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Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425521/chemical-genomic-analysis-of-gpr35-signaling
#1
Heidi Haibei Hu, Huayun Deng, Shizhang Ling, Haiyan Sun, Terry Kenakin, Xinmiao Liang, Ye Fang
GPR35, a family A orphan G protein-coupled receptor, has been implicated in inflammatory, neurological, and cardiovascular diseases. However, not much is known about the signaling and functions of GPR35. We performed a label-free kinome short hairpin RNA screen and identified a putative signaling network of GPR35 in HT-29 cells, some of which was validated using gene expression, biochemical and cellular assays. The results showed that GPR35 induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, and was involved in synaptic transmission, sensory perception, the immune system, and morphogenetic processes...
April 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406502/self-regulatory-factors-of-embryonic-stem-cells-in-co-culture-with-stromal-cells-enhance-neural-differentiation
#2
R Joshi, J C Buchanan, H Tavana
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their intrinsic capability to generate somatic cells of all three germ layers, are potential sources of neural cells for cell replacement therapies. However, the empirical differentiation protocols and the lack of mechanistic understanding of the neural differentiation of ESCs have limited the utility of ESCs as a developmental model or as a cell source for neural cell populations for replacement therapies. Co-culturing ESCs with stromal cells is one of the extensively used methods to induce neural differentiation...
April 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401204/protein-self-assembly-following-in-situ-expression-in-artificial-and-mammalian-cells
#3
Urszula M Migas, Michelle K Quinn, Jennifer J McManus
The self-assembly of proteins has been widely studied in controlled in vitro conditions, and more recently in biological environments. The self-assembly of proteins in biology can be a feature of the pathogenesis of protein condensation disease, or can occur during normal physiological function, for example during the formation of intracellular non-membrane bound organelles. To determine the mechanisms for the assembly process fully, controlled in vitro experiments using purified protein solutions are often required...
April 12, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386617/blue-light-effect-on-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-by-display-devices
#4
Jiyoung Moon, Jieun Yun, Yeo Dae Yoon, Sang-Il Park, Young-Jun Seo, Won-Sang Park, Hye Yong Chu, Keun Hong Park, Myung Yeol Lee, Chang Woo Lee, Soo Jin Oh, Young-Shin Kwak, Young Pyo Jang, Jong Soon Kang
Blue light has high photochemical energy and induces cell apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Due to its phototoxicity, retinal hazard by blue light stimulation has been well demonstrated using high intensity light sources. However, it has not been studied whether blue light in the displays, emitting low intensity light, such as those used in today's smartphones, monitors, and TVs, also causes apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. We attempted to examine the blue light effect on human adult retinal epithelial cells using display devices with different blue light wavelength ranges, the peaks of which specifically appear at 449 nm, 458 nm, and 470 nm...
April 7, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353687/harnessing-endogenous-signals-from-hepatocytes-using-a-low-volume-multi-well-plate
#5
Pantea Gheibi, Kyung Jin Son, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Alexander Revzin
Hepatocytes are highly differentiated epithelial cells that lose their phenotype and function when removed from the in vivo environment. Given the importance of hepatic cultures for drug toxicity, bioartificial liver assist devices and basic biology studies, considerable efforts have been focused on the maintenance of hepatic function in vitro. The methods used to date include co-cultivation of hepatocytes with stromal cells, organizing these cells into spheroids and imbedding them into bioactive gels. Our team has recently demonstrated that primary rat hepatocytes confined to microfluidic channels in the absence of convection maintained the epithelial phenotype through upregulation of endogenous signals including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)...
March 29, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352896/new-advances-in-probing-cell-extracellular-matrix-interactions
#6
REVIEW
Allen P Liu, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Sapun H Parekh
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells within tissues. An emerging body of evidence has established that the ECM plays a key role in cell mechanotransduction - the study of coupling between mechanical inputs and cellular phenotype - through either mediating transmission of forces to the cells, or presenting mechanical cues that guide cellular behaviors. Recent progress in cell mechanotransduction research has been facilitated by advances of experimental tools, particularly microtechnologies, engineered biomaterials, and imaging and analytical methods...
