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Frontiers in Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123468/a-model-based-approach-for-separating-the-cochlear-microphonic-from-the-auditory-nerve-neurophonic-in-the-ongoing-response-using-electrocochleography
#1
Tatyana E Fontenot, Christopher K Giardina, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Electrocochleography (ECochG) is a potential clinically valuable technique for predicting speech perception outcomes in cochlear implant (CI) recipients, among other uses. Current analysis is limited by an inability to quantify hair cell and neural contributions which are mixed in the ongoing part of the response to low frequency tones. Here, we used a model based on source properties to account for recorded waveform shapes and to separate the combined signal into its components. The model for the cochlear microphonic (CM) was a sinusoid with parameters for independent saturation of the peaks and the troughs of the responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123467/the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-cxcr7-in-neuronal-regeneration-after-cerebral-ischemia
#2
REVIEW
Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiuchun Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Zhike Zhou, Xiaopeng Mu, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemoattractant produced by bone marrow stromal cell lines. It is recognized as a critical factor in the immune and central nervous systems (CNSs) as well as exerting a role in cancer. SDF-1 activates two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7; these are expressed in both developing and mature CNSs and participate in multiple physiological and pathological events, e.g., inflammatory response, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123466/neuroprotective-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-regulation-of-necroptotic-neuronal-death-and-inflammation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
Mei Yang, Yongjiu Lv, Xiaocui Tian, Jie Lou, Ruidi An, Qian Zhang, Minghang Li, Lu Xu, Zhi Dong
Necrotic cell death is a hallmark feature of ischemic stroke and it may facilitate inflammation by releasing intracellular components after cell-membrane rupture. Previous studies reported that β-caryophyllene (BCP) mitigates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We explored whether BCP exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral I/R injury through inhibiting necroptotic cell death and inflammation. Primary neurons with and without BCP (0.2, 1, 5, 25 μM) treatment were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#4
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123464/pattern-separation-a-potential-marker-of-impaired-hippocampal-adult-neurogenesis-in-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Kellen Gandy, Sohye Kim, Carla Sharp, Lilian Dindo, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic, Chadi Calarge
Adult neurogenesis involves the generation of new neurons, particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Decreased hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in both animal models of depression and in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite some inconsistency in the literature. Here, we build upon current models to generate a new testable hypothesis, linking impaired neurogenesis to downstream psychological outcomes commonly observed in MDD. We contend that disruption in adult neurogenesis impairs pattern separation, a hippocampus-dependent function requiring the careful discrimination and storage of highly similar, but not identical, sensory inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118693/design-of-a-soft-robotic-elbow-sleeve-with-passive-and-intent-controlled-actuation
#6
Tze Hui Koh, Nicholas Cheng, Hong Kai Yap, Chen-Hua Yeow
The provision of continuous passive, and intent-based assisted movements for neuromuscular training can be incorporated into a robotic elbow sleeve. The objective of this study is to propose the design and test the functionality of a soft robotic elbow sleeve in assisting flexion and extension of the elbow, both passively and using intent-based motion reinforcement. First, the elbow sleeve was developed, using elastomeric and fabric-based pneumatic actuators, which are soft and lightweight, in order to address issues of non-portability and poor alignment with joints that conventional robotic rehabilitation devices are faced with...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118692/statistical-image-properties-in-large-subsets-of-traditional-art-bad-art-and-abstract-art
#7
Christoph Redies, Anselm Brachmann
Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1) Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings), (2) Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser importance (© Museum Of Bad Art [MOBA], Somerville, and Official Bad Art Museum of Art [OBAMA], Seattle), and (3) twentieth century abstract art of Western provenance from two prestigious museums (Tate Gallery and Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114201/the-influence-of-auditory-information-on-visual-size-adaptation
#8
Alessia Tonelli, Luigi F Cuturi, Monica Gori
Size perception can be influenced by several visual cues, such as spatial (e.g., depth or vergence) and temporal contextual cues (e.g., adaptation to steady visual stimulation). Nevertheless, perception is generally multisensory and other sensory modalities, such as auditory, can contribute to the functional estimation of the size of objects. In this study, we investigate whether auditory stimuli at different sound pitches can influence visual size perception after visual adaptation. To this aim, we used an adaptation paradigm (Pooresmaeili et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114200/neuroprotective-potential-of-cell-based-therapies-in-als-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Serhiy Forostyak, Eva Sykova
