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Frontiers in Neuroscience

Anna Elisa Roser, Lucas Caldi Gomes, Jonas Schünemann, Fabian Maass, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Its main neuropathological hallmarks are the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and alpha-synuclein containing protein inclusions, called Lewy Bodies. The diagnosis of idiopathic PD is still based on the assessment of clinical criteria, leading to an insufficient diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, there is no biomarker available allowing the prediction of the disease course or monitoring the response to therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Megan F Duffy, Timothy J Collier, Joseph R Patterson, Christopher J Kemp, D Luke Fischer, Anna C Stoll, Caryl E Sortwell
Animal models have significantly advanced our understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) has taken center stage due to its genetic connection to familial PD and localization to Lewy bodies, one pathological hallmark of PD. Animal models developed on the premise of elevated alpha-synuclein via germline manipulation or viral vector-mediated overexpression are used to investigate PD pathophysiology and vet novel therapeutics. While these models represented a step forward compared to their neurotoxicant model predecessors, they rely on overexpression of supraphysiological levels of α-syn to trigger toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Asta Terentjeviene, Edita Maciuleviciene, Kazys Vadopalas, Dalia Mickeviciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Dovile Valanciene, Rima Solianik, Arunas Emeljanovas, Sigitas Kamandulis, Albertas Skurvydas
Background: Although the effects of mental fatigue on cognitive-motor function and psychological state in young adults are well-documented, its effects in the elderly are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of prolonged cognitive load on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, and motor functions. Methods: Fifteen young and 15 elderly men were asked to perform a 2 h "Go/NoGo" task. Psychological state (mood and motivation), cognitive (prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance), and motor (motor cortex excitability and grip strength) functions were measured before and after the task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bin Wang, Ting Li, Mengni Zhou, Shuo Zhao, Yan Niu, Xin Wang, Ting Yan, Rui Cao, Jie Xiang, Dandan Li
Convergent evidences have demonstrated a variety of regional abnormalities of asymmetry in bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known about the alterations in hemispheric topological asymmetries. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to construct the hemispheric brain anatomical network of 49 patients with BD and 61 matched normal controls. Graph theory was then applied to quantify topological properties of the hemispheric networks. Although small-world properties were preserved in the hemispheric networks of BD, the degrees of the asymmetry in global efficiency, characteristic path length, and small-world property were significantly decreased...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Leon C Reteig, Tomas Knapen, Floris J F W Roelofs, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be used to directly affect neural activity from outside of the skull. However, its exact physiological mechanisms remain elusive, particularly when applied to new brain areas. The frontal eye field (FEF) has rarely been targeted with tDCS, even though it plays a crucial role in control of overt and covert spatial attention. Here, we investigate whether tDCS over the FEF can affect the latency and accuracy of saccadic eye movements. Twenty-six participants performed a prosaccade task in which they made eye movements to a sudden-onset eccentric visual target ( lateral saccades )...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yegang Hu, Chunli Yin, Jicong Zhang, Yuping Wang
Beamforming techniques have played a prominent role in source imaging in neuroimaging and in locating epileptogenic zones. However, existing vector-beamformers are sensitive to noise on localization of epileptogenic zones. In this study, partial least square (PLS) was used to aid the minimum variance beamforming approach for source imaging with magnetoencephalography (MEG) arrays, and verified its effectiveness in simulated data and epilepsy data. First, PLS was employed to extract the components of the MEG arrays by maximizing the covariance between a linear combination of the predictors and the class variable...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chao Zhang, Qinghua Xu, Xia Xiao, Weihao Li, Qiang Kang, Xiong Zhang, Tinghua Wang, Yan Li
Background: Pyrethroids have been widely used in residential and agricultural areas. However, little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure to deltamethrin on cognition in early development of offspring. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to deltamethrin on learning and memory abilities, N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor, and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) in the hippocampus of offspring rats were investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Deepak Kumbhare, Viktoras Palys, Jamie Toms, Chathurika S Wickramasinghe, Kasun Amarasinghe, Milos Manic, Evan Hughes, Kathryn L Holloway