March 29, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217793/quantitative-analysis-of-the-proliferative-to-invasive-transition-of-hypoxic-glioma-cells
#7
Hector Gomez
Hypoxia is a hallmark of gliomas that is often associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapies. Insufficient oxygen supply reduces the proliferation rate of tumor cells, which contributes to a slower progression of the lesion, but also increases the invasiveness of the tumor, making it more aggressive. To understand how these two counteracting mechanisms combine and modify the tumor's global growth, this paper proposes a quantitative approach based on a biomathematical model. The model predicts that the net effect of the proliferative-to-invasive transition leads to a lower survival even for slight increments of the invasive capacity of hypoxic tumor cells...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144664/aptamer-functionalized-nano-micro-materials-for-clinical-diagnosis-isolation-release-and-bioanalysis-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#8
REVIEW
Yaju Zhao, Danke Xu, Weihong Tan
Detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is a challenging, but necessary, task in order to diagnose early onset of metastatic cancer and to monitor treatment efficacy. Over the last decade, step-up produced aptamers have attracted great attention in clinical diagnosis. They have offered great promise for a broader range of cell-specific recognition and isolation. In particular, aptamer-functionalized magnetic particles for selective extraction of target CTCs have shown reduced damage to cells and relatively simple operation...
February 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367571/a-dual-docking-microfluidic-cell-migration-assay-d-2-chip-for-testing-neutrophil-chemotaxis-and-the-memory-effect
#9
Ke Yang, Jiandong Wu, Guoqing Xu, Dongxue Xie, Hagit Peretz-Soroka, Susy Santos, Murray Alexander, Ling Zhu, Michael Zhang, Yong Liu, Francis Lin
Chemotaxis is a classic mechanism for guiding cell migration and an important topic in both fundamental cell biology and health sciences. Neutrophils are a widely used model to study eukaryotic cell migration and neutrophil chemotaxis itself can lead to protective or harmful immune actions to the body. While much has been learnt from past research about how neutrophils effectively navigate through a chemoattractant gradient, many interesting questions remain unclear. For example, while it is tempting to model neutrophil chemotaxis using the well-established biased random walk theory, the experimental proof was challenged by the cell's highly persistent migrating nature...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345713/real-time-quantification-of-endothelial-response-to-shear-stress-and-vascular-modulators
#10
Jackson G DeStefano, Ashley Williams, Alexa Wnorowski, Nahom Yimam, Peter C Searson, Andrew D Wong
Quiescence is commonly used to describe the inactive state of endothelial cells (ECs) in monolayers that have reached homeostasis. Experimentally quiescence is usually described in terms of the relative change in cell activity (e.g. turnover, speed, etc.) in response to a perturbation (e.g. solute, shear stress, etc.). The objective of this study is to provide new insight into EC quiescence by quantitatively defining the morphology and activity of confluent cell monolayers in response to shear stress and vascular modulators...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322389/alteration-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-and-promyeloblastic-cell-adhesion-in-liver-microvasculature-by-co-culture-of-hepatocytes-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-endothelial-cells-in-a-physiologically-relevant-model
#11
Mathieu Danoy, Marie Shinohara, Astia Rizki-Safitri, Dominique Collard, Vincent Senez, Yasuyuki Sakai
In vitro models of the liver microvasculature, especially with respect to cancer cell extravasation, should include not only endothelial and cancer cells but also surrounding cells to mimic the physiological situation. To this end, in the present study, we established a physiologically-relevant hierarchical co-culture model by stacking layers of primary rat hepatocytes (Hep), hepatic stellate cells embedded in collagen gel (LX-2) and endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a specially designed oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane PDMS bottom plate...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317948/local-remodeling-of-synthetic-extracellular-matrix-microenvironments-by-co-cultured-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-enables-long-term-dynamic-physiological-function
#12
Christi D Cook, Abby S Hill, Margaret Guo, Linda Stockdale, Julia P Papps, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith
Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300261/quantifying-3d-chemotaxis-in-microfluidic-based-chips-with-step-gradients-of-collagen-hydrogel-concentrations
#13
C Del Amo, C Borau, N Movilla, Jesús Asín, J M García-Aznar
