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Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322389/alteration-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-and-promyeloblastic-cell-adhesion-in-liver-microvasculature-by-co-culture-of-hepatocytes-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-endothelial-cells-in-a-physiologically-relevant-model
#1
Mathieu Danoy, Marie Shinohara, Astia Rizki-Safitri, Dominique Collard, Vincent Senez, Yasuyuki Sakai
In vitro models of the liver microvasculature, especially with respect to cancer cell extravasation, should include not only endothelial and cancer cells but also surrounding cells to mimic the physiological situation. To this end, in the present study, we established a physiologically-relevant hierarchical co-culture model by stacking layers of primary rat hepatocytes (Hep), hepatic stellate cells embedded in collagen gel (LX-2) and endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a specially designed oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane PDMS bottom plate...
March 21, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317948/local-remodeling-of-synthetic-extracellular-matrix-microenvironments-by-co-cultured-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-enables-long-term-dynamic-physiological-function
#2
Christi D Cook, Abby S Hill, Margaret Guo, Linda Stockdale, Julia P Papps, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith
Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models...
March 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300261/quantifying-3d-chemotaxis-in-microfluidic-based-chips-with-step-gradients-of-collagen-hydrogel-concentrations
#3
C Del Amo, C Borau, N Movilla, Jesús Asín, J M García-Aznar
Cell migration is an essential process involved in crucial stages of tissue formation, regeneration or immune function as well as in pathological processes including tumor development or metastasis. During the last few years, the effect of gradients of soluble molecules on cell migration has been widely studied, and complex systems have been used to analyze cell behavior under simultaneous mechano-chemical stimuli. Most of these chemotactic assays have, however, focused on specific substrates in 2D. The aim of the present work is to develop a novel microfluidic-based chip that allows the long-term chemoattractant effect of growth factors (GFs) on 3D cell migration to be studied, while also providing the possibility to analyze the influence of the interface generated between different adjacent hydrogels...
March 16, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290581/deconvolution-of-heterogeneous-wound-tissue-samples-into-relative-macrophage-phenotype-composition-via-models-based-on-gene-expression
#4
Nicole M Ferraro, Will Dampier, Michael S Weingarten, Kara L Spiller
Macrophages, the primary cell of the innate immune system, act on a spectrum of phenotypes that correspond to diverse functions. Dysregulation of macrophage phenotype is associated with many diseases. In particular, defective transition from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) behavior has been implicated as a potential source of sustained inflammation that prevents healing of chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In order to design effective treatments, an understanding of the relative presence of macrophage phenotypes during tissue repair is necessary...
March 14, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267162/multi-functional-scaling-methodology-for-translational-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-applications-using-integrated-microphysiological-systems-mps
#5
Christian Maass, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS) provide relevant physiological environments in vitro for studies of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and biological mechanisms for translational research. Designing multi-MPS platforms is essential to study multi-organ systems. Typical design approaches, including direct and allometric scaling, scale each MPS individually and are based on relative sizes not function. This study's aim was to develop a new multi-functional scaling approach for integrated multi-MPS platform design for specific applications...
March 7, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262902/p-selectin-and-icam-1-synergy-in-mediating-thp-1-monocyte-adhesion-in-hemodynamic-flow-is-length-dependent
#6
Erin Elizabeth Edwards, Susan Napier Thomas
The tightly orchestrated recruitment of monocytes, whose progeny are critical to the progression and resolution of various physiological and pathophysiological processes, is implicated in the time course, severity, and resolution of pathology. Using a microfluidic-based cell adhesion assay integrating spatiotemporal analyses and micropatterning of adhesive proteins, we interrogated the effects of adhesive molecule presentation length, which varies in vivo with disease and stage, on THP-1 monocyte cell rolling versus firm adhesion mediated by P-selectin and/or ICAM-1 in hemodynamic flow...