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is currently being evaluated as a potential therapy to improve memory and overall cognitive function in dementia. Although, the animal literature has demonstrated robust improvement in cognitive functions, phase 1 trial results in humans have not been as clear-cut. We hypothesize that this may reflect differences in electrode location within the NBM, type and timing of stimulation, and the lack of a biomarker for determining the stimulation's effectiveness in real time...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shan Gao, Yayuan Geng, Jia Li, Yunxiao Zhou, Shuxia Yao
Verbal communication with evaluative characters of different emotional valence has a considerable impact on the extent to which social relations are facilitated or undermined. Here using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain acts in response to social praise and criticism, leading to differential affective judgments. We engaged thirty men and women in a task associating sex-balanced, neutral faces with praising or criticizing comments targeting others or objects. A whole-brain analysis revealed that criticism as compared to praise enhanced the activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), particularly its dorsal portion, whereas the right amygdala displayed an opposite pattern of changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hesham Mostafa, Vishwajith Ramesh, Gert Cauwenberghs
Error backpropagation is a highly effective mechanism for learning high-quality hierarchical features in deep networks. Updating the features or weights in one layer, however, requires waiting for the propagation of error signals from higher layers. Learning using delayed and non-local errors makes it hard to reconcile backpropagation with the learning mechanisms observed in biological neural networks as it requires the neurons to maintain a memory of the input long enough until the higher-layer errors arrive...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jianbiao Li, Xiaoli Liu, Xile Yin, Shuaiqi Li, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaofei Niu, Chengkang Zhu
A priori normative beliefs, the precondition of social norm compliance that reflects culture and values, are considered unique to human social behavior. Previous studies related to the ultimatum game revealed that right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) has no stimulation effects on normative beliefs. However, no research has focused on the effects of a priori belief on the rLPFC in voluntary cooperation attached to the public good (PG) game. In this study, we used a linear asymmetric PG to confirm the influence of the rLPFC on a priori normative beliefs without threats of external punishment through transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maricel Gómez-Soler, Begoña Cordobilla, Xavier Morató, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Joan C Domingo, Francisco Ciruela
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. The main treatment of PD consists of medication with dopamine-based drugs, which palliate the symptoms but may produce adverse effects after chronic administration. Accordingly, there is a need to develop novel neuroprotective therapies. Several studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA) might provide protection against brain damage. Here, we studied several experimental models of PD, using striatal neuronal cultures, striatal slices, and mice, to assess the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n -3 PUFA in the brain, administered in its triglyceride form (TG-DHA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Pengjun Jiang, Qingyuan Liu, Jun Wu, Xin Chen, Maogui Li, Zhengsong Li, Shuzhe Yang, Rui Guo, Bin Gao, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang
Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential morphological and hemodynamic risk factors related to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) rupture and establish a system to stratify the risk of IAs rupture to help the clinical decision-making. Methods: Patients admitted to our hospital for single-IAs were selected from January 2012 and January 2018. A propensity score matching was conducted to match patients. The morphological parameters were obtained from high solution CTA images, and the hemodynamic parameters were obtained in accordance with the outcomes of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Maria L Bringas-Vega, Jorge Bosch-Bayard, Lidice Galán-García, Cyralene Bryce, Arielle G Rabinowitz, Leslie S Prichep, Robert Isenhart, Ana Calzada-Reyes, Trinidad VIrues-Alba, Yanbo Guo, Janina R Galler, Pedro A Valdés-Sosa
