomas (TA), tubulovillous adenomas or high-grade dysplasia (TVHG), and serrated polyps [sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSA)] in biopsy specimens from 109 patients undergoing screening/surveillance colonoscopy...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Stephen Lam, Sumithra J Mandrekar, Yaron Gesthalter, Katie L Allen Ziegler, Drew K Seisler, David E Midthun, Jenny T Mao, Marie Christine Aubry, Annette McWilliams, Don D Sin, Tawimas Shaipanich, Gang Liu, Evan Johnson, Andrea Bild, Marc E Lenburg, Diana N Ionescu, John Mayo, Joanne Eunhee Yi, Henry Tazelaar, William S Harmsen, Judith Smith, Avrum E Spira, Jennifer Beane, Paul J Limburg, Eva Szabo
Previous preclinical studies and a phase I clinical trial suggested that myo-inositol may be a safe and effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent. We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study to determine the chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol in smokers with bronchial dysplasia. Smokers with ≥1 site of dysplasia identified by autofluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or myo-inositol, 9 g once a day for 2 weeks, and then twice a day for 6 months...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Jenny T Mao, Jane Smoake, Heesung K Park, Qing-Yi Lu, Bingye Xue
Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) has been reported to exert antineoplastic properties via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) eicosanoid pathways. In addition, ample data link carcinogenesis to inflammatory events involving other major eicosanoid metabolic pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We therefore evaluated the effects of GSE on prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS)/PGI2 and 15-lipoxigenase-2 (15-LOX-2)/15-HETE productions by human lung premalignant and malignant cells and correlated the findings with antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of GSE...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Kathryn M Wilson, Lorelei A Mucci, Bettina F Drake, Mark A Preston, Meir J Stampfer, Edward Giovannucci, Adam S Kibel
Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high-grade or advanced-stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression [N = 94 events, mainly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence]...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Catherine Duggan, Jean de Dieu Tapsoba, Ching-Yun Wang, Kristin L Campbell, Karen Foster-Schubert, Myron D Gross, Anne McTiernan
Oxidative stress, a potential mechanism linking obesity and cancer, results from an imbalance between activation/inactivation of reactive oxygen species, byproducts of cellular metabolism. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated effects of diet and/or exercise on biomarkers of oxidative stress. A total of 439 overweight/obese [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] postmenopausal women, ages 50 of 75 years, were randomized to 12 months of (i) reduced-calorie weight loss diet ("diet"; n = 118); (ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise ("exercise"; n = 117); (iii) combined diet and exercise intervention ("diet + exercise"; n = 117); or (iv) control (n = 87)...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Anita R Iskandar, Benchun Miao, Xinli Li, Kang-Quan Hu, Chun Liu, Xiang-Dong Wang
Despite the consistent association between a higher intake of the provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin (BCX) and a lower risk of lung cancer among smokers, potential mechanisms supporting BCX as a chemopreventive agent are needed. We first examined the effects of BCX on 4-[methyl nitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. BCX supplementation was given daily to the mice starting 2 weeks prior to the injection of NNK and continued 16 weeks after NNK injection. BCX supplementation resulted in a dose-dependent increase of BCX concentration in both serum and lungs of the mice without a significant alteration of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) concentration...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Robert L Owens, Kathryn A Gold, David Gozal, Paul E Peppard, Jonathan C Jun, Scott M Lippman, Atul Malhotra
Sleep, like eating and breathing, is an essential part of the daily life cycle. Although the science is still emerging, sleep plays an important role in immune, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive function. Despite its great importance, nearly 40% of U.S. adults experience problems with sleep ranging from insufficient total sleep time, trouble initiating or maintaining sleep (Insomnia), circadian rhythm disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Erikka Loftfield, Neal D Freedman, Gabriel Y Lai, Stephanie J Weinstein, Katherine A McGlynn, Philip R Taylor, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
Insulin resistance likely increases the risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver cancer, but long-term prospective studies with measured fasting glucose and insulin are lacking. We evaluated the associations of prediagnostic fasting glucose, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with liver cancer and CLD mortality in a prospective study of Finnish male smokers with extended follow-up time (≤22 years) and information on known risk factors using data from 138 incident primary liver cancer cases, 216 CLD deaths, and 681 matched controls...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Olivier Boutaud, I Romina Sosa, Taneem Amin, Denise Oram, David Adler, Hyun S Hwang, Brenda C Crews, Ginger Milne, Bradford K Harris, Megan Hoeksema, Bjorn C Knollmann, Philip E Lammers, Lawrence J Marnett, Pierre P Massion, John A Oates
Meta-analyses have demonstrated that low-dose aspirin reduces the risk of developing adenocarcinoma metastasis, and when colon cancer is detected during aspirin treatment, there is a remarkable 83% reduction in risk of metastasis. As platelets participate in the metastatic process, the antiplatelet action of low-dose aspirin likely contributes to its antimetastatic effect. Cycloxooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also contributes to metastasis, and we addressed the hypothesis that low-dose aspirin also inhibits PGE2 biosynthesis...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
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