March 6, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217793/quantitative-analysis-of-the-proliferative-to-invasive-transition-of-hypoxic-glioma-cells
#7
Hector Gomez
Hypoxia is a hallmark of gliomas that is often associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapies. Insufficient oxygen supply reduces the proliferation rate of tumor cells, which contributes to a slower progression of the lesion, but also increases the invasiveness of the tumor, making it more aggressive. To understand how these two counteracting mechanisms combine and modify the tumor's global growth, this paper proposes a quantitative approach based on a biomathematical model. The model predicts that the net effect of the proliferative-to-invasive transition leads to a lower survival even for slight increments of the invasive capacity of hypoxic tumor cells...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144664/aptamer-functionalized-nano-micro-materials-for-clinical-diagnosis-isolation-release-and-bioanalysis-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#8
REVIEW
Yaju Zhao, Danke Xu, Weihong Tan
Detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is a challenging, but necessary, task in order to diagnose early onset of metastatic cancer and to monitor treatment efficacy. Over the last decade, step-up produced aptamers have attracted great attention in clinical diagnosis. They have offered great promise for a broader range of cell-specific recognition and isolation. In particular, aptamer-functionalized magnetic particles for selective extraction of target CTCs have shown reduced damage to cells and relatively simple operation...
February 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252135/t-cell-immunoengineering-with-advanced-biomaterials
#9
Derfogail Delcassian, Susanne Sattler, Iain E Dunlop
Recent advances in biomaterials design offer the potential to actively control immune cell activation and behaviour. Many human diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, are partly mediated by inappropriate or insufficient activation of the immune system. T cells play a central role in the host immune response to these diseases, and so constitute a promising cell type for manipulation. In vivo, T cells are stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC), therefore to design immunoengineering biomaterials that control T cell behaviour, artificial interfaces that mimic the natural APC-T cell interaction are required...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217782/receptor-for-hyaluronan-mediated-motility-rhamm-hmmr-is-a-novel-target-for-promoting-subcutaneous-adipogenesis
#10
S B Bahrami, C Tolg, T Peart, C Symonette, M Veiseh, J U Umoh, D W Holdsworth, J B McCarthy, L G Luyt, M J Bissell, A Yazdani, E A Turley
Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180219/super-resolution-imaging-of-alpha-synuclein-polymorphisms-and-their-potential-role-in-neurodegeneration
#11
Eileen Nugent, Clemens F Kaminski, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle
The conversion of soluble, functional proteins into amyloid fibrils has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In the brains of patients with these disorders, the increasing presence of amyloid-containing plaques corresponds to neuronal cell death and the worsening of symptoms. However, protein amyloids are not merely confined to dying cells. Rather, some show a propensity to be transmitted to, and enter adjacent cells and induce the polymerization of the native monomer population...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168257/a-finite-element-model-of-granular-serotonin-exocytosis
#12
Ankurita Datta, Christy L Haynes, Victor H Barocas
Signaling molecules stored in cellular granules serve a broad range of functional purposes. Serotonin, for example, is involved in the regulation of behavior, cognitive function, and hemostasis. Understanding serotonin release from platelet granules can provide valuable fundamental information about the exocytotic process and help elucidate potential abnormalities of diseased platelets. Experimentally, carbon-fiber microelectrochemistry has been utilized to characterize the dynamic behavior of serotonin secretion from individual platelets...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164205/single-cell-resolution-of-intracellular-t-cell-ca-2-dynamics-in-response-to-frequency-based-h2o2-stimulation
#13
Ariel S Kniss-James, Catherine A Rivet, Loice Chingozha, Hang Lu, Melissa L Kemp
Adaptive immune cells, such as T cells, integrate information from their extracellular environment through complex signaling networks with exquisite sensitivity in order to direct decisions on proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine production. These signaling networks are reliant on the interplay between finely tuned secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) and H2O2. Frequency response analysis, originally developed in control engineering, is a tool used for discerning complex networks. This analytical technique has been shown to be useful for understanding biological systems and facilitates identification of the dominant behaviour of the system...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134382/measurement-of-bistability-in-a-multidimensional-parameter-space
#14
