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Cancer Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739585/the-burdens-and-uncertainties-of-doing-what-one-should-do
#1
EDITORIAL
Victor G Vogel
Despite FDA approval of drugs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk, uptake of these drugs has been poor despite the publication of numerous studies that demonstrate both their effectives and safety. National organizations have made recommendations for their use, but both physicians and their patients do not fully understand either breast cancer risk factors or risk assessment or the indications for using risk-reducing agents. Histologically predisposing conditions, such as ductal or lobular atypia and lobular carcinoma in situ, impart particularly high risks of developing subsequent invasive breast cancer...
July 24, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729251/inclusion-of-a-genetic-risk-score-into-a-validated-risk-prediction-model-for-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-men-improves-performance
#2
Motoki Iwasaki, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Aya Kuchiba, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Atsushi Goto, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Hansong Wang, Loic Le Marchand, Shoichiro Tsugane
We previously developed and validated a risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men using modifiable risk factors. To further improve risk prediction, we evaluated the degree of improvement obtained by adding a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified risk variants to our validated model. We examined the association between 36 risk variants identified by GWAS and colorectal cancer risk using a weighted Cox proportional hazard model in a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701332/circulating-rankl-and-rankl-opg-and-breast-cancer-risk-by-er-and-pr-subtype-results-from-the-epic-cohort
#3
Danja Sarink, Helena Schock, Theron Johnson, Kim Overvad, Marianne Holm, Anne Tjonneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Mathilde His, Marina Kvaskoff, Heiner Boeing, Pagona Lagiou, Eleni-Maria Papatesta, Antonia Trichopoulou, Domenico Palli, Valeria Pala, Amalia Mattiello, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, H B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, Carla H van Gils, Petra H Peeters, Elisabete Weiderpass, Antonio Agudo, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Eva Ardanaz, Pilar Amiano, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ruth C Travis, Laure Dossus, Marc J Gunter, Sabina Rinaldi, Melissa A Merritt, Elio Riboli, Rudolf Kaaks, Renee T Fortner
Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. <p>A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort...
July 12, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698246/diet-and-exercise-and-serum-markers-of-oxidative-stress-response
#4
LETTER
Catherine Duggan, Myron D Gross, Anne McTiernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698245/diet-and-exercise-and-serum-markers-of-oxidative-stress-letter
#5
LETTER
Dimitrios Tsikas, Julian Eigendorf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679497/high-level-of-tobacco-carcinogen-derived-dna-damage-in-oral-cells-is-an-independent-predictor-of-oral-head-and-neck-cancer-risk-in-smokers
#6
Samir S Khariwala, Bin Ma, Chris Ruszczak, Steven G Carmella, Bruce R Lindgren, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Stephen S Hecht, Irina Stepanov
Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC).  We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared to cancer-free smokers.  In this study we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673967/piperlongumine-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-dependent-downregulation-of-specificity-protein-transcription-factors
#7
Keshav Karki, Erik Hedrick, Ravi Kasiappan, Un-Ho Jin, Stephen Safe
Piperlongumine is a natural product found in the plant species Piper longum, and this compound exhibits potent anticancer activity in multiple tumor types and has been characterized as an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of Panc1 and L3.6pL pancreatic, A549 lung, 786-O kidney, and SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines with 5 to 15 μmol/L piperlongumine inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and ROS, and these responses were attenuated after cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione...
July 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642227/correction-whole-genome-sequencing-of-salivary-gland-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611039/chemoprevention-uptake-among-women-with-atypical-hyperplasia-and-lobular-and-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#9
Meghna S Trivedi, Austin M Coe, Alejandro Vanegas, Rita Kukafka, Katherine D Crew
Women with atypical hyperplasia and lobular or ductal carcinoma in situ (LCIS/DCIS) are at increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Chemoprevention with selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors can reduce breast cancer risk; however, uptake is estimated to be less than 15% in these populations. We sought to determine which factors are associated with chemoprevention uptake in a population of women with atypical hyperplasia, LCIS, and DCIS. Women diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia/LCIS/DCIS between 2007 and 2015 without a history of invasive breast cancer were identified (N = 1,719)...
June 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611038/intermittent-dosing-with-sulindac-provides-effective-colorectal-cancer-chemoprevention-in-the-azoxymethane-treated-mouse-model
#10
Swati Chandra, Ariel C Nymeyer, Photini Faith Rice, Eugene W Gerner, Jennifer K Barton
Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that can provide effective chemoprevention for colorectal cancer. In this study, alternative dosing regimens of sulindac were evaluated for their chemoprevention effectiveness in the azoxymethane-treated A/J mouse model of colorectal cancer. High resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography was utilized to time-serially measure tumor number and tumor burden in the distal colon as the biological endpoints. Four treatment groups were studied: 1) daily for 20 weeks (Sulindac-Daily), 2) for two weeks, then no sulindac for two weeks, cycle repeated 5 times (Sulindac-2), 3) for ten weeks ("on"), then no sulindac for 10 weeks ("off") (Sulindac-10), 4) no sulindac (Sulindac-None)...
June 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600398/unmetabolized-folic-acid-tetrahydrofolate-and-colorectal-adenoma-risk
#11
Judy R Rees, Carolyn B Morris, Janet L Peacock, Per M Ueland, Elizabeth L Barry, Gail E McKeown-Eyssen, Jane C Figueiredo, Dale C Snover, John A Baron
In a randomized trial of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas, we previously found indications of increased risk during later treatment and follow-up. This could have been due to the unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) or natural reduced and methylated folates (mF) to which it is metabolized. In post hoc analyses, we measured mF (the sum of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and 4-alfa-hydroxy-5-methyl-THF) and UFA concentrations in the serum of 924 participants. Using binomial regression models with a log link, we assessed the associations between plasma mF or UFA and adenoma occurrence...
