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Frontiers in Neuroscience

John E Downey, Jeffrey M Weiss, Sharlene N Flesher, Zachary C Thumser, Paul D Marasco, Michael L Boninger, Robert A Gaunt, Jennifer L Collinger
In order for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems to maximize functionality, users will need to be able to accurately modulate grasp force to avoid dropping heavy objects while also being able to handle fragile items. We present a case-study consisting of two experiments designed to identify whether intracortical recordings from the motor cortex of a person with tetraplegia could predict intended grasp force. In the first task, we were able classify neural responses to attempted grasps of four objects, each of which required similar grasp kinematics but different implicit grasp force targets, with 69% accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Baoyan Fan, Xian Shuang Liu, Alexandra Szalad, Lei Wang, Ruilan Zhang, Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang
Cognition impairment and peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are two major complications of diabetes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of sex differences on cognition and DPN in diabetic mice. Male and female BKS.Cg- m +/+ Leprdb/J (db/db) and db/m mice were used. At ages of 20 and 30 weeks, all animals were subjected to learning, memory and neurological function tests. Regional blood flow in footpad and sciatic nerves were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Our data showed that male db/db mice aged 20 weeks and 30 weeks spent significantly more time to locate the hidden platform in the correct quadrant and spent significantly less time exploring the cage with a new stranger mouse compared to aged-matched female db/db mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andreas Bahmer, Daya Shankar Gupta
We review the role of oscillations in the brain and in the auditory system showing that the ability of humans to distinguish changes in pitch can be explained as a precise analysis of temporal information in auditory signals by neural oscillations. The connections between auditory brain stem chopper neurons construct neural oscillators, which discharge spikes at various constant intervals that are integer multiples of 0.4 ms, contributing to the temporal processing of auditory cochlear output. This is subsequently spatially mapped in the inferior colliculus...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Eneritz Rueda-Alaña, Isabel Martínez-Garay, Juan Manuel Encinas, Zoltán Molnár, Fernando García-Moreno
The neocortex (NCx) generates at the dorsal region of the pallium in the forebrain. Several adjacent structures also contribute with neurons to NCx. Ventral pallium (VP) is considered to generate several populations of neurons that arrive through tangential migration to the NCx. Amongst them are the Cajal-Retzius cells and some transient pyramidal neurons. However, the specific site and timing of generation, trajectory of migration and actual contribution to the pyramidal population remains elusive. Here, we investigate the spatio-temporal origin of neuronal populations from VP in an in vivo model, using a transposase mediated in utero electroporation method in embryonic mouse...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lauran Cole, Adrianna Giuffre, Patrick Ciechanski, Helen L Carlson, Ephrem Zewdie, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Adam Kirton
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve motor learning in children. High-definition approaches (HD-tDCS) have not been examined in children. Objectives/Hypothesis: We hypothesized that primary motor cortex HD-tDCS would enhance motor learning but be inferior to tDCS in children. Methods: Twenty-four children were recruited for a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded interventional trial (NCT03193580, to receive (1) right hemisphere (contralateral) primary motor cortex (M1) 1 mA anodal conventional 1 × 1 tDCS (tDCS), (2) right M1 1 mA anodal 4 × 1 HD-tDCS (HD-tDCS), or (3) sham...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gianluca Susi, Luis Antón Toro, Leonides Canuet, Maria Eugenia López, Fernando Maestú, Claudio R Mirasso, Ernesto Pereda
Humans perform remarkably well in many cognitive tasks including pattern recognition. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Nevertheless, artificial neural networks, inspired in brain circuits, have been designed and used to tackle spatio-temporal pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we present a multi-neuronal spike pattern detection structure able to autonomously implement online learning and recognition of parallel spike sequences (i.e., sequences of pulses belonging to different neurons/neural ensembles)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hillary W Bedell, Sydney Song, Xujia Li, Emily Molinich, Shushen Lin, Allison Stiller, Vindhya Danda, Melanie Ecker, Andrew J Shoffstall, Walter E Voit, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey R Capadona
Intracortical microelectrodes record neuronal activity of individual neurons within the brain, which can be used to bridge communication between the biological system and computer hardware for both research and rehabilitation purposes. However, long-term consistent neural recordings are difficult to achieve, in large part due to the neuroinflammatory tissue response to the microelectrodes. Prior studies have identified many factors that may contribute to the neuroinflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bernard Le Foll, Leon French
Due to size and accessibility, most information about the habenula is derived from rodent studies. To better understand the molecular signature of the habenula we characterized the genes that have high expression in the habenula. We compared anatomical expression profiles of three normal adult human brains and four fetal brains. We used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if genes annotated to specific molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes are enriched in the habenula. We also tested gene sets related to depression and addiction to determine if they uniquely involve the habenula...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yin-Xiu Han, Chen Tao, Xin-Ran Gao, Le-le Wang, Fu-Hao Jiang, Chong Wang, Ke Fang, Xing-Xing Chen, Zheng Chen, Jin-Fang Ge
Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the pathogenesis of depression. Although the mechanisms are multifaceted, the relationship can be ascribed partly to stress-related alterations in immune activation and brain plasticity. Considering the increasing evidence regarding the role of Copine 6 in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, the aim of the present study is to investigate Copine 6 expression in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in a stress-induced depression rat model. The behavior of the rats was evaluated via the open field test, saccharin preference test, elevated plus maze test, tail suspension test, Morris water maze, and forced swimming test...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar, Ryan D Ward
The basal forebrain, composed of distributed nuclei, including substantia innominata (SI), nucleus basalis and nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca plays a crucial neuromodulatory role in the brain. In particular, its projections to the prefrontal cortex have been shown to be important in a wide variety of brain processes and functions, including attention, learning and memory, arousal, and decision-making. In the present study, we asked whether the basal forebrain is involved in recruitment of cognitive effort in response to reward-related cues...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Zachary Yaple, Mario Martinez-Saito, Nikita Novikov, Dmitrii Altukhov, Anna Shestakova, Vasily Klucharev
