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Frontiers in Neuroscience

Hiroyuki Ichijo, Tomoya Nakamura, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Yuichi Takeuchi
Many vertebrates have asymmetrical circuits in the nervous system. There are two types of circuit asymmetry. Asymmetrical circuits in sensory and/or motor systems are usually related to lateralized behaviors. It has been hypothesized that spatial asymmetry in the environment and/or social interactions has led to the evolution of asymmetrical circuits by natural selection. There are also asymmetrical circuits that are not related to lateralized behaviors. These circuits lie outside of the sensory and motor systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xavier Clady, Jean-Matthieu Maro, Sébastien Barré, Ryad B Benosman
This paper introduces an event-based luminance-free feature from the output of asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas. The feature consists in mapping the distribution of the optical flow along the contours of the moving objects in the visual scene into a matrix. Asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas are composed of autonomous pixels, each of them asynchronously generating "spiking" events that encode relative changes in pixels' illumination at high temporal resolutions. The optical flow is computed at each event, and is integrated locally or globally in a speed and direction coordinate frame based grid, using speed-tuned temporal kernels...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qi Sun, Yingjun Liao, Tong Wang, Hongge Tang, Gaoyang Wang, Fenghong Zhao, Yaping Jin
This study was to explore the mechanisms underlying 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) induced brain edema by focusing on alteration of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in rat astrocytes induced by 2-chloroethanol (2-CE), an intermediate metabolite of 1,2-DCE in vivo. Protein and mRNA levels of MMP-2, and the phosphorylated protein levels of p38 MAPK (p-p38), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK1/2) in astrocytes were examined by immunostaining, western blot or real-time RT-PCR analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Giuseppe Pandini, Cristina Satriano, Adriana Pietropaolo, Fiorenza Gianì, Alessio Travaglia, Diego La Mendola, Vincenzo G Nicoletti, Enrico Rizzarelli
The nerve growth factor (NGF) N-terminus peptide, NGF(1-14), and its acetylated form, Ac-NGF(1-14), were investigated to scrutinize the ability of this neurotrophin domain to mimic the whole protein. Theoretical calculations demonstrated that non-covalent forces assist the molecular recognition of TrkA receptor by both peptides. Combined parallel tempering/docking simulations discriminated the effect of the N-terminal acetylation on the recognition of NGF(1-14) by the domain 5 of TrkA (TrkA-D5). Experimental findings demonstrated that both NGF(1-14) and Ac-NGF(1-14) activate TrkA signaling pathways essential for neuronal survival...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiaoxia Zhu, Yang Niu, Weifeng Li, Zhou Zhang, Peng Liu, Xi Chen, Hanjun Liu
In adult females, previous work has demonstrated that changes in auditory function and vocal motor behaviors may accompany changes in gonadal steroids. Less is known, however, about the influence of gonadal steroids on auditory-motor integration for voice control in humans. The present event-related potential (ERP) study sought to examine the interaction between gonadal steroids and auditory feedback-based vocal pitch regulation across the menstrual cycle. Participants produced sustained vowels while hearing their voice unexpectedly pitch-shifted during the menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Liang Guo
Brain-computer interfaces represent one of the most astonishing technologies in our era. However, the grand challenge of chronic instability and limited throughput of the electrode-tissue interface has significantly hindered the further development and ultimate deployment of such exciting technologies. A multidisciplinary research workforce has been called upon to respond to this engineering need. In this paper, I briefly review this multidisciplinary pursuit of chronically reliable neural interfaces from a materials perspective by analyzing the problem, abstracting the engineering principles, and summarizing the corresponding engineering strategies...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Patrick Krauss, Konstantin Tziridis, Claus Metzner, Achim Schilling, Ulrich Hoppe, Holger Schulze
Subjective tinnitus is generally assumed to be a consequence of hearing loss. In animal studies it has been demonstrated that acoustic trauma induced cochlear damage can lead to behavioral signs of tinnitus. In addition it was shown that noise trauma may lead to deafferentation of cochlear inner hair cells (IHC) even in the absence of elevated hearing thresholds, and it seems conceivable that such hidden hearing loss may be sufficient to cause tinnitus. Numerous studies have indicated that tinnitus is correlated with pathologically increased spontaneous firing rates and hyperactivity of neurons along the auditory pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lisha Yuan, Hongjian He, Han Zhang, Jianhui Zhong
Head motion is one of major concerns in current resting-state functional MRI studies. Image realignment including motion estimation and spatial resampling is often applied to achieve rigid-body motion correction. While the accurate estimation of motion parameters has been addressed in most studies, spatial resampling could also produce spurious variance, and lead to unexpected errors on the amplitude of BOLD signal. In this study, two simulation experiments were designed to characterize these variance related with spatial resampling...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chen Cheng, Junjie Chen, Xiaohua Cao, Hao Guo
Anatomical distance has been widely used to predict functional connectivity because of the potential relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity. The basic implicit assumption of this method is "distance penalization." But studies have shown that one-parameter model (anatomical distance) cannot account for the small-worldness, modularity, and degree distribution of normal human brain functional networks. Two local information indices-common neighbor (CN) and preferential attachment index (PA), are introduced into the prediction model as another parameter to emulate many key topological of brain functional networks in the previous study...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Max O Krucoff, Shervin Rahimpour, Marc W Slutzky, V Reggie Edgerton, Dennis A Turner
