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Frontiers in Neuroscience

Sio-Hoi Ieng, Joao Carneiro, Marc Osswald, Ryad Benosman
3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints is an important problem in machine vision that allows recovering tridimensional structures from multiple two-dimensional views of a given scene. Reconstructions from multiple views are conventionally achieved through a process of pixel luminance-based matching between different views. Unlike conventional machine vision methods that solve matching ambiguities by operating only on spatial constraints and luminance, this paper introduces a fully time-based solution to stereovision using the high temporal resolution of neuromorphic asynchronous event-based cameras...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Francisco Aboitiz, Miguel L Concha, Christian González-Billault, Jorge Mpodozis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Parag N Gad, Evgeniy Kreydin, Hui Zhong, Kyle Latack, V Reggie Edgerton
It is commonly assumed that restoration of locomotion is the ultimate goal after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is universal among SCI patients and significantly impacts their health and quality of life. Micturition is a neurologically complex behavior that depends on intact sensory and motor innervation. SCI disrupts both motor and sensory function and leads to marked abnormalities in urine storage and emptying. Current therapies for LUT dysfunction after SCI focus on preventing complications and managing symptoms rather than restoring function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ghulam M Ashraf, Saleh S Baeesa
We performed this study to investigate the possibility of a definitive pattern of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. In our study, we collected the CSF and serum samples of 31 AD patients, 19 ALS patients and 50 normal healthy subjects (controls). Quantitative ELISA measured Gal-3 concentrations in CSF and serum samples. A comparative analysis was performed to analyze and understand the Gal-3 expression pattern...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christoph Guger, Rossella Spataro, Frederic Pellas, Brendan Z Allison, Alexander Heilinger, Rupert Ortner, Woosang Cho, Ren Xu, Vincenzo La Bella, Günter Edlinger, Jitka Annen, Giorgio Mandalá, Camille Chatelle, Steven Laureys
Persons diagnosed with disorders of consciousness (DOC) typically suffer from motor disablities, and thus assessing their spared cognitive abilities can be difficult. Recent research from several groups has shown that non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) technology can provide assessments of these patients' cognitive function that can supplement information provided through conventional behavioral assessment methods. In rare cases, BCIs may provide a binary communication mechanism. Here, we present results from a vibrotactile BCI assessment aiming at detecting command-following and communication in 12 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marie Wehenkel, Antonio Sutera, Christine Bastin, Pierre Geurts, Christophe Phillips
Machine learning approaches have been increasingly used in the neuroimaging field for the design of computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, we focus on the ability of these methods to provide interpretable information about the brain regions that are the most informative about the disease or condition of interest. In particular, we investigate the benefit of group-based, instead of voxel-based, analyses in the context of Random Forests. Assuming a prior division of the voxels into non overlapping groups (defined by an atlas), we propose several procedures to derive group importances from individual voxel importances derived from Random Forests models...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Álvaro Fernández-Rodríguez, Francisco Velasco-Álvarez, Manon Bonnet-Save, Ricardo Ron-Angevin
A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a technology allowing patients with severe motor dysfunctions to use their electroencephalographic signals to create a communication channel to control devices. The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of continuous and switch control modes for a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) using sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task. Previous studies, which used a continuous navigation control with SMR, have reported the difficulty of maintaining the motor imagery task for a long time, especially for the forward command...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hongqun Ding, Yuyun Xiong, Jing Sun, Chen Chen, Jing Gao, Huaxi Xu
The association of α-synuclein (α-syn) with mitochondria occurs through interaction with mitochondrial complex I. Defects in this protein have been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Overexpression of α-synuclein in cells has been suggested to cause elevations in mitochondrial oxidant radicals and structural and functional abnormalities in mitochondria. Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpenoid, is an antioxidant that is used for depression, and we have shown that pretreatment with AA can prevent PD-like damage, but its therapeutic effects in PD and mechanism remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gonzalo Martín-Vázquez, Toshitake Asabuki, Yoshikazu Isomura, Tomoki Fukai
Motor cortical microcircuits receive inputs from dispersed cortical and subcortical regions in behaving animals. However, how these inputs contribute to learning and execution of voluntary sequential motor behaviors remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the independent components extracted from the local field potential (LFP) activity recorded at multiple depths of rat motor cortex during reward-motivated movement to study their roles in motor learning. Because slow gamma (30-50 Hz), fast gamma (60-120 Hz), and theta (4-10 Hz) oscillations temporally coordinate task-relevant motor cortical activities, we first explored the behavioral state- and layer-dependent coordination of motor behavior in these frequency ranges...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sara Cocco, Maria V Podda, Claudio Grassi
In the recent years numerous studies have provided encouraging results supporting the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as non-invasive brain stimulation technique to improve motor and cognitive functions in patients suffering from neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy subjects. Among the multiple effects elicited by tDCS on cognitive functions, experimental evidence and clinical findings have highlighted the beneficial impact on long-term memory. Memory deficits occur during physiological aging as well as in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xerxes D Arsiwalla, Paul Verschure