The functional role of high beta oscillations (20-35 Hz) during feedback processing has been suggested to reflect unexpected gains. Using a novel gambling task that separates gains and losses across blocks and directly compares reception of monetary rewards to a 'no-reward/punishment' condition with equal probability we aimed to further investigate the role of beta oscillations. When contrasting different feedback conditions across rewards, we found that a late low beta component (12-20 Hz) had increased in power during the omission of rewards relative to the reception of rewards, while no differences were observed during the loss domain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lingling Yu, Liang Li, Qingguang Qin, Yutian Yu, Xiang Cui, Peijing Rong, Bing Zhu
Electroacupuncture (EA) is an efficacious treatment for alleviating visceral pain, but the underlining mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the role of medullary subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) neurons in the effects of EA on visceral pain. We recorded the discharges of SRD neurons extracellularly by glass micropipettes on anesthetized rats. The responses characteristics of SRD neurons to different intensities of EA (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mA, 0.5 ms, and 2 Hz) on acupoints "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) before and during noxious colorectal distension (CRD) were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brandon M Hager, Albert C Yang, Jennifer N Gutsell
Background: EEG mu-desynchronization is an index of motor resonance (MR) and is used to study social interaction deficiencies, but finding differences in mu-desynchronization does not reveal how nonlinear brain dynamics are affected during MR. The current study explores how nonlinear brain dynamics change during MR. We hypothesized that the complexity of the mu frequency band (8-13 Hz) changes during MR, and that this change would be frequency specific. Additionally, we sought to determine whether complexity at baseline and changes in complexity during action observation would predict MR and changes in network dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Todor Iordanov, Harald Bornfleth, Carsten H Wolters, Vesela Pasheva, Georgi Venkov, Benjamin Lanfer, Michael Scherg, Tobias Scherg
Low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) is a well-known method for the solution of the l2-based minimization problem for EEG/MEG source reconstruction. LORETA with a volume-based source space is widely used and much effort has been invested in the theory and the application of the method in an experimental context. However, it is especially interesting to use anatomical prior knowledge and constrain the LORETA's solution to the cortical surface. This strongly reduces the number of unknowns in the inverse approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wenjun Yu, Zhongqiang Sun, Taiwei Xu, Qingguo Ma
Against the background of an increasingly competitive market environment, the current study aimed to investigate whether and how victory and defeat, as two critical factors in competition outcomes, would affect consumers' preference of unfamiliar brands. In the experiment, participants' status of victory or defeat was induced by a pseudo-online game, followed by a main task of brand preference rating. Using the precise and intuitive attributes of neuroscientific techniques, we adopted event-related potentials to analyze brain activity precisely during brand information processing when individuals experienced victory or defeat...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuki Fujita, Toshihide Yamashita
Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian homolog of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin family. Sirtuin was originally studied as the lifespan-extending gene, silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) in budding yeast. There are seven mammalian homologs of sirtuin (SIRT1-7), and SIRT1 is the closest homolog to SIRT2. SIRT1 modulates various key targets via deacetylation. In addition to histones, these targets include transcription factors, such as forkhead box O (FOXO), Ku70, p53, NF-κB, PPAR-gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Leonardo Sileo, Sebastian H Bitzenhofer, Barbara Spagnolo, Jastyn A Pöpplau, Tobias Holzhammer, Marco Pisanello, Filippo Pisano, Elisa Bellistri, Emanuela Maglie, Massimo De Vittorio, Patrick Ruther, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz, Ferruccio Pisanello
Optogenetics offers many advantages in terms of cell-type specificity, allowing to investigate functional connectivity between different brain areas at high spatial and neural population selectivity. In order to obtain simultaneous optical control and electrical readout of neural activity, devices called "optrodes" are employed. They are typically composed of a linear array of microelectrodes integrated on a slender probe shafts combined with flat-cleaved optical fibers (FF) placed above the recording sites...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yongbin Ma, Jia Jin, Wenjun Yu, Wuke Zhang, Zhijiang Xu, Qingguo Ma
Understanding the process by which consumers evaluate the designs of experience goods is critical for firms designing and delivering experience products. As the implicit process involved in this evaluation, and given the possible social desirability bias inherent to traditional methods of product design evaluation in certain conditions, neuroscientific methods are preferred to gain insight into the neural basis of consumers' evaluation of experience good designs. We here used event-related potentials (ERPs) and a revised go/no-go paradigm to investigate consumers' neural responses to experience good designs...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alexander A Ilyasov, Carolanne E Milligan, Emily P Pharr, Allyn C Howlett
Cannabinoid-based interventions are being explored for central nervous system (CNS) pathologies such as neurodegeneration, demyelination, epilepsy, stroke, and trauma. As these disease states involve dysregulation of myelin integrity and/or remyelination, it is important to consider effects of the endocannabinoid system on oligodendrocytes and their precursors. In this review, we examine research reports on the effects of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) components on oligodendrocytes and their precursors, with a focus on therapeutic implications...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Miguel Mazón, Juan Francisco Vázquez Costa, Amadeo Ten-Esteve, Luis Martí-Bonmatí
The term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) comprises a heterogeneous group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders of largely unknown etiology characterized by the upper motor neurons (UMN) and/or lower motor neurons (LMN) degeneration. The development of brain imaging biomarkers is essential to advance in the diagnosis, stratification and monitoring of ALS, both in the clinical practice and clinical trials. In this review, the characteristics of an optimal imaging biomarker and common pitfalls in biomarkers evaluation will be discussed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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