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Communicative & Integrative Biology

Jack Zhang, Emily de Freitas, Ken Lukowiak
Foods, such as Green tea (GT), containing the flavonol, (-)-Epicatechin (Epi), enhance the formation of long-term memory (LTM) when snails are operantly conditioned in that substance. That is, a single 0.5 h training session results in LTM; whereas similar training in pond water does not result in LTM. It was of interest to determine if Black tea (BT), which is a more popular beverage than GT and which is derived from the same tea leaves, also enhances LTM formation. We found that BT, unlike GT, depressed homeostatic aerial respiratory behaviour and obstructed LTM formation...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Ulrike Theisen, Sven Hey, Christian D Hennig, Ralf Schnabel, Reinhard W Köster
Various neurotransmitters influence neuronal migration in the developing zebrafish hindbrain. Migrating tegmental hindbrain nuclei neurons (THNs) are governed by depolarizing neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate), and glycine. In mature neurons, glycine binds to its receptor to hyperpolarize cells. This effect depends on the co-expression of the solute carrier KCC2. Immature precursors, however, typically express NKCC1 instead of KCC2, leading to membrane depolarization upon glycine receptor activation...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Sophie de Vries, Jan de Vries, Janina K von Dahlen, Sven B Gould, John M Archibald, Laura E Rose, Claudio H Slamovits
All land plants must cope with phytopathogens. Algae face pathogens, too, and it is reasonable to assume that some of the strategies for dealing with pathogens evolved prior to the origin of embryophytes - plant terrestrialization simply changed the nature of the plant-pathogen interactions. Here we highlight that many potential components of the angiosperm defense toolkit are i) found in streptophyte algae and non-flowering embryophytes and ii) might be used in non-flowering plant defense as inferred from published experimental data...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
František Baluška, William B Miller
In the legacy of Thomas Henry Huxley, and his 'epigenetic' philosophy of biology, cells are proposed to represent a trinity of three memory-storing media: Senome, Epigenome, and Genome that together comprise a cell-wide informational architecture. Our current preferential focus on the Genome needs to be complemented by a similar focus on the Epigenome and a here proposed Senome, representing the sum of all the sensory experiences of the cognitive cell and its sensing apparatus. Only then will biology be in a position to embrace the whole complexity of the eukaryotic cell, understanding its true nature which allows the communicative assembly of cells in the form of sentient multicellular organisms...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Takamitsu Kurusu, Daiki Mitsuka, Chikako Yagi, Nobutaka Kitahata, Tomokazu Tsutsui, Takashi Ueda, Yoshiko Yamamoto, Juntaro Negi, Koh Iba, Shigeyuki Betsuyaku, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
Pharmacological indications suggest that anion channel-mediated plasma membrane (PM) anion efflux is crucial in early defense signaling to induce immune responses and programmed cell death in plants. Arabidopsis SLAC1, an S-type anion channel required for stomatal closure, is involved in cryptogein-induced PM Cl- efflux to positively modulate the activation of other ion fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species and a wide range of defense responses including hypersensitive cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Rupesh R Kariyat, Sean B Hardison, Aisling B Ryan, Andrew G Stephenson, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher
Leaf trichomes play well-established roles in defense against insect herbivores, both as a physical barrier that impedes herbivore movement and by mediating chemical defenses. However, little work has examined how different trichome types influence herbivory by herbivores at different stages of development. We examined whether caterpillar instar and trichome type (glandular or non-glandular) affected the ability of the specialist herbivore caterpillar Manduca sexta to initiate feeding on 11 Solanaceous species exhibiting variation in the density and type of leaf trichomes...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Sachiko Masuda, Kazuhiro Sasaki, Yuri Kazama, Chiharu Kisara, Shoko Takeda, Eiko Hanzawa, Kiwamu Minamisawa, Tadashi Sato
Azospirillum sp. strain B510 has been known as the plant growth-promoting endophyte; however, the growth-promotion effect is dependent on the plant genotype. Here, we aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to primary root length in rice at the seedling stage as a response to inoculation with B510. The primary root length of "Nipponbare" was significantly reduced by inoculation with B510, whereas that of "Kasalath" was not affected. Thus, we examined 98 backcrossed inbred lines and four chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL) derived from a cross between Nipponbare and Kasalath...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Ilaria Ferrari, Chiara Verpelli, Arianna Crespi, Carlo Sala, Diego Fornasari, Grazia Pietrini
We here investigated the effects of overexpressed superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 mutants G93A and G147S in Neuro 2A (N2A) cell lines, and found a three-fold increase in lamellipodia either in cells cultured under differentiated or undifferentiated growth conditions. In undifferentiated N2A cells, SOD1 constructs promoted lamellipodial protrusions to similar extent as the overexpression of Rac1, and SOD1-mediated lamellipodia were prevented by coexpression of the N17 dominant-negative form of Rac1, or shRNA for a downstream effector of Rac1, the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53) or its binding partner LIN7...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Carmen Quinto
Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) constitute a multigene family in plants. These reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes participate in diverse biological processes. We previously demonstrated that PvRbohB plays an important role in lateral root (LR) development in Phaseolus vulgaris . However, little is known about the roles of other Rboh members in root development. Here, we report that PvRbohA is involved in LR emergence in P. vulgaris . PvRbohA was expressed in wild-type P. vulgaris root tissues, e...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Jing Xu, Eunchai Kang, C David Mintz
Experiments conducted in non-human primates have recently provided new evidence supporting a longstanding concern that exposure to general anesthesia during late intrauterine life or early childhood can cause lasting cognitive deficits through harmful effects on brain development. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling system plays a key role in both normal brain development and in a wide range of developmental disorders that are characterized by cognitive deficits. Intriguingly, our recently published work shows that anesthetics can chronically alter mTOR signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and that normalization of mTOR signaling can prevent anesthesia-induced perturbation of structure and function...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Eigo Takeda, Akira Matsuura
