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Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246550/drug-eluting-beads-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Hiroyuki Abe, Kenya Kamimura, Shuji Terai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246549/insights-into-the-genetic-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-pancreatic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Zachary Zator, David C Whitcomb
Diseases of the exocrine pancreas such as recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represent syndromes defined according to traditional clinicopathologic criteria. The failure of traditional approaches to identify primary mechanisms underlying these progressive disorders illustrates a greater problem of failure of the germ theory of disease for complex disorders. Multiple genetic discoveries and new complex disease models force consideration of a new paradigm of 'precision medicine', requiring a new mechanistic definition of CP...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246548/efficacy-of-otilonium-bromide-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-pooled-analysis
#3
Pere Clavé, Jan Tack
BACKGROUND: Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic agent acting as an L-type calcium channel antagonist in intestinal and colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We analyzed three independent clinical trials with homogeneous design on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). After 2 weeks receiving placebo, patients were randomized to receive OB (3 × 40 mg daily) or placebo for 15 weeks. We aimed to perform a pooled analysis of the data from these homogeneous clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of OB treatment on symptoms and global response of patients...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246547/salvage-therapy-using-self-expandable-metal-stents-for-recalcitrant-anastomotic-strictures-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#4
Sung Ill Jang, Se Yong Sung, Hyunsung Park, Kwang-Hun Lee, Seung-Moon Joo, Dong Ki Lee
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increase in clinical success rates using nonsurgical methods to resolve anastomotic biliary strictures (ABSs) that develop after liver transplantation (LT). However, some strictures are particularly refractory and cannot be completely resolved by an endoscopic or percutaneous procedure. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of using a newly designed fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) to resolve refractory ABS...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203285/automated-low-flow-ascites-pump-for-the-treatment-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-refractory-ascites
#5
REVIEW
Guido Stirnimann, Vanessa Banz, Federico Storni, Andrea De Gottardi
Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump(®)) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203284/novel-emerging-treatments-for-hepatitis-c-infection-a-fast-moving-pipeline
#6
REVIEW
Ara A Kardashian, Paul J Pockros
Advances in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C has been one of the pinnacles of medical science in the last 25 years. The age of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has led to cure rates >95% with shorter duration and low toxicity regimens, thus changing the landscape of the era of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV). However, there remain some challenges with these therapies as there are multiple regimens available with a fair amount of sophistication required to administer them. Treatment continues to require knowledge of prior treatment status, viral genotype and fibrosis assessment, thus affording an opportunity for improvement in future regimens...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203283/current-and-emergent-pharmacologic-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-evidence-based-treatment-in-practice
#7
REVIEW
Susan Lucak, Lin Chang, Albena Halpert, Lucinda A Harris
Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is a common, chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms that can be distressing for patients and often result in substantially impaired quality of life. This review focuses on providing clinicians with information on practical, evidence-based treatment for IBS-D. Current therapies commonly used for the treatment of IBS-D, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, are briefly reviewed, followed by discussion of the emergent pharmacologic treatments (rifaximin and eluxadoline) and medical foods (IBgard(®) and EnteraGam(®))...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203282/the-role-of-dexlansoprazole-modified-release-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ronnie Fass, Rosita Frazier
Dexlansoprazole modified-release (MR) is the R-enantiomer of lansoprazole and is currently the only proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) with a novel dual delayed release (DDR) formulation. Overall, dexlansoprazole MR demonstrates a similar safety and side-effect profile as lansoprazole. Dexlansoprazole MR has been shown to be highly efficacious in healing erosive esophagitis, maintaining healed esophageal mucosa in patients with erosive esophagitis and controlling symptoms of patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD)...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203281/minimum-absolute-lymphocyte-counts-during-radiation-are-associated-with-a-worse-prognosis-in-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Qianqian Zhao, Xiaoqing Xu, Jinbo Yue, Kunli Zhu, Rui Feng, Shumei Jiang, Zhonghua Qi, Renben Wang
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood lymphocytes play an important role in antitumour immunity. We examined the relationship between the minimum absolute lymphocyte counts (Min ALCs) during radiotherapy (RT) and clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Data from a total of 69 HCC patients who had received RT were retrospectively analysed. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured before RT, weekly during RT and after RT. Regression and mixed-effect models were used to assess the relationships with and potential predictors of overall survival (OS)...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203280/differences-in-the-prognosis-of-early-gastric-cancer-according-to-sex-and-age
#10
Do Dam Suh, Seong Tae Oh, Jeong Hwan Yook, Byung-Sik Kim, Beom Su Kim
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared early gastric cancer (EGC) outcomes according to sex and age. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 2085 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for EGC between 1989 and 2000. Prognosis and risk factors for nodal involvement were evaluated according to sex and age. RESULTS: Male sex and age were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) but not relapse-free survival (RFS). In young (⩽55 years) patients, there were no significant differences in RFS and OS between men and women...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203279/a-noninvasive-diagnostic-model-to-assess-nonalcoholic-hepatic-steatosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#11
