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Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204188/ultrahigh-speed-endoscopic-optical-coherence-tomography-and-angiography-enables-delineation-of-lateral-margins-of-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-a-case-report
#1
Osman O Ahsen, Hsiang-Chieh Lee, Kaicheng Liang, Zhao Wang, Marisa Figueiredo, Qin Huang, Benjamin Potsaid, Vijaysekhar Jayaraman, James G Fujimoto, Hiroshi Mashimo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204187/use-of-beta-blockers-and-risk-of-serious-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-population-based-case-control-study
#2
Mette Reilev, Per Damkier, Lotte Rasmussen, Morten Olesen, Martin Thomsen Ernst, Rikke Mie Rishøj, Morten Rix Hansen, Anne Broe, Alexander Steenberg Dastrup, Maja Hellfritzsch, Sidsel Arnspang, Anton Pottegård, Jesper Hallas
Background: Some studies indicate a reduced risk of serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) for users of beta-blockers, but the association remains to be confirmed in larger studies and characterized with respect to differences among beta-blockers. We aimed to assess whether beta-blocker use decreases the risk of UGIB. Methods: We conducted a register-based, population-based case-control study in Denmark. We identified cases with a first validated discharge diagnosis of UGIB during the period 1995-2006...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204186/percutaneous-transesophageal-gastro-tubing-pteg-as-an-alternative-long-term-tube-feeding-procedure-when-gastrostomy-is-not-feasible
#3
Ezekiel Wong Toh Yoon, Kazuki Nishihara
Background: Percutaneous transesophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) is a minimally invasive technique to access the gut via an esophagostomy. However, this procedure is not well known and the literature available is still fairly limited. This observational study was conducted to evaluate our experience using this method as an alternative long-term tube feeding procedure when gastrostomy is not suitable. Methods: A total of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) who underwent PTEG at our institution from 2012 to 2016 were observed and analyzed in this study...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147139/insights-into-the-management-of-wilson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mohmadshakil Kathawala, Gideon M Hirschfield
Wilson's disease is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism, in which the causative gene, ATP7B, results in absent or reduced function of the ATP7B transporter important for biliary excretion of copper and incorporation of copper into caeruloplasmin. Affected patients accumulate excessive copper within the liver, brain and other tissues. A disease mainly of children, adolescents and young adults; clinical features vary from the asymptomatic state to chronic liver disease, acute liver failure, and neuropsychiatric manifestations...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#5
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147137/preventing-disability-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Patrick B Allen, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Disability is a common worldwide health challenge and it has been increasing over the past 3 decades. The treatment paradigm has changed dramatically in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) from control of symptoms towards full control of disease (clinical and endoscopic remission) with the goal of preventing organ damage and disability. These aims are broadly similar to rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Since the 1990s, our attention has focused on quality of life in IBD, which is a subjective measure...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147136/step-by-step-strategy-in-the-management-of-residual-hepatolithiasis-using-post-operative-cholangioscopy
#7
REVIEW
Xu-Dong Wen, Tao Wang, Zhu Huang, Hong-Jian Zhang, Bing-Yin Zhang, Li-Jun Tang, Wei-Hui Liu
Hepatolithiasis is the presence of calculi within the intrahepatic bile duct specifically located proximal to the confluence of the left and right hepatic ducts. The ultimate goal of hepatolithiasis treatment is the complete removal of the stone, the correction of the associated strictures and the prevention of recurrent cholangitis. Although hepatectomy could effectively achieve the above goals, it can be restricted by the risk of insufficient residual liver volume, and has a 15.6% rate of residual hepatolithiasis...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147135/randomized-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-plecanatide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#8
Michael DeMicco, Laura Barrow, Bernadette Hickey, Kunwar Shailubhai, Patrick Griffin
Background: Plecanatide, with the exception of a single amino acid replacement, is identical to human uroguanylin and is approved in the United States for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of plecanatide versus placebo in CIC. Methods: Adults meeting modified Rome III CIC criteria were randomized to plecanatide 3 mg (n = 443), 6 mg (n = 449), or placebo (n = 445)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147134/the-clinical-course-after-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-suppression-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Aghil Ibrahim, Per Dahlqvist, Tommy Olsson, David Lundgren, Mårten Werner, Ole B Suhr, Pontus Karling
Background: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) secondary to treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about the relationship between AI and the clinical course in IBD. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical course in IBD patients with normal adrenal function versus patients with subnormal adrenal function. Methods: A retrospective observational study on 63 patients with IBD who had performed a low-dose short Synacthen test (LDSST) (1 μg) immediately (1-7 days) after a standard course of GCs...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147133/allopurinol-in-combination-with-thiopurine-induces-mucosal-healing-and-improves-clinical-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-ibd
#10
Brigitte Moreau, Pierre Clement, Yves Theoret, Ernest G Seidman
Background: Thiopurines, azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are common maintenance medications for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive methylation via thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) frequently causes therapeutic failure. Allopurinol reduces excessive 6-methyl-mercaptopurine (6-MMP) while enhancing 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, metabolic and endoscopic impact of allopurinol in combination with low-dose thiopurine in IBD...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051790/current-immunotherapeutic-strategies-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Hwi Young Kim, Joong-Won Park