Vincent Jaquet, Chieh Hsu, Attila Becskei
Bistability plays an important role to generate two stable states for alternative cell fates, or to promote cellular diversity and cell cycle oscillations. Positive feedback loops are necessary for the existence of bistability and ultrasensitive reactions in the loops broaden the parameter range of bistability. The broader parameter range a system's bistability covers, the more robust the two states are. It is challenging to determine the bistable range of a parameter because noise and transient processes induce transitions between the two states...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106223/next-generation-of-network-medicine-interdisciplinary-signaling-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Tamas Korcsmaros, Maria Victoria Schneider, Giulio Superti-Furga
In the last decade, network approaches have transformed our understanding of biological systems. Network analyses and visualizations have allowed us to identify essential molecules and modules in biological systems, and improved our understanding of how changes in cellular processes can lead to complex diseases, such as cancer, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. "Network medicine" involves unbiased large-scale network-based analyses of diverse data describing interactions between genes, diseases, phenotypes, drug targets, drug transport, drug side-effects, disease trajectories and more...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102399/microsphere-cytometry-to-interrogate-microenvironment-dependent-cell-signaling
#16
Henriette Christie Ertsås, Garry P Nolan, Mark A LaBarge, James B Lorens
Microenvironmental cues comprising surface-mediated and soluble factors control cellular signaling mechanisms underlying normal cellular responses that define homeostatic and diseased cell states. In order to measure cell signaling in single adherent cells, we developed a novel microsphere-based flow cytometry approach. Single normal or neoplastic cells were adhered to uniform microspheres that display mimetic-microenvironments comprising surface combinations of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the presence of soluble agonists/antagonists...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102396/zinc-sparks-induce-physiochemical-changes-in-the-egg-zona-pellucida-that-prevent-polyspermy
#17
Emily L Que, Francesca E Duncan, Amanda R Bayer, Steven J Philips, Eric W Roth, Reiner Bleher, Sophie C Gleber, Stefan Vogt, Teresa K Woodruff, Thomas V O'Halloran
During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as 'zinc sparks.' The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as 'hardening', which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098310/a-computational-model-predicts-genetic-nodes-that-allow-switching-between-species-specific-responses-in-a-conserved-signaling-network
#18
Adriana T Dawes, David Wu, Karley K Mahalak, Edward M Zitnik, Natalia Kravtsova, Haiwei Su, Helen M Chamberlin
Cell signaling networks regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes, and changes in their response to external stimuli are often implicated in disease initiation and progression. To elucidate how different responses can arise from conserved signaling networks, we have developed a mathematical model of the well-characterized Caenorhabditis vulval development network involving EGF, Wnt and Notch signaling that recapitulates biologically observed behaviors. We experimentally block a specific element of the EGF pathway (MEK), and find different behaviors in vulval development in two Caenorhabditis species, C...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092391/correlation-of-focal-adhesion-assembly-and-disassembly-with-cell-migration-on-nanotopography
#19
Elena I Liang, Emma J Mah, Albert F Yee, Michelle A Digman
Selective cell adhesion is desirable to control cell growth and migration on biomedical implants. Mesenchymal cell migration is regulated through focal adhesions (FAs) and can be modulated by their microenvironment, including changes in surface topography. We use the Number and Molecular Brightness (N&B) imaging analysis to provide a unique perspective on FA assembly and disassembly. This imaging analysis generates a map of real-time fluctuations of protein monomers, dimers, and higher order aggregates of FA proteins, such as paxillin during assembly and disassembly...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045163/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-in-genome-engineering-development-of-sequence-specific-antimicrobials-and-future-prospects
#20
REVIEW
César de la Fuente-Núñez, Timothy K Lu
The development of CRISPR-Cas9 technology has revolutionized our ability to edit DNA and to modulate expression levels of genes of interest, thus providing powerful tools to accelerate the precise engineering of a wide range of organisms. In addition, the CRISPR-Cas system can be harnessed to design "precision" antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens in a DNA sequence-specific manner. This capability will enable killing of drug-resistant microbes by selectively targeting genes involved in antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and virulence...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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