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Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914311/comparing-caenorhabditis-elegans-gentle-and-harsh-touch-response-behavior-using-a-multiplexed-hydraulic-microfluidic-device
#1
Patrick D McClanahan, Joyce H Xu, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the genetics and physiology of touch. Classical assays for C. elegans touch, which involve manually touching the animal with a probe and observing its response, are limited by their low throughput and qualitative nature. We developed a microfluidic device in which several dozen animals are subject to spatially localized mechanical stimuli with variable amplitude. The device contains 64 sinusoidal channels through which worms crawl, and hydraulic valves that deliver touch stimuli to the worms...
September 15, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884171/model-guided-identification-of-novel-gene-amplification-targets-for-improving-succinate-production-in-escherichia-coli-nzn111
#2
Xingxing Jian, Ningchuan Li, Qian Chen, Qiang Hua
Reconstruction and application of genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have facilitated metabolic engineering by providing a platform on which systematic computational analysis of metabolic networks can be performed. In this study, a GEM of Escherichia coli NZN111 was employed by the analysis of production and growth coupling (APGC) algorithm to identify genetic strategies for the overproduction of succinate. Through in silico simulation and reaction expression analysis, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), encoded by gapA, pgk, tpiA, and ppc, respectively, were selected for experimental overexpression...
September 8, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862705/membrane-and-genomic-dna-dual-targeting-of-citrus-flavonoid-naringenin-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Lang-Hong Wang, Man-Sheng Wang, Xin-An Zeng, Xi-Ming Xu, Charles S Brennan
The antimicrobial mechanism of naringenin, one of the citrus antibacterial flavonoids against food-borne Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, was investigated in this study. Analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and fluorescence showed that relatively low concentrations of naringenin caused perturbations in the membrane fatty acid composition and the conformation of membrane proteins through changing the microenvironment of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan residues. Exposure of naringenin at higher levels significantly increased membrane permeability and changed the morphology of S...
September 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853753/a-multiscale-study-of-the-role-of-dynamin-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-uptake
#4
Raphaël Trouillon, M Cristina Letizia, Keir J Menzies, Laurent Mouchiroud, Johan Auwerx, Kristina Schoonjans, Martin A M Gijs
Glucose uptake in muscle cells in response to insulin is a fundamental mechanism for metabolism. The inability of cells to mobilize the specific glucose transporter GLUT4 is believed to be at least partially accountable for diseases, like diabetes, where cells do not respond to an insulin stimulus. In this work, a microchip is used to detect electrochemically glucose uptake from C2C12 myoblasts cultured on a patch of paper upon exposure to insulin. More importantly, the data suggest a new role for dynamin, a molecular motor which would be involved in GLUT4 translocation by facilitating exocytosis...
August 30, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920996/back-cover
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920974/contents-list
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920973/front-cover
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840922/a-microfluidic-oxygen-gradient-demonstrates-differential-activation-of-the-hypoxia-regulated-transcription-factors-hif-1%C3%AE-and-hif-2%C3%AE
#8
Megan L Rexius-Hall, Jalees Rehman, David T Eddington
Gas-perfused microchannels generated a linear oxygen gradient via diffusion across a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The device enabled exposure of a single monolayer of cells sharing culture media to a heterogeneous oxygen landscape, thus reflecting the oxygen gradients found at the microscale in the physiological setting and allowing for the real-time exchange of paracrine factors and metabolites between cells exposed to varying oxygen levels. By tuning the distance between two gas supply channels, the slope of the oxygen gradient was controlled...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831492/quantitative-profiling-of-innate-immune-activation-by-viral-infection-in-single-cells
#9
Andrea C Timm, Jay W Warrick, John Yin
Cells infected by viruses can exhibit diverse patterns of viral and cellular gene expression. The patterns arise in part from the stochastic or noisy reaction kinetics associated with the small number of genomes, enzymes, and other molecules that typically initiate virus replication and activate cellular anti-viral defenses. It is not known what features, if any, of the early viral or cellular gene expression correlate with later processes of viral replication or cell survival. Here we used two fluorescent reporters to visualize innate immune activation of human prostate cancer (PC3) cells against infection by vesicular stomatitis virus...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795726/a-hollow-fiber-system-for-simple-generation-of-human-brain-organoids
#10
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Fangchao Yin, Yue Yu, Yaqing Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Wang, Ning Sun, Haitao Liu, Jianhua Qin
3D organoids exhibit near-physiological morphogenesis and histology relying on the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), representing a new class of in vitro model for studying developmental biology and diseases. An engineered approach is highly desirable to generate sufficient organoids in a simple and efficient manner. Herein, we present a new strategy for the simple formation of massive human brain organoids from hiPSCs within a hollow fiber reactor system by combining fiber materials with the developmental biology principle...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752870/endothelium-induced-three-dimensional-invasion-of-heterogeneous-glioma-initiating-cells-in-a-microfluidic-coculture-platform
#11
Yuta Chonan, Sotaro Taki, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Ryo Sudo