Hongjie Ou, Shaohang Cai, Ying Liu, Muye Xia, Jie Peng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a noninvasive diagnostic test for nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) by using routinely available clinical markers. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with CHB, with or without hepatic steatosis (fatty change) who were diagnosed with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured by transient elastography were included. Patient information was analyzed on lifestyle; laboratory tests, including serum lipid levels; blood pressure; blood uric acid; and medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203278/efficacy-of-granulocyte-and-monocyte-apheresis-for-antibiotic-refractory-pouchitis-after-proctocolectomy-for-ulcerative-colitis-an-open-label-prospective-multicentre-study
#12
Takayuki Yamamoto, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tadashi Yokoyama, Takahiro Shimoyama, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino, Toshiaki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown therapeutic efficacy in active ulcerative colitis (UC). We thought that in patients with pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC, GMA might produce immunological effects in the intestinal mucosa, and improve clinical symptoms. This prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of GMA for antibiotic-refractory pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC. METHODS: A total of 13 patients with pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI) > 7 unresponsive to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy were included...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286568/immunotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-treatment-a-new-frontier
#13
REVIEW
Komal Thind, Leslie J Padrnos, Ramesh K Ramanathan, Mitesh J Borad
Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive and lethal cancer characterized by high invasiveness, local and extensive dissemination at time of diagnosis and resistance to treatment. Few therapies have shown efficacy in the past and even standard of care therapies yield only modest improvements in the mortality of patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Efforts have been undertaken to study the pancreatic tumor microenvironment and have established its complex and immunosuppressive nature which could explain the high resistance to chemotherapy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286567/grazoprevir-elbasvir-combination-therapy-for-hcv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Stanislas Pol
Interferon-free regimens combine different second-wave direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), which target the main viral proteins involved in the replication cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV): NS3/4A protease inhibitors (simeprevir or paritaprevir boosted by ritonavir), NS5B nucleos(t)idic (sofosbuvir) and nonnucleos(t)idic (dasabuvir) polymerase inhibitors, NS5A replication complex inhibitors (daclatasvir, ledipasvir, elbasvir, velpatasvir). Combinations of two or three DAAs, given for 8-24 weeks reach sustained virology response (SVR) rates greater than 90% with good tolerance...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286566/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-mitochondrial-disorders-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Marlies Frank
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286565/everolimus-in-the-management-of-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#16
REVIEW
David L Chan, Eva Segelov, Simron Singh
Neuroendocrine tumours are increasing in incidence and cause a variety of symptoms. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a key role in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) pathogenesis, leading to increased lipid synthesis, protein synthesis and cellular growth. Upregulation of this pathway is noted in both hereditary and sporadic NETs. This understanding has led to investigations of mTOR inhibitors as therapy for metastatic NETs. After promising preclinical findings, everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was trialled in the RADIANT-1-4 studies on patients with advanced, well differentiated NETs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286564/targeting-histone-methylation-for-colorectal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Tao Huang, Chengyuan Lin, Linda L D Zhong, Ling Zhao, Ge Zhang, Aiping Lu, Jiang Wu, Zhaoxiang Bian
As a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) results from accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Disruption of epigenetic regulation in CRC, particularly aberrant histone methylation mediated by histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and demethylases (HDMs), have drawn increasing interest in recent years. In this paper, we aim to review the roles of histone methylation and associated enzymes in the pathogenesis of CRC, and the development of small-molecule modulators to regulate histone methylation for treating CRC...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286563/antispasmodic-drugs-in-colonoscopy-a-review-of-their-pharmacology-safety-and-efficacy-in-improving-polyp-detection-and-related-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Santosh Sanagapalli, Kriti Agnihotri, Rupert Leong, Crispin John Corte
Antispasmodic drugs are cheap, effective and generally safe. They may improve outcomes in colonoscopy, however their use has not been consistent or widespread. This manuscript reviews the three most commonly used antispasmodics in colonoscopy, namely, hyoscine butylbromide (and related ammonium compounds), glucagon and peppermint oil. The pharmacology, action and safety of the agents, as well as the evidence for them improving colonoscopic outcomes will be discussed. In addition to polyp detection, other colonoscopic outcome endpoints of interest include cecal and ileal intubation, and patient comfort...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286562/golimumab-pharmacokinetics-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Ines Harzallah, Josselin Rigaill, Nicolas Williet, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Golimumab (GLM) is the latest anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that gained its marketing license. Thanks to the PURSUIT induction and maintenance trials, it was approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2013. The other anti-TNF drugs available are infliximab and adalimumab. These two drugs have validated algorithms concerning prescription and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) but little is known about GLM. The available data on GLM's exposure-response relationship in UC are from the PURSUIT trials and are recently published...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286561/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-the-effects-of-fermented-milk-with-bifidobacterium-lactis-cncm-i-2494-and-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-gastrointestinal-discomfort-in-the-general-adult-population
#20
REVIEW
Jacqui Eales, Peter Gibson, Peter Whorwell, John Kellow, Ann Yellowlees, Richard H J Perry, Mary Edwards, Sarah King, Hannah Wood, Julie Glanville
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that probiotics may improve gastrointestinal discomfort. Not all probiotics exhibit the same effects and consequently meta-analyses on probiotics should be confined to well-defined strains or strain combinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) that includes Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal discomfort in the general adult population. METHODS: Double-blind randomized controlled trials in the general adult population comparing PFM with a control dairy product for at least 4 weeks were searched from multiple literature databases (up to February 2015)...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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