Read by QxMD icon Read

Frontiers in Neuroscience

María José Ferreiro, Coralia Pérez, Mariana Marchesano, Santiago Ruiz, Angel Caputi, Pedro Aguilera, Rosa Barrio, Rafael Cantera
Key scientific discoveries have resulted from genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster, using a multitude of transgenic fly strains, the majority of which are constructed in a genetic background containing mutations in the white gene. Here we report that white mutant flies from w1118 strain undergo retinal degeneration. We observed also that w1118 mutants have progressive loss of climbing ability, shortened life span, as well as impaired resistance to various forms of stress. Retinal degeneration was abolished by transgenic expression of mini-white+ in the white null background w1118 ...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elena A Kosenko, Lyudmila A Tikhonova, Carmina Montoliu, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev, Yury G Kaminsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain etiology. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, accumulation of non-soluble amyloid β peptides (Aβ) in the Central Nervous System (CNS) is the primary cause initiating a pathogenic cascade leading to the complex multilayered pathology and clinical manifestation of the disease. It is, therefore, not surprising that the search for mechanisms underlying cognitive changes observed in AD has focused exclusively on the brain and Aβ-inducing synaptic and dendritic loss, oxidative stress, and neuronal death...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Manami Takahashi, Takuya Urushihata, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Kazumi Sakata, Yuhei Takado, Eiji Shimizu, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Hiroshi Ito
Green fluorescence imaging (e.g., flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging, FAI) can be used to measure neuronal activity and oxygen metabolism in living brains without expressing fluorescence proteins. It is useful for understanding the mechanism of various brain functions and their abnormalities in age-related brain diseases. However, hemoglobin in cerebral blood vessels absorbs green fluorescence, hampering accurate assessments of brain function in animal models with cerebral blood vessel dysfunctions and subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Juan-Ramon Martinez-Morales, Florencia Cavodeassi, Paola Bovolenta
The molecular bases of vertebrate eye formation have been extensively investigated during the past 20 years. This has resulted in the definition of the backbone of the gene regulatory networks controlling the different steps of eye development and has further highlighted a substantial conservation of these networks among vertebrates. Yet, the precise morphogenetic events allowing the formation of the optic cup from a small group of cells within the anterior neural plate are still poorly understood. It is also unclear if the morphogenetic events leading to eyes of very similar shape are indeed comparable among all vertebrates or if there are any species-specific peculiarities...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Luke J Edwards, Kerrin J Pine, Isabel Ellerbrock, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Siawoosh Mohammadi
The NODDI-DTI signal model is a modification of the NODDI signal model that formally allows interpretation of standard single-shell DTI data in terms of biophysical parameters in healthy human white matter (WM). The NODDI-DTI signal model contains no CSF compartment, restricting application to voxels without CSF partial-volume contamination. This modification allowed derivation of analytical relations between parameters representing axon density and dispersion, and DTI invariants (MD and FA) from the NODDI-DTI signal model...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nor A Samat, Nor A Abdul Murad, Khairiyah Mohamad, Mohd R Abdul Razak, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim
Background: Cognitive impairment is prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting 15-20% of patients at diagnosis. α-synuclein expression and genetic polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) have been associated with the presence of cognitive impairment in PD although data have been inconsistent. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with PD using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) and Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale (PDCRS), and its association with plasma α-synuclein and ApoE genetic polymorphisms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Vijay Kumar, Gulam M Hasan, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
The most frequent genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is intronic hexanucleotide (G4C2) repeat expansions (HRE) in the C9orf72 gene. The non-exclusive pathogenic mechanisms by which C9orf72 repeat expansions contribute to these neurological disorders include loss of C9orf72 function and gain-of-function determined by toxic RNA molecules and dipeptides repeats protein toxicity. The expanded repeats are transcribed bidirectionally and forms RNA foci in the central nervous system, and sequester key RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) leading to impairment in RNA processing events...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de Assis Silva, Adriano P Ciena, Romeu R de Souza, Carlos A Anaruma, Eliane F Gama
The present study aimed to analyze the morphology of the peripheral nerve, postsynaptic compartment, skeletal muscles and weight-bearing capacity of Wistar rats at specific ages. Twenty rats were divided into groups: 10 months-old (ADULT) and 24 months-old (OLD). After euthanasia, we prepared and analyzed the tibial nerve using transmission electron microscopy and the soleus and plantaris muscles for cytofluorescence and histochemistry. For the comparison of the results between groups we used dependent and independent Student's t-test with level of significance set at p ≤ 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wenting Guo, Laura Fumagalli, Robert Prior, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two age-dependent multifactorial neurodegenerative disorders, which are typically characterized by the selective death of motor neurons and cerebral cortex neurons, respectively. These two diseases share many clinical, genetic and pathological aspects. During the past decade, cell reprogramming technologies enabled researchers to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells. This resulted in the unique opportunity to obtain specific neuronal and non-neuronal cell types from patients which could be used for basic research...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Luana Gilio, Fabio Buttari, Pierpaolo Maffei, Girolama A Marfia, Domenico A Restivo, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Neurons in the central nervous system are organized in functional units interconnected to form complex networks. Acute and chronic brain damage disrupts brain connectivity producing neurological signs and/or symptoms. In several neurological diseases, particularly in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), structural imaging studies cannot always demonstrate a clear association between lesion site and clinical disability, originating the "clinico-radiological paradox." The discrepancy between structural damage and disability can be explained by a complex network perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ioan Opris, Valeriu S Nestianu, Adrian Nestianu, Liviu Bilteanu, Jean Ciurea
