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Frontiers in Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943838/a-novel-feature-map-based-ica-model-for-identifying-the-individual-intra-inter-group-brain-networks-across-multiple-fmri-datasets
#1
Nizhuan Wang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Yuhu Shi, Hongjie Yan
Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis to evaluate functional connectivity of the brain; however, there are still some limitations on ICA simultaneously handling neuroimaging datasets with diverse acquisition parameters, e.g., different repetition time, different scanner, etc. Therefore, it is difficult for the traditional ICA framework to effectively handle ever-increasingly big neuroimaging datasets. In this research, a novel feature-map based ICA framework (FMICA) was proposed to address the aforementioned deficiencies, which aimed at exploring brain functional networks (BFNs) at different scales, e...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943837/solving-the-neurogenesis-puzzle-looking-for-pieces-outside-the-traditional-box
#2
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Ilapreet Toor, Melissa M Holmes
The vast majority of what is considered fact about adult neurogenesis comes from research on laboratory mice and rats: where it happens, how it works, what it does. However, this relative exclusive focus on two rodent species has resulted in a bias on how we think about adult neurogenesis. While it might not prevent us from making conclusions about the evolutionary significance of the process or even prevent us from generalizing to diverse mammals, it certainly does not help us achieve these outcomes. Here, we argue that there is every reason to expect striking species differences in adult neurogenesis: where it happens, how it works, what it does...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943836/evaluating-efficiencies-of-dual-aav-approaches-for-retinal-targeting
#3
Livia S Carvalho, Heikki T Turunen, Sarah J Wassmer, María V Luna-Velez, Ru Xiao, Jean Bennett, Luk H Vandenberghe
Retinal gene therapy has come a long way in the last few decades and the development and improvement of new gene delivery technologies has been exponential. The recent promising results from the first clinical trials for inherited retinal degeneration due to mutations in RPE65 have provided a major breakthrough in the field and have helped cement the use of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) as the major tool for retinal gene supplementation. One of the key problems of AAV however, is its limited capacity for packaging genomic information to a maximum of around 4...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943835/investigating-brain-connectomic-alterations-in-autism-using-the-reproducibility-of-independent-components-derived-from-resting-state-functional-mri-data
#4
Mohammed A Syed, Zhi Yang, Xiaoping P Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Significance: Autism is a developmental disorder that is currently diagnosed using behavioral tests which can be subjective. Consequently, objective non-invasive imaging biomarkers of Autism are being actively researched. The common theme emerging from previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is that Autism is characterized by alterations of fMRI-derived functional connections in certain brain networks which may provide a biomarker for objective diagnosis. However, identification of individuals with Autism solely based on these measures has not been reliable, especially when larger sample sizes are taken into consideration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936161/oxidative-stress-modifies-the-levels-and-phosphorylation-state-of-tau-protein-in-human-fibroblasts
#5
Alejandro Ibáñez-Salazar, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Leyva, Erika Chi-Ahumada, Elizabeth Monreal-Escalante, María E Jiménez-Capdeville, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Since the tau protein is closely involved in the physiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), studying its behavior in cellular models might lead to new insights on understanding this devastating disease at molecular levels. In the present study, primary cultures of human fibroblasts were established and used to determine the expression and localization of the tau protein in distinct phosphorylation states in both untransfected and tau gene-transfected cells subjected to oxidative stress. Higher immunopositivity to phospho-tau was observed in cell nuclei in response to oxidative stress, while the levels of total tau in the cytosol remained unchanged...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936160/the-energy-metabolism-dysfunction-in-psychiatric-disorders-postmortem-brains-focus-on-proteomic-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Giuliana S Zuccoli, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Juliana M Nascimento, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Psychiatric disorders represent a great medical and social challenge and people suffering from these conditions face many impairments regarding personal and professional life. In addition, a mental disorder will manifest itself in approximately one quarter of the world's population at some period of their life. Dysfunction in energy metabolism is one of the most consistent scientific findings associated with these disorders. With this is mind, this review compiled data on disturbances in energy metabolism found by proteomic analyses of postmortem brains collected from patients affected by the most prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936159/neural-coding-for-action-execution-and-action-observation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-its-role-in-the-organization-of-socially-driven-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Rozzi, Leonardo Fogassi
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) plays a fundamental role in planning, organizing, and optimizing behavioral performance. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have suggested that in this cortical sector, information processing becomes more abstract when moving from caudal to rostral and that such processing involves parietal and premotor areas. We review studies that have shown that the LPF, in addition to its involvement in implementing rules and setting behavioral goals, activates during the execution of forelimb movements even in the absence of a learned relationship between an instruction and its associated motor output...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936158/bayesian-tractography-using-geometric-shape-priors
#8
Xiaoming Dong, Zhengwu Zhang, Anuj Srivastava
The problem of estimating neuronal fiber tracts connecting different brain regions is important for various types of brain studies, including understanding brain functionality and diagnosing cognitive impairments. The popular techniques for tractography are mostly sequential-tracts are grown sequentially following principal directions of local water diffusion profiles. Despite several advancements on this basic idea, the solutions easily get stuck in local solutions, and can't incorporate global shape information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#9
