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Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102399/microsphere-cytometry-to-interrogate-microenvironment-dependent-cell-signaling
#1
Henriette Christie Ertsås, Garry P Nolan, Mark A LaBarge, James B Lorens
Microenvironmental cues comprising surface-mediated and soluble factors control cellular signaling mechanisms underlying normal cellular responses that define homeostatic and diseased cell states. In order to measure cell signaling in single adherent cells, we developed a novel microsphere-based flow cytometry approach. Single normal or neoplastic cells were adhered to uniform microspheres that display mimetic-microenvironments comprising surface combinations of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the presence of soluble agonists/antagonists...
January 19, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102396/zinc-sparks-induce-physiochemical-changes-in-the-egg-zona-pellucida-that-prevent-polyspermy
#2
Emily L Que, Francesca E Duncan, Amanda R Bayer, Steven J Philips, Eric W Roth, Reiner Bleher, Sophie C Gleber, Stefan Vogt, Teresa K Woodruff, Thomas V O'Halloran
During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as 'zinc sparks.' The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as 'hardening', which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood...
January 19, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098310/a-computational-model-predicts-genetic-nodes-that-allow-switching-between-species-specific-responses-in-a-conserved-signaling-network
#3
Adriana T Dawes, David Wu, Karley K Mahalak, Edward M Zitnik, Natalia Kravtsova, Haiwei Su, Helen M Chamberlin
Cell signaling networks regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes, and changes in their response to external stimuli are often implicated in disease initiation and progression. To elucidate how different responses can arise from conserved signaling networks, we have developed a mathematical model of the well-characterized Caenorhabditis vulval development network involving EGF, Wnt and Notch signaling that recapitulates biologically observed behaviors. We experimentally block a specific element of the EGF pathway (MEK), and find different behaviors in vulval development in two Caenorhabditis species, C...
January 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092391/correlation-of-focal-adhesion-assembly-and-disassembly-with-cell-migration-on-nanotopography
#4
Elena I Liang, Emma J Mah, Albert F Yee, Michelle A Digman
Selective cell adhesion is desirable to control cell growth and migration on biomedical implants. Mesenchymal cell migration is regulated through focal adhesions (FAs) and can be modulated by their microenvironment, including changes in surface topography. We use the Number and Molecular Brightness (N&B) imaging analysis to provide a unique perspective on FA assembly and disassembly. This imaging analysis generates a map of real-time fluctuations of protein monomers, dimers, and higher order aggregates of FA proteins, such as paxillin during assembly and disassembly...
January 16, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045163/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-in-genome-engineering-development-of-sequence-specific-antimicrobials-and-future-prospects
#5
REVIEW
César de la Fuente-Núñez, Timothy K Lu
The development of CRISPR-Cas9 technology has revolutionized our ability to edit DNA and to modulate expression levels of genes of interest, thus providing powerful tools to accelerate the precise engineering of a wide range of organisms. In addition, the CRISPR-Cas system can be harnessed to design "precision" antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens in a DNA sequence-specific manner. This capability will enable killing of drug-resistant microbes by selectively targeting genes involved in antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and virulence...
January 3, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001152/peg-peptide-hydrogels-reveal-differential-effects-of-matrix-microenvironmental-cues-on-melanoma-drug-sensitivity
#6
Emi Y Tokuda, Caitlin E Jones, Kristi S Anseth
Metastatic melanoma is highly drug resistant, though the exact mechanisms of this resistance are not completely understood. One method to study melanoma drug responsiveness in vitro is through the use of multicellular spheroids, which have been found to exhibit decreased drug sensitivity compared to traditional 2D culture on various substrates. Because it is unclear whether dimensionality, cell-matrix interactions, and/or cell-cell contacts may influence melanoma drug responsiveness, we utilized a synthetic PEG-based hydrogel to compare the responses of cells cultured on top of or encapsulated within matrices with the same adhesive ligand density, polymer density, and material properties...
December 21, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001149/patterning-of-sharp-cellular-interfaces-with-a-reconfigurable-elastic-substrate
#7
Allison Curtis, David J Li, Brian DeVeale, Kento Onishi, Monica Y Kim, Robert Blelloch, Diana J Laird, Elliot E Hui
Micropatterned cocultures are a useful experimental tool for the study of cell-cell interactions. Patterning methods often rely on sequential seeding of different cell types or removal of a barrier separating two populations, but it is difficult to pattern sharp interfaces between pure populations with low cross-contamination when using these approaches. Patterning by the use of reconfigurable substrates can overcome these limitations, but such methods can be costly and challenging to employ in a typical biology laboratory...
December 21, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942686/patterns-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast-colonies-via-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Rômulo P Tenório, Wilson Barros
We report the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging methods to observe pattern formation in colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate substantial signal loss localized in specific regions of the colony rendering useful imaging contrast. This imaging contrast is recognizable as being due to discontinuities in magnetic susceptibility (χ) between different spatial regions. At the microscopic pixel level, the local variations in the magnetic susceptibility (Δχ) induce a loss in the NMR signal, which was quantified via T2 and T2* maps, permitting estimation of Δχ values for different regions of the colony...