June 9, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584169/the-effects-of-physical-activity-and-body-fat-mass-on-colorectal-polyp-recurrence-in-patients-with-previous-colorectal-cancer
#12
Jihye Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Sung Pil Hong, Jae Hee Cheon, Won Ho Kim, Ji Soo Park, Justin Y Jeon, Tae Il Kim
We aimed to identify the effects of physical activity and body composition on colorectal polyp recurrence in patients with previous colorectal cancer. Three hundred patients were selected randomly from the colorectal cancer survivor cohort of Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Patients reported various recreational physical activities, and received surveillance colonoscopy. Body composition was measured with a body composition analyzer. We compared patients who exercised for at least 1 h/week (active) with those who exercised less frequently or not at all (sedentary)...
June 5, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576788/pigs-unlike-mice-have-two-distinct-colonic-stem-cell-populations-similar-to-humans-that-respond-to-high-calorie-diet-prior-to-insulin-resistance
#13
Venkata Charepalli, Lavanya Reddivari, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Elisabeth Eriksson, Xia Xiao, Sung Woo Kim, Frank Shen, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Qunhua Li, Vadiraja B Bhat, Rob Knight, Jairam K P Vanamala
Basal colonic crypt stem cells are long lived and play a role in colon homeostasis. Previous evidence has shown that high-calorie diet (HCD) enhances colonic stem cell numbers and expansion of the proliferative zone, an important biomarker for colon cancer. However, it is not clear how HCD drives dysregulation of colon stem cell/colonocyte proliferative kinetics. We used a human-relevant pig model and developed an immunofluorescence technique to detect and quantify colonic stem cells. Pigs (n = 8/group) were provided either standard diet (SD; 5% fat) or HCD (23% fat) for 13 weeks...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559459/tamoxifen-acceptance-and-adherence-among-patients-with-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-treated-in-a-multidisciplinary-setting
#14
Lindsey C Karavites, Anna K Kane, Shruti Zaveri, Yanfei Xu, Irene Helenowski, Nora Hansen, Kevin P Bethke, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Seema A Khan
Tamoxifen and other endocrine agents have proven benefits for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but low patient acceptance is widely reported. We examined factors associated with tamoxifen acceptance and adherence among DCIS patients who received a recommendation for therapy in a multidisciplinary setting. Using our institutional database, we identified women diagnosed with DCIS, 1998 to 2009, who were offered tamoxifen. We recorded data on demographics, tumor and therapy variables, tamoxifen acceptance, and adherence to therapy for ≥4 years...
May 30, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483840/fusobacterium-nucleatum-subspecies-animalis-influences-proinflammatory-cytokine-expression-and-monocyte-activation-in-human-colorectal-tumors
#15
Xiangcang Ye, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Delphine R Boulbes, Fan Fan, Ling Xia, Harish Adoni, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Daniel P Smith, Joseph F Petrosino, Susan Venable, Wei Qiao, Veera Baladandayuthapani, Dipen Maru, Lee M Ellis
Chronic infection and associated inflammation have long been suspected to promote human carcinogenesis. Recently, certain gut bacteria, including some in the Fusobacterium genus, have been implicated in playing a role in human colorectal cancer development. However, the Fusobacterium species and subspecies involved and their oncogenic mechanisms remain to be determined. We sought to identify the specific Fusobacterium spp. and ssp. in clinical colorectal cancer specimens by targeted sequencing of Fusobacterium 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468928/sildenafil-suppresses-inflammation-driven-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#16
Bianca N Islam, Sarah K Sharman, Yali Hou, Allison E Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Sangmi Kim, Ravindra Kolhe, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo C Rodriguez, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Darren D Browning
Intestinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling regulates epithelial homeostasis and has been implicated in the suppression of colitis and colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the cGMP-elevating ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil to prevent disease in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) inflammation-driven colorectal cancer model. Treatment of mice with sildenafil activated cGMP signaling in the colon mucosa and protected against dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced barrier dysfunction...
May 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600399/validation-of-pde5-as-a-chemoprevention-target
#17
EDITORIAL
Gary A Piazza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559460/development-of-a-cancer-risk-prediction-tool-for-use-in-the-uk-primary-care-and-community-settings
#18
Artitaya Lophatananon, Juliet Usher-Smith, Jackie Campbell, Joanne Warcaba, Barbora Silarova, Erika A Waters, Graham A Colditz, Kenneth R Muir
Several multivariable risk prediction models have been developed to asses an individual's risk of developing specific cancers. Such models can be used in a variety of settings for prevention, screening, and guiding investigations and treatments. Models aimed at predicting future disease risk that contains lifestyle factors may be of particular use for targeting health promotion activities at an individual level. This type of cancer risk prediction is not yet available in the UK. We have adopted the approach used by the well-established U...
July 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507039/do-aspirin-and-other-nsaids-confer-a-survival-benefit-in-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-nih-aarp-and-plco-cohorts
#19
Cindy Ke Zhou, Sarah E Daugherty, Linda M Liao, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Ruth Pfeiffer, Michael B Cook
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in U.S. men. There is an unmet need to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer survival. Experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may improve prostate cancer survival through antithrombotic and anti-inflammation mechanisms. Results from previous observational studies have been equivocal, and few have assessed whether an etiologically relevant time window of exposure exists. We sampled incident prostate cancer cases from two large U...
July 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576888/correction-new-perspectives-of-curcumin-in-cancer-prevention
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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