After an initial period of recovery, human neurological injury has long been thought to be static. In order to improve quality of life for those suffering from stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, researchers have been working to restore the nervous system and reduce neurological deficits through a number of mechanisms. For example, neurobiologists have been identifying and manipulating components of the intra- and extracellular milieu to alter the regenerative potential of neurons, neuro-engineers have been producing brain-machine and neural interfaces that circumvent lesions to restore functionality, and neurorehabilitation experts have been developing new ways to revitalize the nervous system even in chronic disease...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Antonio Kolossa, Bruno Kopp
The aim of this study was to analyze how measurement error affects the validity of modeling studies in computational neuroscience. A synthetic validity test was created using simulated P300 event-related potentials as an example. The model space comprised four computational models of single-trial P300 amplitude fluctuations which differed in terms of complexity and dependency. The single-trial fluctuation of simulated P300 amplitudes was computed on the basis of one of the models, at various levels of measurement error and at various numbers of data points...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Haiyan Wang, Xinli Li, Liya Shan, Jingling Zhu, Rong Chen, Yuan Li, Wumei Yuan, Lei Yang, Jin Huang
Neuritin is a new neurotropic factor implicated in nervous system development and plasticity. Studies have shown that Neuritin is upregulated in injured nerves, suggesting that it is involved in nerve repair. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether recombinant human Neuritin could restore nerve structure and function in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Neuritin treatment had a dose-dependent effect on functional recovery 4 weeks after injury, as determined by the walking-track test. Similar trends were observed for gastrocnemius muscular strength and nerve conduction velocity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christopher G Coutlee, Anastasia Kiyonaga, Franziska M Korb, Scott A Huettel, Tobias Egner
Decision makers frequently encounter opportunities to pursue great gains-assuming they are willing to accept greater risks. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) are associated with individual preferences for economic risk ("known unknowns," e.g., a 50% chance of winning $5) and ambiguity ("unknown unknowns," e.g., an unknown chance of winning $5), respectively. Whether processing in these regions causally enables risk-taking for individual decisions, however, remains unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Simin Li, Jie Li, Zheng Li
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to connect brains with machines or computers directly, for application in areas such as prosthesis control. For this application, the accuracy of the decoding of movement intentions is crucial. We aim to improve accuracy by designing a better encoding model of primary motor cortical activity during hand movements and combining this with decoder engineering refinements, resulting in a new unscented Kalman filter based decoder, UKF2, which improves upon our previous unscented Kalman filter decoder, UKF1...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kathryn E Unruh, Noah J Sasson, Robin L Shafer, Allison Whitten, Stephanie J Miller, Lauren Turner-Brown, James W Bodfish
Background: Our experiences with the world play a critical role in neural and behavioral development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) spend a disproportionate amount of time seeking out, attending to, and engaging with aspects of their environment that are largely nonsocial in nature. In this study we adapted an established method for eliciting and quantifying aspects of visual choice behavior related to preference to test the hypothesis that preference for nonsocial sources of stimulation diminishes orientation and attention to social sources of stimulation in children with ASD...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Minh N Nguyen, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Quan Van Le, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The superior colliculus (SC) and pulvinar are thought to function as a subcortical visual pathway that bypasses the striate cortex and detects fundamental facial information. We previously investigated neuronal responses in the SC and pulvinar of monkeys during a delayed nonmatching-to-sample task, in which the monkeys were required to discriminate among 35 facial photos of five models and other categories of visual stimuli, and reported that population coding by multiple SC and pulvinar neurons well discriminated facial photos from other categories of stimuli (Nguyen et al...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Justine Mutlu, Brigitte Landeau, Clémence Tomadesso, Robin de Flores, Florence Mézenge, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Gaël Chételat
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a critical brain network hub particularly sensitive to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can be subdivided into ventral (vPCC) and dorsal (dPCC) regions. The aim of the present study was to highlight functional connectivity (FC) disruption, atrophy, and hypometabolism within the ventral and dorsal PCC networks in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD. Forty-three healthy elders (HE) (68.7 ± 6 years), 34 aMCI (73.4 ± 6.8 years) and 24 AD (70.9 ± 9...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Caleb W Grote, Douglas E Wright
The peripheral nervous system is one of several organ systems that are profoundly affected in diabetes. The longstanding view is that insulin does not have a major role in modulating neuronal function in both central and peripheral nervous systems is now being challenged. In the setting of insulin deficiency or excess insulin, it is logical to propose that insulin dysregulation can contribute to neuropathic changes in sensory neurons. This is particularly important as sensory nerve damage associated with prediabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes is so prevalent...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Youqing Yang, Handong Wang, Liwen Li, Xiang Li, Qiang Wang, Hui Ding, Xiaoliang Wang, Zhennan Ye, Lingyun Wu, Xiangsheng Zhang, Mengliang Zhou, Hao Pan
The neuroprotective effect of sinomenine (SIN) has been demonstrated in several brain injury models. However, its role and molecular mechanism in traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SIN in the weight-drop model of TBI in male ICR mice. Mice were randomly divided into the sham and TBI groups, SIN (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally) or equal volume of vehicle was given at 30 min after TBI. Treatment with 30 mg/kg SIN significantly improved motor performance and alleviated cerebral edema...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hugo J R Fernandes, Brent J Ryan, Richard Wade-Martins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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