December 12, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929582/liquid-biopsy-on-chip-a-paradigm-shift-towards-the-understanding-of-cancer-metastasis
#9
REVIEW
Amogha Tadimety, Abeer Syed, Yuan Nie, Christina R Long, Kasia M Kready, John X J Zhang
This comprehensive review serves as a guide for developing scalable and robust liquid biopsies on chip for capture, detection, and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Liquid biopsy, the detection of biomarkers from body fluids, has proven challenging because of CTC rarity and the heterogeneity of CTCs shed from tumors. The review starts with the underlying biological mechanisms that make liquid biopsy a challenge before moving into an evaluation of current technological progress. Then, a framework for evaluation of the technologies is presented with special attention to throughput, capture rate, and cell viability for analysis...
December 8, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868126/new-insights-into-mammalian-signaling-pathways-using-microfluidic-pulsatile-inputs-and-mathematical-modeling
#10
REVIEW
M Sumit, S Takayama, J J Linderman
Temporally modulated input mimics physiology. This chemical communication strategy filters the biochemical noise through entrainment and phase-locking. Under laboratory conditions, it also expands the observability space for downstream responses. A combined approach involving microfluidic pulsatile stimulation and mathematical modeling has led to deciphering of hidden/unknown temporal motifs in several mammalian signaling pathways and has provided mechanistic insights, including how these motifs combine to form distinct band-pass filters and govern fate regulation under dynamic microenvironment...
November 21, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841423/improving-selective-targeting-to-macrophage-subpopulations-through-modifying-liposomes-with-arginine-based-materials
#11
Lilusi Ma, Hannah C Bygd, Kaitlin M Bratlie
The effects of surface modifications on liposomes using a library of arginine derivatives for improved drug delivery were examined. Both unmodified and modified liposomes were tested for their drug delivery properties and propensity for internalization by macrophages. All materials were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential. The resulting liposomes were able to encapsulate doxorubicin with a loading efficiency greater than 90% and cumulative releases of less than 15% after 144 h...
November 14, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918606/contents-list
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918605/front-cover
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918603/back-cover
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853786/identification-and-isolation-of-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-with-an-automated-microraft-sorting-system
#15
Peter J Attayek, Sally A Hunsucker, Christopher E Sims, Nancy L Allbritton, Paul M Armistead
The simultaneous measurement of T cell function with recovery of individual T cells would greatly facilitate characterizing antigen-specific responses both in vivo and in model systems. We have developed a microraft array methodology that automatically measures the ability of individual T cells to kill a population of target cells and viably sorts specific cells into a 96-well plate for expansion. A human T cell culture was generated against the influenza M1p antigen. Individual microrafts on a 70 × 70 array were loaded with on average 1 CD8(+) cell from the culture and a population of M1p presenting target cells...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845457/gotta-catch-em-all-the-microscale-quest-to-understand-cancer-biology
#16
Zhenwei Ma, Christopher Moraes
Developing an improved understanding of the processes that drive cancer initiation and progression has been the focus of intense research in recent years. Here, we highlight recent advances in the innovative use of microscale engineered technologies to gain new insight into the integrative biophysical mechanisms that drive these processes.
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801472/accurate-prediction-of-the-age-incidence-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-with-an-improved-two-mutation-mathematical-model
#17
Paola Lecca, Claudio Sorio
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disorder whose hallmark is a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 occurring in 95% of affected patients. This translocation causes the expression of a deregulated BCR/ABL fusion oncogene and, interestingly, is detectable in healthy individuals. Based on this information we assumed that the sole presence of the BCR/ABL transcript represents a necessary but not sufficient event for the clonal expansion of CML precursors. We developed a mathematical model introducing a probability that any normal cell undergoes a first aberration, and a probability that a cell that experienced a first mutation undergoes a second mutation as well...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796394/mapping-lung-tumor-cell-drug-responses-as-a-function-of-matrix-context-and-genotype-using-cell-microarrays
#18
Kerim B Kaylan, Stefan D Gentile, Lauren E Milling, Kaustubh N Bhinge, Farhad Kosari, Gregory H Underhill
Carcinoma progression is influenced by interactions between epithelial tumor cells and components of their microenvironment. In particular, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are known to drive tumor growth, metastatic potential, and sensitivity or resistance to therapy. Yet the intrinsic complexity of ECM composition within the tumor microenvironment remains a barrier to comprehensive investigation of these interactions. We present here a high-throughput cell microarray-based approach to study the impact of defined combinations of ECM proteins on tumor cell drug responses...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787529/self-assembly-of-vascularized-tissue-to-support-tumor-explants-in-vitro
#19
Despina Bazou, Nir Maimon, Gabriel Gruionu, Lance L Munn
Testing the efficacy of cancer drugs requires functional assays that recapitulate the cell populations, anatomy and biological responses of human tumors. Although current animal models and in vitro cell culture platforms are informative, they have significant shortcomings. Mouse models can reproduce tissue-level and systemic responses to tumor growth and treatments observed in humans, but xenografts from patients often do not grow, or require months to develop. On the other hand, current in vitro assays are useful for studying the molecular bases of tumorigenesis or drug activity, but often lack the appropriate in vivo cell heterogeneity and natural microenvironment...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785513/modulating-the-microtubule-tau-interactions-in-biomotility-systems-by-altering-the-chemical-environment
#20
S Bhattacharyya, K Kim, H Nakazawa, M Umetsu, W Teizer
Obstacles in microtubule mediated neuronal transport can trigger dementia. We use bio-motility assays, that simulate the neuron chemistry in axonopathy, to screen chemicals, that retain the microtubule dynamics in healthy neuronal activity. Tau protein inhibits microtubule activity and leads to oligomerization. Iron(iii) untangles, whereas mono-sodium-glutamate destabilizes the microtubule oligomer.
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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