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Cancer Prevention Research

Douglas Grossman, Dileep Kumar, Hafeez Rahman, Ethika Tyagi, Tong Liu, Chelsea Li, Ran Lu, David Lum, Sheri L Holmen, John A Maschek, James E Cox, Matthew W VanBrocklin
There are conflicting epidemiologic data on whether chronic aspirin (ASA) use may reduce melanoma risk in humans. Potential anti-cancer effects of ASA may be mediated by its ability to suppress prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and activate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We investigated the inhibitory effects of ASA in a panel of melanoma and transformed melanocyte cell lines, and on tumor growth in a preclinical model. ASA and the COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib did not affect melanoma cell viability, but significantly reduced colony formation, cell motility, and pigmentation (melanin production) in vitro at concentrations of 1 mM and 20 uM, respectively...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Isaura S Ibrahim, Martin N J M Wasser, Yinghui Wu, Akin Inderson, Wouter H De Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Hans Morreau, Frederik J Hes, Roeland A Veenendaal, Hein Putter, Shirin Feshtali, Anneke M van Mil, Nelleke A Gruis, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Wilma Bergman, Bert A Bonsing, Hans F A Vasen
CDKN2A-p16-Leiden mutation carriers have a 20-25% risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Better understanding of the natural course of PDAC might allow the surveillance protocol to be improved. The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of cystic precursor lesions in the development of PDAC and to assess the growth rate. In 2000, a surveillance program was initiated, consisting of annual MRI in carriers of a CDKN2A-p16-Leiden mutation. The study cohort included 204 (42% male) patients...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Alba Lucia Combita, Devi Puerto, Viviana Reyes, Cristina Lozano, Lina Buitrago, Diego Garcia, Raul H Murillo, Nubia Muñoz, Gustavo A Hernandez, Laura Sanchez, Carolina Wiesner
In 2012 Colombia launched human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program for girls aged 9-12 and in 2013 the target age was expanded to 9-17 years. Monitoring the changes of HPV infection prevalence among young women has been proposed as an endpoint for early assessment of HPV vaccination programs. However, the data on HPV prevalence in young ages is very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and the distribution of genotypes in a group of non-vaccinated women aged 18-25 years old in three Colombian cities as baseline for the monitoring of the HPV national vaccination program...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Wenjie Ma, Mingyang Song, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Jennifer Prescott, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Xuehong Zhang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It remains unclear whether family history of diabetes influences CRC risk and relevant biomarkers. We followed 101,323 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1982-2012) and 48,542 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2012), free of cancer and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline. Participants reported whether any of their first-degree family members ever had diabetes in multiple questionnaires administered biennially...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Tianshun Zhang, Qiushi Wang, Mangaladoss Fredimoses, Ge Gao, Keke Wang, Hanyong Chen, Ting Wang, Naomi Oi, Tatyana Zykova, Kanamata Reddy, Ke Yao, Weiya Ma, Xiaoyu Chang, Mee-Hyun Lee, Moeez Ghani Rathore, Ann M Bode, Hitoshi Ashida, Zigang Dong
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor of the skin and still lacks effective preventive and therapeutic treatments. In melanoma, both the BRAF/MEK/ERK and PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms, which result in cell cycle progression and prevention of apoptosis. Therefore, the development of novel strategies for targeting BRAF and PI3-K are of utmost importance. In the current study, we found that Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG), suppressed melanoma development by directly targeting both BRAFV600E and PI3-K, which blocked the activation of downstream signaling...
July 6, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Océane C B Martin, Nathalie Naud, Sylviane Taché, Laurent Debrauwer, Sylvie Chevolleau, Jacques Dupuy, Céline Chantelauze, Denis Durand, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Florence Blas-Y-Estrada, Christine Urbano, Gunter Gc Kuhnle, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Thierry Sayd, Didier Viala, Adeline Blot, Nathalie Meunier, Pascal Schlich, Didier Attaix, Françoise Guéraud, Valérie Scislowski, Denis E Corpet, Fabrice Hf Pierre
Red meat is probably carcinogenic to humans (WHO/IARC class 2A), in part through heme iron-induced lipoperoxidation. Here, we investigated whether red meat promotes carcinogenesis in rodents and modulates associated biomarkers in volunteers, speculating that an antioxidant marinade could suppress these effects via limitation of the heme induced lipid peroxidation. We gave marinated or non-marinated beef with various degrees of cooking to azoxymethane-initiated rats, Min mice, and human volunteers (crossover study)...
