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Cancer Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916509/risk-prediction-of-cervical-cancer-and-precancers-by-type-specific-human-papillomavirus-%C3%A2-evidence-from-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-china
#1
Li Dong, Shang-Ying Hu, Qian Zhang, Ruimei Feng, Li Zhang, Xuelian Zhao, Xun Zhang, Fang-Hui Zhao, You-Lin Qiao
Risk stratification of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment in cervical cancer screening. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of type-specific HPV in detecting cervical cancer and precancers in a Chinese population-based cohort and provide evidence of HPV genotyping to triage HPV-positive women. We typed all Hybrid Capture 2-positive cytological samples of 1,742 women in Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study cohort. Cumulative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) among HPV positive women and cumulative detection rates of CIN2+ among general women by type-specific HPV were estimated during the course of ten-year follow-up...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904061/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-and-mammographic-density-in-postmenopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#2
Hamed Samavat, Giske Ursin, Tim H Emory, Eunjung Lee, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Allison M Dostal, Karen Swenson, Chap T Le, Chung S Yang, Mimi C Yu, Douglas Yee, Anna H Wu, Jian-Min Yuan, Mindy S Kurzer
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest a protective role of green tea against breast cancer. However the underlying mechanism is not understood. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial to investigate whether supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) modifies mammographic density (MD), as a potential mechanism, involving 1,075 healthy postmenopausal women. Women assigned to the treatment arm consumed daily 4 decaffeinated GTE capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for 12 months...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904060/early-exposure-to-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-increases-the-mammary-stem-cell-compartment-and-mammary-tumor-risk-in-female-mice
#3
Isabel U Lambertz, Linjie Luo, Thomas R Berton, Scott L Schwartz, Stephen D Hursting, Claudio J Conti, Robin Fuchs-Young
Obesity and alterations in metabolic programming from early diet exposures can affect the propensity to disease in later life. Through dietary manipulation, developing mouse pups were exposed to a hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic milieu during three developmental phases: gestation, lactation and post-weaning. Analyses showed that a post-weaning high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) diet had the main negative effect on adult body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. However, dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis revealed that animals born to a mother fed a HF/HS gestation diet, nursed by a mother on a mildly diet-restricted, low fat/low sugar diet (DR) and weaned onto a HF/HS diet (HF/DR/HF) had the highest mammary tumor incidence, while HF/HF/DR had the lowest tumor incidence...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904059/gene-methylation-biomarkers-in-sputum-and-plasma-as-predictors-for-lung-cancer-recurrence
#4
Steven A Belinsky, Shuguang Leng, Guodong Wu, Cynthia L Thomas, Maria A Picchi, Sandra J Lee, Seena Aisner, Suresh Ramalingam, Fadlo R Khuri, Daniel D Karp
Detection of methylated genes in exfoliated cells from the lungs of smokers provides an assessment of the extent of field cancerization, is a validated biomarker for predicting lung cancer, and provides some discrimination when interrogated in blood. The potential utility of this 8-gene methylation panel for predicting tumor recurrence has not been assessed. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group initiated a prevention trial (ECOG-ACRIN5597) that enrolled resected Stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients who were randomized 2:1 to receive selenized yeast versus placebo for four years...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877936/alterations-in-bronchial-airway-microrna-expression-for-lung-cancer-detection
#5