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a protein kinase complex conserved in eukaryotes that coordinates diverse cellular processes critical for cell growth to environmental conditions. Previous studies have shown that TORC1 is localized mainly in the lysosome/vacuoles, and its localization is important for signaling to downstream pathways. We recently demonstrated that signaling to Sch9, an S6K-related substrate of TORC1 in budding yeast, was selectively suppressed upon oxidative stress, which was mediated by the delocalization of phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-bisphosphate (PI[3,5]P2 ) from vacuolar membranes following stress...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Kevin B Clark
A recent theoretical treatment by Christiansen and Chater attempts to address fundamental challenges significant to language processing and evolution with one major operational constraint called the "Now-or-Never" bottleneck. The authors' "Chunk-and-Pass" processing putatively mitigates the severe multilevel Now-or-Never bottleneck via fast linguistic coding and compression, hierarchical language representation and pattern duality, and incrementally learned item-based predictions useful for grammaticalization over wide spacetime scales...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Hakima Flici, Uri Frank
Regeneration has long been known to occur in the cnidarian Hydractinia . This process refers to its ability to regrow structures, i.e a head, lost by injury, a phenomenon that depends on the migration of proliferative cells to the site of injury, and the formation of a blastema, a mass of undifferentiated cells that will restore the missing head tissues. In our study, we showed that members of SoxB transcription factors and HDACs are involved in the regulation of Hydractinia neurogenesis in tissue homeostasis and regeneration...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Takashi Hirama, Gregory D Fairn
Membrane curvature is a property of biological membranes essential for organelle morphology and the formation of tubulovesicular carriers. Curvature generation is influenced by the lipid composition of the membrane and protein-mediated processes. Lipids with small headgroups, such as phosphatidic acid, are conical and impose negative curvature on a monolayer. Conversely, lipids with large headgroups relative to the hydrophobic tail(s), such as lysophosphatidylcholine, have an inverted conical shape and impose positive curvature...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Ina Anreiter, Marla B Sokolowski
The genetic underpinnings of animal behavior are exceedingly complex. Behavioral phenotypes are commonly regulated by many genes, and the behavioral effects of a gene often dependent on environmental conditions and genetic background. To complicate the study of behavioral genetics further, many genes that regulate behavioral phenotypes are themselves very complex genes, with several gene products and functions. One example of such a complex gene is the foraging gene in D. melanogaster . foraging influences many behaviors in the fruit fly, and the key to its effects likely lies in its complex molecular structure...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Bernhard Steiner, Stephen Weber, Andres Kaech, Urs Ziegler, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia and replicates in free-living protozoa and mammalian macrophages in a specific compartment, the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). LCVs communicate with the endosomal, retrograde and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway, and eventually tightly interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and macrophages, the ER tubule-resident large GTPase Sey1/atlastin3 (Atl3) accumulates on LCVs and promotes LCV expansion and intracellular replication of L...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Megha Bansal, Shivranjani C Moharir, Ghanshyam Swarup
Autophagy is an essential physiological process that maintains cellular homeostasis by eliminating harmful protein aggregates, damaged organelles and certain pathogens through lysosomal degradation. During autophagy specialized structures, known as autophagosomes are formed that recruit the cargo through autophagy receptors, and deliver it to lysosomes. Optineurin (Optn) is an autophagy receptor that mediates cargo selective autophagy. Recently, we have identified a novel function of Optn that promotes autophagosome formation during non-selective autophagy...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Ken Yokawa, František Baluška
In soil, plant roots grow in heterogeneous environments. Plant roots are always facing the difficulty of searching effectively the patchy natural resources, such as water, oxygen, ions and mineral nutrition. Numerous studies reported that root apex navigation enables roots to explore complex environments. In this short communication, we characterize how growing maize roots explore narrow space available with two experimental settings: tactile exploration of narrow glass tube and circumnutation in free space...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Erin Swinton, Emily de Freitas, Cayley Swinton, Tamila Shymansky, Emily Hiles, Jack Zhang, Cailin Rothwell, Ken Lukowiak
A flavonoid, (-)-epicatechi (Epi), enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea and reverses memory obstruction caused by stress. Many foods contain substantial amounts of Epi, (e.g. green tea and cocoa). In humans eating such foods may directly or indirectly enhance cognition. We directly test whether operant conditioning training Lymnaea in these natural foods result in the same effects as training snails in pure Epi. We found that exposure to products containing high concentrations of Epi (e.g. green tea and cocoa) during training enhanced memory formation and could even reverse a learning and memory deficit brought about by stress...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Tahseen Raza Hashmi, Salam Rita Devi, Naresh M Meshram, Ram Prasad
Endosymbionts are vital factor for arthropod ecology. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex composed of more than 34 putative species. Moreover to the primary endosymbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum , six secondary endosymbionts Cardinium , Arsenophonus , Rickettsia , Wolbachia, Hamiltonella and Fritschea are known in B . tabaci . Here, we tested four of the six secondary endosymbiont lineages (excluding Fritschea and Hamiltonella ) from 180 whitely individuals collected from six host plants belonging to families Solanaceae (Brinjal, Tomato and Potato) and Fabaceae (Soyabean, Mungbean and Subabool)...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
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