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Frontiers in Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533740/correlation-of-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis-with-neuronal-remodeling-of-cardiac-postganglionic-parasympathetic-neurons-in-the-late-stage-of-heart-failure-after-myocardial-infarction
#1
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Chaojun Wang, Liang Cao, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
Introduction: Ventricular arrhythmia is a major cause of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Our recent study demonstrates that N-type Ca(2+) currents in intracardiac ganglionic neurons are reduced in the late stage of CHF rats. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Only AVG nerve terminals innervate the ventricular myocardium. In this study, we tested the correlation of electrical remodeling in AVG neurons with ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533739/improving-the-test-retest-reliability-of-resting-state-fmri-by-removing-the-impact-of-sleep
#2
Jiahui Wang, Junwei Han, Vinh T Nguyen, Lei Guo, Christine C Guo
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533738/genetics-of-tinnitus-still-in-its-infancy
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Vona, Indrajit Nanda, Wafaa Shehata-Dieler, Thomas Haaf
Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound that affects between 10 and 15% of the general population. Despite this considerable prevalence, treatments for tinnitus are presently lacking. Tinnitus exhibits a diverse array of recognized risk factors and extreme clinical heterogeneity. Furthermore, it can involve an unknown number of auditory and non-auditory networks and molecular pathways. This complex combination has hampered advancements in the field. The identification of specific genetic factors has been at the forefront of several research investigations in the past decade...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529473/complete-locked-in-and-locked-in-patients-command-following-assessment-and-communication-with-vibro-tactile-p300-and-motor-imagery-brain-computer-interface-tools
#4
Christoph Guger, Rossella Spataro, Brendan Z Allison, Alexander Heilinger, Rupert Ortner, Woosang Cho, Vincenzo La Bella
Many patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) or complete locked-in syndrome (CLIS) also need brain-computer interface (BCI) platforms that do not rely on visual stimuli and are easy to use. We investigate command following and communication functions of mindBEAGLE with 9 LIS, 3 CLIS patients and three healthy controls. This tests were done with vibro-tactile stimulation with 2 or 3 stimulators (VT2 and VT3 mode) and with motor imagery (MI) paradigms. In VT2 the stimulators are fixed on the left and right wrist and the participant has the task to count the stimuli on the target hand in order to elicit a P300 response...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529472/a-comparative-study-of-average-linked-mastoid-and-rest-references-for-erp-components-acquired-during-fmri
#5
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Ling Li
In simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, average reference (AR), and digitally linked mastoid (LM) are popular re-referencing techniques in event-related potential (ERP) analyses. However, they may introduce their own physiological signals and alter the EEG/ERP outcome. A reference electrode standardization technique (REST) that calculated a reference point at infinity was proposed to solve this problem. To confirm the advantage of REST in ERP analyses of synchronous EEG-fMRI studies, we compared the reference effect of AR, LM, and REST on task-related ERP results of a working memory task during an fMRI scan...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515677/brain-control-of-plasma-cholesterol-involves-polysialic-acid-molecules-in-the-hypothalamus
#6
Xavier Brenachot, Thomas Gautier, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Valérie Deckert, Amélie Laderrière, Danaé Nuzzaci, Caroline Rigault, Aleth Lemoine, Luc Pénicaud, Laurent Lagrost, Alexandre Benani
The polysialic acid (PSA) is a large glycan that is added to cell-surface proteins during their post-translational maturation. In the brain, PSA modulates distances between cells and controls the plasticity of the nervous system. In the hypothalamus, PSA is involved in many aspects of energy balance including food intake, osmoregulation, circadian rhythm, and sleep. In this work, we investigated the role of hypothalamic PSA in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels and distribution. We report that HFD consumption in mice rapidly increased plasma cholesterol, including VLDL, LDL, and HDL-cholesterol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512397/leukocyte-expression-of-type-1-and-type-2-purinergic-receptors-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-during-total-sleep-deprivation-and-or-sleep-extension-in-healthy-subjects
#7
Mounir Chennaoui, Pierrick J Arnal, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino
The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A) receptors and the type P2 (X7) receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor), A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512396/a-generic-transferable-eeg-decoder-for-online-detection-of-error-potential-in-target-selection
#8
Saugat Bhattacharyya, Amit Konar, D N Tibarewala, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
Reliable detection of error from electroencephalography (EEG) signals as feedback while performing a discrete target selection task across sessions and subjects has a huge scope in real-time rehabilitative application of Brain-computer Interfacing (BCI). Error Related Potentials (ErrP) are EEG signals which occur when the participant observes an erroneous feedback from the system. ErrP holds significance in such closed-loop system, as BCI is prone to error and we need an effective method of systematic error detection as feedback for correction...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512395/keypress-based-musical-preference-is-both-individual-and-lawful
#9
Sherri L Livengood, John P Sheppard, Byoung W Kim, Edward C Malthouse, Janet E Bourne, Anne E Barlow, Myung J Lee, Veronica Marin, Kailyn P O'Connor, John G Csernansky, Martin P Block, Anne J Blood, Hans C Breiter
Musical preference is highly individualized and is an area of active study to develop methods for its quantification. Recently, preference-based behavior, associated with activity in brain reward circuitry, has been shown to follow lawful, quantifiable patterns, despite broad variation across individuals. These patterns, observed using a keypress paradigm with visual stimuli, form the basis for relative preference theory (RPT). Here, we sought to determine if such patterns extend to non-visual domains (i.e...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507504/effects-of-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptors-on-norepinephrine-secretion-from-the-locus-coeruleus-during-chronic-stress-induced-depression
#10
Bin Wang, Ying Wang, Qiong Wu, Hong-Ping Huang, Shao Li