June 28, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Oukseub Lee, Richard E Heinz, David Ivancic, Miguel Muzzio, Robert T Chatterton, Carola M Zalles, Kara Kenney, Belinda Phan, Dachao Liu, Denise M Scholtens, Mary Jo Fackler, Vered Stearns, Saraswati Sukumar, Seema A Khan
Sex steroid hormones contribute to breast cancer development, but data on concentrations of these within breast tissue are limited. We performed simultaneous multi-parameter measurement of breast sex steroids, breast epithelial cytology, and DNA methylation in 119 healthy women (54 pre- and 65 postmenopausal) without a history of breast cancer. Random fine needle aspiration (rFNA) of the breast was performed simultaneously with blood collection. Breast samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for estrone, estradiol, progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone...
June 28, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kathleen M Sturgeon, Wayne Y Foo, Mariane L Heroux, Kathryn Schmitz
Breast cancer survivors who carry a genetic mutation for one of the BRCA genes often undergo surgically-induced menopause a decade or more before the usual age of natural menopause. These women are at elevated risk for multiple negative health outcomes, including metabolic diseases, heart disease, and cancer recurrence. Effects of a 12-month commercially available web-based lifestyle program (Precision Nutrition) were tested on body composition and markers of inflammation in a randomized controlled trial. Participants (N=35) were BRCA1/2+, breast cancer survivors, and had completed surgically-induced menopause at age <45 years...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Eric C Yang, Richard A Schwarz, Alexander K Lang, Nancy Bass, Hawraa Badaoui, Imran S Vohra, Katelin D Cherry, Michelle D Williams, Ann M Gillenwater, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum
Early detection of oral cancer and oral premalignant lesions (OPL) containing dysplasia could improve oral cancer outcomes. However, general dental practitioners have difficulty distinguishing dysplastic OPLs from confounder oral mucosal lesions in low-risk populations. We evaluated the ability of two optical imaging technologies, autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME), to diagnose moderate dysplasia or worse (ModDys+ ) in 56 oral mucosal lesions in a low-risk patient population, using histopathology as the gold standard, and in 46 clinically normal sites...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Brian Thomas Joyce, Yinan Zheng, Drew Nannini, Zhou Zhang, Lei Liu, Tao Gao, Masha Kocherginsky, Robert Murphy, Hushan Yang, Chad J Achenbach, Lewis R Roberts, Mirjam Hoxha, Jincheng Shen, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz, Andrea Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
Researchers hypothesized that telomere shortening facilitates carcinogenesis. Previous studies found inconsistent associations between blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cancer. Epigenetic reprogramming of telomere maintenance mechanisms may help explain this inconsistency. We examined associations between DNA methylation in telomere-related genes (TRGs) and cancer. We analyzed 475 participants providing 889 samples 1-3 times (median follow up: 10.1 years) from 1999-2013 in the Normative Aging Study...
June 12, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Sandra Parenti, Lucia Montorsi, Sebastian Fantini, Fabiana Mammoli, Claudia Gemelli, Claudio Giacinto Atene, Lorena Losi, Chiara Frassineti, Bruno Calabretta, Enrico Tagliafico, Sergio Ferrari, Tommaso Zanocco-Marani, Alexis Grande
Mesalazine (5-ASA) is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug capable of inducing μ-protocadherin, a protein expressed by colorectal epithelial cells which is downregulated upon malignant transformation. Treatment with 5-ASA restores μ-protocadherin expression and promotes the sequestration of β-catenin to the plasma membrane. Here we show that 5-ASA-induced μ-protocadherin expression is directly regulated by the KLF4 transcription factor. In addition, we suggest the existence of a dual mechanism whereby 5-ASA-mediated β-catenin inhibition is caused by μ-protocadherin-dependent sequestration of β-catenin to the plasma membrane and by the direct binding of KLF4 to β-catenin...
