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Frontiers in Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337121/logo-effects-on-brand-extension-evaluations-from-the-electrophysiological-perspective
#1
Qian Shang, Guanxiong Pei, Shenyi Dai, Xiaoyi Wang
Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337120/antidyskinetic-effects-of-mek-inhibitor-are-associated-with-multiple-neurochemical-alterations-in-the-striatum-of-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#2
Guiqin Chen, Shuke Nie, Chao Han, Kai Ma, Yan Xu, Zhentao Zhang, Stella M Papa, Xuebing Cao
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) represents one of the major problems of the long-term therapy of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying LID are not completely understood, activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is recognized to play a key role. ERK is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and thus MEK inhibitor can prevent ERK activation. Here the effect of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 on LID and the associated molecular changes were examined...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337119/analysis-of-the-precision-of-variable-flip-angle-t1-mapping-with-emphasis-on-the-noise-propagated-from-rf-transmit-field-maps
#3
Yoojin Lee, Martina F Callaghan, Zoltan Nagy
In magnetic resonance imaging, precise measurements of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) is crucial to acquire useful information that is applicable to numerous clinical and neuroscience applications. In this work, we investigated the precision of T1 relaxation time as measured using the variable flip angle method with emphasis on the noise propagated from radiofrequency transmit field ([Formula: see text]) measurements. The analytical solution for T1 precision was derived by standard error propagation methods incorporating the noise from the three input sources: two spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images and a [Formula: see text] map...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326012/androgen-receptor-regulates-the-growth-of-neuroblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Junyan Sun, Dongmei Wang, Lianying Guo, Shengyun Fang, Yang Wang, Rong Xing
Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumors in children. At present about the true etiology of neuroblastoma is unclear and many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant tumors. Although it has been illustrated that androgen receptor (AR) was expressed in neuroblastoma cells in some former reports, the biological role of androgen receptor in the development of neuroblastoma is not fully understood. Methods: Androgen (R1881) and the antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) were used to study the role of the androgen receptor signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo on SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a (N2a) cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326011/the-virtual-trial
#5
Willem de Haan
Although brain network analysis in neurodegenerative disease is still a fairly young discipline, expectations are high. The robust theoretical basis, the straightforward detection and explanation of otherwise intangible complex system phenomena, and the correlations of network features with pathology and cognitive status are qualities that show the potential power of this new instrument. We expect "connectomics" to eventually better explain and predict that essential but still poorly understood aspect of dementia: the relation between pathology and cognitive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326010/impact-of-resveratrol-on-glucose-control-hippocampal-structure-and-connectivity-and-memory-performance-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan-Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326009/improving-eeg-based-driver-fatigue-classification-using-sparse-deep-belief-networks
#7
Rifai Chai, Sai Ho Ling, Phyo Phyo San, Ganesh R Naik, Tuan N Nguyen, Yvonne Tran, Ashley Craig, Hung T Nguyen
This paper presents an improvement of classification performance for electroencephalography (EEG)-based driver fatigue classification between fatigue and alert states with the data collected from 43 participants. The system employs autoregressive (AR) modeling as the features extraction algorithm, and sparse-deep belief networks (sparse-DBN) as the classification algorithm. Compared to other classifiers, sparse-DBN is a semi supervised learning method which combines unsupervised learning for modeling features in the pre-training layer and supervised learning for classification in the following layer...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326008/disease-specific-regions-outperform-whole-brain-approaches-in-identifying-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-a-multicentric-mri-study
#8
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Cecilia Bonnet, Jaroslav Tintěra, Jaromir Hanuška, Harald E Möller, Klaus Fassbender, Albert Ludolph, Jan Kassubek, Markus Otto, Evžen Růžička, Matthias L Schroeter
To identify progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), we combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and support vector machine (SVM) classification using disease-specific features in multicentric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Structural brain differences were investigated at four centers between 20 patients with PSP and 20 age-matched healthy controls with T1-weighted MRI at 3T. To pave the way for future application in personalized medicine, we applied SVM classification to identify PSP on an individual level besides group analyses based on VBM...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326007/evaluation-of-the-cortical-silent-period-of-the-laryngeal-motor-cortex-in-healthy-individuals
#9
Mo Chen, Rebekah L S Summers, George S Goding, Sharyl Samargia, Christy L Ludlow, Cecília N Prudente, Teresa J Kimberley
Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the cortical silent period (cSP) of the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) using the bilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: In 11 healthy participants, fine-wire electromyography (EMG) was used to record bilateral TA muscle responses to single pulse TMS delivered to the LMC in both hemispheres. Peripheral responses to stimulation over the mastoid, where the vagus nerve exits the skull, were collected to verify the central origin of the cortical stimulation responses by comparing the latencies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321179/neurophysiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-mandarin-lexical-tone-processing
#10
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321178/post-training-inactivation-of-the-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-impairs-spatial-performance-on-the-radial-arm-maze
#11
Ryan E Harvey, Shannon M Thompson, Lilliana M Sanchez, Ryan M Yoder, Benjamin J Clark
The limbic thalamus, specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a function of an animal's directional orientation in an environment. Recent work has suggested that this directional orientation information stemming from the ATN contributes to the generation of hippocampal and parahippocampal spatial representations, and may contribute to the establishment of unique spatial representations in radially oriented tasks such as the radial arm maze...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#12
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316563/a-saccade-based-framework-for-real-time-motion-segmentation-using-event-based-vision-sensors
#13
Abhishek Mishra, Rohan Ghosh, Jose C Principe, Nitish V Thakor, Sunil L Kukreja
Motion segmentation is a critical pre-processing step for autonomous robotic systems to facilitate tracking of moving objects in cluttered environments. Event based sensors are low power analog devices that represent a scene by means of asynchronous information updates of only the dynamic details at high temporal resolution and, hence, require significantly less calculations. However, motion segmentation using spatiotemporal data is a challenging task due to data asynchrony. Prior approaches for object tracking using neuromorphic sensors perform well while the sensor is static or a known model of the object to be followed is available...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303088/commentary-phase-amplitude-coupling-at-the-organism-level-the-amplitude-of-spontaneous-alpha-rhythm-fluctuations-varies-with-the-phase-of-the-infra-slow-gastric-basal-rhythm
#14
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303087/a-pilot-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-potential-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-tinnitus
#15
Annick Gilles, Guy Van Camp, Paul Van de Heyning, Erik Fransen
Tinnitus, the perception of an auditory phantom sound in the form of ringing, buzzing, roaring, or hissing in the absence of an external sound source, is perceived by ~15% of the population and 2.5% experiences a severely bothersome tinnitus. The contribution of genes on the development of tinnitus is still under debate. The current manuscript reports a pilot Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) into tinnitus, in a small cohort of 167 independent tinnitus subjects, and 749 non-tinnitus controls, who were collected as part of a cross-sectional study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298884/physical-exercise-restores-the-generation-of-newborn-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#16
Fabricio N Mendonça, Luiz E C Santos, Antônio M Rodrigues, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Ricardo M Arida, Gilcélio A da Silveira, Fulvio A Scorza, Antônio-Carlos G Almeida
Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298883/increased-testosterone-decreases-medial-cortical-volume-and-neurogenesis-in-territorial-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#17
Lara D LaDage, Timothy C Roth, Cynthia J Downs, Barry Sinervo, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Variation in an animal's spatial environment can induce variation in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial cognitive processing. Specifically, increased spatial area use is correlated with increased hippocampal attributes, such as volume and neurogenesis. In the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), males demonstrate alternative reproductive tactics and are either territorial-defending large, clearly defined spatial boundaries-or non-territorial-traversing home ranges that are smaller than the territorial males' territories...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298882/generation-of-a-movement-scheme-for-positive-training
#18
Lin Liu, Le Xie, Yun-Yong Shi, Bing-Chen An
Rehabilitation robots have been demonstrated to be an efficient tool in the field of rehabilitation training. Meanwhile, there are varieties of tasks designed for motion training. These tasks need to be transmitted to motion data for rehabilitation robots. In this paper, we designed a drinking task and captured the motion data as the ground truth, through sensors of an exoskeleton device named Neo-Arm. To verify the effectiveness of Neo-Arm, we used a Vicon system to capture the same motion task without Neo-Arm for comparison...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293166/protein-remodeling-factors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#19
REVIEW
Meredith E Jackrel, James Shorter
Protein misfolding is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. A unifying feature of patients with these disorders is the accumulation of deposits comprised of misfolded protein. Aberrant protein folding can cause toxicity through a loss or gain of protein function, or both. An intriguing therapeutic approach to counter these disorders is the application of protein-remodeling factors to resolve these misfolded conformers and return the proteins to their native fold and function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293165/-pyr-1-apelin-13-1-12-is-a-biologically-active-ace2-metabolite-of-the-endogenous-cardiovascular-peptide-pyr-1-apelin-13
#20
Peiran Yang, Rhoda E Kuc, Aimée L Brame, Alex Dyson, Mervyn Singer, Robert C Glen, Joseph Cheriyan, Ian B Wilkinson, Anthony P Davenport, Janet J Maguire
Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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