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and serious health problem with high mortality. Treatment for HCC remains largely unsatisfactory owing to its high recurrence rates and frequent accompanying cirrhosis. In addition, the unique immune environment of the liver promotes tolerance, which, in conjunction with immune evasion by the disease, makes HCC a less promising target for conventional immunotherapy. However, recent advances in the immunotherapy have led to novel approaches to overcome these obstacles by manipulating and enhancing tumor-specific immune responses against HCC by using various modalities, such as cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051789/novel-strategies-and-therapeutic-options-for-the-management-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
REVIEW
Amardeep Khanna, David E Jones
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease. It has a varied course of progression ranging from being completely asymptomatic to aggressive disease leading to cirrhosis and resulting in liver transplantation. In addition, symptoms can be debilitating and can have a major impact on quality of life. For decades, there was only one anti-cholestatic agent available to target this disease and that was only effective in around half of patients, with little or no effect on symptoms. With increasing understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of PBC and potential targets for drug treatment, pharmaceutical companies have shown a greater interest in this rare disease...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051788/emerging-oral-targeted-therapies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-opportunities-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Marcel Vetter, Markus F Neurath
To improve quality of life and prevent long-term risks in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), it is essential to suppress inflammatory activity adequately. However, corticosteroids are only suitable for therapy of acute flares and the evidence for positive effects of immunosuppressive substances like azathioprine or 6-mercapropurine is mainly limited to maintenance of remission. In addition, only subgroups of patients benefit from biologicals targeting tumour necrosis factor α or α4β7 integrins...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051787/increased-expression-of-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4-alpha-transcribed-by-promoter-2-indicates-a-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Shao-Hang Cai, Shi-Xun Lu, Li-Li Liu, Chris Zhiyi Zhang, Jing-Ping Yun
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051786/the-prognostic-value-of-histology-in-ulcerative-colitis-in-clinical-remission-with-mesalazine
#15
Giuseppe Frieri, Brigida Galletti, Mirko Di Ruscio, Rachele Tittoni, Annalisa Capannolo, Donatella Serva, Giovanni Latella, Laura Sollima, Pietro Leocata, Stefano Necozione, Rosamarie Frieri, Angelo Viscido
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prognostic value of histological and endoscopic activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Patients in clinical remission for 1 year under treatment with mesalazine underwent a planned colonoscopy with biopsies. Histological activity was scored using the histological activity index (HAI). Endoscopic activity was scored using the Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES). The clinical course was evaluated measuring relapses needing steroids during a follow up of 3 years...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932274/the-impact-of-panenteric-capsule-endoscopy-on-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Rami Eliakim
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in most patients involving the small and large bowel. In recent years, with the use of small bowel video capsule endoscopy (SBCE), it has become clear that in 50% or more of adults with established CD there is not only distal but also proximal small bowel involvement that suggests poor prognosis. A great deal of effort has been put into early diagnosis and stratification of patients into low versus high risk, thus directing treatment from step-up, or accelerated step-up, to top-down therapies...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932273/the-global-impact-of-ibs-time-to-think-about-ibs-specific-models-of-care
#17
REVIEW
Maura Corsetti, Peter Whorwell
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that can significantly erode the quality of life (QoL) of sufferers and places a major cost burden on healthcare services. This paper reviews the literature on the impact of IBS on healthcare services and society, including a recent report on the subject, in order to formulate a plan for the future. A completely different model of care for these patients is recommended based on this review and the experience of the two authors who have been treating patients with functional GI disorders for 20 and 35 years, respectively...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932272/the-place-of-eluxadoline-in-the-management-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#18
REVIEW
Sherry Levio, Brooks D Cash
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation with altered stool frequency or stool form. The global prevalence of IBS ranges from 10% to 15% and total healthcare cost attributable to IBS is significant. Among individuals with IBS, the condition has dramatic effects on health-related quality of life, work and school productivity, and activities of daily living. It may be diagnosed with confidence, based on symptom-based diagnostic criteria, exclusion of alarm features and directed diagnostic testing...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932271/association-between-physical-activity-and-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#19
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Zilin Sun, Ling Li, Martina Zügel, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Uwe Schumann
BACKGROUND: Increased physical activity (PA) is a key element in the management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, its association with NAFLD risk has not been systematically assessed. This meta-analysis of observational studies was to quantify this association with dose-response analysis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to January 2017 for studies of adults reporting the risk of NAFLD in relation to PA with cohort or case-control designs...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932270/repeat-treatment-with-rifaximin-improves-irritable-bowel-syndrome-related-quality-of-life-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Brooks D Cash, Mark Pimentel, Satish S C Rao, Leonard Weinstock, Lin Chang, Zeev Heimanson, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) impairs patient quality of life (QOL). Rifaximin is an oral, nonsystemic antibiotic indicated for IBS-D. The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate rifaximin retreatment on IBS-related QOL in patients with IBS-D. METHODS: Patients received open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks. Clinical responders [simultaneously meeting weekly response criteria for abdominal pain (⩾30% improvement from baseline in mean weekly pain score) and stool consistency (⩾50% decrease from baseline in number of days/week with Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) type 6 or 7 stools) during ⩾2 of first 4 weeks posttreatment] who relapsed during an up to 18-week treatment-free observation phase were randomly assigned to receive two 2-week courses of double-blind rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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