May 24, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Fernanda De Souza-Teixeira, Jéssica Alonso-Molero, Carlos Ayán, Laura Vilorio-Marques, Antonio J Molina, Carmen González-Donquiles, Veronica Davila-Batista, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jose Antonio de Paz, Vicente Martín
Colorectal cancer is a significant public health concern. As a multistage and multifactorial disease, environmental and genetic factors interact at each stage of the process, and an individual's lifestyle also plays a relevant role. We set out to review the scientific evidence to study the need to investigate the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) gene as a biomarker of the physical activity's (PA) effect on colorectal cancer. PA is a protective factor against colorectal cancer and usually increases the expression of PGC-1α...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Tami Yap, Kendrick Koo, Lesley Cheng, Laura J Vella, Andrew F Hill, Eric C Reynolds, Alf L Nastri, Nicola Cirillo, Christine A Seers, Michael McCullough
Oral swirls are a noninvasive, rapidly collected source of salivary microRNA potentially useful in the early detection of disease states, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to predict the presence of oral squamous cell carcinoma using a panel of OSCC-related dysregulated microRNA found in oral swirls, identified jointly in data from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and fresh frozen specimens. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to determine microRNA fold changes in FFPE OSCC specimens relative to histologically normal epithelium...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Shizhao Li, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. An important risk factor for breast cancer is individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life; for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Bioactive dietary components such as sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables including broccoli sprouts (BSp), cabbage and kale, has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many common cancers through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Melinda S Yates, Adriana M Coletta, Qian Zhang, Rosemarie E Schmandt, Meena Medepalli, Denise R Nebgen, Beth Soletsky, Andrea Milbourne, Erma Levy, Bryan M Fellman, Diana L Urbauer, Ying Yuan, Russell R Broaddus, Karen Basen-Engquist, Karen Lu
Obesity increases risk of endometrial cancer through dysregulation of estrogen and insulin signaling. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of metformin or lifestyle intervention on endometrial proliferation in postmenopausal obese women. Secondary aims included evaluating obesity-related biomarkers and adverse events experienced. Obese, postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes were randomized into four groups for a 16-week intervention using a 2 (metformin 1700 mg/day vs placebo) x 2 (lifestyle intervention vs no lifestyle intervention) factorial design...
May 1, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shawn Tahata, Shivendra V Singh, Yan Lin, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Jan H Beumer, Susan M Christner, Uma N Rao, Cindy Sander, Ahmad A Tarhini, Hussein Tawbi, Laura K Ferris, Melissa Wilson, Amy Rose, Catherine M Dietz, Ellen Hughes, Jed W Fahey, Sancy A Leachman, Pamela B Cassidy, Lisa H Butterfield, Hassane M Zarour, John M Kirkwood
Broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSE-SFN) has been shown to inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced damage and tumor progression in skin. This study evaluated the toxicity and potential effects of oral BSE-SFN at three dosages. Seventeen patients who each had at least 2 atypical nevi and a prior history of melanoma were randomly allocated to 50, 100, or 200 μmol oral BSE-SFN daily for 28 days. Atypical nevi were photographed on days 1 and 28, and plasma and nevus samples were taken on days 1, 2, and 28...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Beatriz Carvalho, Begoña Diosdado, Jochim S Terhaar Sive Droste, Anne S Bolijn, Malgorzata A Komor, Meike de Wit, Linda J W Bosch, Myrthe van Burink, Evelien Dekker, Ernst J Kuipers, Veerle M H Coupé, Nicole C T van Grieken, Remond J A Fijneman, Gerrit A Meijer
About 5% of colorectal adenomas are estimated to progress to colorectal cancer. However, it is important to identify which adenomas actually carry a high risk of progression, because these serve as intermediate endpoints, for example, in screening programs. In clinical practice, adenomas with a size of ≥10 mm, villous component and/or high-grade dysplasia, called advanced adenomas, are considered high risk, although solid evidence for this classification is lacking. Specific DNA copy number changes are associated with adenoma-to-carcinoma progression...
July 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Kaitlin J Flynn, Mack T Ruffin, D Kim Turgeon, Patrick D Schloss
The microbiome has been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. The specific traits of these diseases vary along the axis of the digestive tract. Further, variation in the structure of the gut microbiota has been associated with both diseases. We profiled the microbiota of the healthy proximal and distal mucosa and lumen to better understand how bacterial populations vary along the colon. We used a two-colonoscope approach to sample proximal and distal mucosal and luminal contents from the colons of 20 healthy subjects that had not undergone any bowel preparation procedure...
July 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shannon D McClintock, Justin A Colacino, Durga Attili, Michael K Dame, Aliah Richter, Anusha R Reddy, Venkatesha Basrur, Areeba H Rizvi, D Kim Turgeon, James Varani, Muhammad N Aslam
Previous murine studies have demonstrated that dietary Aquamin, a calcium-rich, multi-mineral natural product, suppressed colon polyp formation and transition to invasive tumors more effectively than calcium alone when provided over the lifespan of the animals. In the current study, we compared calcium alone to Aquamin for modulation of growth and differentiation in human colon adenomas in colonoid culture. Colonoids established from normal colonic tissue were examined in parallel. Both calcium alone at 1.5 mmol/L and Aquamin (provided at 1...
July 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
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