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Frontiers in Neuroenergetics

Angela Seto, Stephanie Taylor, Dustin Trudeau, Ian Swan, Jay Leung, Patrick Reeson, Kerry R Delaney, Craig E Brown
Anesthetics such as isoflurane are commonly used to sedate experimental animals during the induction of stroke. Since these agents are known to modulate synaptic excitability, inflammation and blood flow, they could hinder the development and discovery of new neuroprotection therapies. To address this issue, we developed a protocol for inducing photothrombotic occlusion of cerebral vessels in fully conscious mice and tested two potential neuroprotectant drugs (a GluN2B or α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist)...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Kimberly R Byrnes, Colin M Wilson, Fiona Brabazon, Ramona von Leden, Jennifer S Jurgens, Terrence R Oakes, Reed G Selwyn
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
William D Watson, John E Buonora, Angela M Yarnell, Jessica J Lucky, Michaela I D'Acchille, David C McMullen, Andrew G Boston, Andrew V Kuczmarski, William S Kean, Ajay Verma, Neil E Grunberg, Jeffrey T Cole
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Prasanth S Ariyannur, Aryan M A Namboodiri
N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is employed as a non-invasive marker for neuronal health using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This utility is afforded by the fact that NAA is one of the most concentrated brain metabolites and that it produces the largest peak in MRS scans of the healthy human brain. NAA levels in the brain are reduced proportionately to the degree of tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the reductions parallel the reductions in ATP levels. Because NAA is the most concentrated acetylated metabolite in the brain, we have hypothesized that NAA acts in part as an extensive reservoir of acetate for acetyl coenzyme A synthesis...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Jignesh D Pandya, Vidya N Nukala, Patrick G Sullivan
Mitochondrial dysfunction following traumatic brain and spinal cord injury (TBI and SCI) plays a pivotal role in the development of secondary pathophysiology and subsequent neuronal cell death. Previously, we demonstrated a loss of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the first 24 h following TBI and SCI initiates a rapid and extensive necrotic event at the primary site of injury. Within the mitochondrial derived mechanisms, the cross talk and imbalance amongst the processes of excitotoxicity, Ca(2+) cycling/overload, ATP synthesis, free radical production and oxidative damage ultimately lead to mitochondrial damage followed by neuronal cell death...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Tiago B Rodrigues, Julien Valette, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore
(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the method of choice for studying brain metabolism. Indeed, the most convincing data obtained to decipher metabolic exchanges between neurons and astrocytes have been obtained using this technique, thus illustrating its power. It may be difficult for non-specialists, however, to grasp thefull implication of data presented in articles written by spectroscopists. The aim of the review is, therefore, to provide a fundamental understanding of this topic to facilitate the non-specialists in their reading of this literature...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Neil G Harris, Katsunori Shijo, Richard L Sutton
The present review highlights critical issues related to cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the use of (13)C labeled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study these changes. First we address some pathophysiologic factors contributing to metabolic dysfunction following TBI. We then examine how (13)C NMR spectroscopy strategies have been used to investigate energy metabolism, neurotransmission, the intracellular redox state, and neuroglial compartmentation following injury...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Anders Rodell, Lene J Rasmussen, Linda H Bergersen, Keshav K Singh, Albert Gjedde
Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each cell...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Blanca Lizarbe, Ania Benitez, Gerardo A Peláez Brioso, Manuel Sánchez-Montañés, Pilar López-Larrubia, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main MRI and MRS strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast (BOLD), and Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) have revealed Mn(2+) accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions, and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Denys Sampol, Eugène Ostrofet, Marie-Lise Jobin, Gérard Raffard, Stéphane Sanchez, Véronique Bouchaud, Jean-Michel Franconi, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore
Glucose is the major energetic substrate for the brain but evidence has accumulated during the last 20 years that lactate produced by astrocytes could be an additional substrate for neurons. However, little information exists about this lactate shuttle in vivo in activated and awake animals. We designed an experiment in which the cortical barrel field (S1BF) was unilaterally activated during infusion of both glucose and lactate (alternatively labeled with (13)C) in rats. At the end of stimulation (1 h) both S1BF areas were removed and analyzed by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy to compare glucose and lactate metabolism in the activated area vs...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Carole Escartin, Nathalie Rouach
The strategic position of astrocytic processes between blood capillaries and neurons, provided the early insight that astrocytes play a key role in supplying energy substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. The central role of astrocytes in neurometabolic coupling has been first established at the level of single cell. Since then, exciting recent work based on cellular imaging and electrophysiological recordings has provided new mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, revealing the crucial role of gap junction (GJ)-mediated networks of astrocytes...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Andrea Moreno, Pierrick Jego, Feliberto de la Cruz, Santiago Canals
Complete understanding of the mechanisms that coordinate work and energy supply of the brain, the so called neurovascular coupling, is fundamental to interpreting brain energetics and their influence on neuronal coding strategies, but also to interpreting signals obtained from brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Interactions between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow regulation are largely compartmentalized. First, there exists a functional compartmentalization in which glutamatergic peri-synaptic activity and its electrophysiological events occur in close proximity to vascular responses...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Michael Gejl, Susanne Lerche, Lærke Egefjord, Birgitte Brock, Niels Møller, Kim Vang, Anders B Rodell, Bo M Bibby, Jens J Holst, Jørgen Rungby, Albert Gjedde
In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Jun Shen
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. Although it is rapidly synthesized from glucose in neural tissues the biochemical processes for replenishing the neurotransmitter glutamate after glutamate release involve the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Numerous in vivo(13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) experiments since 1994 by different laboratories have consistently concluded: (1) the glutamate-glutamine cycle is a major metabolic pathway with a flux rate substantially greater than those suggested by early studies of cell cultures and brain slices; (2) the glutamate-glutamine cycle is coupled to a large portion of the total energy demand of brain function...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Britta Kubera, Christian Hubold, Sophia Zug, Hannah Wischnath, Ines Wilhelm, Manfred Hallschmid, Sonja Entringer, Dirk Langemann, Achim Peters
During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy-particularly glucose-is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad)...
January 10, 2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Mohamad Saka, Jason Berwick, Myles Jones
Brain imaging techniques utilize hemodynamic changes that accompany brain activation. However, stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses display considerable inter-trial variability and the sources of this variability are poorly understood. One of the sources of this response variation could be ongoing spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. We recently investigated this issue by measuring cortical hemodynamics in response to sensory stimuli in anesthetized rodents using 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Yuri Zilberter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Anders Bertil Rodell, Joel Aanerud, Hans Braendgaard, Albert Gjedde
We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age-matched healthy control subjects (HC). To eliminate the CO(2)-induced variability, we developed a novel and generally applicable approach to the correction of CBF for changes of PaCO(2) and applied the method to positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of CBF in AD and HC groups of subjects...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Tanya Zilberter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
Yuxuan Zhan, Adam T Eggebrecht, Joseph P Culver, Hamid Dehghani
High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroenergetics
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