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932182/concurrence-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-and-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndromes-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Bo Shen, Lin Li, Ting Li
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) as the two most common neuroendocrine diseases, have been recognized and understood by many neurologists. Although SIADH and CSWS are the common causes of central hyponatremia after traumatic brain injury (TBI), a few cases are mixed, with the coexistence of the two pathological pathomechanism. However, the mixed type of both SIADH and CSWS has not been clearly reported in any literature. Here, we present the first description of the concurrent syndrome of SIADH and CSWS after TBI in four patients who underwent standard diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow up...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932181/invasive-intraneural-interfaces-foreign-body-reaction-issues
#11
REVIEW
Fiorenza Lotti, Federico Ranieri, Gianluca Vadalà, Loredana Zollo, Giovanni Di Pino
Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932180/hardware-efficient-on-line-learning-through-pipelined-truncated-error-backpropagation-in-binary-state-networks
#12
Hesham Mostafa, Bruno Pedroni, Sadique Sheik, Gert Cauwenberghs
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#13
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928631/glaucoma-biological-trabecular-and-neuroretinal-pathology-with-perspectives-of-therapy-innovation-and-preventive-diagnosis
#14
REVIEW
Raffaele Nuzzi, Federico Tridico
Glaucoma is a common degenerative disease affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and optic nerve axons, with progressive and chronic course. It is one of the most important reasons of social blindness in industrialized countries. Glaucoma can lead to the development of irreversible visual field loss, if not treated. Diagnosis may be difficult due to lack of symptoms in early stages of disease. In many cases, when patients arrive at clinical evaluation, a severe neuronal damage may have already occurred. In recent years, newer perspective in glaucoma treatment have emerged...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928630/the-emergent-role-of-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disease
#15
Yacine Benyoucef, Pierre Lesport, Amani Chassagneux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928629/proteomic-identification-of-an-upregulated-isoform-of-annexin-a3-in-the-spinal-cords-of-rats-in-a-neuropathic-pain-model
#16
Wangyuan Zou, Wei Xu, Zongbin Song, Tao Zhong, Yingqi Weng, Changsheng Huang, Maoyu Li, Chuanlei Zhang, Xianquan Zhan, Qulian Guo
Neuropathic pain (NP) is induced by nerve damage or a disturbance in the peripheral or central nervous systems. Nerve damage causes the activation of sensitizing mechanisms in the peripheral and central nervous systems, which induces transcriptional and post-transcriptional alterations in sensory nerves. However, the underlying mechanisms of NP remain elusive. In the study, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based comparative proteomics identified 38 differential gel spots, and 15 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the sham and the chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928628/axonal-degeneration-during-aging-and-its-functional-role-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Natalia Salvadores, Mario Sanhueza, Patricio Manque, Felipe A Court
Aging constitutes the main risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This represents a major health issue worldwide that is only expected to escalate due to the ever-increasing life expectancy of the population. Interestingly, axonal degeneration, which occurs at early stages of neurodegenerative disorders (ND) such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease, also takes place as a consequence of normal aging. Moreover, the alteration of several cellular processes such as proteostasis, response to cellular stress and mitochondrial homeostasis, which have been described to occur in the aging brain, can also contribute to axonal pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919850/the-detection-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-during-sensory-processing
#18
Robert A Seymour, Gina Rippon, Klaus Kessler
There is increasing interest in understanding how the phase and amplitude of distinct neural oscillations might interact to support dynamic communication within the brain. In particular, previous work has demonstrated a coupling between the phase of low frequency oscillations and the amplitude (or power) of high frequency oscillations during certain tasks, termed phase amplitude coupling (PAC). For instance, during visual processing in humans, PAC has been reliably observed between ongoing alpha (8-13 Hz) and gamma-band (>40 Hz) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919849/interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-severity-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#19
Yousuke Ogata, Akihiko Ozaki, Miho Ota, Yurie Oka, Namiko Nishida, Hayato Tabu, Noriko Sato, Takashi Hanakawa
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by a clinical triad (gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence), and by radiological findings of enlarged ventricles reflecting disturbance of central spinal fluid circulation. A diagnosis of iNPH is sometimes challenging, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms of iNPH remain largely unknown. Here, we used an emerging MRI technique, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI), to develop a subsidiary diagnostic technique and to explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of iNPH...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919848/hidden-hearing-loss-no-effect-of-common-recreational-noise-exposure-on-cochlear-nerve-response-amplitude-in-humans
#20
Sarah K Grinn, Kathryn B Wiseman, Jason A Baker, Colleen G Le Prell
This study tested hypothesized relationships between noise exposure and auditory deficits. Both retrospective assessment of potential associations between noise exposure history and performance on an audiologic test battery and prospective assessment of potential changes in performance after new recreational noise exposure were completed. Methods: 32 participants (13M, 19F) with normal hearing (25-dB HL or better, 0.25-8 kHz) were asked to participate in 3 pre- and post-exposure sessions including: otoscopy, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) (f2 frequencies 1-8 kHz), pure-tone audiometry (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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