Ana B Pavel, Joshua D Campbell, Gang Liu, David A Elashoff, Steven M Dubinett, Kate Smith, Duncan Whitney, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum E Spira
We have previously shown that gene-expression alterations in normal-appearing bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a lung cancer detection biomarker in smokers. Given that microRNAs regulate airway gene-expression responses to smoking, we evaluated whether microRNA-expression is also altered in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with lung cancer. Using epithelial brushings from the mainstem bronchus of patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer (as part of the AEGIS-1/2 clinical trials), we profiled microRNA-expression via small-RNA sequencing from 347 current and former smokers for which gene-expression data was also available...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877935/targeting-aberrant-p70s6k-activation-for-estrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-prevention
#6
Xiao Wang, Jun Yao, Jinyang Wang, Qingling Zhang, Samuel Warren Brady, Banu Arun, Victoria Seewaldt, Dihua Yu
The prevention of ER- breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field although anti-estrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing ER+ breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream p70S6K signaling pathway was highly activated in ER- pre-malignant breast lesions and ER- breast cancer...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851690/tobacco-specific-carcinogens-induce-hypermethylation-dna-adducts-and-dna-damage-in-bladder-cancer
#7
Feng Jin, Jose Thaiparambil, Sri Ramya Donepudi, Venkat Rao Vantaku, Danthasinghe Waduge Badrajee Piyarathna, Suman Maity, Rashmi Krishnapuram, Vasanta Putluri, Franklin Gu, Preeti Purwaha, Salil Kumar Bhowmik, Chandra Shekar Reddy Ambati, Friedrich-Carl von Rundstedt, Florian Roghmann, Sebastian Berg, Joachim Noldus, Kimal Rajapakshe, Daniel Gödde, Stephan Roth, Stephan Störkel, Stephan Degener, George Michailidis, Benny A Kaipparettu, Balasubramanyam Karanam, Martha K Terris, Shyam M Kavuri, Seth P Lerner, Farrah Kheradmand, Cristian Coarfa, Arun Sreekumar, Yair Lotan, Randa El-Zein, Nagireddy Putluri
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of Bladder Cancer (BLCA); however, the functional consequences of the carcinogens in tobacco smoke and BLCA-associated metabolic alterations remains poorly defined. We assessed the metabolic profiles in BLCA smokers and non-smokers, and identified the key alterations in their metabolism. Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and bioinformatic analysis were performed to determine the metabolome associated with BLCA smokers and were further validated in cell line models...
August 29, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851689/the-second-generation-pgi2-analogue-treprostinil-fails-to-chemoprevent-tumors-in-a-murine-lung-adenocarcinoma-model
#8
Lori D Dwyer-Nield, Gregory A Hickey, Micah Friedman, Kevin Choo, Debbie G McArthur, Meredith A Tennis, Melissa L New, Mark Geraci, Robert L Keith
Prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2, PGI2) over-production in FVB/N mice prevents the formation of carcinogen and tobacco smoke induced adenomas, and administration of the oral prostacyclin analog iloprost to wild type mice also prevented carcinogen-induced mouse lung adenoma formation. Former smokers taking oral iloprost showed improved bronchial dysplasia histology compared to placebo. Next generation oral prostacyclin analogues, like treprostinil, were developed for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)...
August 29, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847977/caloric-restriction-prevents-carcinogen-initiated-liver-cancer-in-mice
#9
Jonathan M Ploeger, Juan C Manivel, Lauren N Boatner, Douglas G Mashek
Caloric restriction (CR) and endurance exercise elicit wide-ranging health benefits including reduced risk of select cancers. In addition, diet composition influences oncogenesis, although its interactions with exercise and CR are not well understood. Therefore, to investigate the potential interactions between diet and lifestyle interventions on liver tumorigenesis, the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was administered to 72 male C57Bl/6 mice that were subsequently fed diets enriched with lard (CTL) or olive oil (OO) and were further stratified to voluntary wheel running (Ex) or 30% CR for 49 weeks...