Motor neurons (MN) degeneration is a main feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurological disorder with a progressive course. The diagnosis of ALS is essentially a clinical one. Most common symptoms include a gradual neurological deterioration that reflect the impairment and subsequent loss of muscle functions. Up-to-date ALS has no therapy that would prevent or cure a disease. Modern therapeutic strategies comprise of neuroprotective treatment focused on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114199/brain-implants-to-erase-memories
#10
Walter Glannon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109674/adult-neurogenesis-in-sheep-characterization-and-contribution-to-reproduction-and-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Frederic Lévy, Martine Batailler, Maryse Meurisse, Martine Migaud
Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109673/commentary-on-the-joys-of-perceiving-affect-as-feedback-for-perceptual-predictions
#12
COMMENT
Sabrina Trapp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104530/antibiotic-driven-changes-in-gut-motility-suggest-direct-modulation-of-enteric-nervous-system
#13
Thilini Delungahawatta, Jessica Y Amin, Andrew M Stanisz, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe, Wolfgang A Kunze
Antibiotic-mediated changes to the intestinal microbiome have largely been assumed to be the basis of antibiotic-induced neurophysiological and behavioral changes. However, relatively little research has addressed whether antibiotics act directly on the host nervous system to produce these changes. We aimed to identify whether acute exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to antibiotics directly modulates neuronally dependent motility reflexes, ex vivo. Motility of colon and jejunum segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and alterations to neuronally dependent propagating contractile clusters (PCC), measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104529/bayesian-rician-regression-for-neuroimaging
#14
Bertil Wegmann, Anders Eklund, Mattias Villani
It is well-known that data from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) follow the Rician distribution. The Rician distribution is also relevant for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained at high temporal or spatial resolution. We propose a general regression model for non-central χ (NC-χ) distributed data, with the heteroscedastic Rician regression model as a prominent special case. The model allows both parameters in the Rician distribution to be linked to explanatory variables, with the relevant variables chosen by Bayesian variable selection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104528/the-effect-of-lamotrigine-and-levetiracetam-on-tms-evoked-eeg-responses-depends-on-stimulation-intensity
#15
Isabella Premoli, Alyssa Costantini, Davide Rivolta, Andrea Biondi, Mark P Richardson
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT), the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104527/brain-mri-pattern-recognition-translated-to-clinical-scenarios
#16
Andreia V Faria, Zifei Liang, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori
We explored the performance of structure-based computational analysis in four neurodegenerative conditions [Ataxia (AT, n = 16), Huntington's Disease (HD, n = 52), Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n = 66), and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA, n = 50)], all characterized by brain atrophy. The independent variables were the volumes of 283 anatomical areas, derived from automated segmentation of T1-high resolution brain MRIs. The segmentation based volumetric quantification reduces image dimensionality from the voxel level [on the order of [Formula: see text](10(6))] to anatomical structures [[Formula: see text](10(2))] for subsequent statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093661/syndromic-craniosynostosis-can-define-new-candidate-genes-for-suture-development-or-result-from-the-non-specifc-effects-of-pleiotropic-genes-rasopathies-and-chromatinopathies-as-examples
#17
REVIEW
Marcella Zollino, Serena Lattante, Daniela Orteschi, Silvia Frangella, Paolo N Doronzio, Ilaria Contaldo, Eugenio Mercuri, Giuseppe Marangi
Craniosynostosis is a heterogeneous condition caused by the premature fusion of cranial sutures, occurring mostly as an isolated anomaly. Pathogenesis of non-syndromic forms of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. In about 15-30% of cases craniosynostosis occurs in association with other physical anomalies and it is referred to as syndromic craniosynostosis. Syndromic forms of craniosynostosis arise from mutations in genes belonging to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) family and the interconnected molecular pathways in most cases...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093660/integration-of-descending-command-systems-for-the-generation-of-context-specific-locomotor-behaviors
#18
REVIEW
Linda H Kim, Sandeep Sharma, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Charlie H T Kwok, Patrick J Whelan
Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093659/closed-loop-experiment-manager-clem-an-open-and-inexpensive-solution-for-multichannel-electrophysiological-recordings-and-closed-loop-experiments
#19
Hananel Hazan, Noam E Ziv
There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093658/on-the-complexity-of-human-neuroanatomy-at-the-millimeter-morphome-scale-developing-codes-and-characterizing-entropy-indexed-to-spatial-scale
#20
Daniel J Tward, Michael I Miller
In this work we devise a strategy for discrete coding of anatomical form as described by a Bayesian prior model, quantifying the entropy of this representation as a function of code rate (number of bits), and its relationship geometric accuracy at clinically relevant scales. We study the shape of subcortical gray matter structures in the human brain through diffeomorphic transformations that relate them to a template, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to train a multivariate Gaussian prior model...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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