The grand quest for a scientific understanding of consciousness has given rise to many new theoretical and empirical paradigms for investigating the phenomenology of consciousness as well as clinical disorders associated to it. A major challenge in this field is to formalize computational measures that can reliably quantify global brain states from data. In particular, information-theoretic complexity measures such as integrated information have been proposed as measures of conscious awareness. This suggests a new framework to quantitatively classify states of consciousness...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Philip Tseng, Mu-Chen Wang, Yu-Hui Lo, Chi-Hung Juan
Learning regularities that exist in the environment can help the visual system achieve optimal efficiency while reducing computational burden. Using a pro- and anti-saccade task, studies have shown that probabilistic information regarding spatial locations can be a strong modulator of frontal eye fields (FEF) activities and consequently alter saccadic behavior. One recent study has also shown that FEF activities can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation, where anodal tDCS facilitated prosaccades but cathodal tDCS prolonged antisaccades...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maa O Quartey, Jennifer N K Nyarko, Paul R Pennington, Ryan M Heistad, Paula C Klassen, Glen B Baker, Darrell D Mousseau
Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and MAO-B have both been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined 60 autopsied control and AD donor brain samples to determine how well MAO function aligned with two major risk factors for AD, namely sex and APOE ε4 status. MAO-A activity was increased in AD cortical, but not hippocampal, samples. In contrast, MAO-B activity was increased in both regions (with a strong input from female donors) whether sample means were compared based on: (a) diagnosis alone; (b) diagnosis-by- APOE ε4 status (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mohammad G Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
The muscarinic acetylcholine type 1 receptor (M1 R) is a metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor. Knockout of M1 R or exposure to selective or specific receptor antagonists elevates neurite outgrowth in adult sensory neurons and is therapeutic in diverse models of peripheral neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous M1 R activation constrained neurite outgrowth via a negative impact on the cytoskeleton and subsequent mitochondrial trafficking. We overexpressed M1 R in primary cultures of adult rat sensory neurons and cell lines and studied the physiological and molecular consequences related to regulation of cytoskeletal/mitochondrial dynamics and neurite outgrowth...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peter Verstraelen, Michiel Van Dyck, Marlies Verschuuren, Nachiket D Kashikar, Rony Nuydens, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Winnok H De Vos
Neurological disorders display a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Yet, at the cellular level, virtually all these diseases converge into a common phenotype of dysregulated synaptic connectivity. In dementia, synapse dysfunction precedes neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment by several years, making the synapse a crucial entry point for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Whereas high-resolution imaging and biochemical fractionations yield detailed insight into the molecular composition of the synapse, standardized assays are required to quickly gauge synaptic connectivity across large populations of cells under a variety of experimental conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Axel Hutt, John D Griffiths, Christoph S Herrmann, Jérémie Lefebvre
In the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in using patterned brain stimulation to manipulate cortical oscillations, in both experimental and clinical settings. But the relationship between stimulation waveform and its impact on ongoing oscillations remains poorly understood and severely restrains the development of new paradigms. To address some aspects of this intricate problem, we combine computational and mathematical approaches, providing new insights into the influence of waveform of both low and high-frequency stimuli on synchronous neural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Annie L Shelton, Jun Y Wang, Emily Fourie, Flora Tassone, Anna Chen, Lauren Frizzi, Randi J Hagerman, Emilio Ferrer, David Hessl, Susan M Rivera
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a severe neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting over 40% of male and 16% of female FMR1 premutation carriers over the age of 50. However, there is a lack of prognostic biomarkers to aid early diagnosis and treatment planning. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the utility of the Magnetic Resonance Parkinson Index (MRPI) as a potential MRI biomarker for FXTAS. The four measurements required for the MRPI were assessed in 45 male premutation carriers at risk of developing FXTAS (Mean age = 59...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marko Mikkonen, Ilkka Laakso, Motofumi Sumiya, Soichiro Koyama, Akimasa Hirata, Satoshi Tanaka
Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) modulates cortical activity and influences motor and cognitive functions in both healthy and clinical populations. However, there is large inter-individual variability in the responses to TDCS. Computational studies have suggested that inter-individual differences in cranial and brain anatomy may contribute to this variability via creating varying electric fields in the brain. This implies that the electric fields or their strength and orientation should be considered and incorporated when selecting the TDCS dose...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tomer Fekete, Andrey R Nikolaev, Floris De Knijf, Aleksandra Zharikova, Cees van Leeuwen
Transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for entraining alpha activity holds potential for influencing mental function, both in laboratory and clinical settings. While initial results of alpha entrainment are promising, questions remain regarding its translational potential-namely if tACS alpha entrainment is sufficiently robust to context and to what extent it can be upscaled to multi-electrode arrangements needed to direct currents into precise brain loci. We set out to explore these questions by administering alternating current through a multi-electrode montage (mtACS), while varying background task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Clévio Nóbrega, Sandro Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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