August 28, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821544/when-the-damage-is-done-selecting-patients-for-head-and-neck-cancer-chemoprevention-trials
#10
EDITORIAL
Daniel E Johnson, Julie E Bauman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821543/airway-basal-cell-heterogeneity-and-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
EDITORIAL
Robert E Hynds, Sam M Janes
Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912118/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#12
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley T Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P(+) cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811301/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#13
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P+ cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765196/in-silico-systems-biology-analysis-of-variants-of-uncertain-significance-in-lynch-syndrome-supports-the-prioritization-of-functional-molecular-validation
#14
Ester Borras, Kyle Chang, Mala Pande, Amanda Cuddy, Jennifer L Bosch, Sarah Bannon, Maureen E Mork, Miguel Rodriguez-Bigas, Melissa Taggart, Patrick M Lynch, Y Nancy You, Eduardo Vilar
Lynch syndrome (LS) is a genetic condition secondary to germline alterations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes with 30% of changes being variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Our aim was to perform an in silico re-classification of VUS from a large single institutional cohort that will help prioritizing functional validation. A total of 54 VUS were detected with 33 (61%) novel variants. We integrated family history, pathology, and genetic information along with supporting evidence from 8 different in silico tools at the RNA and protein level...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765195/prospective-evaluation-of-multi-modal-optical-imaging-with-automated-image-analysis-to-detect-oral-neoplasia-in-vivo
#15
Timothy Quang, Emily Q Tran, Richard A Schwarz, Michelle D Williams, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Ann M Gillenwater, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
The five-year survival rate for patients with oral cancer remains low, in part because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage. Early and accurate identification of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancer can help improve patient outcomes. Multi-modal optical imaging is an adjunctive diagnostic technique in which autofluorescence imaging is used to identify high-risk regions within the oral cavity, followed by high resolution microendoscopy to confirm or rule out the presence of neoplasia. Multi-modal optical images were obtained from 206 sites in 100 patients...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765194/effect-of-green-tea-supplements-on-liver-enzyme-elevation-results-from-a-randomized-intervention-study-in-the-united-states
#16
Zheming Yu, Hamed Samavat, Allison Dostal, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Chung S Yang, Lesley M Bulter, Thomas W Kensler, Anna H Wu, Mindy S Kurzer, Jian-Min Yuan
Liver injury effects of green tea-based products have been reported in sporadic case reports. However, no study has examined systematically such adverse effects in an unbiased manner. We examined the potential effects of a high, sustained oral dose of green tea extract (GTE) on liver injury measures in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded phase II clinical trial, which enrolled 1,075 women with the original aim to assess the effect of daily GTE consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754665/multiparametric-detection-of-antibodies-against-different-ebv-antigens-to-predict-risk-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-in-a-high-risk-population-of-china
#17
Hao Chen, Shulin Chen, Jie Lu, Xueping Wang, Jianpei Li, Linfang Li, Jihuan Fu, Thomas Scheper, Wolfgang Meyer, Yu-Hui Peng, Wanli Liu
In this study, we aimed to use the combined detection of multiple antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens to develop a model for screening and diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Samples of 300 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 494 controls, including 294 healthy subjects (HC), 99 non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer patients (NNPC), and 101 patients with benign nasopharyngeal lesions (BNL), were incubated with the EUROLINE Anti-EBV Profile 2, and band intensities were used to establish a risk prediction model...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739585/the-burdens-and-uncertainties-of-doing-what-one-should-do
#18
EDITORIAL
Victor G Vogel
Despite FDA approval of drugs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk, uptake of these drugs has been poor despite the publication of numerous studies that demonstrate both their effectives and safety. National organizations have made recommendations for their use, but both physicians and their patients do not fully understand either breast cancer risk factors or risk assessment or the indications for using risk-reducing agents. Histologically predisposing conditions, such as ductal or lobular atypia and lobular carcinoma in situ, impart particularly high risks of developing subsequent invasive breast cancer...
July 24, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808041/inclusion-of-a-genetic-risk-score-into-a-validated-risk-prediction-model-for-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-men-improves-performance
#19
Motoki Iwasaki, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Aya Kuchiba, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Atsushi Goto, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Hansong Wang, Loïc Le Marchand, Shoichiro Tsugane
We previously developed and validated a risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men using modifiable risk factors. To further improve risk prediction, we evaluated the degree of improvement obtained by adding a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified risk variants to our validated model. We examined the association between 36 risk variants identified by GWAS and colorectal cancer risk using a weighted Cox proportional hazards model in a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729251/inclusion-of-a-genetic-risk-score-into-a-validated-risk-prediction-model-for-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-men-improves-performance
#20
Motoki Iwasaki, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Aya Kuchiba, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Atsushi Goto, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Hansong Wang, Loic Le Marchand, Shoichiro Tsugane
We previously developed and validated a risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men using modifiable risk factors. To further improve risk prediction, we evaluated the degree of improvement obtained by adding a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified risk variants to our validated model. We examined the association between 36 risk variants identified by GWAS and colorectal cancer risk using a weighted Cox proportional hazard model in a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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