Chronic stressors can often lead to the development of psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a stress sensitive brain region located in the pons, with noradrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus, especially the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how alpha 2A-adrenoceptors (α2A-ARs) and LC-hypothalamus noradrenergic system participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of depression. In vivo norepinephrine (NE) release in the PVN triggered by electrical stimulation in the LC was detected with carbon fiber electrodes in depression model of rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507503/improving-challenge-skill-ratio-in-a-multimodal-interface-by-simultaneously-adapting-game-difficulty-and-haptic-assistance-through-psychophysiological-and-performance-feedback
#11
Carlos Rodriguez-Guerrero, Kristel Knaepen, Juan C Fraile-Marinero, Javier Perez-Turiel, Valentin Gonzalez-de-Garibay, Dirk Lefeber
In order to harmonize robotic devices with human beings, the robots should be able to perceive important psychosomatic impact triggered by emotional states such as frustration or boredom. This paper presents a new type of biocooperative control architecture, which acts toward improving the challenge/skill relation perceived by the user when interacting with a robotic multimodal interface in a cooperative scenario. In the first part of the paper, open-loop experiments revealed which physiological signals were optimal for inclusion in the feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507502/node-identification-using-inter-regional-correlation-analysis-for-mapping-detailed-connections-in-resting-state-networks
#12
William S Sohn, Tae Young Lee, Kwangsun Yoo, Minah Kim, Je-Yeon Yun, Ji-Won Hur, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Sang Won Seo, Duk L Na, Yong Jeong, Jun Soo Kwon
Brain function is often characterized by the connections and interactions between highly interconnected brain regions. Pathological disruptions in these networks often result in brain dysfunction, which manifests as brain disease. Typical analysis investigates disruptions in network connectivity based correlations between large brain regions. To obtain a more detailed description of disruptions in network connectivity, we propose a new method where functional nodes are identified in each region based on their maximum connectivity to another brain region in a given network...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503129/pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-somatosensory-tinnitus-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
Haúla F Haider, Derek J Hoare, Raquel F P Costa, Iskra Potgieter, Dimitris Kikidis, Alec Lapira, Christos Nikitas, Helena Caria, Nuno T Cunha, João C Paço
Somatosensory tinnitus is a generally agreed subtype of tinnitus that is associated with activation of the somatosensory, somatomotor, and visual-motor systems. A key characteristic of somatosensory tinnitus is that is modulated by physical contact or movement. Although it seems common, its pathophysiology, assessment and treatment are not well defined. We present a scoping review on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of somatosensory tinnitus, and identify priority directions for further research...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496399/the-effect-of-wealth-shocks-on-loss-aversion-behavior-and-neural-correlates
#14
V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Sergio Ruiz, Sangkyun Lee, Charles N Noussair, Ranganatha Sitaram
Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496398/growth-of-thalamocortical-fibers-to-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-human-fetal-brain
#15
Željka Krsnik, Visnja Majić, Lana Vasung, Hao Huang, Ivica Kostović
Thalamocortical (TH-C) fiber growth begins during the embryonic period and is completed by the third trimester of gestation in humans. Here we determined the timing and trajectories of somatosensory TH-C fibers in the developing human brain. We analyzed the periods of TH-C fiber outgrowth, path-finding, "waiting" in the subplate (SP), target selection, and ingrowth in the cortical plate (CP) using histological sections from post-mortem fetal brain [from 7 to 34 postconceptional weeks (PCW)] that were processed with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and immunohistochemical methods...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491022/corrigendum-auditory-spatial-recalibration-in-congenital-blind-individuals
#16
Sara Finocchietti, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
[This corrects the article on p. 76 in vol. 11, PMID: 28261053.].
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491021/corrigendum-brain-metabolic-changes-in-rats-following-acoustic-trauma
#17
Jun He, Yejin Zhu, Jiye Aa, Paul F Smith, Dirk De Ridder, Guangji Wang, Yiwen Zheng
[This corrects the article on p. 148 in vol. 11, PMID: 28392756.].
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491020/corrigendum-structural-brain-network-reorganization-and-social-cognition-related-to-adverse-perinatal-condition-from-infancy-to-early-adolescence
#18
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Elda Fischi-Gomez, Dafnis Batalle, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, Elisenda Eixarch, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Eduard Gratacós, Petra S Hüppi
[This corrects the article on p. 560 in vol. 10, PMID: 28008304.].
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491019/shared-and-differential-retinal-responses-against-optic-nerve-injury-and-ocular-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Arturo Ortin-Martinez, Giuseppe Rovere, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Fernando Lucas-Ruiz, Maria C Sanchez-Migallon, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, Marcelino Aviles-Trigueros, María P Villegas-Pérez, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide, affects primarily retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. The pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood, but it is currently believed that damage to RGC axons at the optic nerve head plays a major role. Rodent models to study glaucoma include those that mimic either ocular hypertension or optic nerve injury. Here we review the anatomical loss of the general population of RGCs (that express Brn3a; Brn3a(+)RGCs) and of the intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (that express melanopsin; m(+)RGCs) after chronic (LP-OHT) or acute (A-OHT) ocular hypertension and after complete intraorbital optic nerve transection (ONT) or crush (ONC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491018/transcranial-stimulation-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-affects-decisions-about-magnocellular-optimized-stimuli
#20
Anna Bognár, Gergő Csete, Margit Németh, Péter Csibri, Tamás Z Kincses, Gyula Sáry
Visual categorization plays an important role in fast and efficient information processing; still the neuronal basis of fast categorization has not been established yet. There are two main hypotheses known; both agree that primary, global impressions are based on the information acquired through the magnocellular pathway (MC). It is unclear whether this information is available through the MC that provides information (also) for the ventral pathway or through top-down mechanisms by connections between the dorsal pathway and the ventral pathway via the frontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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