George Marinesco is the founder of Romanian School of Neurology and one of the most remarkable neuroscientists of the last century. He was the pupil of Jean-Martin Charcot in Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France, but visited many other neurological centers where he met the entire constellation of neurologists of his time, including Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal. The last made the preface of Nervous Cell, written in French by Marinesco. The original title was "La Cellule Nerveuse" and is considered even now a basic reference book for specialists in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Susan M Barman, Bill J Yates
Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) contributes appreciably to the control of physiological function, such that pathological alterations in SNA can lead to a variety of diseases. The goal of this review is to discuss the characteristics of SNA, briefly review the methodology that has been used to assess SNA and its control, and to describe the essential role of neurophysiological studies in conscious animals to provide additional insights into the regulation of SNA. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that SNA is rhythmic or organized into bursts whose frequency varies depending on experimental conditions and the species...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stefan Sommer, Sebastian Kozerke, Erich Seifritz, Philipp Staempfli
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a compelling tool for investigating the structure and geometry of brain tissue based on indirect measurement of the diffusion anisotropy of water. Recent developments in global top-down tractogram optimizations enable the estimation of streamline weights, which characterize the connection between gray matter areas. In this work, the intra-axonal cross-sectional area coverage of the gray-to-white matter interface was examined by intersecting tractography streamlines with cortical regions of interest...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tiago Peçanha, Cláudia L de Moraes Forjaz, David A Low
Post-exercise heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) presents a biphasic pattern, which is mediated by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal. Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important role. The aim of this study was to test the effects of heat stress on HRR and HR variability (HRV) after aerobic exercise in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy males (25 ± 1 years, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2) performed 14 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise (40-60% HRreserve) followed by 5 min of loadless active recovery in two conditions: heat stress (HS) and normothermia (NT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dingguo Zhang, Yong Ren, Kai Gui, Jie Jia, Wendong Xu
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic exoskeletons are two important technologies widely used for physical rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. We developed a hybrid rehabilitation system (FEXO Knee) that combined FES and an exoskeleton for swinging movement control of human knee joints. This study proposed a novel cooperative control strategy, which could realize arbitrary distribution of torque generated by FES and exoskeleton, and guarantee harmonic movements. The cooperative control adopted feedfoward control for FES and feedback control for exoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lindsey B Shelton, John Koren, Laura J Blair
The ATP-dependent 90 kDa heat shock protein, Hsp90, is a major regulator of protein triage, from assisting in nascent protein folding to refolding or degrading aberrant proteins. Tau, a microtubule associated protein, aberrantly accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases, deemed tauopathies. Hsp90 binds to and regulates tau fate in coordination with a diverse group of co-chaperones. Imbalances in chaperone levels and activity, as found in the aging brain, can contribute to disease onset and progression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Franziska Wiget, R Maarten van Dijk, Estelle R Louet, Lutz Slomianka, Irmgard Amrein
The functional septo-temporal (dorso-ventral) differentiation of the hippocampus is accompanied by gradients of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in laboratory rodents. An extensive septal AHN in laboratory mice suggests an emphasis on a relation of AHN to tasks that also depend on the septal hippocampus. Domestication experiments indicate that AHN dynamics along the longitudinal axis are subject to selective pressure, questioning if the septal emphasis of AHN in laboratory mice is a rule applying to rodents in general...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Masahiro Matsunaga, Hiroaki Kawamichi, Tomohiro Umemura, Reiko Hori, Eiji Shibata, Fumio Kobayashi, Kohta Suzuki, Keiko Ishii, Yohsuke Ohtsubo, Yasuki Noguchi, Misaki Ochi, Hidenori Yamasue, Hideki Ohira
Happiness is regarded as one of the most fundamental human goals. Given recent reports that positive feelings are contagious (e.g., the presence of a happy person enhances others' happiness) because of the human ability to empathize (i.e., sharing emotions), empathic ability may be a key factor in increasing one's own subjective level of happiness. Based on previous studies indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene [HTR2A rs6311 guanine (G) vs. adenine (A)] is associated with sensitivity to emotional stimuli and several mental disorders such as depression, we predicted that the polymorphism might be associated with the effect of sharing happiness...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rufus O Akinyemi, Louise M Allan, Arthur Oakley, Rajesh N Kalaria
Neuroimaging evidence from older stroke survivors in Nigeria and Northeast England showed medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA) to be independently associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the hypothesis ascribing MTLA to neurodegenerative processes, we assessed Alzheimer pathology in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex of autopsied brains from of post-stroke demented and non-demented subjects in comparison with controls and other dementias. We quantified markers of amyloid β (total Aβ, Aβ-40, Aβ-42, and soluble Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex of 94 subjects consisting of normal controls (n = 12), vascular dementia, VaD (17), post-stroke demented, PSD (n = 15), and post-stroke non-demented, PSND (n = 23), Alzheimer's disease, AD (n = 14), and mixed AD and vascular dementia, AD_VAD (n = 13) using immunohistochemical techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Laura L Koekkoek, Joram D Mul, Susanne E la Fleur
Glucose-sensing neurons are neurons that alter their activity in response to changes in extracellular glucose. These neurons, which are an important mechanism the brain uses to monitor changes in glycaemia, are present in the hypothalamus, where they have been thoroughly investigated. Recently, glucose-sensing neurons have also been identified in brain nuclei which are part of the reward system. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which they function, and their role in the reward system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"