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive primary brain tumor that displays cellular heterogeneity, which is composed of glioma initiating cells (GICs) and their differentiated progeny. GICs play an important role in driving aggressive invasion. In particular, the interaction between GICs and blood vessels is critical because blood vessels are known to serve as routes for the invasion of GICs. However, the effect of endothelial cells on the three-dimensional (3D) invasion process of GICs as well as the spatial relationship between GICs and their differentiated progeny remains unclear...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726920/pheomelanin-molecular-vibration-is-associated-with-mitochondrial-ros-production-in-melanocytes-and-systemic-oxidative-stress-and-damage
#12
Ismael Galván, Alberto Jorge, María García-Gil
Vibrations in covalent bonds affect electron delocalization within molecules, as reported in polymers. If synthesized by living cells, the electron delocalization of polymers affects the stabilization of cellular free radicals, but biomolecular vibration has never been considered a potential source of cytotoxicity. Here we show that the vibrational characteristics of natural pheomelanin and eumelanin contribute to feather color expression in four poultry breeds with different melanin-based pigmentation patterns, but only the vibrational characteristics of pheomelanin are related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria of melanocytes and to systemic levels of cellular oxidative stress and damage...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726917/engineering-micromyocardium-to-delineate-cellular-and-extracellular-regulation-of-myocardial-tissue-contractility
#13
Nethika R Ariyasinghe, Caitlin H Reck, Alyssa A Viscio, Andrew P Petersen, Davi M Lyra-Leite, Nathan Cho, Megan L McCain
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death, in part due to limitations of existing models of the myocardium. Myocardium consists of aligned, contractile cardiac myocytes interspersed with fibroblasts that synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). The cellular demographics and biochemical and mechanical properties of the ECM remodel in many different cardiac diseases. However, the impact of diverse cellular and extracellular remodeling on the contractile output of the myocardium are poorly understood...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805865/back-cover
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805854/contents-list
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805848/front-cover
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702670/lmna-knockout-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-are-less-contractile-than-their-wild-type-counterparts
#17
I A E W van Loosdregt, M A F Kamps, C W J Oomens, S Loerakker, J L V Broers, C V C Bouten
In order to maintain tissue homeostasis and functionality, adherent cells need to sense and respond to environmental mechanical stimuli. An important ability that adherent cells need in order to properly sense and respond to mechanical stimuli is the ability to exert contractile stress onto the environment via actin stress fibers. The actin stress fibers form a structural chain between the cells' environment via focal adhesions and the nucleus via the nuclear lamina. In case one of the links in this chain is missing or aberrant, contractile stress generation will be affected...
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702667/microengineered-cultures-containing-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-hepatocytes-for-drug-development
#18
Matthew D Davidson, David A Kukla, Salman R Khetani
In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic stellate cells (HSC) differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells that cause fibrosis, which predisposes patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, modeling interactions between activated HSCs and hepatocytes in vitro can aid in the development of anti-NASH/fibrosis therapeutics and lead to a better understanding of disease progression. Species-specific differences in drug metabolism and disease pathways now necessitate the supplementation of animal studies with data acquired using human liver models; however, current models do not adequately model the negative effects of primary human activated HSCs on the phenotype of otherwise well-differentiated primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) as in vivo...
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678266/the-arp2-3-complex-binding-protein-hs1-is-required-for-efficient-dendritic-cell-random-migration-and-force-generation
#19
Amy C Bendell, Edward K Williamson, Christopher S Chen, Janis K Burkhardt, Daniel A Hammer
Dendritic cell migration to the T-cell-rich areas of the lymph node is essential for their ability to initiate the adaptive immune response. While it has been shown that the actin cytoskeleton is required for normal DC migration, the role of many of the individual cytoskeletal molecules is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the Arp2/3 complex binding protein, haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1), to DC migration and force generation. We quantified the random migration of HS1(-/-) DCs on 2D micro-contact printed surfaces and found that in the absence of HS1, DCs have greatly reduced motility and speed...
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671701/demonstration-of-transgressive-overyielding-of-algal-mixed-cultures-in-microdroplets
#20
David N Carruthers, Chang Kyu Byun, Bradley J Cardinale, Xiaoxia Nina Lin
Algae are ubiquitous in natural ecosystems and have been studied extensively for biofuel production due to their unique metabolic capabilities. Most studies to date have approached biofuel optimization through synthetic biology and process engineering with few industrial scale projects considering algal community interactions. Such interactions can potentially lead to increased productivity and reduced community invasability, both important characteristics for scalable algal biofuel production. It is estimated that over a million species of algae exist such that elucidating the interactions that might be beneficial for biofuel production remains extremely resource and time intensive...
August 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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