The goal of this study is to identify the quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) signature of early childhood malnutrition [protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)]. To this end, archival digital EEG recordings of 108 participants in the Barbados Nutrition Study (BNS) were recovered and cleaned of artifacts (46 children who suffered an episode of PEM limited to the first year of life) and 62 healthy controls). The participants of the still ongoing BNS were initially enrolled in 1973, and EEGs for both groups were recorded in 1977-1978 (at 5-11 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alastair I Grainger, Marianne C King, David A Nagel, H Rheinallt Parri, Michael D Coleman, Eric J Hill
The brain is the most complex organ in the body, controlling our highest functions, as well as regulating myriad processes which incorporate the entire physiological system. The effects of prospective therapeutic entities on the brain and central nervous system (CNS) may potentially cause significant injury, hence, CNS toxicity testing forms part of the "core battery" of safety pharmacology studies. Drug-induced seizure is a major reason for compound attrition during drug development. Currently, the rat ex vivo hippocampal slice assay is the standard option for seizure-liability studies, followed by primary rodent cultures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gelu Onose, Nirvana Popescu, Constantin Munteanu, Vlad Ciobanu, Corina Sporea, Marian-Daniel Mirea, Cristina Daia, Ioana Andone, Aura Spînu, Andrada Mirea
This paper overviews the state-of-the-art in upper limb robot-supported approaches, focusing on advancements in the related mechatronic devices for the patients' rehabilitation and/or assistance. Dedicated to the technical, comprehensively methodological and global effectiveness and improvement in this inter-disciplinary field of research, it includes information beyond the therapy administrated in clinical settings-but with no diminished safety requirements. Our systematic review, based on PRISMA guidelines, searched articles published between January 2001 and November 2017 from the following databases: Cochrane, Medline/PubMed, PMC, Elsevier, PEDro, and ISI Web of Knowledge/Science...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ana P S Dornellas, Valter T Boldarine, Amanda P Pedroso, Lorenza O T Carvalho, Iracema S de Andrade, Tânia M Vulcani-Freitas, Carla C C Dos Santos, Cláudia M da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Lila M Oyama, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause-induced changes may include increased incidence of both depression/anxiety and obesity. We hypothesized that behavioral changes that may develop after ovarian failure could be related to neurochemical and metabolic aspects affected by this condition and that high-fat intake may influence these associations. The present study investigated in rats the effects of ovariectomy, either alone or combined with high-fat diets enriched with either lard or fish-oil, on metabolic, behavioral and monoaminergic statuses, and on gene expression of neuropeptides and receptors involved in energy balance and mood regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shekher Mohan, Emily J Koller, Jawad A Fazal, Gabriela De Oliveria, Anna I Pawlowicz, Sylvain Doré
Background: The release of inflammatory molecules such as prostaglandins (e.g., PGF2α ) is associated with brain damage following an intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke; however, the role of PGF2α and its cognate FP receptor in ICH remains unclear. This study focused on investigating the role of the FP receptor as a target for novel neuroprotective drugs in a preclinical model of ICH, aiming to investigate the contribution of the PGF2α -FP axis in modulating functional recovery and anatomical outcomes following ICH...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fatemeh N Emamzadeh, Andrei Surguchov
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused mainly by lack of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in movement, motivation, memory, and other functions; its level is decreased in PD brain as a result of dopaminergic cell death. Dopamine loss in PD brain is a cause of motor deficiency and, possibly, a reason of the cognitive deficit observed in some PD patients. PD is mostly not recognized in its early stage because of a long latency between the first damage to dopaminergic cells and the onset of clinical symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peter Schier, Michael Handler, Lejo Johnson Chacko, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Karl Fritscher, Rami Saba, Christian Baumgartner, Daniel Baumgarten
A dysfunctional vestibular system can be a severe detriment to the quality of life of a patient. Recent studies have shown the feasibility for a vestibular implant to restore rotational sensation via electrical stimulation of vestibular ampullary nerves. However, the optimal stimulation site for selective elicitation of the desired nerve is still unknown. We realized a finite element model on the basis of μCT scans of a human inner ear and incorporated naturally distributed, artificial neural trajectories...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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