Cell migration is an essential process involved in crucial stages of tissue formation, regeneration or immune function as well as in pathological processes including tumor development or metastasis. During the last few years, the effect of gradients of soluble molecules on cell migration has been widely studied, and complex systems have been used to analyze cell behavior under simultaneous mechano-chemical stimuli. Most of these chemotactic assays have, however, focused on specific substrates in 2D. The aim of the present work is to develop a novel microfluidic-based chip that allows the long-term chemoattractant effect of growth factors (GFs) on 3D cell migration to be studied, while also providing the possibility to analyze the influence of the interface generated between different adjacent hydrogels...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290581/deconvolution-of-heterogeneous-wound-tissue-samples-into-relative-macrophage-phenotype-composition-via-models-based-on-gene-expression
#14
Nicole M Ferraro, Will Dampier, Michael S Weingarten, Kara L Spiller
Macrophages, the primary cell of the innate immune system, act on a spectrum of phenotypes that correspond to diverse functions. Dysregulation of macrophage phenotype is associated with many diseases. In particular, defective transition from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) behavior has been implicated as a potential source of sustained inflammation that prevents healing of chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In order to design effective treatments, an understanding of the relative presence of macrophage phenotypes during tissue repair is necessary...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267162/multi-functional-scaling-methodology-for-translational-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-applications-using-integrated-microphysiological-systems-mps
#15
Christian Maass, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS) provide relevant physiological environments in vitro for studies of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and biological mechanisms for translational research. Designing multi-MPS platforms is essential to study multi-organ systems. Typical design approaches, including direct and allometric scaling, scale each MPS individually and are based on relative sizes not function. This study's aim was to develop a new multi-functional scaling approach for integrated multi-MPS platform design for specific applications...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262902/p-selectin-and-icam-1-synergy-in-mediating-thp-1-monocyte-adhesion-in-hemodynamic-flow-is-length-dependent
#16
Erin Elizabeth Edwards, Susan Napier Thomas
The tightly orchestrated recruitment of monocytes, whose progeny are critical to the progression and resolution of various physiological and pathophysiological processes, is implicated in the time course, severity, and resolution of pathology. Using a microfluidic-based cell adhesion assay integrating spatiotemporal analyses and micropatterning of adhesive proteins, we interrogated the effects of adhesive molecule presentation length, which varies in vivo with disease and stage, on THP-1 monocyte cell rolling versus firm adhesion mediated by P-selectin and/or ICAM-1 in hemodynamic flow...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252135/t-cell-immunoengineering-with-advanced-biomaterials
#17
Derfogail Delcassian, Susanne Sattler, Iain E Dunlop
Recent advances in biomaterials design offer the potential to actively control immune cell activation and behaviour. Many human diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, are partly mediated by inappropriate or insufficient activation of the immune system. T cells play a central role in the host immune response to these diseases, and so constitute a promising cell type for manipulation. In vivo, T cells are stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC), therefore to design immunoengineering biomaterials that control T cell behaviour, artificial interfaces that mimic the natural APC-T cell interaction are required...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217782/receptor-for-hyaluronan-mediated-motility-rhamm-hmmr-is-a-novel-target-for-promoting-subcutaneous-adipogenesis
#18
S B Bahrami, C Tolg, T Peart, C Symonette, M Veiseh, J U Umoh, D W Holdsworth, J B McCarthy, L G Luyt, M J Bissell, A Yazdani, E A Turley
Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180219/super-resolution-imaging-of-alpha-synuclein-polymorphisms-and-their-potential-role-in-neurodegeneration
#19
Eileen Nugent, Clemens F Kaminski, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle
The conversion of soluble, functional proteins into amyloid fibrils has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In the brains of patients with these disorders, the increasing presence of amyloid-containing plaques corresponds to neuronal cell death and the worsening of symptoms. However, protein amyloids are not merely confined to dying cells. Rather, some show a propensity to be transmitted to, and enter adjacent cells and induce the polymerization of the native monomer population...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168257/a-finite-element-model-of-granular-serotonin-exocytosis
#20
Ankurita Datta, Christy L Haynes, Victor H Barocas
Signaling molecules stored in cellular granules serve a broad range of functional purposes. Serotonin, for example, is involved in the regulation of behavior, cognitive function, and hemostasis. Understanding serotonin release from platelet granules can provide valuable fundamental information about the exocytotic process and help elucidate potential abnormalities of diseased platelets. Experimentally, carbon-fiber microelectrochemistry has been utilized to characterize the dynamic behavior of serotonin secretion from individual platelets...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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